siloxanes

Summary

Summary: Silicon polymers that contain alternate silicon and oxygen atoms in linear or cyclic molecular structures.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Impression techniques and misfit-induced strains on implant-supported superstructures: an in vitro study
    Murat C Cehreli
    Department of Prosthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Hacettepe University, Sihhiye, Ankara, Turkey
    Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent 26:379-85. 2006
  2. ncbi The fate of silicone oil during heat-curing glass siliconization--changes in molecular parameters analyzed by size exclusion and high temperature gas chromatography
    T Mundry
    Schering AG Pharmaceutical Development, Pharmaceutical Laboratory, Berlin
    PDA J Pharm Sci Technol 54:383-97. 2000
  3. pmc In vitro and in vivo studies on gelatin-siloxane nanoparticles conjugated with SynB peptide to increase drug delivery to the brain
    Xin Hua Tian
    Neurosurgical Department of Affiliated Zhongshan Hospital, Xiamen University, Xiamen, People s Republic of China
    Int J Nanomedicine 7:1031-41. 2012
  4. ncbi A survey of U.S. prosthodontists and dental schools on the current materials and methods for final impressions for complete denture prosthodontics
    Cynthia S Petrie
    Department of Restorative Dentistry, School of Dentistry, University of Missouri Kansas City, Kansas City, MO 64108, USA
    J Prosthodont 14:253-62. 2005
  5. ncbi Review of recent advances in research on the toxicity, detection, occurrence and fate of cyclic volatile methyl siloxanes in the environment
    De Gao Wang
    Water Science and Technology Directorate, Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, ON, Canada L7R 4A6
    Chemosphere 93:711-25. 2013
  6. ncbi Air-water partition constants for volatile methyl siloxanes
    A Kochetkov
    Institute of Experimental Meteorology, Typhoon, Kaluga Region, Russia
    Environ Toxicol Chem 20:2184-8. 2001
  7. ncbi Hexamethyidisiloxane: A 13-week subchronic whole-body vapor inhalation toxicity study in Fischer 344 rats
    S L Cassidy
    Environmental, Health, and Safety Department, Dow Corning Corporation, Midland, Michigan 48642, USA
    Int J Toxicol 20:391-9. 2001
  8. ncbi Closed-chamber inhalation pharmacokinetic studies with hexamethyldisiloxane in the rat
    Ivan D Dobrev
    Quantitative and Computational Toxicology Group, Center for Environmental Toxicology and Technology, Department of Environmental Health, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, USA
    Inhal Toxicol 15:589-617. 2003
  9. pmc Safe human exposure limits for airborne linear siloxanes during spaceflight
    Valerie E Meyers
    National Aeronautics and Space Administration Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX, USA
    Inhal Toxicol 25:735-46. 2013
  10. ncbi Occurrence of cyclic and linear siloxanes in indoor dust from China, and implications for human exposures
    Yan Lu
    School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200240, China
    Environ Sci Technol 44:6081-7. 2010

Research Grants

Detail Information

Publications272 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Impression techniques and misfit-induced strains on implant-supported superstructures: an in vitro study
    Murat C Cehreli
    Department of Prosthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Hacettepe University, Sihhiye, Ankara, Turkey
    Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent 26:379-85. 2006
    ..The snap-on indirect impression technique for Straumann implants leads to acceptable superstructures, regardless of the impression material used...
  2. ncbi The fate of silicone oil during heat-curing glass siliconization--changes in molecular parameters analyzed by size exclusion and high temperature gas chromatography
    T Mundry
    Schering AG Pharmaceutical Development, Pharmaceutical Laboratory, Berlin
    PDA J Pharm Sci Technol 54:383-97. 2000
    ..chromatography (SEC) and high-temperature gas chromatography (GC) with special respect to low molecular-weight siloxanes (LMWS)...
  3. pmc In vitro and in vivo studies on gelatin-siloxane nanoparticles conjugated with SynB peptide to increase drug delivery to the brain
    Xin Hua Tian
    Neurosurgical Department of Affiliated Zhongshan Hospital, Xiamen University, Xiamen, People s Republic of China
    Int J Nanomedicine 7:1031-41. 2012
    ..Gelatin-siloxane (GS) nanoparticles modified with Tat peptide can enhance plasmid DNA transfection efficiency compared with a commercial reagent...
  4. ncbi A survey of U.S. prosthodontists and dental schools on the current materials and methods for final impressions for complete denture prosthodontics
    Cynthia S Petrie
    Department of Restorative Dentistry, School of Dentistry, University of Missouri Kansas City, Kansas City, MO 64108, USA
    J Prosthodont 14:253-62. 2005
    ..In addition, those methods were compared with methods and materials taught in U.S. dental schools via a second survey sent to the chairpersons of prosthodontic/restorative departments...
  5. ncbi Review of recent advances in research on the toxicity, detection, occurrence and fate of cyclic volatile methyl siloxanes in the environment
    De Gao Wang
    Water Science and Technology Directorate, Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, ON, Canada L7R 4A6
    Chemosphere 93:711-25. 2013
    ..High concentrations of cVMS observed in indoor air and biosolids resulted from point sources. Concentrations of cVMS in water, sediment, and soil were all below their no-observed-effect-concentrations. ..
  6. ncbi Air-water partition constants for volatile methyl siloxanes
    A Kochetkov
    Institute of Experimental Meteorology, Typhoon, Kaluga Region, Russia
    Environ Toxicol Chem 20:2184-8. 2001
    ..dynamic vapor entry loop method were used to obtain the air-water partition constant for six volatile methyl siloxanes. Internally consistent data were obtained...
  7. ncbi Hexamethyidisiloxane: A 13-week subchronic whole-body vapor inhalation toxicity study in Fischer 344 rats
    S L Cassidy
    Environmental, Health, and Safety Department, Dow Corning Corporation, Midland, Michigan 48642, USA
    Int J Toxicol 20:391-9. 2001
    ..No other treatment-related histological changes were seen in HMDS-exposed rats...
  8. ncbi Closed-chamber inhalation pharmacokinetic studies with hexamethyldisiloxane in the rat
    Ivan D Dobrev
    Quantitative and Computational Toxicology Group, Center for Environmental Toxicology and Technology, Department of Environmental Health, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, USA
    Inhal Toxicol 15:589-617. 2003
    ..This conclusion is likely to hold for any volatile lipophilic compound with low blood/air partitioning...
  9. pmc Safe human exposure limits for airborne linear siloxanes during spaceflight
    Valerie E Meyers
    National Aeronautics and Space Administration Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX, USA
    Inhal Toxicol 25:735-46. 2013
    Low molecular weight siloxanes are used in industrial processes and consumer products, and their vapors have been detected in the atmospheres of the Space Shuttle and International Space Station...
  10. ncbi Occurrence of cyclic and linear siloxanes in indoor dust from China, and implications for human exposures
    Yan Lu
    School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200240, China
    Environ Sci Technol 44:6081-7. 2010
    b>Siloxanes are used in a wide variety of personal-care and other consumer products...
  11. ncbi Occurrence and seasonality of cyclic volatile methyl siloxanes in Arctic air
    Ingjerd S Krogseth
    NILU Norwegian Institute for Air Research, Kjeller, Norway
    Environ Sci Technol 47:502-9. 2013
    Cyclic volatile methyl siloxanes (cVMS) are present in technical applications and personal care products. They are predicted to undergo long-range atmospheric transport, but measurements of cVMS in remote areas remain scarce...
  12. ncbi Global distribution of linear and cyclic volatile methyl siloxanes in air
    Susie Genualdi
    Environment Canada, Science and Technology Branch, 4905 Dufferin Street, Toronto, ON M3H 5T4, Canada
    Environ Sci Technol 45:3349-54. 2011
    ..73 and 0.58 for the DEHM and BETR models, respectively. Agreement between measurements and models indicate that the sources, transport pathways, and sinks of D5 in the global atmosphere are fairly well understood...
  13. ncbi Concentrations and assessment of exposure to siloxanes and synthetic musks in personal care products from China
    Yan Lu
    School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China
    Environ Pollut 159:3522-8. 2011
    We investigated the concentrations and profiles of 15 siloxanes (four cyclic siloxanes, D(4)-D(7); 11 linear siloxanes, L(4)-L(14)), four synthetic musks (two polycyclic musks, HHCB and AHTN; two nitro musks, MX and MK), and HHCB-lactone,..
  14. ncbi Survey of organosilicone compounds, including cyclic and linear siloxanes, in personal-care and household products
    Yuichi Horii
    Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, State University of New York at Albany, Albany, NY 12201 0509, USA
    Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 55:701-10. 2008
    ..In this study, we determined concentrations of cyclic siloxanes [octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D(4)), decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D(5)), dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane (D(6))],..
  15. ncbi Removal of siloxanes in biogases
    M Schweigkofler
    Institute of Hydrochemistry, Technical University Munich, Marchioninistrasse 17, D-81377, Munich, Germany
    J Hazard Mater 83:183-96. 2001
    ..Apart from activated charcoal, silica gel showed especially high adsorption capacities of more than 100mg/g for siloxanes. Furthermore, excellent thermal regeneration of the loaded material was possible...
  16. ncbi Two-year clinical evaluation of ormocer, nanohybrid and nanofill composite restorative systems in posterior teeth
    Salah Hasab Mahmoud
    Department of Conservative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt
    J Adhes Dent 10:315-22. 2008
    ..To evaluate and compare the 2-year clinical performance of an ormocer, a nanohybrid, and a nanofill resin composite with that of a microhybrid composite in restorations of small occlusal cavities made in posterior teeth...
  17. ncbi The effect of temperature on the viscoelastic properties of nano-hybrid composites
    D Y Papadogiannis
    University of Athens, School of Dentistry, Department of Biomaterials, Greece
    Dent Mater 24:257-66. 2008
    ..The purpose of this study was to examine the viscoelastic properties of nanofilled dental composites under both static and dynamic testing and to determine the influence of temperature, medium of storage and storage time...
  18. ncbi Indirect latex glove contamination and its inhibitory effect on vinyl polysiloxane polymerization
    Katsuhiko Kimoto
    Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Rehabilitation, Kangawa Dental College, Yokosuka, Kangawa, Japan
    J Prosthet Dent 93:433-8. 2005
    ..However, the transfer of specific elements that cause inhibition has not been confirmed, nor has the removal of such contaminants been reported...
  19. ncbi Effect of conventional and experimental gingival retraction solutions on the tensile strength and inhibition of polymerization of four types of impression materials
    Sérgio Sábio
    Department of Operative Dentistry, Endodontics and Dental Materials, Bauru School of Dentistry, University of Sao Paulo, Bauru, SP, Brazil
    J Appl Oral Sci 16:280-5. 2008
    ..Results of the tensile strength and polymerization inhibition tests suggest that Vislin can be used as substance of gingival retraction without affecting the tested properties of four impression materials...
  20. ncbi Investigating filler morphology and mechanical properties of new low-shrinkage resin composite types
    J Leprince
    School of Dentistry and Stomatology, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium
    J Oral Rehabil 37:364-76. 2010
    ..Under high occlusal load, the use of Grandio and V34930 might be favoured. For small cavities, alternative technologies could be preferred as the need for mechanical resistance is lower and the potential for stress generation is greater...
  21. ncbi Effect of two types of latex gloves and surfactants on polymerization inhibition of three polyvinylsiloxane impression materials
    Alejandro Peregrina
    Department of Restorative Dentistry, School of Dental Medicine, Southern Illinois University, 2800 College Avenue, Alton, IL 62002, USA
    J Prosthet Dent 90:289-92. 2003
    ..Polymerization inhibition of polyvinylsiloxane impression materials has been reported when in sustained contact with some types of latex gloves...
  22. ncbi Novel 1H NMR approach to quantitative tissue oximetry using hexamethyldisiloxane
    Vikram D Kodibagkar
    Cancer Imaging Program, Department of Radiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Dallas, Texas 75390 9058, USA
    Magn Reson Med 55:743-8. 2006
    ..In tumors, altering the inspired gas also produced significant (albeit generally smaller) changes. This new pO2 reporter molecule offers a potentially valuable new tool for investigating pO2 in vivo...
  23. ncbi Evaluation of vertical accuracy of interocclusal records
    Vassilis K Vergos
    Department of Fixed Prosthodontics, School of Dentistry, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece
    Int J Prosthodont 16:365-8. 2003
    ..The aim of this study was to evaluate four recording materials (polyether, polyvinyl siloxane, acrylic resin, and wax) for their ability to accurately record, maintain, and reproduce the vertical interocclusal relationship...
  24. ncbi An experimental study on particular physical properties of several interocclusal recording media. Part I: consistency prior to setting
    Konstantinos X Michalakis
    Division of Graduate and Postgraduate Prothodontics, Tufts University School of Dental Medicine, Boston, MA, USA
    J Prosthodont 13:42-6. 2004
    ..This property is related to the viscosity as well as to the working and setting times of these materials...
  25. ncbi In vitro and in vivo evaluation of the estrogenic, androgenic, and progestagenic potential of two cyclic siloxanes
    Anne L Quinn
    Dow Corning Corporation, Midland, Michigan 48686, USA
    Toxicol Sci 96:145-53. 2007
    ..experiments was to determine the potential estrogenic, androgenic, and progestagenic activity of two cyclic siloxanes, octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4) and decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5)...
  26. ncbi Bio-molecule-conjugated fluorescent organically modified silica nanoparticles as optical probes for cancer cell imaging
    Jun Qian
    Centre for Optical and Electromagnetic Research, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China
    Opt Express 16:19568-78. 2008
    ..These bio-molecule functionalized ORMOSIL nanoparticles may serve as a robust tool for early diagnosis/therapy of cancer and other diseases...
  27. ncbi Biological removal of siloxanes from landfill and digester gases: opportunities and challenges
    Sudeep C Popat
    Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Riverside, California 92521, USA
    Environ Sci Technol 42:8510-5. 2008
    The presence of volatile methyl siloxanes (VMSs) presents challenges for using landfill and digester gases as energy fuels because of the formation of silicon dioxide deposits during combustion...
  28. ncbi Behaviour and adsorptive removal of siloxanes in sewage sludge biogas
    K Oshita
    Department of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, C Cluster, Kyoto University Katsura, Nishikyo ku, Kyoto, Japan
    Water Sci Technol 61:2003-12. 2010
    We investigated the behaviour of siloxanes, which adversely affect biogas engines, as well as their concentration levels in sewage sludge biogas in Japan...
  29. ncbi Development of on-line measurement techniques for siloxanes and other trace compounds in biogas
    M Arnold
    VTT, Technical Research Centre of Finland, P O Box 1000, FI 02044 VTT, Finland
    Waste Manag 30:1011-7. 2010
    This paper focuses on the development of an on-line measurement method for siloxanes and other biogas trace compounds impeding the energy utilisation of biogas, as well as the main gas components, methane and carbon dioxide...
  30. ncbi Materials for interocclusal records and their ability to reproduce a 3-dimensional jaw relationship
    G Ockert-Eriksson
    Department of Dental Biomaterial Science, Karolinska Institute, Huddinge, Sweden
    Int J Prosthodont 13:152-8. 2000
    ....
  31. ncbi Tetravinyl-tetramethylcyclo-tetrasiloxane (tetravinyl D4) is a mutagen in Rat2lambda lacI fibroblasts
    K Felix
    Laboratory of Genetics, DBS, NCI, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Carcinogenesis 19:315-20. 1998
    ..We chose to examine the possibility that low molecular wt silicone compounds such as siloxanes, leaking from the complex silicone gel matrix into the surrounding tissue, may be mutagenic...
  32. ncbi Hexamethyldisiloxane-based nanoprobes for (1) H MRI oximetry
    Praveen K Gulaka
    Joint Program in Biomedical Engineering, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas and University of Texas at Arlington, TX, USA
    NMR Biomed 24:1226-34. 2011
    ..Dynamic changes in mean thigh tissue pO(2) were measured using the PISTOL (proton imaging of siloxanes to map tissue oxygenation levels) technique in response to oxygen challenge...
  33. pmc Proton imaging of siloxanes to map tissue oxygenation levels (PISTOL): a tool for quantitative tissue oximetry
    Vikram D Kodibagkar
    Cancer Imaging Program, Department of Radiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA
    NMR Biomed 21:899-907. 2008
    ..A rapid MRI approach has now been designed, implemented, and tested. The technique, proton imaging of siloxanes to map tissue oxygenation levels (PISTOL), utilizes frequency-selective excitation of the HMDSO resonance and ..
  34. pmc Synthesis of full-length oligonucleotides: cleavage of apurinic molecules on a novel support
    M Kwiatkowski
    Department of Medical Genetics, Uppsala University, Sweden
    Nucleic Acids Res 24:4632-8. 1996
    ..This ensures that all molecules that preserve the 5' protecting group when cleaved from the support will have both correct 3'- and 5'-ends. We demonstrate the application of the support for synthesis of padlock probe molecules...
  35. ncbi The effect of sulcular width on the linear accuracy of impression materials in the presence of an undercut
    Haim Baharav
    Department of Oral Rehabilitation, The Maurice and Gabriela Goldshleger School of Dental Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Israel
    Int J Prosthodont 17:585-9. 2004
    ..This study examined the effect of gingival sulcular width, in the presence of an undercut, on the accuracy of dies poured from impressions made with different impression materials...
  36. ncbi The effect of different types of flowable restorative resins on microleakage of Class V cavities
    A Ruya Yazici
    Hacettepe University, Faculty of Dentistry, Department of Conservative Dentistry, Ankara, Turkey
    Oper Dent 28:773-8. 2003
    ..The gingival margins had significantly more microleakage than the occlusal margins (p < 0.05) except in the Admira Flow group, where microleakage at the occlusal and gingival margins was almost equal...
  37. ncbi Clinical performance and wear resistance of two compomers in posterior occlusal restorations of permanent teeth: six-year follow-up
    R G Lund
    School of Dentistry, Federal University of Pelotas, RS, Brazil
    Oper Dent 32:118-23. 2007
    ..65) was detected between wear and evaluation time (p < 0.001). Despite the decrease in restoration quality and the increase in occlusal wear, nearly all restorations were considered acceptable after the six-year evaluation...
  38. ncbi Dimensional accuracy of a new polyether impression material
    Tatsuo Endo
    Division of Operative Dentistry, Department of Restorative Dentistry, Tohoku University Graduate School of Dentistry, Japan
    Quintessence Int 37:47-51. 2006
    ..The purpose of this study was to evaluate the dimensional accuracy of stone dies produced from standardized impressions with 1 new and 1 conventional polyether impression material and a polyvinyl siloxane reference material...
  39. ncbi Effects of a chemical disinfectant on the physical properties of dental stones
    B Daniel Hall
    Department of Restorative Dentistry, Loma Linda University School of Dentistry, California 92350, USA
    Int J Prosthodont 17:65-71. 2004
    ..This study compared the effects of an antimicrobial agent (Asepto-Sol) on the physical properties of types III, IV, and V gypsum casts made from two types of impression materials...
  40. ncbi The effect of different adhesives on vinyl polysiloxane bond strength to two tray materials
    A Peregrina
    Section of Restorative and Prosthetic Dentistry, College of Dentistry, The Ohio State University, 305 West 12th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
    J Prosthet Dent 94:209-13. 2005
    ..Universal adhesives for vinyl polysiloxane (VPS) are used in practice, but comparative bond strengths have not been reported...
  41. ncbi The frictional coefficients and associated wear resistance of novel low-shrink resin-based composites
    W M Palin
    Biomaterials Unit, The University of Birmingham School of Dentistry, St Chad s Queensway, UK
    Dent Mater 21:1111-8. 2005
    ..Consequently, the micromechanical wear properties of conventional methacrylate compared with novel oxirane RBCs were assessed...
  42. ncbi A comparison of dimensional accuracy between three different addition cured silicone impression materials
    L Forrester-Baker
    Eur J Prosthodont Restor Dent 13:69-74. 2005
    ..Thus, any change in measured dimensions occurring during impression making, was compensated for in some way by the casting process...
  43. ncbi Accuracy of newly formulated fast-setting elastomeric impression materials
    Chandur P K Wadhwani
    School of Dentistry, University of Washington, Seattle, 98195 USA
    J Prosthet Dent 93:530-9. 2005
    ..Elastomeric impression materials have been reformulated to achieve a faster set. The accuracy of fast-setting elastomeric impression materials should be confirmed, particularly with respect to disinfection...
  44. ncbi Effect of measurement site on the dimensional accuracy of die-forming materials and techniques
    Cynthia S Petrie
    Department of Restorative Dentistry, University of Missouri Kansas City School of Dentistry, USA
    Gen Dent 52:228-32. 2004
    ..This investigation utilized a standardized model with two identical dies to measure die accuracy at four sites, using five different die-forming materials/techniques...
  45. ncbi The effect of a range of disinfectants on the dimensional accuracy of some impression materials
    D C Jagger
    Department of Oral and Dental Science, Division of Restorative Dentistry, Bristol Dental School and Hospital, UK
    Eur J Prosthodont Restor Dent 12:154-60. 2004
    ..The results of the studied demonstrated that the various disinfection treatments had different effects on the impression materials. It is important that an appropriate disinfectant is used for each type of impression material...
  46. ncbi A pin amalgam or composite core foundation technique for teeth with minimal coronal structure
    John S Mamoun
    Advanced Education in General Dentistry Program, University of Rochester Eastman Dental Center, NY, USA
    J Prosthet Dent 91:599-602. 2004
    ..A technique is presented for doing so by making a wax foundation on the tooth and injecting vinyl polysiloxane impression material around the foundation to form a matrix for the tooth, using rubber dam clamps to stabilize the matrix...
  47. ncbi Dimensional accuracy of 2-stage putty-wash impressions: influence of impression trays and viscosity
    Markus Balkenhol
    Department of Prosthodontics, School of Dental Medicine, Justus Liebig University, Schlangenzahl 14, 35392 Giessen, Germany
    Int J Prosthodont 20:573-5. 2007
    ..Zero viscosity of the materials was determined. Dimensional accuracy was significantly affected when DiTs were used. Lower-viscosity wash materials led to more precise impressions...
  48. ncbi Hydrophilicity of elastomeric non-aqueous impression materials during setting
    Frank Rupp
    Section of Medical Materials and Technology, Department of Prosthodontics and Medical Materials, University of Tuebingen, Osianderstr 2 8, D 72076 Tuebingen, Germany
    Dent Mater 21:94-102. 2005
    ..The major objective of this study was to develop an experimental set-up and an analysis strategy for wettability measurements of impression materials during their working time...
  49. ncbi Marginal adaptation of indirect composites and ceramic inlay systems
    Carlos Jose Soares
    Operative Dentistry Laboratory, Piracicaba Dental School State University of Campinas, Brazil
    Oper Dent 28:689-94. 2003
    ..Duceram LFC showed greater marginal discrepancy than Solidex, Artglass and Targis, which showed no statistically significant differences among them...
  50. ncbi Applicable research in practice: understanding the hydrophilic and flow property measurements of impression materials
    Ronald D Perry
    Tufts University School of Dental Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Compend Contin Educ Dent 27:582-6. 2006
    ..Applying this knowledge to practice, the authors present a clinical case in which a polyether's superior flow and quality of detail were used to make impressions for a patient receiving 8 single-unit zirconia crowns...
  51. ncbi The effects of abutment wall height, platform size, and screw access channel filling method on resistance to dislodgement of cement-retained, implant-supported restorations
    Mark Emms
    Department of Conservative Dentistry, Eastman Dental Institute, University College London, London, UK
    J Prosthodont 16:3-9. 2007
    ..The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect that varying implant abutment wall height, platform size, and screw access channel filling method has on the retention of castings cemented to implant abutments using TempBond...
  52. ncbi Working time of elastomeric impression materials: relevance of rheological tests
    Markus Balkenhol
    Department of Prosthetic Dentistry, School of Dental Medicine, Justus Liebig University, Giessen, Germany
    Am J Dent 20:347-52. 2007
    ..To study possible relationships between rheological parameters of elastomeric impression materials and their dimensional accuracy at different stages during setting within the manufacturers' recommended working time...
  53. ncbi Computer aided analysis of digitized dental stone replicas by dental CAD/CAM technology
    Anna S K Persson
    Institute of Odontology, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden
    Dent Mater 24:1123-30. 2008
    ..To determine the reproducibility of digitized dental stone replicas compared to the master model and the reliability of the computer aided analysis...
  54. ncbi Effect of relative humidity on the hydrophilicity of unset elastomeric impression materials
    Frank Rupp
    Department of Prosthodontics, Section Medical Materials and Technology, University Hospiral Tuebingen, Germany
    Int J Prosthodont 21:69-71. 2008
    ..This PVS showed increased hydrophilicity with increasing RH. The initial hydrophilicity of impression materials can be influenced by the RH level. Accounting for RH will enhance the clinical relevance of hydrophilicity studies...
  55. ncbi Dimensional accuracy of resultant casts made by a monophase, one-step and two-step, and a novel two-step putty/light-body impression technique: an in vitro study
    Sergio Caputi
    Prosthetic Dentistry, Department of Oral Sciences, University G D Annunzio, Chieti, Italy
    J Prosthet Dent 99:274-81. 2008
    ..Dimensional accuracy when making impressions is crucial to the quality of fixed prosthodontic treatment, and the impression technique is a critical factor affecting this accuracy...
  56. ncbi Microleakage and polymerization shrinkage of various polymer restorative materials
    David Alain Gerdolle
    Swiss Dental Clinics, Vevey, Switzerland
    J Dent Child (Chic) 75:125-33. 2008
    ..The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the polymerization shrinkage and the microleakage of direct resin-based restorative materials commonly used in pediatric dentistry...
  57. ncbi Effect of surfactant on surface hardness of dental stone and investment casts produced from polyvinyl siloxane duplicating materials
    Attalah Al-Johani
    Department of Prosthodontics, Kings College London Dental Institute, UK
    Eur J Prosthodont Restor Dent 16:77-80. 2008
    ..Surface hardness of FujiRock increased with Wax-Mate surfactant. However, surface hardness of Croform WB investment material decreased with both topical surfactants...
  58. ncbi Long-term dimensional stability and reproduction of surface detail of four polyvinyl siloxane duplicating materials
    Ravi Pant
    King s College, London Dental Institute, Department of Prosthodontics, London, United Kingdom
    J Dent 36:456-61. 2008
    ..The dimensional stability of four PVS duplicating materials was investigated over a 13-week period...
  59. ncbi A clear PVS matrix technique for the placement of posterior direct composites
    Gabriele Conte
    Department of Operative Dentistry and Endodontics, University of Rome Tor Vergata
    Dent Today 27:124, 126-7. 2008
  60. ncbi Effect of subgingival depth of implant placement on the dimensional accuracy of the implant impression: an in vitro study
    Heeje Lee
    Department of Prosthodontics, Louisiana State University School of Dentistry, New Orleans, LA 70119, USA
    J Prosthet Dent 99:107-13. 2008
    ..PURPOSE.: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of subgingival depth of implant placement on the accuracy of implant impressions...
  61. ncbi Surface detail reproduction of elastomeric impression materials related to rheological properties
    Matthew J German
    School of Dental Sciences, Newcastle University, Framlington Place, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK
    Dent Mater 24:951-6. 2008
    ..The purpose of this work was to discern, for elastomeric impression materials, the important rheological properties and importance of hydrophilicity for detail reproduction...
  62. ncbi Marginal and internal fit of all-ceramic crowns fabricated with two different CAD/CAM systems
    Kyu Bok Lee
    Department of Prosthodontics, School of Dentistry, Kyungpook National University, 2 50 Samduk dong, Jung Gu, Daegu 700 721, Korea
    Dent Mater J 27:422-6. 2008
    ..On internal gaps, Cerec 3D crowns showed significantly larger internal gaps than Procera copings and crowns (p < 0.05). Within the limitations of this study, the single-layer system demonstrated acceptable marginal and internal fit...
  63. pmc Fractographic ceramic failure analysis using the replica technique
    Susanne S Scherrer
    Department of Prosthodontics Biomaterials, University of Geneva, School of Dental Medicine, 19, Barthélemy Menn, 1205 Geneva, Switzerland
    Dent Mater 23:1397-404. 2007
    ..To demonstrate the effectiveness of in vivo replicas of fractured ceramic surfaces for descriptive fractography as applied to the analysis of clinical failures...
  64. ncbi Assessment of preference of mixing techniques and duration of mixing and tray loading for two viscosities of vinyl polysiloxane material
    Jung Nam
    School of Dentistry, University of Washington, Seattle 98195 7456, USA
    J Prosthet Dent 97:12-7. 2007
    ..Information regarding operators' preferences for different impression mixing techniques and duration of mixing and tray loading is limited...
  65. ncbi Accurate impression material and technique for well-adapted restorations
    Richard Trushkowsky
    New York University College of Dentistry, USA
    Dent Today 26:120, 122-3. 2007
  66. pmc Accuracy of contacts calculated from 3D images of occlusal surfaces
    R DeLong
    Minnesota Dental Research Center for Biomaterials and Biomechanics, Department of Restorative Sciences, University of Minnesota School of Dentistry, USA
    J Dent 35:528-34. 2007
    ..Compare occlusal contacts calculated from 3D virtual models created from clinical records to contacts identified clinically using shimstock and transillumination...
  67. ncbi Precision of fit of two margin designs for metal-ceramic crowns
    Penwadee Limkangwalmongkol
    Department of Endodontics, Prosthodontics, and Operative Dentistry, University of Maryland, Baltimore College of Dental Surgery, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
    J Prosthodont 16:233-7. 2007
    ..Although metal-ceramic restorations are widely used, there is a lack of information about how the fit is affected by margin designs...
  68. ncbi Pre- and post-set hydrophilicity of elastomeric impression materials
    Konstantinos X Michalakis
    Division of Graduate and Postgraduate Prosthodontics, Tufts University, School of Dental Medicine, Boston, MA, USA
    J Prosthodont 16:238-48. 2007
    To evaluate the hydrophilicity of one polyether, four poly(vinyl siloxanes), and one condensation silicone before and after setting under simulated clinical conditions, and to correlate the findings to the contact angle values of these ..
  69. ncbi Evaluation of the accuracy of implant-level impression techniques for internal-connection implant prostheses in parallel and divergent models
    Jung Han Choi
    Department of Prosthodontics, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea
    Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 22:761-8. 2007
    ....
  70. ncbi A modified putty-wash vinyl polysiloxane impression technique for fixed prosthodontics
    Nopsaran Chaimattayompol
    Department of Prosthodontics and Operative Dentistry, Tufts University School of Dental Medicine, Boston, MA 02111, USA
    J Prosthet Dent 98:483-5. 2007
  71. ncbi Tear strength of five elastomeric impression materials at two setting times and two tearing rates
    Nathaniel C Lawson
    School of Dentistry, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35295 0007, USA
    J Esthet Restor Dent 20:186-93. 2008
    ..This study measures the tear strength of six fast and regular set impression materials after different setting times and at different tearing rates...
  72. ncbi Use of transparent polyvinylsiloxane to replicate gingival peri-implant soft tissue
    Ira H Orenstein
    Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Dental Service 160, 130 West Kingsbridge Road, Bronx, NY 10468, USA
    J Prosthet Dent 90:410-2. 2003
    ..This article describes a technique for fabricating a definitive cast using a transparent polyvinylsiloxane material to replicate the peri-implant gingiva...
  73. ncbi Hydraulic implant abutment level impressions
    Jeffrey C Hoos
    Tex Dent J 120:888-9. 2003
  74. ncbi Abrasion resistance of a resin-impregnated type IV gypsum in comparison to conventional products
    Terry J Lindquist
    Department of Prosthodontics, College of Dentistry, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
    J Prosthet Dent 87:319-22. 2002
    ..Limited abrasion resistance is one of the disadvantages of gypsum materials. One means to improve these properties may be the addition of various polymers to reinforce surface and subsurface wear resistance...
  75. ncbi Gingival sulcus simulation model for evaluating the penetration characteristics of elastomeric impression materials
    Pantira Aimjirakul
    Fixed Prosthodontics, Department of Restorative Sciences, Division of Oral Health Sciences, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Japan
    Int J Prosthodont 16:385-9. 2003
    ..This study evaluated the ability of five elastomeric impression materials to penetrate the gingival sulcus beyond the preparation margin...
  76. ncbi Composite implant abutment analogs for solid casts
    Herman B Dumbrigue
    Advanced Education in General Dentistry, Baylor College of Dentistry, Texas A and M University Health Science Center, Dallas, Texas 75246, USA
    J Prosthet Dent 87:410. 2002
  77. ncbi Clinical factors and clinical variation influencing the reproducibility of interocclusal recording methods
    A Eriksson
    Department of Dental Biomaterial Science, Karolinska Institute, Huddinge, Sweden
    Br Dent J 192:395-400; discussion 391. 2002
    ..Three distinct areas were examined: 1) mandibular positions (intercuspal position (IP) or retruded contact position (RCP)), 2) materials used in recording the occlusion, 3) clinical variation...
  78. ncbi In vitro study of transmission of bacteria from contaminated metal models to stone models via impressions
    A Sofou
    Department of Removable Prosthodontics, Dental School, Aristotle University, Thessaloniki, Greece
    Clin Oral Investig 6:166-70. 2002
    ..The conclusion is that even after severe contamination, the risks to dental laboratory personnel are minimal. "Normal" hygienic procedures are recommended instead of disinfection...
  79. ncbi Indirectly formed matrix for multiple composite core restorations: two clinical treatments illustrating an expanded technique
    Gus J Livaditis
    Baltimore College of Dental Surgery, Dental School, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD, USA
    J Prosthet Dent 88:245-51. 2002
    ..An alternative method in which light-polymerized core composite is used with a vacuum-formed, dual-laminate transparent matrix is described and compared with the semirigid elastomeric matrix...
  80. ncbi Reproducibility of interocclusal recording for mandibular removable partial denture in bilateral distal extension cases
    Hiroshi Togano
    Removable Prosthodontics, Department of Masticatory Function Rehabilitation, Division of Oral Health Sciences, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Japan
    J Med Dent Sci 50:53-61. 2003
    ..With the functional impression technique utilizing AW was revealed to minimize the amount of interocclusal displacement...
  81. ncbi A simplified impression technique for dental implants
    Robert E Vogel
    Compend Contin Educ Dent 23:13-6. 2002
    ..Most general practitioners do not wish to attempt to restore dental implants. This article describes a very simple, yet extremely accurate, technique for making impressions of dental implant fixtures...
  82. ncbi Wettability, imbibition, and mass change of disinfected low-viscosity impression materials
    Xavier Lepe
    Department of Restorative Dentistry, University of Washington, Seattle, Wash 98195 7456, USA
    J Prosthet Dent 88:268-76. 2002
    ..There is an ongoing effort by dental manufacturers to create impression materials with improved wetting properties. Disinfection solutions may alter the surface characteristics of these newer materials...
  83. ncbi Accuracy of a system for creating 3D computer models of dental arches
    R DeLong
    Minnesota Dental Research Center for Biomaterials and Biomechanics, Department of Oral Science, University of Minnesota School of Dentistry, Moos Health Science Tower, 515 Delaware Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    J Dent Res 82:438-42. 2003
    ..Accuracy +/- precision for the casts and impressions was 0.024 +/- 0.002 mm and 0.013 +/- 0.003 mm, respectively. The system produced computer models with sufficient accuracy for clinical application...
  84. ncbi Developing an optimal emergence profile of the definitive restoration with a modified impression cap technique for ITI solid abutment
    Song Bor Kuo
    Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan
    J Prosthet Dent 88:646-8. 2002
    ..This article describes an efficient technique to solve this problem and reviews its advantages and disadvantages...
  85. ncbi Pressure generated on a simulated oral analog by impression materials in custom trays of different designs
    Radi Masri
    Department of Restorative Dentistry, University of Maryland, Baltimore 21201, USA
    J Prosthodont 11:155-60. 2002
    ..To measure the pressure exerted by maxillary edentulous impressions composed of 3 commonly used impression materials using four different impression tray configurations...
  86. ncbi Composite indirect-direct method for fabricating multiple-unit provisional restorations
    Herman B Dumbrigue
    Baylor College of Dentistry, Texas A and M University System Health Science Center, Dallas 75246, USA
    J Prosthet Dent 89:86-8. 2003
    ..This method reduces chair time, as well as laboratory time required to fabricate provisional restorations. Control of restoration contours and incisal edge position is also enhanced...
  87. ncbi Changes in water contact angles during the first phase of setting of dental impression materials
    Matthias Mondon
    Department of Physics, University of Kaiserslautern, Germany
    Int J Prosthodont 16:49-53. 2003
    ..This study compared the properties of the initial water contact of two different dental impression materials and their subsequent development during polymerization...
  88. ncbi The effect of surface moisture on detail reproduction of elastomeric impressions
    Glen H Johnson
    Department of Restorative Dentistry, Box 357456, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 7456, USA
    J Prosthet Dent 90:354-64. 2003
    ..Monophase and dual-viscosity impression techniques are available with little knowledge of which one might render better quality under wet and dry surface conditions...
  89. ncbi Trihalomethane formation during water disinfection in four water supplies in the Somes river basin in Romania
    Dumitru Ristoiu
    Faculty of Environmental Science, University Babes Bolyai Cluj Napoca, Cluj Napoca, Romania
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 16:S55-65. 2009
    ..Laboratory kinetic studies were also performed to investigate whether there is a relationship between raw water dissolved organic matter, residual chlorine, water temperature and THM formation...
  90. ncbi Variation in emulsion stabilization behavior of hybrid silicone polymers with change in molecular structure: Phase diagram study
    Somil C Mehta
    NSF Industry University Cooperative Research Center for Advanced Studies in Novel Surfactants, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027, USA
    J Colloid Interface Sci 333:635-40. 2009
    ..Currently most applications use polyoxyethylene (non-ionic) modified siloxanes as emulsifiers to stabilize silicone oil emulsions...
  91. ncbi Evaluation of disinfected casts poured in gypsum with gum arabic and calcium hydroxide additives
    Khalid M Abdelaziz
    Department of Dental Materials, Faculty of Dentistry, Mansoura University, Egypt
    J Prosthet Dent 92:27-34. 2004
    ..Disinfection of stone casts is an important measure for the control of cross-contamination. Many approaches have been used to disinfect stone casts, but information regarding the accuracy of the resultant casts is limited...
  92. ncbi Improved gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of barbiturates in urine using centrifuge-based solid-phase extraction, methylation, with d5-pentobarbital as internal standard
    R H Liu
    Department of Criminal Justice, University of Alabama at Birmingham
    J Forensic Sci 39:1504-14. 1994
    ..Precision data (% CV) for GC/MS analysis, over-all procedure, and day-to-day performance are approximately 2.0%, 6.0%, and 8.0%, respectively. With the use of a 2 mL sample size, the attainable detection limit is approximately 20 ng/mL...
  93. ncbi Effect of surgical denervation on orthodontic tooth movement in rats
    James R Miller
    Division of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn, USA
    Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 131:620-6. 2007
    ..The objective of this study was to measure the differences in orthodontic tooth movement between rats treated with and without surgical transection of the maxillary nerve...
  94. ncbi 2000 Judson C. Hickey Scientific Writing Award. Effect of impression materials on hybridized dentin
    M Nahon
    School of Dentistry, The Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, Ga 30912 1260, USA
    J Prosthet Dent 85:568-74. 2001
    ..Tooth sensitivity after crown preparation is not an uncommon complication. For dentin bonding agents to be effective in preventing postoperative sensitivity, they must remain intact throughout the fixed prosthodontic procedures...
  95. ncbi Preservation of the negative image of tooth enamel with dental impression material enhances morphometric measurements of gingival overgrowth
    Marian L Miller
    Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, Ohio 45267 0056, USA
    Microsc Res Tech 60:528-36. 2003
    ..Four dental alginates, three polyvinyl siloxanes, and one polyether and gelatin were used...
  96. ncbi Dorsal horn administration of muscimol abolishes the muscle pressor reflex
    L B Wilson
    Department of Physiology, University of South Alabama College of Medicine, Mobile, Alabama 36688, USA
    J Appl Physiol (1985) 90:919-25. 2001
    ..Furthermore, these data support the hypothesis that branches of primary afferent neurons, not intraspinal pathways, are responsible for the multisegmental integration of the pressor reflex...
  97. ncbi The efficacy of posterior three-unit zirconium-oxide-based ceramic fixed partial dental prostheses: a prospective clinical pilot study
    Ariel J Raigrodski
    Department of Restorative Dentistry, School of Dentistry, University of Washington, Seattle, USA
    J Prosthet Dent 96:237-44. 2006
    ..Although zirconium-oxide-based restorations for fixed partial denture prostheses (FPDPs) are available for use, clinical studies evaluating their longevity and related complications have not been published...
  98. ncbi Determination of descriptors for organosilicon compounds by gas chromatography and non-aqueous liquid-liquid partitioning
    Hamid Ahmed
    Department of Chemistry, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202, USA
    J Chromatogr A 1169:179-92. 2007
    ..Many of the E descriptor values (electron lone pair interactions) are negative for simple siloxanes and silanes indicating that these compound bind electron lone pairs more tightly than n-alkanes...
  99. ncbi Use of derivatized cyclodextrins as chiral selectors for the separation of enantiomers by gas chromatography
    V Schurig
    Institute for Organic Chemistry, University of Tubingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 18, D 72076 Tubingen, Germany
    Ann Pharm Fr 68:82-98. 2010
    ..Semi)-preparative enantioseparations by GC have been advanced...
  100. ncbi Temperature effects on the rheological properties of current polyether and polysiloxane impression materials during setting
    John C Berg
    University of Seattle, Wash, USA
    J Prosthet Dent 90:150-61. 2003
    ..Because temperature may affect properties and the setting kinetics, clinically relevant inferences may not be accurate with studies conducted at room temperature...
  101. ncbi Monitoring of pesticide residues in a cotton crop soil
    L C Luchini
    , , , Brazil
    J Environ Sci Health B 35:51-9. 2000
    ..The results show that in the cotton crop soil the pesticide residues under study were present in the range of 0.1 to 0.4 mg.kg-1. Endosulfan was found to be rapidly degraded in the soil and formed a sulfate metabolite...

Research Grants18

  1. Iron functionalized silica as oral phosphate binder to treat hyperphosphatemia
    Wassana Yantasee; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The new drug is aimed to have higher efficacy, less pill burden, lower costs, and less adverse effects, resultin in higher pill adherence than the current drugs. ..
  2. OVERALL HEMOCOMPATIBILITY PEO-FUNCTIONALIZED SILOXANES
    William Collins; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..of an exciting family of biomaterials, polydimethylsiloxanes end-functionalized with poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO siloxanes), to further such design. The properties of the PEO siloxanes will be tailored to optimize blood compatibility...
  3. OVERALL HEMOCOMPATIBILITY PEO-FUNCTIONALIZED SILOXANES
    William Collins; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..of an exciting family of biomaterials, polydimethylsiloxanes end-functionalized with poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO siloxanes), to further such design. The properties of the PEO siloxanes will be tailored to optimize blood compatibility...
  4. SILOXANE COUPLINGS AND NATURAL PRODUCT SYNTHESIS
    Philip DeShong; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..this research is to determine the scope and limitations of the palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling of hypervalent siloxanes with allylic ester and aryl derivatives...
  5. Tandem Cycloaddition Chemistry of 2-Azoniaheterodienes
    SCOTT DENMARK; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  6. Cross-Coupling Reactions of Organosilanols
    SCOTT DENMARK; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Synthetic approaches to isodomoic acid H, hepatitis C viral inihibiting indole alkaloids, the salicylihalimide macrolactone oximidine II, and polyene antiviral antibiotic viridenomycin are detailed. ..
  7. VIRTUAL DENTAL PATIENT
    Ralph DeLong; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..In light of these developments, an authenticated VDP seems not only possible and beneficial, but inevitable and of high program relevance. ..
  8. Flourescent Ceramic Nanoprobes (RMI)
    TIMOTHY BOYLE; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..All of the innovations uncovered during the preparation of these nanoprobes will be shared in order to benefit medical research applications beyond those proposed in this investigation. ..
  9. Mercury exposure and the innate immune response in autoimmune heart disease
    Jennifer Nyland; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Specific Aim 3. To test the hypothesis that: Human exposure to Hg induces changes in the immune system that are measurable and indicative of elevated risk of autoimmune dysfunction. ..
  10. Smart Substrates for a New Generation of Implants
    Irving Shapiro; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Outcomes from this study will provide information for engineering of orthopaedic and dental implants that can be tested at the clinical level. ..
  11. BONE GROWTH IN DENTAL, CRANIAL AND SKELETAL TISSUES
    Irving Shapiro; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  12. SYNTHESIS OF ANNONACEOUS ACETOGENINS AND ANALOGUES
    James Marshall; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..The synthetic approach will employ chiral allylic and allenic organometal reagents to introduce stereogenic centers with concurrent formation of carbon-carbon bonds. ..
  13. CRANIOFACIAL DEVELOPMENT: METABOLIC CONTROL OF APOPTOSIS
    Irving Shapiro; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Taken together, these studies should highlight the molecular basis of bone cell apoptosis, a phenomenon that is now considered critical for bone growth and skeletal remodeling. ..
  14. Synthesis of Tumor Inhibitory Marine Natural Products
    James Marshall; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The main chemical issues to be addressed include the control of stereochemistry by means of chiral organometal chemistry and the design of new and efficient routes to structurally novel natural products. ..
  15. FLUOROUS METHODS FOR TRADITIONAL AND PARALLEL SYNTHESIS
    DENNIS CURRAN; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..In short, the work will help to move the very young field of fluorous chemistry from infancy into childhood. ..
  16. Purchase of a 600 MHz NMR Spectrometer with Cryoprobe
    DENNIS CURRAN; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..This research often requires sophisticated NMR experiments on small samples, and the requested 600 MHz spectrometer will greatly expedite ongoing and planned work. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  17. RADICAL REACTIONS FOR NATURAL PRODUCTS
    DENNIS CURRAN; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ....
  18. Dermatopharmacokinetics: In Vivo Analysis of Solvents
    Karla Thrall; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..To evaluate the kinetics and dermal bioavailability of ethylbenzene, styrene, and toluene vapor using F344 rats. ..