azathioprine

Summary

Summary: An immunosuppressive agent used in combination with cyclophosphamide and hydroxychloroquine in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), this substance has been listed as a known carcinogen. (Merck Index, 11th ed)

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Infliximab, azathioprine, or combination therapy for Crohn's disease
    Jean Frederic Colombel
    Hôpital Claude Huriez and Centre d Investigation Clinique, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Lille, Universite Lille Nord de France, Lille, France
    N Engl J Med 362:1383-95. 2010
  2. ncbi Mycophenolate versus azathioprine as maintenance therapy for lupus nephritis
    Mary Anne Dooley
    Department of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, USA
    N Engl J Med 365:1886-95. 2011
  3. ncbi The 10-year follow-up data of the Euro-Lupus Nephritis Trial comparing low-dose and high-dose intravenous cyclophosphamide
    F A Houssiau
    Rheumatology Department, Cliniques Universitaires Saint Luc, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Avenue Hippocrate, 10, B 1200 Bruxelles, Belgium
    Ann Rheum Dis 69:61-4. 2010
  4. ncbi Thiopurine methyltransferase activity influences clinical response to azathioprine in inflammatory bowel disease
    Carmen Cuffari
    Department of Pediatrics, The Johns Hopkins University and the Meyerhoff IBD Center at the Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2:410-7. 2004
  5. pmc Azathioprine versus mycophenolate mofetil for long-term immunosuppression in lupus nephritis: results from the MAINTAIN Nephritis Trial
    Frédéric A Houssiau
    Rheumatology Department, Cliniques Universitaires Saint Luc, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Saint Luc University Hospital, Brussels 1200, Belgium
    Ann Rheum Dis 69:2083-9. 2010
  6. ncbi Azathioprine and prednisone combination therapy in refractory coeliac disease
    M S Goerres
    Department of Gastroenterology, Rijnstate Hospital, Arnhem, The Netherlands
    Aliment Pharmacol Ther 18:487-94. 2003
  7. ncbi Effect of allopurinol on clinical outcomes in inflammatory bowel disease nonresponders to azathioprine or 6-mercaptopurine
    Miles P Sparrow
    Section of Gastroenterology and Nutrition, University of Chicago Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois, USA
    Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 5:209-14. 2007
  8. ncbi Genotypic analysis of thiopurine S-methyltransferase in patients with Crohn's disease and severe myelosuppression during azathioprine therapy
    J F Colombel
    Service d Hepato Gastroenterologie, Hopital Huriez, CHRU Lille, France
    Gastroenterology 118:1025-30. 2000
  9. ncbi Azathioprine: tolerability, efficacy, and predictors of benefit in neuromyelitis optica
    C Costanzi
    Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
    Neurology 77:659-66. 2011
  10. pmc CD28-dependent Rac1 activation is the molecular target of azathioprine in primary human CD4+ T lymphocytes
    Imke Tiede
    Laboratory of Immunology, Department of Medicine, University of Mainz, Langenbeckstrasse 1, 55101 Mainz, Germany
    J Clin Invest 111:1133-45. 2003

Detail Information

Publications267 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Infliximab, azathioprine, or combination therapy for Crohn's disease
    Jean Frederic Colombel
    Hôpital Claude Huriez and Centre d Investigation Clinique, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Lille, Universite Lille Nord de France, Lille, France
    N Engl J Med 362:1383-95. 2010
    The comparative efficacy and safety of infliximab and azathioprine therapy alone or in combination for Crohn's disease are unknown.
  2. ncbi Mycophenolate versus azathioprine as maintenance therapy for lupus nephritis
    Mary Anne Dooley
    Department of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, USA
    N Engl J Med 365:1886-95. 2011
    Maintenance therapy, often with azathioprine or mycophenolate mofetil, is required to consolidate remission and prevent relapse after the initial control of lupus nephritis.
  3. ncbi The 10-year follow-up data of the Euro-Lupus Nephritis Trial comparing low-dose and high-dose intravenous cyclophosphamide
    F A Houssiau
    Rheumatology Department, Cliniques Universitaires Saint Luc, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Avenue Hippocrate, 10, B 1200 Bruxelles, Belgium
    Ann Rheum Dis 69:61-4. 2010
    ..of the Euro-Lupus Nephritis Trial (ELNT), a randomised prospective trial comparing low-dose (LD) and high-dose (HD) intravenous (IV) cyclophosphamide (CY) followed by azathioprine (AZA) as treatment for proliferative lupus nephritis.
  4. ncbi Thiopurine methyltransferase activity influences clinical response to azathioprine in inflammatory bowel disease
    Carmen Cuffari
    Department of Pediatrics, The Johns Hopkins University and the Meyerhoff IBD Center at the Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2:410-7. 2004
    ..Background &..
  5. pmc Azathioprine versus mycophenolate mofetil for long-term immunosuppression in lupus nephritis: results from the MAINTAIN Nephritis Trial
    Frédéric A Houssiau
    Rheumatology Department, Cliniques Universitaires Saint Luc, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Saint Luc University Hospital, Brussels 1200, Belgium
    Ann Rheum Dis 69:2083-9. 2010
    ..This investigator-initiated randomised trial tested whether mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) was superior to azathioprine (AZA) as maintenance treatment.
  6. ncbi Azathioprine and prednisone combination therapy in refractory coeliac disease
    M S Goerres
    Department of Gastroenterology, Rijnstate Hospital, Arnhem, The Netherlands
    Aliment Pharmacol Ther 18:487-94. 2003
    ....
  7. ncbi Effect of allopurinol on clinical outcomes in inflammatory bowel disease nonresponders to azathioprine or 6-mercaptopurine
    Miles P Sparrow
    Section of Gastroenterology and Nutrition, University of Chicago Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois, USA
    Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 5:209-14. 2007
    Many IBD patients not responding to azathioprine (AZA) or 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) preferentially metabolize 6-MP to 6-methylmercaptopurine (6-MMP)...
  8. ncbi Genotypic analysis of thiopurine S-methyltransferase in patients with Crohn's disease and severe myelosuppression during azathioprine therapy
    J F Colombel
    Service d Hepato Gastroenterologie, Hopital Huriez, CHRU Lille, France
    Gastroenterology 118:1025-30. 2000
    Myelosuppression in patients with Crohn's disease (CD) treated with azathioprine has been attributed to low activity of thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT)...
  9. ncbi Azathioprine: tolerability, efficacy, and predictors of benefit in neuromyelitis optica
    C Costanzi
    Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
    Neurology 77:659-66. 2011
    To evaluate the efficacy, tolerability, optimal dosing, and monitoring of azathioprine in patients with neuromyelitis optica (NMO).
  10. pmc CD28-dependent Rac1 activation is the molecular target of azathioprine in primary human CD4+ T lymphocytes
    Imke Tiede
    Laboratory of Immunology, Department of Medicine, University of Mainz, Langenbeckstrasse 1, 55101 Mainz, Germany
    J Clin Invest 111:1133-45. 2003
    b>Azathioprine and its metabolite 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) are immunosuppressive drugs that are used in organ transplantation and autoimmune and chronic inflammatory diseases such as Crohn disease...
  11. pmc The efficacy of azathioprine for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease: a 30 year review
    A G Fraser
    Department of Medicine, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland, New Zealand
    Gut 50:485-9. 2002
    There are limited data on factors predicting response to azathioprine and uncertainty regarding the optimal duration of treatment.
  12. pmc Nomenclature for alleles of the thiopurine methyltransferase gene
    Malin L Appell
    Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Drug Research, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linkoping University, Linkoping, Sweden
    Pharmacogenet Genomics 23:242-8. 2013
    ..TPMT metabolizes the thiopurines 6-mercaptopurine, 6-thioguanine, and azathioprine, drugs that are widely used for treatment of acute leukemias, inflammatory bowel diseases, and other disorders ..
  13. ncbi A randomized, double-blind, controlled withdrawal trial in Crohn's disease patients in long-term remission on azathioprine
    Marc Lemann
    Hopital Saint Louis, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Lariboisière Saint Louis, Paris, France
    Gastroenterology 128:1812-8. 2005
    An open study reported that patients with Crohn's disease in remission who have taken azathioprine for longer than 3.5 years are at low risk of relapse when azathioprine is discontinued...
  14. ncbi Methotrexate is an alternative to azathioprine in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders with aquaporin-4 antibodies
    Joanna Kitley
    Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, John Radcliffe Hospital, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
    J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 84:918-21. 2013
    ..Immunosuppression is the mainstay of treatment but many patients do not tolerate first-line immunosuppressive agents, or experience ongoing relapses...
  15. ncbi Posttransplant immune hepatitis in pediatric liver transplant recipients: incidence and maintenance therapy with azathioprine
    S Andries
    , Cliniques Universitaires St. Luc, , Brussels, Belgium
    Transplantation 72:267-72. 2001
    ..Eleven received steroids (prednisolone: 2 mg/kg per day, then tapered) and azathioprine (1.5 to 2.5 mg/kg per day)...
  16. ncbi Thiopurine S-methyltransferase and inosine triphosphate pyrophosphohydrolase genes in Japanese patients with inflammatory bowel disease in whom adverse drug reactions were induced by azathioprine/6-mercaptopurine treatment
    Kan Uchiyama
    Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, The Jikei University School of Medicine Kashiwa Hospital, 163 1 Kashiwa shita, Kashiwa, Chiba, 277 8567, Japan
    J Gastroenterol 44:197-203. 2009
    The main cause of azathioprine (AZA)/6-mercaptopurine (6MP)-induced adverse reactions is a reduction in the activities of the metabolizing enzymes thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) and inosine triphosphate pyrophosphohydrolase (ITPA)...
  17. ncbi Autoimmune hepatitis
    Edward L Krawitt
    Department of Medicine, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05405 0068, USA
    N Engl J Med 354:54-66. 2006
  18. ncbi Adverse drug reactions to azathioprine therapy are associated with polymorphism in the gene encoding inosine triphosphate pyrophosphatase (ITPase)
    Anthony M Marinaki
    Purine Research Laboratory, Department of Chemical Pathology and Department of Gastroenterology, Guy s and St Thomas Hospital, London, UK
    Pharmacogenetics 14:181-7. 2004
    Adverse drug reactions to azathioprine (AZA), the pro-drug of 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP), occur in 15% to 28% of patients and the majority are not explained by thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) deficiency...
  19. ncbi 6-MP metabolite profiles provide a biochemical explanation for 6-MP resistance in patients with inflammatory bowel disease
    Marla C Dubinsky
    Division of Gastroenterology and Genetics, Department of Medicine and Pediatrics, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, UCLA, Los Angeles, California 90048, USA
    Gastroenterology 122:904-15. 2002
    Approximately 40% of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients fail to benefit from 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP)/azathioprine (AZA)...
  20. ncbi Mycophenolate mofetil vs azathioprine for remission maintenance in antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis: a randomized controlled trial
    Thomas F Hiemstra
    University of Cambridge and Lupus and Vasculitis Unit, Addenbrookes Hospital, Cambridge, England
    JAMA 304:2381-8. 2010
    ..Current remission maintenance therapies for antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) are limited by partial efficacy and toxicity...
  21. ncbi Updates on the treatment of lupus nephritis
    Andrew S Bomback
    Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York 10032, USA
    J Am Soc Nephrol 21:2028-35. 2010
    ..Large controlled trials using mycophenolate mofetil and azathioprine for maintenance therapy have been performed...
  22. pmc Azathioprine and UVA light generate mutagenic oxidative DNA damage
    Peter O'Donovan
    Cancer Research UK London Research Institute, Clare Hall Laboratories, South Mimms, Hertfordshire EN6 3LD, UK
    Science 309:1871-4. 2005
    ..We suggest that immunosuppression by azathioprine (Aza) may be one such treatment. Aza causes the accumulation of 6-thioguanine (6-TG) in patients' DNA...
  23. pmc Increased risk of lymphoma among inflammatory bowel disease patients treated with azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine
    A Kandiel
    Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, The Cleveland Clinic, Ohio, USA
    Gut 54:1121-5. 2005
    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is commonly treated with immunomodulators such as azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP)...
  24. ncbi Long-term outcome of patients with diffuse proliferative lupus nephritis treated with prednisolone and oral cyclophosphamide followed by azathioprine
    T M Chan
    Department of Medicine, University of Hong Kong, Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong
    Lupus 14:265-72. 2005
    ..comprising prednisolone and oral cyclophosphamide as induction followed by low-dose prednisolone and azathioprine as maintenance. Sixty-six patients with 68 episodes of DPLN were included, with follow-up of 91.7 +/- 36...
  25. ncbi High-dose acetylcysteine in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
    Maurits Demedts
    University Hospital, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
    N Engl J Med 353:2229-42. 2005
    ..Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a chronic progressive disorder with a poor prognosis...
  26. pmc Pharmacogenomic studies of the anticancer and immunosuppressive thiopurines mercaptopurine and azathioprine
    Ahmed F Hawwa
    Clinical and Practice Research Group, School of Pharmacy, Medical Biology Centre, Queen s University Belfast, Belfast, UK
    Br J Clin Pharmacol 66:517-28. 2008
    To examine the allelic variation of three enzymes involved in 6-mercaptopurine/azathioprine (6-MP/AZA) metabolism and evaluate the influence of these polymorphisms on toxicity, haematological parameters and metabolite levels in patients ..
  27. ncbi [The frequency and the course of the adverse effects of azathioprine/6-mercaptopurine treatment in patients with inflammatory bowel disease]
    Jae Hak Kim
    Department of Internal Medicine, Institute of Gastroenterology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seodaemun gu, Seoul, Korea
    Korean J Gastroenterol 51:291-7. 2008
    ..This study was to evaluate the frequency and the course of the adverse effects of AZA/6-MP in Korean patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)...
  28. ncbi Effect of early immunomodulator use in moderate to severe pediatric Crohn disease
    Jaya Punati
    Nationwide Children s Hospital, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA
    Inflamm Bowel Dis 14:949-54. 2008
    The immunomodulators (IMs) 6-mercaptopurine and azathioprine decrease corticosteroid dependence and maintain remission in Crohn's disease (CD)...
  29. ncbi Azathioprine and mesalazine-induced effects on the mucosal flora in patients with IBD colitis
    Alexander Swidsinski
    Humboldt University, Charite Hospital, CCM, Laboratory for Molecular Genetics, Polymicrobial Infections and Bacterial Biofilms, 10098 Berlin, Germany
    Inflamm Bowel Dis 13:51-6. 2007
    The impact of azathioprine and 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) on the innate immunity and mucosal flora is unknown...
  30. ncbi Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of erythrocyte thiopurine nucleotides and effect of thiopurine methyltransferase gene variants on these metabolites in patients receiving azathioprine/6-mercaptopurine therapy
    Thierry Dervieux
    Prometheus Laboratories, San Diego, CA 92121, USA
    Clin Chem 51:2074-84. 2005
    ..Polymorphic thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) is a major determinant of thiopurine toxicity...
  31. ncbi Azathioprine in severe adult atopic dermatitis: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial
    J Berth-Jones
    Department of Dermatology, George Eliot Hospital, Nuneaton, UK
    Br J Dermatol 147:324-30. 2002
    There is a limited range of treatments for severe atopic dermatitis (AD). Azathioprine has often been used but there has been no randomized controlled trial of this drug to confirm its efficacy in AD.
  32. ncbi Azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine pharmacogenetics and metabolite monitoring in inflammatory bowel disease
    Richard B Gearry
    Department of Gastroenterology, Christchurch Hospital, Christchurch School of Medicine and Health Sciences, New Zealand
    J Gastroenterol Hepatol 20:1149-57. 2005
    The thiopurine drugs azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) are well-established in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)...
  33. ncbi Early administration of azathioprine vs conventional management of Crohn's Disease: a randomized controlled trial
    Jacques Cosnes
    Hôpital St Antoine and Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France Electronic address
    Gastroenterology 145:758-65.e2; quiz e14-5. 2013
    ..We compared the efficacy of early treatment (within 6 months after diagnosis) with azathioprine versus conventional management of patients at high risk for disabling disease.
  34. ncbi Preponderance of thiopurine S-methyltransferase deficiency and heterozygosity among patients intolerant to mercaptopurine or azathioprine
    W E Evans
    St Jude Children s Research Hospital and University of Tennessee, Memphis 38101 0318, USA
    J Clin Oncol 19:2293-301. 2001
    To assess thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) phenotype and genotype in patients who were intolerant to treatment with mercaptopurine (MP) or azathioprine (AZA), and to evaluate their clinical management.
  35. ncbi A randomized trial of methotrexate versus azathioprine for severe atopic eczema
    Mandy Elvira Schram
    Department of Dermatology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 128:353-9. 2011
    Patients with severe atopic eczema frequently require systemic treatment to control their disease. Methotrexate and azathioprine are proposed as off-label treatment options, but direct comparisons are lacking.
  36. pmc Clinical significance of azathioprine active metabolite concentrations in inflammatory bowel disease
    S Wright
    University of Sheffield, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Academic Unit of Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology, The Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield, UK
    Gut 53:1123-8. 2004
    There are conflicting reports on the role of azathioprine (AZA) thioguanine nucleotide (TGN) metabolites in optimising therapy for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)...
  37. ncbi Interferon, azathioprine and corticosteroids in multiple sclerosis: 6-year follow-up of the ASA cohort
    T Kalincik
    Department of Neurology and Center of Clinical Neuroscience, Charles University in Prague, 1st Faculty of Medicine and General University Hospital in Prague, Czech Republic
    Clin Neurol Neurosurg 114:940-6. 2012
    To evaluate long-term effects of 2-year treatment with interferon beta combined with low-dose azathioprine and prednisone in multiple sclerosis.
  38. pmc Preclinical evaluation of azathioprine plus buthionine sulfoximine in the treatment of human hepatocarcinoma and colon carcinoma
    Borja Hernández-Breijo
    Molecular Hepatic Toxicology Unit, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Department, University of Alcala, Networked Biomedical Research Center of Hepatic and Digestive Diseases CIBEREHD, Alcala de Henares 28871, Spain
    World J Gastroenterol 17:3899-911. 2011
    To evaluate the efficacy and the safety of azathioprine (AZA) and buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) by localized application into HepG2 tumor in vivo.
  39. pmc Optimizing 6-mercaptopurine and azathioprine therapy in the management of inflammatory bowel disease
    Kara Bradford
    Department of Medicine, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA 90048, USA
    World J Gastroenterol 17:4166-73. 2011
    The thiopurine drugs, 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) and azathioprine, are efficacious in the arsenal of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) therapy...
  40. ncbi Molecular diagnosis of thiopurine S-methyltransferase deficiency: genetic basis for azathioprine and mercaptopurine intolerance
    C R Yates
    St Jude Children s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105 2794, USA
    Ann Intern Med 126:608-14. 1997
    Thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) catalyzes the S-methylation (that is, inactivation) of mercaptopurine, azathioprine, and thioguanine and exhibits genetic polymorphism...
  41. ncbi Use of azathioprine and the risk of cancer in inflammatory bowel disease
    Björn Pasternak
    Department of Epidemiology Research, Statens Serum Institut, Artillerivej 5, 2300 Copenhagen S, Denmark
    Am J Epidemiol 177:1296-305. 2013
    ..a historical cohort study of 45,986 patients with inflammatory bowel disease (of whom, 5,197 (11%) used azathioprine) in Denmark from 1997 to 2008...
  42. ncbi Early azathioprine therapy is no more effective than placebo for newly diagnosed Crohn's disease
    Julian Panes
    Hospital Clinic IDIBAPS, Barcelona, Spain Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red en el Área Temática de Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas, Barcelona, Spain Electronic address
    Gastroenterology 145:766-74.e1. 2013
    ..A small placebo-controlled trial reported the efficacy of mercaptopurine therapy for children newly diagnosed with Crohn's disease, yet little is known about the efficacy of early thiopurine therapy in adults...
  43. ncbi A pharmacogenetics study of TPMT and ITPA genes detects a relationship with side effects and clinical response in patients with inflammatory bowel disease receiving Azathioprine
    William Zabala-Fernández
    Laboratorio de Genetica Molecular, Unidad de Genética Médica, Universidad del Zulia, República Bolivariana de Venezuela
    J Gastrointestin Liver Dis 20:247-53. 2011
    ..studies in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are mainly focused on genes involved in the metabolism of Azathioprine (AZA). Use of AZA is limited by its toxicity, which occurs in 20-30% of patients...
  44. ncbi Azathioprine in severe uveitis of Behçet's disease
    D Saadoun
    Hôpital Pitié Salpétrière and Pierre et Marie Curie Paris VI University, Paris, France
    Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) 62:1733-8. 2010
    To investigate the efficacy and tolerance of azathioprine in severe uveitis related to Behçet's disease (BD).
  45. ncbi Predictors and outcome of renal flares after successful cyclophosphamide treatment for diffuse proliferative lupus glomerulonephritis
    Chi Chiu Mok
    Department of Medicine and Geriatrics, Tuen Mun Hospital, New Territories, Hong Kong, China
    Arthritis Rheum 50:2559-68. 2004
    ..To study the incidence, predictors, and outcome of renal flares after successful cyclophosphamide (CYC) treatment for diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis (DPGN) in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)...
  46. ncbi Impact of mycophenolate mofetil versus azathioprine on early recurrence of hepatitis C after liver transplantation
    A Kornberg
    Department of General and Visceral Surgery, Friedrich Schiller University, Bachstr 18, D 07743 Jena, Germany
    Int Immunopharmacol 5:107-15. 2005
    ..them received a quadruple induction cyclosporine A (CsA)-based immunosuppression, augmented by MMF (n=12) or by azathioprine (n=9, AZA). MMF tended to delay recurrent disease (50+/-35 versus 35+/-35 weeks, P=0...
  47. pmc Leucopenia resulting from a drug interaction between azathioprine or 6-mercaptopurine and mesalamine, sulphasalazine, or balsalazide
    P W Lowry
    Division of Gastroenterology, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Pharmacology, and Section of Biostatistics, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA
    Gut 49:656-64. 2001
    ..coadministration of sulphasalazine, mesalamine, and balsalazide on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine...
  48. ncbi Three-year results of a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial of mycophenolate mofetil versus azathioprine in cardiac transplant recipients
    Howard J Eisen
    Division of Cardiology, Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19102 1192, USA
    J Heart Lung Transplant 24:517-25. 2005
    This study reports the 36-month results of a randomized, double-blind, active-controlled trial of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) vs azathioprine (AZA) in heart transplant patients.
  49. ncbi The effect of mycophenolate mofetil and azathioprine dose on renal allograft outcome in the United kingdom
    Sapna Shah
    Centre for Translational Medicine and Therapeutics, William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, London, United Kingdom
    Transplantation 86:1035-42. 2008
    Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) therapy compared with azathioprine has not led to improved long-term renal allograft outcomes perhaps as MMF dose is limited by tolerability and dose reduction is associated with inferior graft outcome...
  50. ncbi Early response to immunosuppressive therapy predicts good renal outcome in lupus nephritis: lessons from long-term followup of patients in the Euro-Lupus Nephritis Trial
    Frédéric A Houssiau
    Universite Catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium
    Arthritis Rheum 50:3934-40. 2004
    ..or a low-dose IV CYC regimen (6 pulses of 500 mg given at intervals of 2 weeks), each of which was followed by azathioprine (AZA). After a median followup of 41 months, a difference in efficacy between the 2 regimens was not observed...
  51. ncbi Azathioprine, 6-mercaptopurine in inflammatory bowel disease: pharmacology, efficacy, and safety
    Marla C Dubinsky
    Pediatric IBD Center, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA 90048, USA
    Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2:731-43. 2004
    6-Mercaptopurine and its prodrug azathioprine remain the mainstay of immunomodulator therapy for the maintenance of a steroid-free remission in patients with IBD...
  52. pmc Utilisation of erythrocyte 6-thioguanine metabolite levels to optimise azathioprine therapy in patients with inflammatory bowel disease
    C Cuffari
    Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Paediatrics, The Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA
    Gut 48:642-6. 2001
    The immunosuppressive properties of 6-mercaptopurine and its parent compound azathioprine are mediated by their intracellular metabolism into active 6-thioguanine (6-TG) metabolites...
  53. ncbi Outcome of patients on azathioprine: a need for a better pre-treatment assessment and dosing guideline
    Dinar Jabin
    Department of Rheumatology, Middlemore Hospital, Otahuhu, South Auckland, New Zealand
    N Z Med J 123:67-73. 2010
    b>Azathioprine (AZA) is a commonly used drug for the management of various rheumatologic disorders...
  54. ncbi The natural history of azathioprine compliance after renal transplantation
    T E Nevins
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota School of Medicine, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA
    Kidney Int 60:1565-70. 2001
    ..Successful renal transplantation requires long-term adherence to complex medical regimens, yet knowledge of post-transplant medication compliance is still inadequate...
  55. ncbi Azathioprine in liver transplantation: a reevaluation of its use and a comparison with mycophenolate mofetil
    G Germani
    The Royal Free Sheila Sherlock Liver Centre and University Department of Surgery, Royal Free Hospital, London, UK
    Am J Transplant 9:1725-31. 2009
    Calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) combined with steroids with or without azathioprine (AZA), have been a standard immunosuppression regimen after liver transplantation (LT)...
  56. ncbi More epidermal p53 patches adjacent to skin carcinomas in renal transplant recipients than in immunocompetent patients: the role of azathioprine
    Ymke G L de Graaf
    Department of Dermatology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands
    Exp Dermatol 17:349-55. 2008
    ..As the majority of RTR was kept on azathioprine for most of the time, we investigated whether this drug could increase UV-induced p53 patches by ..
  57. ncbi Outcomes in patients with active lupus nephritis requiring immunosuppressives who never received cyclophosphamide
    Murray B Urowitz
    University of Toronto Lupus Clinic, Toronto Western Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    J Rheumatol 34:1491-6. 2007
    ..To assess outcomes in patients with lupus nephritis treated with immunosuppressives compared to those treated with cyclophosphamide in a cohort study and in a matched cohort study...
  58. ncbi Azathioprine and breastfeeding: is it safe?
    A Sau
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University Hospital Lewisham, London, UK
    BJOG 114:498-501. 2007
    Traditionally, women receiving azathioprine have been discouraged from breastfeeding because of theoretical potential risks of neonatal bone marrow suppression, susceptibility to infection, and pancreatitis...
  59. ncbi Azathioprine withdrawal in patients with Crohn's disease maintained on prolonged remission: a high risk of relapse
    Xavier Treton
    Hopital Beaujon, Pôle des Maladies de l Appareil Digestif, France
    Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 7:80-5. 2009
    b>Azathioprine (AZA) withdrawal in Crohn's disease after long-term remission under treatment is controversial...
  60. ncbi Sustained improvement of health-related quality of life in Crohn's disease patients treated with infliximab and azathioprine for 4 years
    Francesc Casellas
    Unitat d Atenció Crohn Colitis from Hospital Universitari Vall d Hebron, Spain
    Inflamm Bowel Dis 13:1395-400. 2007
    ..However, little information is available as to whether its effect on HRQOL is sustained over time. The objective was to measure the HRQOL of CD patients in long-term clinical remission...
  61. ncbi Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of human proximal tubular epithelial cells: effects of rapamycin, mycophenolate, cyclosporin, azathioprine, and methylprednisolone
    Justin W G V Copeland
    Department of Renal Medicine, Auckland City Hospital, Auckland, New Zealand
    Transplantation 83:809-14. 2007
    ..These immunosuppressives also reduced versican production by both PTEC and myofibroblasts. Cyclosporine A, azathioprine, and methylprednisolone were less effective than rapamycin and MMF...
  62. ncbi Inosine triphosphate pyrophosphatase and thiopurine s-methyltransferase genotypes relationship to azathioprine-induced myelosuppression
    Zuzana Zelinkova
    Laboratory of Experimental Internal Medicine, Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 4:44-9. 2006
    The use of azathioprine (AZA) in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients is limited by toxicity, which occurs in up to 20% of treated patients...
  63. ncbi Adverse reactions to azathioprine cannot be predicted by thiopurine S-methyltransferase genotype in Japanese patients with inflammatory bowel disease
    Noritaka Takatsu
    Department of Gastroenterology, Fukuoka University Chikushi Hospital, Fukuoka, Japan
    J Gastroenterol Hepatol 24:1258-64. 2009
    b>Azathioprine (AZA) is associated with a high frequency of adverse reactions...
  64. ncbi Low-dose azathioprine is effective and safe for maintenance of remission in patients with ulcerative colitis
    Toshifumi Hibi
    Center for the Research of Inflammatory Bowel Disease, School of Medicine, Keio University, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku ku, Tokyo 160 8582, Japan
    J Gastroenterol 38:740-6. 2003
    6-Mercaptopurine (6-MP) and azathioprine (AZA) have been used in patients with Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) for reducing the dose of steroids and maintaining remission...
  65. ncbi Maintenance therapies for proliferative lupus nephritis: mycophenolate mofetil, azathioprine and intravenous cyclophosphamide
    G Contreras
    Division of Nephrology, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Florida 33136, USA
    Lupus 14:s33-8. 2005
    ..last decade, sequential regimens of short-term CY induction followed by either mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) or azathioprine (AZA) maintenance have shown to be efficacious and safe reducing the long-term exposure to CY...
  66. pmc Azathioprine for ocular inflammatory diseases
    Sirichai Pasadhika
    Department of Ophthalmology, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon, USA
    Am J Ophthalmol 148:500-509.e2. 2009
    To evaluate treatment outcomes of azathioprine for noninfectious ocular inflammatory diseases.
  67. ncbi Review of the potential effects of three commonly used antineoplastic and immunosuppressive drugs (cyclophosphamide, azathioprine, doxorubicin on the embryo and placenta)
    Shelly Tartakover Matalon
    Oncogenetic Laboratory, Department of Medicine A, Sapir Medical Center, Kfar Saba, Israel
    Reprod Toxicol 18:219-30. 2004
  68. ncbi Immunosuppressive therapy in lupus nephritis: the Euro-Lupus Nephritis Trial, a randomized trial of low-dose versus high-dose intravenous cyclophosphamide
    Frédéric A Houssiau
    Cliniques Universitaires St Luc, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium
    Arthritis Rheum 46:2121-31. 2002
    ..Given the side effects of this regimen, we evaluated the efficacy and the toxicity of a course of low-dose IV CYC prescribed as a remission-inducing treatment, followed by azathioprine (AZA) as a remission-maintaining treatment.
  69. ncbi A randomized pilot trial comparing cyclosporine and azathioprine for maintenance therapy in diffuse lupus nephritis over four years
    Gabriella Moroni
    Division of Nephrology, IRCCS Ospedale Maggiore, Via Commenda 15, 20122 Milano, Italy
    Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 1:925-32. 2006
    ..This multicenter, randomized trial compared the safety and efficacy of cyclosporine and azathioprine. Seventy-five patients with diffuse proliferative lupus were given three intravenous methylprednisolone pulses ..
  70. ncbi Double-blind comparison of hepatitis C histological recurrence Rate in HCV+ Liver transplant recipients given basiliximab + steroids or basiliximab + placebo, in addition to cyclosporine and azathioprine
    Franco Filipponi
    Liver Transplantation Unit, University of Pisa, Hospital of Cisanello, Via Paradisa 2, 56100 Pisa, Italy
    Transplantation 78:1488-95. 2004
    ..Hepatitis C virus (HCV) recurrence in HCV+ liver transplant recipients is almost inevitable and may be promoted by immunosuppression. We compared the amount of liver damage with regard to usage of steroids and basiliximab...
  71. ncbi Antioxidant therapy for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
    Gary W Hunninghake
    N Engl J Med 353:2285-7. 2005
  72. ncbi Thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) activity and adverse effects of azathioprine in inflammatory bowel disease: long-term follow-up study of 394 patients
    Javier P Gisbert
    Gastroenterology Unit, Hospital Universitario de la Princesa, Universidad Autonoma, Madrid, Spain
    Am J Gastroenterol 101:2769-76. 2006
    ..thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) activity and incidence of adverse effects (especially myelotoxicity) exists, in a long-term follow-up study of a large group of patients with inflammatory bowel disease treated with azathioprine.
  73. ncbi Hepatoprotective effects of Hibiscus, Rosmarinus and Salvia on azathioprine-induced toxicity in rats
    A Amin
    Biology Department, UAE University, Al Ain, P O Box 17555, UAE
    Life Sci 77:266-78. 2005
    As an anti-metabolite, Azathioprine inhibits the de novo and salvage pathways of purine synthesis...
  74. ncbi Influenza virus vaccination in kidney transplant recipients: serum antibody response to different immunosuppressive drugs
    Mauro J C Salles
    Clinical of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Santa Casa of Sao Paulo School of Medicine, Sao Paulo, Brazil
    Clin Transplant 24:E17-23. 2010
    This study prospectively accessed the immune response to the inactivated influenza vaccine in renal transplant recipients receiving either azathioprine or mycophenolate mofetil (MMF). Side effects were investigated.
  75. pmc Antibody response after influenza immunization in renal transplant patients receiving cyclosporin A or azathioprine
    K L Huang
    Infect Immun 40:421-4. 1983
    Nineteen renal transplant recipients receiving cyclosporin A and prednisone, eight kidney recipients receiving azathioprine and prednisone, and 12 healthy volunteers were immunized with 0...
  76. ncbi Liver injury in inflammatory bowel disease: long-term follow-up study of 786 patients
    Javier P Gisbert
    Gastroenterology Unit, Hospital Universitario de la Princesa, Universidad Autonoma, Madrid, Spain
    Inflamm Bowel Dis 13:1106-14. 2007
    ..of liver tests (LTs) or hepatotoxicity in a large group of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients and, specifically, to assess the incidence of azathioprine (AZA)/mercaptopurine (MP)-induced liver injury in a long-term follow-up study.
  77. ncbi Low-dose azathioprine or mercaptopurine in combination with allopurinol can bypass many adverse drug reactions in patients with inflammatory bowel disease
    A Ansari
    Department of Gastroenterology, East Surrey Hospital, Redhill, UK
    Aliment Pharmacol Ther 31:640-7. 2010
    The thiopurine drugs, azathioprine and mercaptopurine (MP), are established treatments for IBD. However, therapeutic failure caused by adverse drug reactions occurs frequently.
  78. ncbi Azathioprine/methylprednisolone versus cyclophosphamide in proliferative lupus nephritis. A randomized controlled trial
    C Grootscholten
    Division of Nephrology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Kidney Int 70:732-42. 2006
    ..b>Azathioprine, a less toxic alternative, was never proven to be inferior...
  79. ncbi Increased proportion of CD16(+) NK cells in the colonic lamina propria of inflammatory bowel disease patients, but not after azathioprine treatment
    A W Steel
    Department of Gastroenterology, Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, London, UK
    Aliment Pharmacol Ther 33:115-26. 2011
    ..Distinct functional subsets of natural killer cells potentially contribute to the pathology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)...
  80. pmc Addition of azathioprine to corticosteroids does not benefit patients with IgA nephropathy
    Claudio Pozzi
    Department of Nephrology and Dialysis, Ospedale A Manzoni, Lecco, Italy
    J Am Soc Nephrol 21:1783-90. 2010
    ..We performed a randomized, multicenter, controlled trial to determine whether adding azathioprine to steroids improves renal outcome. We randomly assigned 207 IgAN patients with creatinine ≤2...
  81. ncbi Azathioprine-induced suicidal erythrocyte death
    Corinna Geiger
    Department of Physiology, University of Tubingen, Germany
    Inflamm Bowel Dis 14:1027-32. 2008
    b>Azathioprine is widely used as an immunosuppressive drug. The side effects of azathioprine include anemia, which has been attributed to bone marrow suppression...
  82. ncbi Azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine for maintenance of remission in ulcerative colitis
    Antje Timmer
    Clinical Epidemiology, BIPS Institute for Epidemiology and Prevention Research, Bremen, Germany
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev 9:CD000478. 2012
    Maintenance of remission is a major issue in inflammatory bowel disease. In ulcerative colitis, the evidence for the effectiveness of azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine for the maintenance of remission is still controversial.
  83. ncbi Probable psychiatric side effects of azathioprine
    Joost van der Hoeven
    Psychosom Med 67:508. 2005
  84. ncbi Treatment of refractory microscopic colitis with azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine
    D S Pardi
    Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic and Foundation, Rochester, Minnesota, USA
    Gastroenterology 120:1483-4. 2001
    ..Some patients do not tolerate corticosteroid side effects, and a small subset are dependent on or refractory to corticosteroids. We report our experience with azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine in patients with microscopic colitis.
  85. ncbi The risk of cancer from azathioprine as a treatment for multiple sclerosis
    L Taylor
    Eur J Neurol 11:141. 2004
  86. ncbi Efficacy and safety of azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine in Japanese pediatric patients with ulcerative colitis: a survey of the Japanese Society for Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease
    Hitoshi Tajiri
    Department of Pediatrics, Osaka General Medical Center, Osaka, Japan
    Digestion 77:150-4. 2008
    b>Azathioprine (AZA) and 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) have recently been used in Japanese pediatric patients with ulcerative colitis...
  87. ncbi Efficacy and safety of azathioprine and dapsone as an adjuvant in the treatment of bullous pemphigoid
    A Tirado-Sánchez
    Servicio de Dermatologia, Hospital General de Mexico, Mexico City, Mexico
    Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) 40:152-5. 2012
    ..At present, there are no studies to determine which adjuvant offers a better efficacy and safety profile...
  88. ncbi Efficacy of azathioprine on multiple sclerosis new brain lesions evaluated using magnetic resonance imaging
    Luca Massacesi
    Department of Neurological and Psychiatric Sciences, University of Florence, Florence, Italy
    Arch Neurol 62:1843-7. 2005
    b>Azathioprine is an immunosuppressive agent that reduces relapse rates in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), but its efficacy in suppressing new brain lesions has never been evaluated.
  89. ncbi In vitro immunosuppressive effects of methotrexate and azathioprine on Langerhans cells
    H N Liu
    Department of Dermatology, Veterans General Hospital Taipei, Taiwan, ROC
    Arch Dermatol Res 289:94-7. 1997
    ..Since little information is available about the direct immunosuppressive effects of methotrexate (MTX) and azathioprine (AZA) on LC, we studied the viability and immunostimulatory effects of purified LC after pulsation with MTX or ..
  90. pmc Quantitative patterns of azathioprine adherence after renal transplantation
    Thomas E Nevins
    Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Nephrology, University of Minnesota School of Medicine, Minneapolis, MN 55108, USA
    Transplantation 87:711-8. 2009
    ..Renal transplant recipients regularly fail to take their prescribed immunosuppressive medications, frequently leading to adverse outcomes...
  91. ncbi Azathioprine for multiple sclerosis
    I Casetta
    Section of Clinical Neurology, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences of Communication and Behaviour, University of Ferrara, Corso della Giovecca 203, I 44100 Ferrara, Italy
    J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 80:131-2; discussion 132. 2009
    b>Azathioprine (AZA) is an immunosuppressive drug widely prescribed for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) until the first half of the 1990s. It could be an alternative to interferon beta because it is less expensive...
  92. ncbi Inosine triphosphate pyrophosphatase 94C>A polymorphism: clinical implications for patients with systemic lupus erythematosus treated with azathioprine
    Koujirou Yamamoto
    Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Maebashi, Japan
    Expert Opin Drug Saf 9:447-57. 2010
    b>Azathioprine (AZA) has immunosuppressive property and has been widely used in organ transplantation and in several autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus...
  93. ncbi Changing treatment protocol from azathioprine to mycophenolate mofetil: decrease in renal dysfunction, increase in infections
    V Pourfarziani
    Nephrology Urology Research Center NURC, Kidney Transplant Department, Baqiyatallah Medical Sciences University, Tehran, Iran
    Transplant Proc 39:1237-40. 2007
    Immunosuppression for renal transplantation has shifted from azathioprine (AZA) regimens to those containing mycophenolate mofetil (MMF)...
  94. pmc Sulphasalazine inhibition of thiopurine methyltransferase: possible mechanism for interaction with 6-mercaptopurine and azathioprine
    C L Szumlanski
    Department of Pharmacology, Mayo Medical School Mayo Clinic Mayo Foundation, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
    Br J Clin Pharmacol 39:456-9. 1995
    ..Our observations raise the possibility of a clinically significant drug-drug interaction in patients treated simultaneously with sulphasalazine and thiopurine drugs...
  95. ncbi Practical pharmacogenetics: the cost effectiveness of screening for thiopurine s-methyltransferase polymorphisms in patients with rheumatological conditions treated with azathioprine
    Carlo A Marra
    Department of Health Care and Epidemiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada
    J Rheumatol 29:2507-12. 2002
    Thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT), which catalyzes the inactivation of azathioprine (AZA), exhibits genetic polymorphism that results in dose related, serious toxicities (mainly hematological cytopenias) in 10-15% of individuals ..
  96. ncbi Structural determinants of glutathione transferases with azathioprine activity identified by DNA shuffling of alpha class members
    Sanela Kurtovic
    Department of Biochemistry and Organic Chemistry, Uppsala University, BMC, Box 576, SE 75123 Uppsala, Sweden
    J Mol Biol 375:1365-79. 2008
    ..The GST variants were screened in bacterial lysates for activity with the immunosuppressive agent azathioprine, a prodrug that is transformed into its active form, 6-mercaptopurine, by reaction with the tripeptide ..
  97. ncbi Long-term maintenance treatment of moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis with infliximab in combination with methotrexate or azathioprine in a retrospective cohort
    M Dalaker
    Department of Dermatology, St Olavs Hospital, Trondheim University Hospital, Trondheim, Norway
    J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 23:277-82. 2009
    ..Effective, fast-acting and safe therapies are needed for long-term maintenance treatment of psoriasis. In October 2005, infliximab was approved for the treatment of moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis, but long-term data are limited...
  98. ncbi Meta-analysis: the efficacy of azathioprine and mercaptopurine in ulcerative colitis
    J P Gisbert
    Gastroenterology Unit, Hospital Universitario de la Princesa, Madrid, Spain
    Aliment Pharmacol Ther 30:126-37. 2009
    ..Debate exists regarding to whether thiopurine therapy is as effective in ulcerative colitis (UC) as it is in Crohn's disease...
  99. ncbi IMPDH1 promoter mutations in a patient exhibiting azathioprine resistance
    R L Roberts
    Department of Pathology, Christchurch School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Christchurch, New Zealand
    Pharmacogenomics J 7:312-7. 2007
    Around 9% of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients are resistant to azathioprine. We hypothesized that these patients may carry mutations within inosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH)...
  100. ncbi Rapamycin instead of mycophenolate mofetil or azathioprine in treatment of post-renal transplantation urothelial carcinoma
    Xiao Peng Hu
    Department of Urology, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China
    Chin Med J (Engl) 122:35-8. 2009
    ..The efficacy and safety of rapamycin (RPM) in combination with low-dose calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) in treating 15 renal allograft recipients which developed urothelial carcinoma were observed...
  101. ncbi [Azathioprine-associated severe myelosuppression: indication of routine determination of thiopurine S-methyltransferase variant?]
    S Ngo
    Departement de Medecine Interne, CHU de Rouen, 1 rue de Germont, Rouen Cedex, France
    Rev Med Interne 32:373-6. 2011
    Myelotoxicity is a well-known adverse effect of azathioprine, leading mainly to leukopenia. Other azathioprine associated hematological adverse effects are uncommon.

Research Grants62

  1. Anti- IL5 therapy for Churg-Strauss Syndrome: a double blind randomized, placebo-
    Michael E Wechsler; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..CSS therapies, corticosteroids and cytotoxic agents such as cyclophosphamide and azathioprine, have multiple systemic side effects, do not offer the potential for long-term cure, and often fail to yield ..
  2. Ursodeoxycholic Acid Therapy in Pediatric Primary Sclerosing CholangitisA pilot
    Benjamin L Shneider; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..children with PSC/autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) overlap are the long-term adverse effects of corticosteroids and azathioprine use. If UDCA therapy is effective as monotherapy, these complications may be avoided...
  3. Anti IL5 and Churg Strauss Syndrome: a double blind, placebo controlled trial
    Michael E Wechsler; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..CSS therapies (e.g. corticosteroids, cyclophosphamide, azathioprine) have multiple side effects, do not offer potential for long-term cure, and often fail to yield clinical ..
  4. Oxidant Stress: Is it a biomarker of disease progression and response to therapy
    Jesse Roman; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..of what has arguably become the standard of care in the management of IPF: the combination of glucocorticoids, azathioprine, and the anti-oxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC)...
  5. Polyomavirus and Mentoring in Renal Transplantation
    Daniel C Brennan; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..We found that with frequent monitoring early after transplant that discontinuation of mycophenolate or azathioprine when BK was detected in the blood led to clearance of BK and prevented progression to BK nephropathy...
  6. Novel therapeutic inhibition of the Rac oncogene in pancreatic cancer
    MARK A MC NIVEN; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The drug azathioprine is a well-established anti-inflammatory agent that has recently been shown to inhibit Vav1-Rac activity in ..
  7. A Phase II Trial of Rituximab In Myasthenia Gravis
    Richard Nowak; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..consists of symptomatic therapy with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and immunotherapy such as corticosteroids, azathioprine, cyclosporine, and plasma exchange (PLEX) and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg)...
  8. HPEPT1 IN INTESTINAL INFLAMMATION
    Didier Merlin; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..present, treatment of IBD is limited to 5-aminosalicylates, corticosteroids, and immunosuppressants, including azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine...
  9. MEthotrexate Response in Treatment of UC - MERIT-UC
    Hans H Herfarth; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..once weekly in patients with active UC, who are either steroid dependent or are intolerant or not responding to azathioprine/6-mercaptopurine therapy or have no response/ lost response to infliximab prior to the study inclusion...
  10. RENAL TRANSPLANT ENHANCEMENT BY DONOR SPECIFIC BLOOD
    Charles Anderson; Fiscal Year: 1992
    This proposal extends the research with donor specific transfusions and concomitant azathioprine immunosuppression (DST+A) in haplotype mismatched living donor kidney transplants to the cadaver situation...
  11. Modulation of innate immunity in lung transplantation
    Sadis Matalon; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..compare the efficacy of treating lung transplant patients with tacrolimus and sirolimus versus tacrolimus and azathioprine in reducing the incidence of acute rejection during the first twelve months after lung transplantation...
  12. ROLE OF CYCLOSPORINE METABOLISM IN TRANSPLANTATION
    NEIL LEMPERT; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..between CsA metabolism and nephrotoxicity in humans and rats; to determine the effect of methylprednisolone, azathioprine, and inhibitors and inducers of the cyt-P450 system on CsA metabolism and nephrotoxicity in the rat; to ..
  13. A Pilot Study of Etanercept in Dermatomyositis
    Anthony Amato; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..g., methotrexate, azathioprine), better treatment options are needed...
  14. TRANSCRIPTIONAL CONTROL OF INFLAMMATION IN PANCREATITIS
    Brent Neuschwander Tetri; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..g. azathioprine, 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP), cerulein)...
  15. Endothelial reactivity and nitric oxide synthetase activity in the ALMS (Aspreva
    Robert Clancy; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..study is that the immunomodulatory drug mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), in contrast to cyclophosphamide or azathioprine, interferes with pterin availability to NOS2...
  16. IMMUNOSUPPRESSIVE THERAPY FOR BIOPSY-PROVEN MYOCARDITIS
    Jay Mason; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..three treatment limbs: conventional therapy for congestive heart failure, immunosuppression with prednisone and azathioprine, or immunosuppression with cyclosporine and prednisone...
  17. Practice Variation in Management of Inflammatory Bowel Disease
    MARJORIE MERRICK; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Therapies will include: (a) 5ASA medications for maintenance of remission in UC, (b) 6MP/azathioprine for maintenance of remission in patients in CD and UC, (c) steroids, both short- and long-term, (d) infliximab, ..
  18. COOPERATIVE CLINICAL TRIALS IN ADULT TRANSPLANTATION
    Arthur Matas; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..of the first rejection episode by substituting OKT3 for steroid therapy and/or substituting mycophenolate for azathioprine or FK506 for Cyclosporine-A...
  19. SMALL INTESTINE AS A PORTAL OF ENTRY FOR XENOBIOTICS
    Neil Kaplowitz; Fiscal Year: 1980
    ..In rats, large doses of PTU (150 mg/kg ip) inhibited the depletion of hepatic glutathione by azathioprine (a substrate for the transferases) and the storage of sulfobromophthalein and its excretion as a conjugate in ..
  20. Novel Therapeutic Approaches in IPF
    Fernando Martinez; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The current recommended treatment regimen is anti-inflammatory and combines a cytotoxic agent (such as azathioprine or cyclophosphamide) with prednisone (American Thoracic Society, 2000)...
  21. Effects of naltrexone on active Crohn's disease
    Jill Smith; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The treatment of IBD always has been directed toward inflammation. Drugs (e.g., steroids or azathioprine) are used to decrease the inflammatory response in the bowel by suppressing the host immune system...
  22. Novel Therapies in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis
    Fernando Martinez; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..1) a phase II randomized controlled trial of a 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor, zileuton, versus standard therapy with azathioprine and prednisone in IPF;2) a phase II safety/efficacy study of TM in advanced IPF;and 3) a phase I study ..
  23. Methotrexate Response In Treatment of UC
    Hans Herfarth; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..from steroid-dependent disease course or who have failed or did not tolerate a therapy with anti-TNF agents, azathioprine or 6-MP...
  24. SCOR IN PATHOBIOLOGY OF FIBROTIC LUNG DISEASE
    Galen Toews; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..An important feature is the mechanistic insights these studies provide to the use of standard (prednisone, azathioprine + prednisone) and novel (5-lipoxygenase inhibitor, zileuton) therapeutic agents under investigation in our ..
  25. BLADDER INFECTIONS: PATHOGENESIS AND RESISTANCE
    Charles Davis; Fiscal Year: 1980
    ..Antibody concentrations will be suppressed by azathioprine or enhanced by vaccination to determine their role in suppressing infections...
  26. Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Clinical Research Network
    TALMADGE KING; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Protocol 1: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial of prednisone plus azathioprine in the treatment of IPF...
  27. The Natural History of Pediatric Crohn's Disease
    Marla Dubinsky; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..abstract_text> ..
  28. Parental Expression of Immune Responses In Pediatric Crohn's Disease
    Marla Dubinsky; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable]..
  29. Pathophysiology and Characterisation of NAFLD
    Michael Charlton; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..We believe that these experiments will generate mechanistic insight into the cause and effects of increased oxidative stress in patients with histologically progressive NAFLD. ..
  30. Giant Cell Myocarditis Treatment Trial Pilot Study
    COOPER LESLIE; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Abstract Not Provided ..
  31. African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertensi*
    Gabriel Contreras; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Such results might eventually lead to new strategies that delay or prevent ESRD. ..
  32. OSCCAR: A Novel, Population-based Prospective Inception Cohort of Inflammatory Bo
    BRUCE SANDS; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  33. Clonal Selection in Diabetic Nephropathy
    Oliver Lenz; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The long-term goal of our proposal is to characterize the role of clonal selection in glomerular disease, and identify new targets for screening, prevention, and intervention in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. ..
  34. Multi-site Trial of Azathioprine Dosing in Crohn Disease
    Stephen Hanauer; Fiscal Year: 2003
    b>Azathioprine (AZA) is an effective steroid-sparing therapy for chronically active Crohn's Disease (CD) and prevents relapse of steroid-induced remissions...
  35. Multi-site Trial of Azathioprine Dosing in Crohn Disease
    Stephen Hanauer; Fiscal Year: 2004
    b>Azathioprine (AZA) is an effective steroid-sparing therapy for chronically active Crohn's Disease (CD) and prevents relapse of steroid-induced remissions...
  36. IMMUNOMODULATION IN INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE
    BRUCE SANDS; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The principal investigator seeks to become an independent clinical investigator by completing the didactic and scientific portions of this proposal. ..
  37. IMURAN Dose Ranging Study in Crohn's Disease
    BRUCE SANDS; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Abstract Not Provided ..
  38. Inflammation and Immunity in Dilated Cardiomyopathy
    Leslie Cooper; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The long-term overall goal of this workshop is to translate advances in molecular and cellular mechanisms of disease into improvements in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with DCM. ..
  39. International Conference on the Non-Dystrophic Myotonias
    RICHARD BAROHN; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  40. Mechanisms of Adaptation in Human Short Bowel Syndrome
    Thomas Ziegler; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..
  41. Phase II Therapeutic Trial of Mexiletine
    Richard J Barohn; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..These secondary measures will be quantified by lndividual Neuromuscular Quality of Life (INQOL), SF-36 (adults), SF-10 (children), grip myotonia, physical exam, and electrophysiological testing, respectively. ..
  42. Electronic Diary Assessment of Pain in Juvenile Arthritis
    Laura E Schanberg; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Finally, the study can serve as a catalyst for future research aimed at advancing medical and psychological knowledge of pain in other pediatric medical populations. ..
  43. QUALITY OF LIFE AND COST EFFECTIVENESS IN CMV RETINITIS
    John Kempen; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Subanalyses will assess what factors other than treatment strategy are associated with improved QOL and cost-effectiveness. ..
  44. CYTOTOXIC CELLS AND ALLOIMMUNE RESPONSES
    Dwain Thiele; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..These studies should provide new insights into the regulation of CTL effector mechanisms and the role that such effector mechanisms play in complications of bone marrow and organ transplantation. ..
  45. OPIOID METABOLISM BY IMMUNE SYSTEM PEPTIDASES
    Dwain Thiele; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..2) To elucidate the mechanisms involved in the uptake of B-EP and the secretion of B-EP and other B-EP metabolites by macrophages. 3) To identify the B-EP transporter/receptor. ..
  46. Automation of the vitro Micronucleus Assay
    Stephen Dertinger; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..
  47. PHARMACOLOGY OF CYCLOSPORINE BASED IMMUNOSUPPRESSION
    Barry Kahan; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ....
  48. DEFENSIN AND THE PATHOGENESIS OF ATHEROSCLEROSIS
    Douglas Cines; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Finally, the interaction between endogenous defensin and endogenous Lp(a) will be examined in a novel transgenic mouse than overexpresses both human defensin and human Lp(a). ..
  49. Epidemiology of Marginal Zone Lymphoma
    Lisa Herrinton; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..abstract_text> ..
  50. Versatile Mutation Assay Platform
    Stephen Dertinger; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  51. High Throughput Radiation Biodosimetry
    Stephen Dertinger; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..We propose to develop such a radiation biodosimetry assay based on the extremely high analysis rates that are possible with flow cytometry instrumentation. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  52. PR3-ANCA Subsets and Disease Phenotype
    Ulrich Specks; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..This study will provide new insights into the potential pathogenic role of PR3-ANCA that are not obtainable in any other way, and will constitute the most definitive study of these antibodies to date. ..
  53. MECHANISM OF PAIN IN PATIENTS WITH FIBROMYALGIA SYNDROME
    Roland Staud; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..In addition, our findings may contribute to the understanding of pain mechanisms related to other chronic pain disorders. ..
  54. 1Treatment of Cholestatic Pruritus With Sertraline
    MARLYN MAYO; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..These studies will serve as pilot trials. The results of this proposed project will be used to design a larger controlled trial that could be proposed for funding through an R01 mechanism. ..
  55. CLOTRIMAZOLE ENEMAS FOR POUCHITIS IN CHILDREN AND ADULTS
    PAUL RUFO; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Abstract Not Provided ..
  56. Pilot study on the safety and efficacy of ciprofloxacin for prophylactic preventi
    Hans Herfarth; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  57. Longitudinal Studies of Primary Biliary Cirrhosis
    MARLYN MAYO; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..In addition, the correlation between each of the putative surrogate markers will be analyzed. The results of this analysis will then be used to design future clinical trials in the field of PBC. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  58. Role of Integrins in Pulmonary Fibrosis
    Eric White; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ....
  59. Bone Marrow Angioblasts for Myocardial Vasculogenesis
    Silviu Itescu; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  60. The role of dendritic cell-T cell interactions in the p*
    Mariana Kaplan; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..These could lead into the development of novel therapeutic interventions designed to reverse these abnormalities and abrogate or block the onset and/or severity of this disease. ..
  61. STRUCTURE/FUNCTION ANALYSIS OF THE UROKINASE RECEPTOR
    Douglas Cines; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..abstract_text> ..