Genomes and Genes
Summary: An immunosuppressive agent used in combination with cyclophosphamide and hydroxychloroquine in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), this substance has been listed as a known carcinogen. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
Publications267 found, 100 shown here
- Infliximab, azathioprine, or combination therapy for Crohn's diseaseJean Frederic Colombel
Hôpital Claude Huriez and Centre d Investigation Clinique, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Lille, Universite Lille Nord de France, Lille, France
N Engl J Med 362:1383-95. 2010The comparative efficacy and safety of infliximab and azathioprine therapy alone or in combination for Crohn's disease are unknown.
- Mycophenolate versus azathioprine as maintenance therapy for lupus nephritisMary Anne Dooley
Department of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, USA
N Engl J Med 365:1886-95. 2011Maintenance therapy, often with azathioprine or mycophenolate mofetil, is required to consolidate remission and prevent relapse after the initial control of lupus nephritis.
- The 10-year follow-up data of the Euro-Lupus Nephritis Trial comparing low-dose and high-dose intravenous cyclophosphamideF A Houssiau
Rheumatology Department, Cliniques Universitaires Saint Luc, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Avenue Hippocrate, 10, B 1200 Bruxelles, Belgium
Ann Rheum Dis 69:61-4. 2010..of the Euro-Lupus Nephritis Trial (ELNT), a randomised prospective trial comparing low-dose (LD) and high-dose (HD) intravenous (IV) cyclophosphamide (CY) followed by azathioprine (AZA) as treatment for proliferative lupus nephritis.
- Thiopurine methyltransferase activity influences clinical response to azathioprine in inflammatory bowel diseaseCarmen Cuffari
Department of Pediatrics, The Johns Hopkins University and the Meyerhoff IBD Center at the Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2:410-7. 2004..Background &..
- Azathioprine versus mycophenolate mofetil for long-term immunosuppression in lupus nephritis: results from the MAINTAIN Nephritis TrialFrédéric A Houssiau
Rheumatology Department, Cliniques Universitaires Saint Luc, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Saint Luc University Hospital, Brussels 1200, Belgium
Ann Rheum Dis 69:2083-9. 2010..This investigator-initiated randomised trial tested whether mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) was superior to azathioprine (AZA) as maintenance treatment.
- Azathioprine and prednisone combination therapy in refractory coeliac diseaseM S Goerres
Department of Gastroenterology, Rijnstate Hospital, Arnhem, The Netherlands
Aliment Pharmacol Ther 18:487-94. 2003....
- Effect of allopurinol on clinical outcomes in inflammatory bowel disease nonresponders to azathioprine or 6-mercaptopurineMiles P Sparrow
Section of Gastroenterology and Nutrition, University of Chicago Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois, USA
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 5:209-14. 2007Many IBD patients not responding to azathioprine (AZA) or 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) preferentially metabolize 6-MP to 6-methylmercaptopurine (6-MMP)...
- Genotypic analysis of thiopurine S-methyltransferase in patients with Crohn's disease and severe myelosuppression during azathioprine therapyJ F Colombel
Service d Hepato Gastroenterologie, Hopital Huriez, CHRU Lille, France
Gastroenterology 118:1025-30. 2000Myelosuppression in patients with Crohn's disease (CD) treated with azathioprine has been attributed to low activity of thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT)...
- Azathioprine: tolerability, efficacy, and predictors of benefit in neuromyelitis opticaC Costanzi
Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
Neurology 77:659-66. 2011To evaluate the efficacy, tolerability, optimal dosing, and monitoring of azathioprine in patients with neuromyelitis optica (NMO).
- CD28-dependent Rac1 activation is the molecular target of azathioprine in primary human CD4+ T lymphocytesImke Tiede
Laboratory of Immunology, Department of Medicine, University of Mainz, Langenbeckstrasse 1, 55101 Mainz, Germany
J Clin Invest 111:1133-45. 2003b>Azathioprine and its metabolite 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) are immunosuppressive drugs that are used in organ transplantation and autoimmune and chronic inflammatory diseases such as Crohn disease...
- The efficacy of azathioprine for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease: a 30 year reviewA G Fraser
Department of Medicine, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland, New Zealand
Gut 50:485-9. 2002There are limited data on factors predicting response to azathioprine and uncertainty regarding the optimal duration of treatment.
- Nomenclature for alleles of the thiopurine methyltransferase geneMalin L Appell
Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Drug Research, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linkoping University, Linkoping, Sweden
Pharmacogenet Genomics 23:242-8. 2013..TPMT metabolizes the thiopurines 6-mercaptopurine, 6-thioguanine, and azathioprine, drugs that are widely used for treatment of acute leukemias, inflammatory bowel diseases, and other disorders ..
- A randomized, double-blind, controlled withdrawal trial in Crohn's disease patients in long-term remission on azathioprineMarc Lemann
Hopital Saint Louis, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Lariboisière Saint Louis, Paris, France
Gastroenterology 128:1812-8. 2005An open study reported that patients with Crohn's disease in remission who have taken azathioprine for longer than 3.5 years are at low risk of relapse when azathioprine is discontinued...
- Methotrexate is an alternative to azathioprine in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders with aquaporin-4 antibodiesJoanna Kitley
Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, John Radcliffe Hospital, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 84:918-21. 2013..Immunosuppression is the mainstay of treatment but many patients do not tolerate first-line immunosuppressive agents, or experience ongoing relapses...
- Posttransplant immune hepatitis in pediatric liver transplant recipients: incidence and maintenance therapy with azathioprineS Andries
, Cliniques Universitaires St. Luc, , Brussels, Belgium
Transplantation 72:267-72. 2001..Eleven received steroids (prednisolone: 2 mg/kg per day, then tapered) and azathioprine (1.5 to 2.5 mg/kg per day)...
- Thiopurine S-methyltransferase and inosine triphosphate pyrophosphohydrolase genes in Japanese patients with inflammatory bowel disease in whom adverse drug reactions were induced by azathioprine/6-mercaptopurine treatmentKan Uchiyama
Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, The Jikei University School of Medicine Kashiwa Hospital, 163 1 Kashiwa shita, Kashiwa, Chiba, 277 8567, Japan
J Gastroenterol 44:197-203. 2009The main cause of azathioprine (AZA)/6-mercaptopurine (6MP)-induced adverse reactions is a reduction in the activities of the metabolizing enzymes thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) and inosine triphosphate pyrophosphohydrolase (ITPA)...
- Autoimmune hepatitisEdward L Krawitt
Department of Medicine, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05405 0068, USA
N Engl J Med 354:54-66. 2006
- Adverse drug reactions to azathioprine therapy are associated with polymorphism in the gene encoding inosine triphosphate pyrophosphatase (ITPase)Anthony M Marinaki
Purine Research Laboratory, Department of Chemical Pathology and Department of Gastroenterology, Guy s and St Thomas Hospital, London, UK
Pharmacogenetics 14:181-7. 2004Adverse drug reactions to azathioprine (AZA), the pro-drug of 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP), occur in 15% to 28% of patients and the majority are not explained by thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) deficiency...
- 6-MP metabolite profiles provide a biochemical explanation for 6-MP resistance in patients with inflammatory bowel diseaseMarla C Dubinsky
Division of Gastroenterology and Genetics, Department of Medicine and Pediatrics, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, UCLA, Los Angeles, California 90048, USA
Gastroenterology 122:904-15. 2002Approximately 40% of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients fail to benefit from 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP)/azathioprine (AZA)...
- Mycophenolate mofetil vs azathioprine for remission maintenance in antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis: a randomized controlled trialThomas F Hiemstra
University of Cambridge and Lupus and Vasculitis Unit, Addenbrookes Hospital, Cambridge, England
JAMA 304:2381-8. 2010..Current remission maintenance therapies for antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) are limited by partial efficacy and toxicity...
- Updates on the treatment of lupus nephritisAndrew S Bomback
Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York 10032, USA
J Am Soc Nephrol 21:2028-35. 2010..Large controlled trials using mycophenolate mofetil and azathioprine for maintenance therapy have been performed...
- Azathioprine and UVA light generate mutagenic oxidative DNA damagePeter O'Donovan
Cancer Research UK London Research Institute, Clare Hall Laboratories, South Mimms, Hertfordshire EN6 3LD, UK
Science 309:1871-4. 2005..We suggest that immunosuppression by azathioprine (Aza) may be one such treatment. Aza causes the accumulation of 6-thioguanine (6-TG) in patients' DNA...
- Increased risk of lymphoma among inflammatory bowel disease patients treated with azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurineA Kandiel
Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, The Cleveland Clinic, Ohio, USA
Gut 54:1121-5. 2005Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is commonly treated with immunomodulators such as azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP)...
- Long-term outcome of patients with diffuse proliferative lupus nephritis treated with prednisolone and oral cyclophosphamide followed by azathioprineT M Chan
Department of Medicine, University of Hong Kong, Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong
Lupus 14:265-72. 2005..comprising prednisolone and oral cyclophosphamide as induction followed by low-dose prednisolone and azathioprine as maintenance. Sixty-six patients with 68 episodes of DPLN were included, with follow-up of 91.7 +/- 36...
- High-dose acetylcysteine in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosisMaurits Demedts
University Hospital, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
N Engl J Med 353:2229-42. 2005..Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a chronic progressive disorder with a poor prognosis...
- Pharmacogenomic studies of the anticancer and immunosuppressive thiopurines mercaptopurine and azathioprineAhmed F Hawwa
Clinical and Practice Research Group, School of Pharmacy, Medical Biology Centre, Queen s University Belfast, Belfast, UK
Br J Clin Pharmacol 66:517-28. 2008To examine the allelic variation of three enzymes involved in 6-mercaptopurine/azathioprine (6-MP/AZA) metabolism and evaluate the influence of these polymorphisms on toxicity, haematological parameters and metabolite levels in patients ..
- [The frequency and the course of the adverse effects of azathioprine/6-mercaptopurine treatment in patients with inflammatory bowel disease]Jae Hak Kim
Department of Internal Medicine, Institute of Gastroenterology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seodaemun gu, Seoul, Korea
Korean J Gastroenterol 51:291-7. 2008..This study was to evaluate the frequency and the course of the adverse effects of AZA/6-MP in Korean patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)...
- Effect of early immunomodulator use in moderate to severe pediatric Crohn diseaseJaya Punati
Nationwide Children s Hospital, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA
Inflamm Bowel Dis 14:949-54. 2008The immunomodulators (IMs) 6-mercaptopurine and azathioprine decrease corticosteroid dependence and maintain remission in Crohn's disease (CD)...
- Azathioprine and mesalazine-induced effects on the mucosal flora in patients with IBD colitisAlexander Swidsinski
Humboldt University, Charite Hospital, CCM, Laboratory for Molecular Genetics, Polymicrobial Infections and Bacterial Biofilms, 10098 Berlin, Germany
Inflamm Bowel Dis 13:51-6. 2007The impact of azathioprine and 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) on the innate immunity and mucosal flora is unknown...
- Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of erythrocyte thiopurine nucleotides and effect of thiopurine methyltransferase gene variants on these metabolites in patients receiving azathioprine/6-mercaptopurine therapyThierry Dervieux
Prometheus Laboratories, San Diego, CA 92121, USA
Clin Chem 51:2074-84. 2005..Polymorphic thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) is a major determinant of thiopurine toxicity...
- Azathioprine in severe adult atopic dermatitis: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trialJ Berth-Jones
Department of Dermatology, George Eliot Hospital, Nuneaton, UK
Br J Dermatol 147:324-30. 2002There is a limited range of treatments for severe atopic dermatitis (AD). Azathioprine has often been used but there has been no randomized controlled trial of this drug to confirm its efficacy in AD.
- Azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine pharmacogenetics and metabolite monitoring in inflammatory bowel diseaseRichard B Gearry
Department of Gastroenterology, Christchurch Hospital, Christchurch School of Medicine and Health Sciences, New Zealand
J Gastroenterol Hepatol 20:1149-57. 2005The thiopurine drugs azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) are well-established in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)...
- Early administration of azathioprine vs conventional management of Crohn's Disease: a randomized controlled trialJacques Cosnes
Hôpital St Antoine and Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France Electronic address
Gastroenterology 145:758-65.e2; quiz e14-5. 2013..We compared the efficacy of early treatment (within 6 months after diagnosis) with azathioprine versus conventional management of patients at high risk for disabling disease.
- Preponderance of thiopurine S-methyltransferase deficiency and heterozygosity among patients intolerant to mercaptopurine or azathioprineW E Evans
St Jude Children s Research Hospital and University of Tennessee, Memphis 38101 0318, USA
J Clin Oncol 19:2293-301. 2001To assess thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) phenotype and genotype in patients who were intolerant to treatment with mercaptopurine (MP) or azathioprine (AZA), and to evaluate their clinical management.
- A randomized trial of methotrexate versus azathioprine for severe atopic eczemaMandy Elvira Schram
Department of Dermatology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
J Allergy Clin Immunol 128:353-9. 2011Patients with severe atopic eczema frequently require systemic treatment to control their disease. Methotrexate and azathioprine are proposed as off-label treatment options, but direct comparisons are lacking.
- Clinical significance of azathioprine active metabolite concentrations in inflammatory bowel diseaseS Wright
University of Sheffield, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Academic Unit of Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology, The Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield, UK
Gut 53:1123-8. 2004There are conflicting reports on the role of azathioprine (AZA) thioguanine nucleotide (TGN) metabolites in optimising therapy for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)...
- Interferon, azathioprine and corticosteroids in multiple sclerosis: 6-year follow-up of the ASA cohortT Kalincik
Department of Neurology and Center of Clinical Neuroscience, Charles University in Prague, 1st Faculty of Medicine and General University Hospital in Prague, Czech Republic
Clin Neurol Neurosurg 114:940-6. 2012To evaluate long-term effects of 2-year treatment with interferon beta combined with low-dose azathioprine and prednisone in multiple sclerosis.
- Preclinical evaluation of azathioprine plus buthionine sulfoximine in the treatment of human hepatocarcinoma and colon carcinomaBorja Hernández-Breijo
Molecular Hepatic Toxicology Unit, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Department, University of Alcala, Networked Biomedical Research Center of Hepatic and Digestive Diseases CIBEREHD, Alcala de Henares 28871, Spain
World J Gastroenterol 17:3899-911. 2011To evaluate the efficacy and the safety of azathioprine (AZA) and buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) by localized application into HepG2 tumor in vivo.
- Optimizing 6-mercaptopurine and azathioprine therapy in the management of inflammatory bowel diseaseKara Bradford
Department of Medicine, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA 90048, USA
World J Gastroenterol 17:4166-73. 2011The thiopurine drugs, 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) and azathioprine, are efficacious in the arsenal of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) therapy...
- Molecular diagnosis of thiopurine S-methyltransferase deficiency: genetic basis for azathioprine and mercaptopurine intoleranceC R Yates
St Jude Children s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105 2794, USA
Ann Intern Med 126:608-14. 1997Thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) catalyzes the S-methylation (that is, inactivation) of mercaptopurine, azathioprine, and thioguanine and exhibits genetic polymorphism...
- Use of azathioprine and the risk of cancer in inflammatory bowel diseaseBjörn Pasternak
Department of Epidemiology Research, Statens Serum Institut, Artillerivej 5, 2300 Copenhagen S, Denmark
Am J Epidemiol 177:1296-305. 2013..a historical cohort study of 45,986 patients with inflammatory bowel disease (of whom, 5,197 (11%) used azathioprine) in Denmark from 1997 to 2008...
- Early azathioprine therapy is no more effective than placebo for newly diagnosed Crohn's diseaseJulian Panes
Hospital Clinic IDIBAPS, Barcelona, Spain Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red en el Área Temática de Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas, Barcelona, Spain Electronic address
Gastroenterology 145:766-74.e1. 2013..A small placebo-controlled trial reported the efficacy of mercaptopurine therapy for children newly diagnosed with Crohn's disease, yet little is known about the efficacy of early thiopurine therapy in adults...
- A pharmacogenetics study of TPMT and ITPA genes detects a relationship with side effects and clinical response in patients with inflammatory bowel disease receiving AzathioprineWilliam Zabala-Fernández
Laboratorio de Genetica Molecular, Unidad de Genética Médica, Universidad del Zulia, República Bolivariana de Venezuela
J Gastrointestin Liver Dis 20:247-53. 2011..studies in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are mainly focused on genes involved in the metabolism of Azathioprine (AZA). Use of AZA is limited by its toxicity, which occurs in 20-30% of patients...
- Azathioprine in severe uveitis of Behçet's diseaseD Saadoun
Hôpital Pitié Salpétrière and Pierre et Marie Curie Paris VI University, Paris, France
Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) 62:1733-8. 2010To investigate the efficacy and tolerance of azathioprine in severe uveitis related to Behçet's disease (BD).
- Predictors and outcome of renal flares after successful cyclophosphamide treatment for diffuse proliferative lupus glomerulonephritisChi Chiu Mok
Department of Medicine and Geriatrics, Tuen Mun Hospital, New Territories, Hong Kong, China
Arthritis Rheum 50:2559-68. 2004..To study the incidence, predictors, and outcome of renal flares after successful cyclophosphamide (CYC) treatment for diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis (DPGN) in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)...
- Impact of mycophenolate mofetil versus azathioprine on early recurrence of hepatitis C after liver transplantationA Kornberg
Department of General and Visceral Surgery, Friedrich Schiller University, Bachstr 18, D 07743 Jena, Germany
Int Immunopharmacol 5:107-15. 2005..them received a quadruple induction cyclosporine A (CsA)-based immunosuppression, augmented by MMF (n=12) or by azathioprine (n=9, AZA). MMF tended to delay recurrent disease (50+/-35 versus 35+/-35 weeks, P=0...
- Leucopenia resulting from a drug interaction between azathioprine or 6-mercaptopurine and mesalamine, sulphasalazine, or balsalazideP W Lowry
Division of Gastroenterology, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Pharmacology, and Section of Biostatistics, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA
Gut 49:656-64. 2001..coadministration of sulphasalazine, mesalamine, and balsalazide on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine...
- Three-year results of a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial of mycophenolate mofetil versus azathioprine in cardiac transplant recipientsHoward J Eisen
Division of Cardiology, Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19102 1192, USA
J Heart Lung Transplant 24:517-25. 2005This study reports the 36-month results of a randomized, double-blind, active-controlled trial of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) vs azathioprine (AZA) in heart transplant patients.
- The effect of mycophenolate mofetil and azathioprine dose on renal allograft outcome in the United kingdomSapna Shah
Centre for Translational Medicine and Therapeutics, William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, London, United Kingdom
Transplantation 86:1035-42. 2008Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) therapy compared with azathioprine has not led to improved long-term renal allograft outcomes perhaps as MMF dose is limited by tolerability and dose reduction is associated with inferior graft outcome...
- Early response to immunosuppressive therapy predicts good renal outcome in lupus nephritis: lessons from long-term followup of patients in the Euro-Lupus Nephritis TrialFrédéric A Houssiau
Universite Catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium
Arthritis Rheum 50:3934-40. 2004..or a low-dose IV CYC regimen (6 pulses of 500 mg given at intervals of 2 weeks), each of which was followed by azathioprine (AZA). After a median followup of 41 months, a difference in efficacy between the 2 regimens was not observed...
- Azathioprine, 6-mercaptopurine in inflammatory bowel disease: pharmacology, efficacy, and safetyMarla C Dubinsky
Pediatric IBD Center, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA 90048, USA
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2:731-43. 20046-Mercaptopurine and its prodrug azathioprine remain the mainstay of immunomodulator therapy for the maintenance of a steroid-free remission in patients with IBD...
- Utilisation of erythrocyte 6-thioguanine metabolite levels to optimise azathioprine therapy in patients with inflammatory bowel diseaseC Cuffari
Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Paediatrics, The Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA
Gut 48:642-6. 2001The immunosuppressive properties of 6-mercaptopurine and its parent compound azathioprine are mediated by their intracellular metabolism into active 6-thioguanine (6-TG) metabolites...
- Outcome of patients on azathioprine: a need for a better pre-treatment assessment and dosing guidelineDinar Jabin
Department of Rheumatology, Middlemore Hospital, Otahuhu, South Auckland, New Zealand
N Z Med J 123:67-73. 2010b>Azathioprine (AZA) is a commonly used drug for the management of various rheumatologic disorders...
- The natural history of azathioprine compliance after renal transplantationT E Nevins
Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota School of Medicine, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA
Kidney Int 60:1565-70. 2001..Successful renal transplantation requires long-term adherence to complex medical regimens, yet knowledge of post-transplant medication compliance is still inadequate...
- Azathioprine in liver transplantation: a reevaluation of its use and a comparison with mycophenolate mofetilG Germani
The Royal Free Sheila Sherlock Liver Centre and University Department of Surgery, Royal Free Hospital, London, UK
Am J Transplant 9:1725-31. 2009Calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) combined with steroids with or without azathioprine (AZA), have been a standard immunosuppression regimen after liver transplantation (LT)...
- More epidermal p53 patches adjacent to skin carcinomas in renal transplant recipients than in immunocompetent patients: the role of azathioprineYmke G L de Graaf
Department of Dermatology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands
Exp Dermatol 17:349-55. 2008..As the majority of RTR was kept on azathioprine for most of the time, we investigated whether this drug could increase UV-induced p53 patches by ..
- Outcomes in patients with active lupus nephritis requiring immunosuppressives who never received cyclophosphamideMurray B Urowitz
University of Toronto Lupus Clinic, Toronto Western Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
J Rheumatol 34:1491-6. 2007..To assess outcomes in patients with lupus nephritis treated with immunosuppressives compared to those treated with cyclophosphamide in a cohort study and in a matched cohort study...
- Azathioprine and breastfeeding: is it safe?A Sau
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University Hospital Lewisham, London, UK
BJOG 114:498-501. 2007Traditionally, women receiving azathioprine have been discouraged from breastfeeding because of theoretical potential risks of neonatal bone marrow suppression, susceptibility to infection, and pancreatitis...
- Azathioprine withdrawal in patients with Crohn's disease maintained on prolonged remission: a high risk of relapseXavier Treton
Hopital Beaujon, Pôle des Maladies de l Appareil Digestif, France
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 7:80-5. 2009b>Azathioprine (AZA) withdrawal in Crohn's disease after long-term remission under treatment is controversial...
- Sustained improvement of health-related quality of life in Crohn's disease patients treated with infliximab and azathioprine for 4 yearsFrancesc Casellas
Unitat d Atenció Crohn Colitis from Hospital Universitari Vall d Hebron, Spain
Inflamm Bowel Dis 13:1395-400. 2007..However, little information is available as to whether its effect on HRQOL is sustained over time. The objective was to measure the HRQOL of CD patients in long-term clinical remission...
- Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of human proximal tubular epithelial cells: effects of rapamycin, mycophenolate, cyclosporin, azathioprine, and methylprednisoloneJustin W G V Copeland
Department of Renal Medicine, Auckland City Hospital, Auckland, New Zealand
Transplantation 83:809-14. 2007..These immunosuppressives also reduced versican production by both PTEC and myofibroblasts. Cyclosporine A, azathioprine, and methylprednisolone were less effective than rapamycin and MMF...
- Inosine triphosphate pyrophosphatase and thiopurine s-methyltransferase genotypes relationship to azathioprine-induced myelosuppressionZuzana Zelinkova
Laboratory of Experimental Internal Medicine, Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 4:44-9. 2006The use of azathioprine (AZA) in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients is limited by toxicity, which occurs in up to 20% of treated patients...
- Adverse reactions to azathioprine cannot be predicted by thiopurine S-methyltransferase genotype in Japanese patients with inflammatory bowel diseaseNoritaka Takatsu
Department of Gastroenterology, Fukuoka University Chikushi Hospital, Fukuoka, Japan
J Gastroenterol Hepatol 24:1258-64. 2009b>Azathioprine (AZA) is associated with a high frequency of adverse reactions...
- Low-dose azathioprine is effective and safe for maintenance of remission in patients with ulcerative colitisToshifumi Hibi
Center for the Research of Inflammatory Bowel Disease, School of Medicine, Keio University, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku ku, Tokyo 160 8582, Japan
J Gastroenterol 38:740-6. 20036-Mercaptopurine (6-MP) and azathioprine (AZA) have been used in patients with Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) for reducing the dose of steroids and maintaining remission...
- Maintenance therapies for proliferative lupus nephritis: mycophenolate mofetil, azathioprine and intravenous cyclophosphamideG Contreras
Division of Nephrology, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Florida 33136, USA
Lupus 14:s33-8. 2005..last decade, sequential regimens of short-term CY induction followed by either mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) or azathioprine (AZA) maintenance have shown to be efficacious and safe reducing the long-term exposure to CY...
- Azathioprine for ocular inflammatory diseasesSirichai Pasadhika
Department of Ophthalmology, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon, USA
Am J Ophthalmol 148:500-509.e2. 2009To evaluate treatment outcomes of azathioprine for noninfectious ocular inflammatory diseases.
- Review of the potential effects of three commonly used antineoplastic and immunosuppressive drugs (cyclophosphamide, azathioprine, doxorubicin on the embryo and placenta)Shelly Tartakover Matalon
Oncogenetic Laboratory, Department of Medicine A, Sapir Medical Center, Kfar Saba, Israel
Reprod Toxicol 18:219-30. 2004
- Immunosuppressive therapy in lupus nephritis: the Euro-Lupus Nephritis Trial, a randomized trial of low-dose versus high-dose intravenous cyclophosphamideFrédéric A Houssiau
Cliniques Universitaires St Luc, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium
Arthritis Rheum 46:2121-31. 2002..Given the side effects of this regimen, we evaluated the efficacy and the toxicity of a course of low-dose IV CYC prescribed as a remission-inducing treatment, followed by azathioprine (AZA) as a remission-maintaining treatment.
- A randomized pilot trial comparing cyclosporine and azathioprine for maintenance therapy in diffuse lupus nephritis over four yearsGabriella Moroni
Division of Nephrology, IRCCS Ospedale Maggiore, Via Commenda 15, 20122 Milano, Italy
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 1:925-32. 2006..This multicenter, randomized trial compared the safety and efficacy of cyclosporine and azathioprine. Seventy-five patients with diffuse proliferative lupus were given three intravenous methylprednisolone pulses ..
- Double-blind comparison of hepatitis C histological recurrence Rate in HCV+ Liver transplant recipients given basiliximab + steroids or basiliximab + placebo, in addition to cyclosporine and azathioprineFranco Filipponi
Liver Transplantation Unit, University of Pisa, Hospital of Cisanello, Via Paradisa 2, 56100 Pisa, Italy
Transplantation 78:1488-95. 2004..Hepatitis C virus (HCV) recurrence in HCV+ liver transplant recipients is almost inevitable and may be promoted by immunosuppression. We compared the amount of liver damage with regard to usage of steroids and basiliximab...
- Antioxidant therapy for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosisGary W Hunninghake
N Engl J Med 353:2285-7. 2005
- Thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) activity and adverse effects of azathioprine in inflammatory bowel disease: long-term follow-up study of 394 patientsJavier P Gisbert
Gastroenterology Unit, Hospital Universitario de la Princesa, Universidad Autonoma, Madrid, Spain
Am J Gastroenterol 101:2769-76. 2006..thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) activity and incidence of adverse effects (especially myelotoxicity) exists, in a long-term follow-up study of a large group of patients with inflammatory bowel disease treated with azathioprine.
- Hepatoprotective effects of Hibiscus, Rosmarinus and Salvia on azathioprine-induced toxicity in ratsA Amin
Biology Department, UAE University, Al Ain, P O Box 17555, UAE
Life Sci 77:266-78. 2005As an anti-metabolite, Azathioprine inhibits the de novo and salvage pathways of purine synthesis...
- Influenza virus vaccination in kidney transplant recipients: serum antibody response to different immunosuppressive drugsMauro J C Salles
Clinical of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Santa Casa of Sao Paulo School of Medicine, Sao Paulo, Brazil
Clin Transplant 24:E17-23. 2010This study prospectively accessed the immune response to the inactivated influenza vaccine in renal transplant recipients receiving either azathioprine or mycophenolate mofetil (MMF). Side effects were investigated.
- Antibody response after influenza immunization in renal transplant patients receiving cyclosporin A or azathioprineK L Huang
Infect Immun 40:421-4. 1983Nineteen renal transplant recipients receiving cyclosporin A and prednisone, eight kidney recipients receiving azathioprine and prednisone, and 12 healthy volunteers were immunized with 0...
- Liver injury in inflammatory bowel disease: long-term follow-up study of 786 patientsJavier P Gisbert
Gastroenterology Unit, Hospital Universitario de la Princesa, Universidad Autonoma, Madrid, Spain
Inflamm Bowel Dis 13:1106-14. 2007..of liver tests (LTs) or hepatotoxicity in a large group of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients and, specifically, to assess the incidence of azathioprine (AZA)/mercaptopurine (MP)-induced liver injury in a long-term follow-up study.
- Low-dose azathioprine or mercaptopurine in combination with allopurinol can bypass many adverse drug reactions in patients with inflammatory bowel diseaseA Ansari
Department of Gastroenterology, East Surrey Hospital, Redhill, UK
Aliment Pharmacol Ther 31:640-7. 2010The thiopurine drugs, azathioprine and mercaptopurine (MP), are established treatments for IBD. However, therapeutic failure caused by adverse drug reactions occurs frequently.
- Azathioprine/methylprednisolone versus cyclophosphamide in proliferative lupus nephritis. A randomized controlled trialC Grootscholten
Division of Nephrology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
Kidney Int 70:732-42. 2006..b>Azathioprine, a less toxic alternative, was never proven to be inferior...
- Increased proportion of CD16(+) NK cells in the colonic lamina propria of inflammatory bowel disease patients, but not after azathioprine treatmentA W Steel
Department of Gastroenterology, Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, London, UK
Aliment Pharmacol Ther 33:115-26. 2011..Distinct functional subsets of natural killer cells potentially contribute to the pathology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)...
- Addition of azathioprine to corticosteroids does not benefit patients with IgA nephropathyClaudio Pozzi
Department of Nephrology and Dialysis, Ospedale A Manzoni, Lecco, Italy
J Am Soc Nephrol 21:1783-90. 2010..We performed a randomized, multicenter, controlled trial to determine whether adding azathioprine to steroids improves renal outcome. We randomly assigned 207 IgAN patients with creatinine ≤2...
- Azathioprine-induced suicidal erythrocyte deathCorinna Geiger
Department of Physiology, University of Tubingen, Germany
Inflamm Bowel Dis 14:1027-32. 2008b>Azathioprine is widely used as an immunosuppressive drug. The side effects of azathioprine include anemia, which has been attributed to bone marrow suppression...
- Azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine for maintenance of remission in ulcerative colitisAntje Timmer
Clinical Epidemiology, BIPS Institute for Epidemiology and Prevention Research, Bremen, Germany
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 9:CD000478. 2012Maintenance of remission is a major issue in inflammatory bowel disease. In ulcerative colitis, the evidence for the effectiveness of azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine for the maintenance of remission is still controversial.
- Probable psychiatric side effects of azathioprineJoost van der Hoeven
Psychosom Med 67:508. 2005
- Treatment of refractory microscopic colitis with azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurineD S Pardi
Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic and Foundation, Rochester, Minnesota, USA
Gastroenterology 120:1483-4. 2001..Some patients do not tolerate corticosteroid side effects, and a small subset are dependent on or refractory to corticosteroids. We report our experience with azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine in patients with microscopic colitis.
- The risk of cancer from azathioprine as a treatment for multiple sclerosisL Taylor
Eur J Neurol 11:141. 2004
- Efficacy and safety of azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine in Japanese pediatric patients with ulcerative colitis: a survey of the Japanese Society for Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel DiseaseHitoshi Tajiri
Department of Pediatrics, Osaka General Medical Center, Osaka, Japan
Digestion 77:150-4. 2008b>Azathioprine (AZA) and 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) have recently been used in Japanese pediatric patients with ulcerative colitis...
- Efficacy and safety of azathioprine and dapsone as an adjuvant in the treatment of bullous pemphigoidA Tirado-Sánchez
Servicio de Dermatologia, Hospital General de Mexico, Mexico City, Mexico
Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) 40:152-5. 2012..At present, there are no studies to determine which adjuvant offers a better efficacy and safety profile...
- Efficacy of azathioprine on multiple sclerosis new brain lesions evaluated using magnetic resonance imagingLuca Massacesi
Department of Neurological and Psychiatric Sciences, University of Florence, Florence, Italy
Arch Neurol 62:1843-7. 2005b>Azathioprine is an immunosuppressive agent that reduces relapse rates in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), but its efficacy in suppressing new brain lesions has never been evaluated.
- In vitro immunosuppressive effects of methotrexate and azathioprine on Langerhans cellsH N Liu
Department of Dermatology, Veterans General Hospital Taipei, Taiwan, ROC
Arch Dermatol Res 289:94-7. 1997..Since little information is available about the direct immunosuppressive effects of methotrexate (MTX) and azathioprine (AZA) on LC, we studied the viability and immunostimulatory effects of purified LC after pulsation with MTX or ..
- Quantitative patterns of azathioprine adherence after renal transplantationThomas E Nevins
Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Nephrology, University of Minnesota School of Medicine, Minneapolis, MN 55108, USA
Transplantation 87:711-8. 2009..Renal transplant recipients regularly fail to take their prescribed immunosuppressive medications, frequently leading to adverse outcomes...
- Azathioprine for multiple sclerosisI Casetta
Section of Clinical Neurology, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences of Communication and Behaviour, University of Ferrara, Corso della Giovecca 203, I 44100 Ferrara, Italy
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 80:131-2; discussion 132. 2009b>Azathioprine (AZA) is an immunosuppressive drug widely prescribed for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) until the first half of the 1990s. It could be an alternative to interferon beta because it is less expensive...
- Inosine triphosphate pyrophosphatase 94C>A polymorphism: clinical implications for patients with systemic lupus erythematosus treated with azathioprineKoujirou Yamamoto
Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Maebashi, Japan
Expert Opin Drug Saf 9:447-57. 2010b>Azathioprine (AZA) has immunosuppressive property and has been widely used in organ transplantation and in several autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus...
- Changing treatment protocol from azathioprine to mycophenolate mofetil: decrease in renal dysfunction, increase in infectionsV Pourfarziani
Nephrology Urology Research Center NURC, Kidney Transplant Department, Baqiyatallah Medical Sciences University, Tehran, Iran
Transplant Proc 39:1237-40. 2007Immunosuppression for renal transplantation has shifted from azathioprine (AZA) regimens to those containing mycophenolate mofetil (MMF)...
- Sulphasalazine inhibition of thiopurine methyltransferase: possible mechanism for interaction with 6-mercaptopurine and azathioprineC L Szumlanski
Department of Pharmacology, Mayo Medical School Mayo Clinic Mayo Foundation, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
Br J Clin Pharmacol 39:456-9. 1995..Our observations raise the possibility of a clinically significant drug-drug interaction in patients treated simultaneously with sulphasalazine and thiopurine drugs...
- Practical pharmacogenetics: the cost effectiveness of screening for thiopurine s-methyltransferase polymorphisms in patients with rheumatological conditions treated with azathioprineCarlo A Marra
Department of Health Care and Epidemiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada
J Rheumatol 29:2507-12. 2002Thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT), which catalyzes the inactivation of azathioprine (AZA), exhibits genetic polymorphism that results in dose related, serious toxicities (mainly hematological cytopenias) in 10-15% of individuals ..
- Structural determinants of glutathione transferases with azathioprine activity identified by DNA shuffling of alpha class membersSanela Kurtovic
Department of Biochemistry and Organic Chemistry, Uppsala University, BMC, Box 576, SE 75123 Uppsala, Sweden
J Mol Biol 375:1365-79. 2008..The GST variants were screened in bacterial lysates for activity with the immunosuppressive agent azathioprine, a prodrug that is transformed into its active form, 6-mercaptopurine, by reaction with the tripeptide ..
- Long-term maintenance treatment of moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis with infliximab in combination with methotrexate or azathioprine in a retrospective cohortM Dalaker
Department of Dermatology, St Olavs Hospital, Trondheim University Hospital, Trondheim, Norway
J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 23:277-82. 2009..Effective, fast-acting and safe therapies are needed for long-term maintenance treatment of psoriasis. In October 2005, infliximab was approved for the treatment of moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis, but long-term data are limited...
- Meta-analysis: the efficacy of azathioprine and mercaptopurine in ulcerative colitisJ P Gisbert
Gastroenterology Unit, Hospital Universitario de la Princesa, Madrid, Spain
Aliment Pharmacol Ther 30:126-37. 2009..Debate exists regarding to whether thiopurine therapy is as effective in ulcerative colitis (UC) as it is in Crohn's disease...
- IMPDH1 promoter mutations in a patient exhibiting azathioprine resistanceR L Roberts
Department of Pathology, Christchurch School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Christchurch, New Zealand
Pharmacogenomics J 7:312-7. 2007Around 9% of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients are resistant to azathioprine. We hypothesized that these patients may carry mutations within inosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH)...
- Rapamycin instead of mycophenolate mofetil or azathioprine in treatment of post-renal transplantation urothelial carcinomaXiao Peng Hu
Department of Urology, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China
Chin Med J (Engl) 122:35-8. 2009..The efficacy and safety of rapamycin (RPM) in combination with low-dose calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) in treating 15 renal allograft recipients which developed urothelial carcinoma were observed...
- [Azathioprine-associated severe myelosuppression: indication of routine determination of thiopurine S-methyltransferase variant?]S Ngo
Departement de Medecine Interne, CHU de Rouen, 1 rue de Germont, Rouen Cedex, France
Rev Med Interne 32:373-6. 2011Myelotoxicity is a well-known adverse effect of azathioprine, leading mainly to leukopenia. Other azathioprine associated hematological adverse effects are uncommon.
- Anti- IL5 therapy for Churg-Strauss Syndrome: a double blind randomized, placebo-Michael E Wechsler; Fiscal Year: 2010..CSS therapies, corticosteroids and cytotoxic agents such as cyclophosphamide and azathioprine, have multiple systemic side effects, do not offer the potential for long-term cure, and often fail to yield ..
- Ursodeoxycholic Acid Therapy in Pediatric Primary Sclerosing CholangitisA pilotBenjamin L Shneider; Fiscal Year: 2012..children with PSC/autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) overlap are the long-term adverse effects of corticosteroids and azathioprine use. If UDCA therapy is effective as monotherapy, these complications may be avoided...
- Anti IL5 and Churg Strauss Syndrome: a double blind, placebo controlled trialMichael E Wechsler; Fiscal Year: 2013..CSS therapies (e.g. corticosteroids, cyclophosphamide, azathioprine) have multiple side effects, do not offer potential for long-term cure, and often fail to yield clinical ..
- Oxidant Stress: Is it a biomarker of disease progression and response to therapyJesse Roman; Fiscal Year: 2010..of what has arguably become the standard of care in the management of IPF: the combination of glucocorticoids, azathioprine, and the anti-oxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC)...
- Polyomavirus and Mentoring in Renal TransplantationDaniel C Brennan; Fiscal Year: 2012..We found that with frequent monitoring early after transplant that discontinuation of mycophenolate or azathioprine when BK was detected in the blood led to clearance of BK and prevented progression to BK nephropathy...
- Novel therapeutic inhibition of the Rac oncogene in pancreatic cancerMARK A MC NIVEN; Fiscal Year: 2012..The drug azathioprine is a well-established anti-inflammatory agent that has recently been shown to inhibit Vav1-Rac activity in ..
- A Phase II Trial of Rituximab In Myasthenia GravisRichard Nowak; Fiscal Year: 2013..consists of symptomatic therapy with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and immunotherapy such as corticosteroids, azathioprine, cyclosporine, and plasma exchange (PLEX) and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg)...
- HPEPT1 IN INTESTINAL INFLAMMATIONDidier Merlin; Fiscal Year: 2009..present, treatment of IBD is limited to 5-aminosalicylates, corticosteroids, and immunosuppressants, including azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine...
- MEthotrexate Response in Treatment of UC - MERIT-UCHans H Herfarth; Fiscal Year: 2013..once weekly in patients with active UC, who are either steroid dependent or are intolerant or not responding to azathioprine/6-mercaptopurine therapy or have no response/ lost response to infliximab prior to the study inclusion...
- RENAL TRANSPLANT ENHANCEMENT BY DONOR SPECIFIC BLOODCharles Anderson; Fiscal Year: 1992This proposal extends the research with donor specific transfusions and concomitant azathioprine immunosuppression (DST+A) in haplotype mismatched living donor kidney transplants to the cadaver situation...
- Modulation of innate immunity in lung transplantationSadis Matalon; Fiscal Year: 2005..compare the efficacy of treating lung transplant patients with tacrolimus and sirolimus versus tacrolimus and azathioprine in reducing the incidence of acute rejection during the first twelve months after lung transplantation...
- ROLE OF CYCLOSPORINE METABOLISM IN TRANSPLANTATIONNEIL LEMPERT; Fiscal Year: 1990..between CsA metabolism and nephrotoxicity in humans and rats; to determine the effect of methylprednisolone, azathioprine, and inhibitors and inducers of the cyt-P450 system on CsA metabolism and nephrotoxicity in the rat; to ..
- A Pilot Study of Etanercept in DermatomyositisAnthony Amato; Fiscal Year: 2007..g., methotrexate, azathioprine), better treatment options are needed...
- TRANSCRIPTIONAL CONTROL OF INFLAMMATION IN PANCREATITISBrent Neuschwander Tetri; Fiscal Year: 1999..g. azathioprine, 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP), cerulein)...
- Endothelial reactivity and nitric oxide synthetase activity in the ALMS (AsprevaRobert Clancy; Fiscal Year: 2009..study is that the immunomodulatory drug mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), in contrast to cyclophosphamide or azathioprine, interferes with pterin availability to NOS2...
- IMMUNOSUPPRESSIVE THERAPY FOR BIOPSY-PROVEN MYOCARDITISJay Mason; Fiscal Year: 1991..three treatment limbs: conventional therapy for congestive heart failure, immunosuppression with prednisone and azathioprine, or immunosuppression with cyclosporine and prednisone...
- Practice Variation in Management of Inflammatory Bowel DiseaseMARJORIE MERRICK; Fiscal Year: 2009..Therapies will include: (a) 5ASA medications for maintenance of remission in UC, (b) 6MP/azathioprine for maintenance of remission in patients in CD and UC, (c) steroids, both short- and long-term, (d) infliximab, ..
- COOPERATIVE CLINICAL TRIALS IN ADULT TRANSPLANTATIONArthur Matas; Fiscal Year: 2000..of the first rejection episode by substituting OKT3 for steroid therapy and/or substituting mycophenolate for azathioprine or FK506 for Cyclosporine-A...
- SMALL INTESTINE AS A PORTAL OF ENTRY FOR XENOBIOTICSNeil Kaplowitz; Fiscal Year: 1980..In rats, large doses of PTU (150 mg/kg ip) inhibited the depletion of hepatic glutathione by azathioprine (a substrate for the transferases) and the storage of sulfobromophthalein and its excretion as a conjugate in ..
- Novel Therapeutic Approaches in IPFFernando Martinez; Fiscal Year: 2009..The current recommended treatment regimen is anti-inflammatory and combines a cytotoxic agent (such as azathioprine or cyclophosphamide) with prednisone (American Thoracic Society, 2000)...
- Effects of naltrexone on active Crohn's diseaseJill Smith; Fiscal Year: 2007..The treatment of IBD always has been directed toward inflammation. Drugs (e.g., steroids or azathioprine) are used to decrease the inflammatory response in the bowel by suppressing the host immune system...
- Novel Therapies in Idiopathic Pulmonary FibrosisFernando Martinez; Fiscal Year: 2009..1) a phase II randomized controlled trial of a 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor, zileuton, versus standard therapy with azathioprine and prednisone in IPF;2) a phase II safety/efficacy study of TM in advanced IPF;and 3) a phase I study ..
- Methotrexate Response In Treatment of UCHans Herfarth; Fiscal Year: 2009..from steroid-dependent disease course or who have failed or did not tolerate a therapy with anti-TNF agents, azathioprine or 6-MP...
- SCOR IN PATHOBIOLOGY OF FIBROTIC LUNG DISEASEGalen Toews; Fiscal Year: 2006..An important feature is the mechanistic insights these studies provide to the use of standard (prednisone, azathioprine + prednisone) and novel (5-lipoxygenase inhibitor, zileuton) therapeutic agents under investigation in our ..
- BLADDER INFECTIONS: PATHOGENESIS AND RESISTANCECharles Davis; Fiscal Year: 1980..Antibody concentrations will be suppressed by azathioprine or enhanced by vaccination to determine their role in suppressing infections...
- Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Clinical Research NetworkTALMADGE KING; Fiscal Year: 2009..Protocol 1: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial of prednisone plus azathioprine in the treatment of IPF...
- The Natural History of Pediatric Crohn's DiseaseMarla Dubinsky; Fiscal Year: 2008..abstract_text> ..
- Parental Expression of Immune Responses In Pediatric Crohn's DiseaseMarla Dubinsky; Fiscal Year: 2008..unreadable] [unreadable]..
- Pathophysiology and Characterisation of NAFLDMichael Charlton; Fiscal Year: 2009..We believe that these experiments will generate mechanistic insight into the cause and effects of increased oxidative stress in patients with histologically progressive NAFLD. ..
- Giant Cell Myocarditis Treatment Trial Pilot StudyCOOPER LESLIE; Fiscal Year: 2005..Abstract Not Provided ..
- African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertensi*Gabriel Contreras; Fiscal Year: 2007..Such results might eventually lead to new strategies that delay or prevent ESRD. ..
- OSCCAR: A Novel, Population-based Prospective Inception Cohort of Inflammatory BoBRUCE SANDS; Fiscal Year: 2008..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- Clonal Selection in Diabetic NephropathyOliver Lenz; Fiscal Year: 2003..The long-term goal of our proposal is to characterize the role of clonal selection in glomerular disease, and identify new targets for screening, prevention, and intervention in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. ..
- Multi-site Trial of Azathioprine Dosing in Crohn DiseaseStephen Hanauer; Fiscal Year: 2003b>Azathioprine (AZA) is an effective steroid-sparing therapy for chronically active Crohn's Disease (CD) and prevents relapse of steroid-induced remissions...
- Multi-site Trial of Azathioprine Dosing in Crohn DiseaseStephen Hanauer; Fiscal Year: 2004b>Azathioprine (AZA) is an effective steroid-sparing therapy for chronically active Crohn's Disease (CD) and prevents relapse of steroid-induced remissions...
- IMMUNOMODULATION IN INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASEBRUCE SANDS; Fiscal Year: 2004..The principal investigator seeks to become an independent clinical investigator by completing the didactic and scientific portions of this proposal. ..
- IMURAN Dose Ranging Study in Crohn's DiseaseBRUCE SANDS; Fiscal Year: 2005..Abstract Not Provided ..
- Inflammation and Immunity in Dilated CardiomyopathyLeslie Cooper; Fiscal Year: 2004..The long-term overall goal of this workshop is to translate advances in molecular and cellular mechanisms of disease into improvements in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with DCM. ..
- International Conference on the Non-Dystrophic MyotoniasRICHARD BAROHN; Fiscal Year: 2007..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- Mechanisms of Adaptation in Human Short Bowel SyndromeThomas Ziegler; Fiscal Year: 2005..abstract_text> ..
- Phase II Therapeutic Trial of Mexiletine Richard J Barohn; Fiscal Year: 2010..These secondary measures will be quantified by lndividual Neuromuscular Quality of Life (INQOL), SF-36 (adults), SF-10 (children), grip myotonia, physical exam, and electrophysiological testing, respectively. ..
- Electronic Diary Assessment of Pain in Juvenile ArthritisLaura E Schanberg; Fiscal Year: 2010..Finally, the study can serve as a catalyst for future research aimed at advancing medical and psychological knowledge of pain in other pediatric medical populations. ..
- QUALITY OF LIFE AND COST EFFECTIVENESS IN CMV RETINITISJohn Kempen; Fiscal Year: 2002..Subanalyses will assess what factors other than treatment strategy are associated with improved QOL and cost-effectiveness. ..
- CYTOTOXIC CELLS AND ALLOIMMUNE RESPONSESDwain Thiele; Fiscal Year: 2002..These studies should provide new insights into the regulation of CTL effector mechanisms and the role that such effector mechanisms play in complications of bone marrow and organ transplantation. ..
- OPIOID METABOLISM BY IMMUNE SYSTEM PEPTIDASESDwain Thiele; Fiscal Year: 2001..2) To elucidate the mechanisms involved in the uptake of B-EP and the secretion of B-EP and other B-EP metabolites by macrophages. 3) To identify the B-EP transporter/receptor. ..
- Automation of the vitro Micronucleus AssayStephen Dertinger; Fiscal Year: 2004..abstract_text> ..
- PHARMACOLOGY OF CYCLOSPORINE BASED IMMUNOSUPPRESSIONBarry Kahan; Fiscal Year: 2004....
- DEFENSIN AND THE PATHOGENESIS OF ATHEROSCLEROSISDouglas Cines; Fiscal Year: 2002..Finally, the interaction between endogenous defensin and endogenous Lp(a) will be examined in a novel transgenic mouse than overexpresses both human defensin and human Lp(a). ..
- Epidemiology of Marginal Zone LymphomaLisa Herrinton; Fiscal Year: 2003..abstract_text> ..
- Versatile Mutation Assay PlatformStephen Dertinger; Fiscal Year: 2007..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- High Throughput Radiation BiodosimetryStephen Dertinger; Fiscal Year: 2007..We propose to develop such a radiation biodosimetry assay based on the extremely high analysis rates that are possible with flow cytometry instrumentation. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- PR3-ANCA Subsets and Disease PhenotypeUlrich Specks; Fiscal Year: 2005..This study will provide new insights into the potential pathogenic role of PR3-ANCA that are not obtainable in any other way, and will constitute the most definitive study of these antibodies to date. ..
- MECHANISM OF PAIN IN PATIENTS WITH FIBROMYALGIA SYNDROMERoland Staud; Fiscal Year: 2008..In addition, our findings may contribute to the understanding of pain mechanisms related to other chronic pain disorders. ..
- 1Treatment of Cholestatic Pruritus With SertralineMARLYN MAYO; Fiscal Year: 2004..These studies will serve as pilot trials. The results of this proposed project will be used to design a larger controlled trial that could be proposed for funding through an R01 mechanism. ..
- CLOTRIMAZOLE ENEMAS FOR POUCHITIS IN CHILDREN AND ADULTSPAUL RUFO; Fiscal Year: 2005..Abstract Not Provided ..
- Pilot study on the safety and efficacy of ciprofloxacin for prophylactic preventiHans Herfarth; Fiscal Year: 2008..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- Longitudinal Studies of Primary Biliary CirrhosisMARLYN MAYO; Fiscal Year: 2006..In addition, the correlation between each of the putative surrogate markers will be analyzed. The results of this analysis will then be used to design future clinical trials in the field of PBC. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- Role of Integrins in Pulmonary FibrosisEric White; Fiscal Year: 2006....
- Bone Marrow Angioblasts for Myocardial VasculogenesisSilviu Itescu; Fiscal Year: 2006..abstract_text> ..
- The role of dendritic cell-T cell interactions in the p*Mariana Kaplan; Fiscal Year: 2006..These could lead into the development of novel therapeutic interventions designed to reverse these abnormalities and abrogate or block the onset and/or severity of this disease. ..
- STRUCTURE/FUNCTION ANALYSIS OF THE UROKINASE RECEPTORDouglas Cines; Fiscal Year: 2002..abstract_text> ..