protons

Summary

Summary: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.

Top Publications

  1. pmc The membrane subunit NuoL(ND5) is involved in the indirect proton pumping mechanism of Escherichia coli complex I
    Eiko Nakamaru-Ogiso
    Johnson Research Foundation, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
    J Biol Chem 285:39070-8. 2010
  2. ncbi Comparison of the effectiveness of radiotherapy with photons, protons and carbon-ions for non-small cell lung cancer: a meta-analysis
    Janneke P C Grutters
    Department of Radiation Oncology Maastro Clinic, Maastricht University Medical Centre, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands
    Radiother Oncol 95:32-40. 2010
  3. ncbi Isolation of a tarantula toxin specific for a class of proton-gated Na+ channels
    P Escoubas
    Institut de Pharmacologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Sophia Antipolis, Valbonne, France
    J Biol Chem 275:25116-21. 2000
  4. ncbi Intensity-modulated radiation therapy, protons, and the risk of second cancers
    Eric J Hall
    Center for Radiological Research, Columbia University Medical Center, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 65:1-7. 2006
  5. ncbi Mitochondrial superoxide: production, biological effects, and activation of uncoupling proteins
    Martin D Brand
    MRC Dunn Human Nutrition Unit, Cambridge CB2 2XY, UK
    Free Radic Biol Med 37:755-67. 2004
  6. ncbi The capsaicin receptor: a heat-activated ion channel in the pain pathway
    M J Caterina
    Department of Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology, University of California, San Francisco 94143 0450, USA
    Nature 389:816-24. 1997
  7. ncbi Superoxide activates mitochondrial uncoupling proteins
    Karim S Echtay
    Medical Research Council Dunn Human Nutrition Unit, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 2XY, UK
    Nature 415:96-9. 2002
  8. pmc A voltage-gated proton-selective channel lacking the pore domain
    I Scott Ramsey
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Cardiology, Children s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Enders 1309, 320 Longwood Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Nature 440:1213-6. 2006
  9. pmc Structure of a eukaryotic CLC transporter defines an intermediate state in the transport cycle
    Liang Feng
    Laboratory of Molecular Neurobiology and Biophysics, Rockefeller University, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065, USA
    Science 330:635-41. 2010
  10. pmc Randomized phase II study evaluating a carbon ion boost applied after combined radiochemotherapy with temozolomide versus a proton boost after radiochemotherapy with temozolomide in patients with primary glioblastoma: the CLEOPATRA trial
    Stephanie E Combs
    Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 400, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
    BMC Cancer 10:478. 2010

Detail Information

Publications348 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc The membrane subunit NuoL(ND5) is involved in the indirect proton pumping mechanism of Escherichia coli complex I
    Eiko Nakamaru-Ogiso
    Johnson Research Foundation, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
    J Biol Chem 285:39070-8. 2010
    Complex I pumps protons across the membrane by using downhill redox energy. Here, to investigate the proton pumping mechanism by complex I, we focused on the largest transmembrane subunit NuoL (Escherichia coli ND5 homolog)...
  2. ncbi Comparison of the effectiveness of radiotherapy with photons, protons and carbon-ions for non-small cell lung cancer: a meta-analysis
    Janneke P C Grutters
    Department of Radiation Oncology Maastro Clinic, Maastricht University Medical Centre, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands
    Radiother Oncol 95:32-40. 2010
    To provide a comparison between radiotherapy with photons, protons and carbon-ions in the treatment of Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC), performing a meta-analysis of observational studies.
  3. ncbi Isolation of a tarantula toxin specific for a class of proton-gated Na+ channels
    P Escoubas
    Institut de Pharmacologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Sophia Antipolis, Valbonne, France
    J Biol Chem 275:25116-21. 2000
    ..The new toxin is the first high affinity and highly selective pharmacological agent for this novel class of ionic channels. It will be important for future studies of their physiological and physio-pathological roles...
  4. ncbi Intensity-modulated radiation therapy, protons, and the risk of second cancers
    Eric J Hall
    Center for Radiological Research, Columbia University Medical Center, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 65:1-7. 2006
    ..Leakage can be reduced but at substantial cost. An alternative strategy is to replace X-rays with protons. However, this change is only an advantage if the proton machine employs a pencil scanning beam...
  5. ncbi Mitochondrial superoxide: production, biological effects, and activation of uncoupling proteins
    Martin D Brand
    MRC Dunn Human Nutrition Unit, Cambridge CB2 2XY, UK
    Free Radic Biol Med 37:755-67. 2004
    ..More recently evolved roles of uncoupling proteins are in adaptive thermogenesis (UCP1) and perhaps as part of a signaling pathway to regulate insulin secretion in pancreatic beta cells (UCP2)...
  6. ncbi The capsaicin receptor: a heat-activated ion channel in the pain pathway
    M J Caterina
    Department of Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology, University of California, San Francisco 94143 0450, USA
    Nature 389:816-24. 1997
    ..The cloned capsaicin receptor is also activated by increases in temperature in the noxious range, suggesting that it functions as a transducer of painful thermal stimuli in vivo...
  7. ncbi Superoxide activates mitochondrial uncoupling proteins
    Karim S Echtay
    Medical Research Council Dunn Human Nutrition Unit, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 2XY, UK
    Nature 415:96-9. 2002
    ..from ATP synthesis to thermogenesis in the mitochondria of brown adipose tissue by catalysing a regulated leak of protons across the inner membrane. The functions of its homologues, UCP2 and UCP3, in other tissues are debated...
  8. pmc A voltage-gated proton-selective channel lacking the pore domain
    I Scott Ramsey
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Cardiology, Children s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Enders 1309, 320 Longwood Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Nature 440:1213-6. 2006
    ..The data presented here identify H(v)1 as a long-sought voltage-gated H+ channel and establish H(v)1 as the founding member of a family of mammalian VSD proteins...
  9. pmc Structure of a eukaryotic CLC transporter defines an intermediate state in the transport cycle
    Liang Feng
    Laboratory of Molecular Neurobiology and Biophysics, Rockefeller University, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065, USA
    Science 330:635-41. 2010
    ..family are Cl(-) ion channels, whereas others are secondary active transporters that exchange Cl(-) ions and protons (H(+)) with a 2:1 stoichiometry. We have determined the structure of a eukaryotic CLC transporter at 3...
  10. pmc Randomized phase II study evaluating a carbon ion boost applied after combined radiochemotherapy with temozolomide versus a proton boost after radiochemotherapy with temozolomide in patients with primary glioblastoma: the CLEOPATRA trial
    Stephanie E Combs
    Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 400, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
    BMC Cancer 10:478. 2010
    ..b>Protons, however, offer an RBE which is comparable to photons...
  11. ncbi Charged particles in radiation oncology
    Marco Durante
    Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung GSI, Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Biophysics Department, Plackstrasse 1, Darmstadt, Germany
    Nat Rev Clin Oncol 7:37-43. 2010
    ..Particle therapy is an emerging technique in radiotherapy. Protons and carbon ions have been used for treating many different solid cancers, and several new centers with large ..
  12. ncbi Structure of a fucose transporter in an outward-open conformation
    Shangyu Dang
    State Key Laboratory of Bio membrane and Membrane Biotechnology, Center for Structural Biology, School of Life Sciences and School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
    Nature 467:734-8. 2010
    ..Their essential role in active transport is supported by both in vivo and in vitro experiments. Structure-based biochemical analyses provide insights into energy coupling, substrate recognition and the transport mechanism of FucP...
  13. pmc Structural basis for dynamic mechanism of proton-coupled symport by the peptide transporter POT
    Shintaro Doki
    Department of Biophysics and Biochemistry, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo ku, 113 0033 Tokyo, Japan
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110:11343-8. 2013
    ....
  14. ncbi Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values for proton beam therapy
    Harald Paganetti
    Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 53:407-21. 2002
    ..0-1.1...
  15. ncbi Direct binding of the Na--H exchanger NHE1 to ERM proteins regulates the cortical cytoskeleton and cell shape independently of H(+) translocation
    S P Denker
    Department of Stomatology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    Mol Cell 6:1425-36. 2000
    ..We propose a structural role for NHE1 in regulating the cortical cytoskeleton that is independent of its function as an ion exchanger...
  16. pmc Voltage-gated proton channel in a dinoflagellate
    Susan M E Smith
    Department of Pathology, Emory School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:18162-7. 2011
    ..kH(V)1 differs from all known proton channels in activating well negative to the Nernst potential for protons, E(H)...
  17. ncbi Lysosomal pathology and osteopetrosis upon loss of H+-driven lysosomal Cl- accumulation
    Stefanie Weinert
    Leibniz Institut fur Molekulare Pharmakologie FMP, 13125 Berlin, Germany
    Science 328:1401-3. 2010
    ..This conductance was even deleterious in Clcn7(+/unc) mice. Clcn7(-/-) and Clcn7(unc/unc) mice accumulated less Cl- in lysosomes than did wild-type mice. Thus, lowered lysosomal chloride may underlie their common phenotypes...
  18. pmc Aspartate 112 is the selectivity filter of the human voltage-gated proton channel
    Boris Musset
    Department of Molecular Biophysics and Physiology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois 60612, USA
    Nature 480:273-7. 2011
    ..in the permeation pathway imparts proton selectivity, or (2) water molecules 'frozen' in a narrow pore conduct protons while excluding other ions...
  19. ncbi Vacuolar ATPases: rotary proton pumps in physiology and pathophysiology
    Michael Forgac
    Department of Physiology, Tufts University School of Medicine, 136 Harrison Ave, Boston, Massachusetts 02111, USA
    Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 8:917-29. 2007
    ..The V-ATPases have been implicated in a number of diseases and, coupled with their complex isoform composition, represent attractive and potentially highly specific drug targets...
  20. ncbi The impact of IMRT and proton radiotherapy on secondary cancer incidence
    Uwe Schneider
    Division of Medical Physics, Department of Radiation Oncology and Nuclear Medicine, Triemli Hospital Zurich, 8063 Zurich, Switzerland
    Strahlenther Onkol 182:647-52. 2006
    ..Therefore, X-ray scatter and neutron radiation as well as the impact of the primary dose distribution on secondary cancer incidence are analyzed...
  21. pmc Human telomeric sequence forms a hybrid-type intramolecular G-quadruplex structure with mixed parallel/antiparallel strands in potassium solution
    Attila Ambrus
    College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona, 1703 E Mabel St, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 34:2723-35. 2006
    ....
  22. ncbi Protons make tumor cells move like clockwork
    Christian Stock
    Institut fur Physiologie II, University of Munster, Robert Koch Str 27b, 48149, Munster, Germany
    Pflugers Arch 458:981-92. 2009
    ..The present article gives a review on how this characteristic, acidic tumor micro- and nanoenvironment controls tumor cell migration...
  23. ncbi Potential reduction of the incidence of radiation-induced second cancers by using proton beams in the treatment of pediatric tumors
    Raymond Miralbell
    Division de Radio Oncologie, Hopitaux Universitaires de Geneve, Geneva, Switzerland
    Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 54:824-9. 2002
    ..To assess the potential influence of improved dose distribution with proton beams compared to conventional or intensity-modulated (IM) X-ray beams on the incidence of treatment-induced secondary cancers in pediatric oncology...
  24. pmc Effect of anatomic motion on proton therapy dose distributions in prostate cancer treatment
    Xiaodong Zhang
    Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 67:620-9. 2007
    ..To determine the dosimetric impact of interfraction anatomic movements in prostate cancer patients receiving proton therapy...
  25. ncbi Proton-sodium stoichiometry of NhaA, an electrogenic antiporter from Escherichia coli
    D Taglicht
    Division of Microbial and Molecular Ecology, Alexander Silberman Institute of Life Sciences, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel
    J Biol Chem 268:5382-7. 1993
    ..2 and 8.1. These results support the suggestion that a change in the catalytic rate of NhaA rather than its stoichiometry is crucial for its role in regulation of intracellular pH in alkaline environments...
  26. ncbi Diversity of the mammalian sodium/proton exchanger SLC9 gene family
    John Orlowski
    Department of Physiology, McGill University, McIntyre Medical Science Bldg 3655 Promenade Sir William Osler, H3G 1Y6, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    Pflugers Arch 447:549-65. 2004
    ..Further characterization of their functional properties should lead to a better understanding of their unique contributions to human health and disease...
  27. pmc Insight into the mechanism of the influenza A proton channel from a structure in a lipid bilayer
    Mukesh Sharma
    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306, USA
    Science 330:509-12. 2010
    ..We propose that the tetrameric His(37)-Trp(41) cluster guides protons through the channel by forming and breaking hydrogen bonds between adjacent pairs of histidines and through ..
  28. ncbi Induction of in situ DNA double-strand breaks and apoptosis by 200 MeV protons and 10 MV X-rays in human tumour cell lines
    Ariungerel Gerelchuluun
    Proton Medical Research Center, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
    Int J Radiat Biol 87:57-70. 2011
    To clarify the properties of clinical high-energy protons by comparing with clinical high-energy X-rays.
  29. ncbi Structure of acid-sensing ion channel 1 at 1.9 A resolution and low pH
    Jayasankar Jasti
    Vollum Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, 3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, Oregon 97239, USA
    Nature 449:316-23. 2007
    ..acidic residues and the transmembrane pore lies a disulphide-rich 'thumb' domain poised to couple the binding of protons to the opening of the ion channel, thus demonstrating that proton activation involves long-range conformational ..
  30. pmc Protein kinase C activation potentiates gating of the vanilloid receptor VR1 by capsaicin, protons, heat and anandamide
    V Vellani
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1QJ, UK
    J Physiol 534:813-25. 2001
    1. The effects of activation of protein kinase C (PKC) on membrane currents gated by capsaicin, protons, heat and anandamide were investigated in primary sensory neurones from neonatal rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and in HEK293 cells (..
  31. pmc The potential benefit of radiotherapy with protons in head and neck cancer with respect to normal tissue sparing: a systematic review of literature
    Tara A van de Water
    Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, 9700 RB Groningen, The Netherlands
    Oncologist 16:366-77. 2011
    Clinical studies concerning head and neck cancer patients treated with protons reporting on radiation-induced side effects are scarce...
  32. ncbi Radiobiological risk estimates of adverse events and secondary cancer for proton and photon radiation therapy of pediatric medulloblastoma
    N Patrik Brodin
    Radiation Medicine Research Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Denmark
    Acta Oncol 50:806-16. 2011
    ..The aim was also to find dose-volume toxicity parameters relevant to children undergoing RT to be used in the inverse planning of RA and IMPT, and to use in the risk estimations...
  33. ncbi Proton stereotactic radiotherapy for persistent adrenocorticotropin-producing adenomas
    Joshua H Petit
    Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, 100 Blossom Street, Cox 347, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 93:393-9. 2008
    Radiation therapy is a potentially curative treatment for corticotroph adenomas refractory to surgery. Protons have an advantage over photons (x-rays) by depositing energy at the target with no exit dose, providing a lower dose to ..
  34. pmc Acid-sensing ion channel 3 matches the acid-gated current in cardiac ischemia-sensing neurons
    S P Sutherland
    The Vollum Institute, Oregon Health Sciences University, Portland, OR 97201 3098, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:711-6. 2001
    ..The steep activation curve suggests that the channel opens when four protons bind...
  35. ncbi Prediction of proton chemical shifts in RNA. Their use in structure refinement and validation
    J A Cromsigt
    Department of Medical Biosciences, Medical Biophysics, , Sweden
    J Biomol NMR 21:11-29. 2001
    An analysis is presented of experimental versus calculated chemical shifts of the non-exchangeable protons for 28 RNA structures deposited in the Protein Data Bank, covering a wide range of structural building blocks...
  36. ncbi Particle radiation therapy using proton and heavier ion beams
    Daniela Schulz-Ertner
    Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany
    J Clin Oncol 25:953-64. 2007
    Particle beams like protons and heavier ions offer improved dose distributions compared with photon (also called x-ray) beams and thus enable dose escalation within the tumor while sparing normal tissues...
  37. pmc Predicted risks of second malignant neoplasm incidence and mortality due to secondary neutrons in a girl and boy receiving proton craniospinal irradiation
    Phillip J Taddei
    Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Phys Med Biol 55:7067-80. 2010
    ..Lung cancer predominated the risk of SMN mortality for both patients. This study suggests that the risks of SMN incidence and mortality from neutrons may be greater for girls than for boys treated with proton CSI...
  38. pmc The basal proton conductance of mitochondria depends on adenine nucleotide translocase content
    Martin D Brand
    Medical Research Council Dunn Human Nutrition Unit, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 2XY, UK
    Biochem J 392:353-62. 2005
    ..We conclude that half to two-thirds of the basal proton conductance of mitochondria is catalysed by the adenine nucleotide carrier, independently of its ATP/ADP exchange or fatty-acid-dependent proton-leak functions...
  39. pmc A phospholipid sensor controls mechanogating of the K+ channel TREK-1
    Jean Chemin
    Institut de Pharmacologie, Moleculaire et Cellulaire, Institut Paul Hamel, Sophia Antipolis, Valbonne, France
    EMBO J 24:44-53. 2005
    ..Protonation of E306 drastically tightens channel-phospholipid interaction and leads to TREK-1 opening at atmospheric pressure. The TREK-1-phospholipid interaction is critical for channel mechano-, pH(i)- and voltage-dependent gating...
  40. pmc Elevated gamma-aminobutyric acid levels in chronic schizophrenia
    Dost Ongur
    McLean Hospital, Belmont, Massachusetts 02478, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 68:667-70. 2010
    ..We used proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy to measure tissue GABA levels in participants with schizophrenia and healthy control subjects in the anterior cingulate cortex and parieto-occipital cortex...
  41. pmc Structure and mechanism of the M2 proton channel of influenza A virus
    Jason R Schnell
    Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Nature 451:591-5. 2008
    ..The low pH of an endosome activates the M2 channel before haemagglutinin-mediated fusion. Conductance of protons acidifies the viral interior and thereby facilitates dissociation of the matrix protein from the viral ..
  42. ncbi Variable hematopoietic responses to acute photons, protons and simulated solar particle event protons
    Daila S Gridley
    Department of Radiation Medicine, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA 92354, USA
    In Vivo 22:159-69. 2008
    The goal of this study was to evaluate, for the first time, the response of bone marrow-derived cell populations to protons mimicking a space radiation environment.
  43. pmc Voltage-gated proton channels maintain pH in human neutrophils during phagocytosis
    Deri Morgan
    Department of Molecular Biophysics and Physiology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:18022-7. 2009
    ..is crucial because NADPH oxidase functions optimally at neutral pH, yet produces enormous quantities of protons. We monitored pH(i) in individual human neutrophils during phagocytosis of opsonized zymosan, using confocal ..
  44. pmc Functionality of the voltage-gated proton channel truncated in S4
    Souhei Sakata
    Laboratory of Integrative Physiology, Department of Physiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565 0871, Japan
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:2313-8. 2010
    ..It remains unknown where protons permeate or how voltage sensing is coupled to ion permeation in Hv channels...
  45. pmc Distinct modulations of human capsaicin receptor by protons and magnesium through different domains
    Shu Wang
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA
    J Biol Chem 285:11547-56. 2010
    ..receptor (TRPV1) is a nonselective cation channel that integrates multiple painful stimuli, including capsaicin, protons, and heat...
  46. ncbi Current clinical evidence for proton therapy
    Michael Brada
    The Institute of Cancer Research and The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Sutton, Surrey, UK
    Cancer J 15:319-24. 2009
    ..The current lack of evidence for benefit of protons should provide a stimulus for continued research...
  47. ncbi Using the amide proton signals of intracellular proteins and peptides to detect pH effects in MRI
    Jinyuan Zhou
    Division of MRI Research, Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 217 Traylor Building, 720 Rutland Avenue, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    Nat Med 9:1085-90. 2003
    ..This observation opens the possibility of using intrinsic pH contrast, as well as protein- and/or peptide-content contrast, as diagnostic tools in clinical imaging...
  48. pmc External-beam accelerated partial breast irradiation using multiple proton beam configurations
    Xiaochun Wang
    Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas, M D Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 80:1464-72. 2011
    ....
  49. pmc Construction and validation of a homology model of the human voltage-gated proton channel hHV1
    Kethika Kulleperuma
    Molecular Structure and Function, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X8, Canada
    J Gen Physiol 141:445-65. 2013
    ..Both modeling and experimental data indicate that in the open state, Arg(211), the third Arg residue in the S4 helix in hH(V)1, remains accessible to the internal solution and is located near the charge transfer center, Phe(150)...
  50. ncbi ¹H nuclear magnetic resonance based metabolic urinary profiling of patients with ischemic heart failure
    Seok Min Kang
    Cardiology Division, Yonsei Cardiovascular Hospital and Cardiovascular Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120 752, Republic of Korea
    Clin Biochem 44:293-9. 2011
    ..We sought to identify metabolic pathways characterizing human heart failure (HF) using ¹NMR based urinary metabolomic analysis in conjunction with multivariate statistics...
  51. pmc Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST): what is in a name and what isn't?
    Peter C M van Zijl
    The Russell H Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Division of MR Research, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    Magn Reson Med 65:927-48. 2011
    ..resonance imaging contrast approach in which exogenous or endogenous compounds containing either exchangeable protons or exchangeable molecules are selectively saturated and after transfer of this saturation, detected indirectly ..
  52. pmc N-acetylaspartate, choline, myoinositol, glutamine and glutamate (glx) concentration changes in proton MR spectroscopy (1H MRS) in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI)
    Jerzy Walecki
    Department of Radiology, Medical Centre of Postgraduate Education, Warsaw, Poland
    Med Sci Monit 17:MT105-11. 2011
    ..Purpose of study was evaluation of regional metabolic disorders using 1H MRS in patients with MCI, as a predictor of clinical conversion to dementia based on clinical follow-up...
  53. ncbi A mechanism-based approach to predict the relative biological effectiveness of protons and carbon ions in radiation therapy
    Malte C Frese
    Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA
    Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 83:442-50. 2012
    ..In this work, an approach to predict proton and carbon ion relative biological effectiveness (RBE) in a representative spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) is derived using the repair-misrepair-fixation (RMF) model...
  54. ncbi Proton-pumping mechanism of cytochrome C oxidase
    Shinya Yoshikawa
    Department of Life Science, University of Hyogo, Hyogo, Japan
    Annu Rev Biophys 40:205-23. 2011
    ..One mechanism is based on bovine CcO and includes an independent pathway for the pumped protons. The second mechanistic proposal includes a common pathway for the pumped and chemical protons and is based upon ..
  55. pmc Crystal structure of a nitrate/nitrite exchanger
    Hongjin Zheng
    Janelia Farm Research Campus, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, 19700 Helix Drive, Ashburn, Virginia 20147, USA
    Nature 497:647-51. 2013
    ..pathway lacking protonatable residues, suggesting that NarK functions as a nitrate/nitrite exchanger and that protons are unlikely to be co-transported...
  56. ncbi Uptake and translocation mechanisms of cationic amino derivatives functionalized on pristine C60 by lipid membranes: a molecular dynamics simulation study
    Sebastian Kraszewski
    Laboratoire de Nanomédecine, Imagerie et Thérapeuthique, Universite de Franche Comte, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Besancon, 25000 Besancon, France
    ACS Nano 5:8571-8. 2011
    ..Therefore, the lipid bilayer appears to be very selective with respect to the amount of amino groups conjugated with C(60)...
  57. pmc Tracing the trail of protons through complex I of the mitochondrial respiratory chain
    Arnaud Mourier
    Max Planck Institut für Biologie des Alterns, Cologne, Germany
    PLoS Biol 9:e1001129. 2011
    ..respiratory chain--that couples the transfer of electrons to the creation of a concentration gradient of protons across the inner mitochondrial membrane, which drives ATP synthesis...
  58. ncbi A novel chloride channel in Drosophila melanogaster is inhibited by protons
    Katrin Schnizler
    Bayer AG, Bayer Technology Services GmbH, 51368 Leverkusen, Germany
    J Biol Chem 280:16254-62. 2005
    ..cells induces a chloride current with a linear current-voltage relationship that is inhibited by extracellular protons and activated by avermectins in a pH-dependent manner...
  59. ncbi Range uncertainty in proton therapy due to variable biological effectiveness
    Alejandro Carabe
    Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Phys Med Biol 57:1159-72. 2012
    ..The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of protons is considered to vary with dose-averaged linear energy transfer (LET(d)), dose (d) and (α/β)(x)...
  60. pmc The low-spin heme of cytochrome c oxidase as the driving element of the proton-pumping process
    Tomitake Tsukihara
    Institute for Protein Research, Osaka University, 3 2 Yamada Oka, Suita 565 0871, Japan
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:15304-9. 2003
    ..role in aerobic cellular respiration, reducing dioxygen to water in a process coupled with the pumping of protons across the mitochondrial inner membrane...
  61. pmc Comparison of therapeutic dosimetric data from passively scattered proton and photon craniospinal irradiations for medulloblastoma
    Rebecca M Howell
    Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA
    Radiat Oncol 7:116. 2012
    ....
  62. pmc Sialin (SLC17A5) functions as a nitrate transporter in the plasma membrane
    Lizheng Qin
    Salivary Gland Disease Center and Beijing Key Laboratory of Tooth Regeneration and Function Reconstruction, Capital Medical University School of Stomatology, Beijing 100050, China
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:13434-9. 2012
    ..We suggest that the 2NO(3)(-)/H(+) transport function of sialin in salivary glands can contribute significantly to clearance of serum nitrate, as well as nitrate recycling and physiological nitrite-NO homeostasis...
  63. ncbi Craniospinal irradiation techniques: a dosimetric comparison of proton beams with standard and advanced photon radiotherapy
    Myonggeun Yoon
    Proton Therapy Center, National Cancer Center, Goyang, Korea
    Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 81:637-46. 2011
    ..To evaluate the dosimetric benefits of advanced radiotherapy techniques for craniospinal irradiation in cancer in children...
  64. ncbi Relative biological effectiveness of the 235 MeV proton beams at the National Cancer Center Hospital East
    K Ando
    Clinical Radiation Biology and International Space Radiation Laboratory, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4 9 1 Anagawa, Inage Ku, Chiba 263 8555, Japan
    J Radiat Res 42:79-89. 2001
    ..The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of protons obtained by comparing the D10 values between protons and X-rays ranged from 0.9 to 1.2...
  65. pmc Structural insights into electron transfer in caa3-type cytochrome oxidase
    Joseph A Lyons
    Department of Chemical and Environmental Sciences, University of Limerick, Limerick, Ireland
    Nature 487:514-8. 2012
    ..Support for an alternative to the classical proton gate characteristic of this HCO class is presented...
  66. ncbi Mobile and localized protons: a framework for understanding peptide dissociation
    V H Wysocki
    Department of Chemistry, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 0041, USA
    J Mass Spectrom 35:1399-406. 2000
    ..This allows the nucleophilic nitrogen of the His side-chain to attack and form a cyclic structure that is different from the 'typical' backbone cleavage structures...
  67. pmc Structure of the c(10) ring of the yeast mitochondrial ATP synthase in the open conformation
    Jindrich Symersky
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science, The Chicago Medical School, Chicago, Illinois, USA
    Nat Struct Mol Biol 19:485-91, S1. 2012
    ..We propose that this new structure represents the functionally open form of the c subunit, which facilitates proton loading and release...
  68. pmc Synergistic substrate binding determines the stoichiometry of transport of a prokaryotic H(+)/Cl(-) exchanger
    Alessandra Picollo
    Department of Anesthesiology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York, USA
    Nat Struct Mol Biol 19:525-31, S1. 2012
    ..We propose that the thermodynamics of synergistic substrate binding, rather than the kinetics of conformational changes and ion binding, determine the stoichiometry of transport...
  69. ncbi The O(2) reduction and proton pumping gate mechanism of bovine heart cytochrome c oxidase
    Shinya Yoshikawa
    Department of Life Science, University of Hyogo, Hyogo, Japan
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1807:1279-86. 2011
    ..controls the O(2) supply to Fe(a3)(2+) without electron transfer to provide sufficient time for collection of protons from the negative side of the mitochondrial membrane...
  70. ncbi In vivo proton MR spectroscopy of the breast using the total choline peak integral as a marker of malignancy
    Francesco Sardanelli
    University of Milan School of Medicine, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, Milan, Italy
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 192:1608-17. 2009
    ..The purpose of our study was to use the total choline-containing compound (tCho) peak integral as a marker of malignancy in breast MR spectroscopy (MRS)...
  71. pmc Proton transfer via a transient linear water-molecule chain in a membrane protein
    Erik Freier
    Department of Biophysics, Ruhr University Bochum, Universitatsstrasse 150, 44780 Bochum, Germany
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:11435-9. 2011
    ..Our discovery provides insight into proton-transfer mechanisms through hydrophobic core regions of ubiquitous membrane spanning proteins such as G-protein coupled receptors or cytochrome C oxidases...
  72. pmc A new type of proton coordination in an F(1)F(o)-ATP synthase rotor ring
    Laura Preiss
    Department of Structural Biology, Max Planck Institute of Biophysics, Frankfurt, Germany
    PLoS Biol 8:e1000443. 2010
    ..This structure reveals a new, third type of ion coordination in ATP synthases. It appears in the ion binding site of an alkaliphile in which it represents a finely tuned adaptation of the proton affinity during the reaction cycle...
  73. pmc In vivo mapping of brain myo-inositol
    Mohammad Haris
    Center for Magnetic Resonance and Optical Imaging CMROI, Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 6100, USA
    Neuroimage 54:2079-85. 2011
    ..Here, we demonstrate that the hydroxyl protons on MI exhibit chemical exchange with bulk water and saturation of these protons leads to reduction in bulk water ..
  74. ncbi Treatment planning for conformal proton radiation therapy
    Mark R Bussière
    Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 33 Fruit Street, Boston MA 02114, USA
    Technol Cancer Res Treat 2:389-99. 2003
    Clinical results from various trials have demonstrated the viability of protons in radiation therapy and radiosurgery...
  75. ncbi Structure and mechanism of the lactose permease of Escherichia coli
    Jeff Abramson
    Department of Biological Sciences, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ, UK
    Science 301:610-5. 2003
    ..We propose a possible mechanism for lactose/proton symport (co-transport) consistent with both the structure and a large body of experimental data...
  76. ncbi Proton vs carbon ion beams in the definitive radiation treatment of cancer patients
    Herman Suit
    Department of Radiation Oncology, Boston, MA, USA
    Radiother Oncol 95:3-22. 2010
    ..The principal differences are LET, low for (1)H and high for (12)C, and a narrower penumbra of (12)C beams. Were (12)C to yield a higher TCP for a defined NTCP than (1)H therapy, would LET, fractionation or penumbra width be the basis?..
  77. ncbi Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for adrenal metastases : a feasibility study of advanced techniques with modulated photons and protons
    Marta Scorsetti
    Department of Radiation Oncology, Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Rozzano Milan, Italy
    Strahlenther Onkol 187:238-44. 2011
    To compare advanced treatment techniques with photons and protons as a stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for adrenal glands metastases.
  78. pmc Functional implications of the localization and activity of acid-sensitive channels in rat peripheral nervous system
    Diego Alvarez de la Rosa
    Departments of Cellular and Molecular Physiology, and Neurology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:2326-31. 2002
    ..These functional properties and localization in DRG have profound implications for the putative functional roles of ASICs in the nervous system...
  79. ncbi The M. D. Anderson proton therapy system
    Alfred Smith
    Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston Texas 77030, USA
    Med Phys 36:4068-83. 2009
    ....
  80. pmc On the benefits and risks of proton therapy in pediatric craniopharyngioma
    Chris Beltran
    Division of Radiation Oncology, St Jude Children s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN 38105 2794, USA
    Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 82:e281-7. 2012
    ..We compared photon- and proton-based irradiation methods to determine the effect of tumor volume change on target coverage and normal tissue irradiation in these patients...
  81. pmc Effects of proton radiation dose, dose rate and dose fractionation on hematopoietic cells in mice
    J H Ware
    Department of Radiation Oncology, Division of Oncology Research, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 6072, USA
    Radiat Res 174:325-30. 2010
    ..present study evaluated the acute effects of radiation dose, dose rate and fractionation as well as the energy of protons in hematopoietic cells of irradiated mice. The mice were irradiated with a single dose of 51...
  82. pmc Point mutations in the aromatic/arginine region in aquaporin 1 allow passage of urea, glycerol, ammonia, and protons
    Eric Beitz
    Department of Pharmaceutical Biochemistry, University of Tubingen, Morgenstelle 8, D 72076 Tubingen, Germany
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:269-74. 2006
    ..AQP), such as the prototypical mammalian AQP1, stringently exclude the passage of solutes, ions, and even protons. Supposedly, this is accomplished by two conserved regions within the pore, a pair of canonical asparagine-..
  83. ncbi Role of subunit NuoL for proton translocation by respiratory complex I
    Stefan Steimle
    Institut für Organische Chemie und Biochemie, Albert Ludwigs Universität, Albertstrasse 21, 79104 Freiburg, Germany
    Biochemistry 50:3386-93. 2011
    ..respiratory complex I, couples the transfer of electrons from NADH to ubiquinone with a translocation of protons across the membrane...
  84. pmc An aqueous H+ permeation pathway in the voltage-gated proton channel Hv1
    I Scott Ramsey
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Cardiology and Manton Center for Orphan Disease, Children s Hospital Boston, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Nat Struct Mol Biol 17:869-75. 2010
    ..Our results indicate that Hv1 most likely forms an internal water wire for selective proton transfer and that interactions between water molecules and S4 arginines may underlie coupling between voltage- and pH-gradient sensing...
  85. pmc Extracellular acidification exerts opposite actions on TREK1 and TREK2 potassium channels via a single conserved histidine residue
    Guillaume Sandoz
    Unité Mixte de Recherche 6097, Institut de Pharmacologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Universite de Nice Sophia Antipolis, Sophia Antipolis, 06560 Valbonne, France
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:14628-33. 2009
    ..The differential sensitivity of TREK1 and TREK2 to external pH variations discriminates between these two K(+) channels that otherwise share the same regulations by physical and chemical stimuli, and by hormones and neurotransmitters...
  86. pmc Possible roles of two quinone molecules in direct and indirect proton pumps of bovine heart NADH-quinone oxidoreductase (complex I)
    S Tsuyoshi Ohnishi
    Johnson Research Foundation, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1797:1891-3. 2010
    ..Q(Nf) and Q(Ns) together serve as (1e(-)/2e(-)) converter, for the transfer of reducing equivalent to the Q-pool...
  87. ncbi Chance and design--proton transfer in water, channels and bioenergetic proteins
    Colin A Wraight
    Center for Biophysics and Computational Biology, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1757:886-912. 2006
    ..The prevalence of water rather than amino acid hydrogen bonded chains is noted, and the possible benefits of waters as the major component are discussed qualitatively...
  88. ncbi A proton-gated cation channel involved in acid-sensing
    R Waldmann
    Institut de Pharmacologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, CNRS, Valbonne, France
    Nature 386:173-7. 1997
    ..ASIC is expressed in dorsal root ganglia and is also distributed widely throughout the brain. ASIC appears to be the simplest of ligand-gated channels...
  89. pmc Calculated proton uptake on anaerobic reduction of cytochrome C oxidase: is the reaction electroneutral?
    Yifan Song
    Physics Department J 419, City College of New York, 138th Street and Convent Avenue, New York, New York 10031, USA
    Biochemistry 45:7959-75. 2006
    ..The BNC has two cofactors: heme a(3) and Cu(B). If the protein needs to maintain electroneutrality, then 2 protons will be bound when the BNC is reduced by 2 electrons in the reductive half of the reaction cycle...
  90. ncbi Evidence for aerobic ATP synthesis in isolated myelin vesicles
    Silvia Ravera
    Biology Department, University of Genova, Faculty of Sciences MFN, Viale Benedetto XV, Genoa, Italy
    Int J Biochem Cell Biol 41:1581-91. 2009
    ..The complex of data suggests that myelin sheath may be the site of oxygen absorption and aerobic metabolism for the axons...
  91. ncbi Subnanometre-resolution structure of the intact Thermus thermophilus H+-driven ATP synthase
    Wilson C Y Lau
    Molecular Structure and Function Program, The Hospital for Sick Children Research Institute, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X8, Canada
    Nature 481:214-8. 2012
    ..I form bundles that could serve as half-channels across the membrane, with the first half-channel conducting protons from the periplasm to the L(12) ring and the second half-channel conducting protons from the L(12) ring to the ..
  92. ncbi Identification and functional characterization of a new human kidney-specific H+/organic cation antiporter, kidney-specific multidrug and toxin extrusion 2
    Satohiro Masuda
    Department of Pharmacy, Kyoto University Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Kyoto University, Sakyo ku, Kyoto 606 8507, Japan
    J Am Soc Nephrol 17:2127-35. 2006
    ..These results indicate that hMATE2-K is a new human kidney-specific H+/organic cation antiporter that is responsible for the tubular secretion of cationic drugs across the brush border membranes...
  93. ncbi The structure of cbb3 cytochrome oxidase provides insights into proton pumping
    Sabine Buschmann
    Max Planck Institut fur Biophysik, Max von Laue Strasse 3, D 60438 Frankfurt Main, Germany
    Science 329:327-30. 2010
    ..Like family-B HCOs, C HCOs have only one pathway, which conducts protons via an alternative tyrosine-histidine cross-link...
  94. pmc Mitochondrial proton and electron leaks
    Martin Jastroch
    Buck Institute for Age Research, 8001 Redwood Boulevard, Novato, CA 94945, USA
    Essays Biochem 47:53-67. 2010
    ..We also highlight recent progress and challenges of assessing electron leak in the living cell. Finally, we emphasize the importance of proton and electron leak as therapeutic targets in body mass regulation and insulin secretion...
  95. ncbi Short-echo time proton MR spectroscopy in the presence of gadolinium
    A P Lin
    Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Unit, Huntington Medical Research Institutes, Pasadena, CA 91105, USA
    J Comput Assist Tomogr 25:705-12. 2001
    ..02). CONCLUSION: Proton MRS with TE of 30 ms may safely be used in combined contrast-enhanced MRI/MRS protocols. Further study is required with long-TE MRS because of the prolonged T2 of Cho...
  96. ncbi Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center (HIT): Initial clinical experience in the first 80 patients
    Stephanie E Combs
    University Hospital of Heidelberg, Department of Radiation Oncology, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
    Acta Oncol 49:1132-40. 2010
    ..In this report we present the first 80 patients treated with proton and carbon ion radiotherapy and describe patient selection, treatment planning and daily treatment for different indications...
  97. pmc Factors influencing the energetics of electron and proton transfers in proteins. What can be learned from calculations
    M R Gunner
    Physics Department City College of New York, New York, NY 10031, USA
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1757:942-68. 2006
    ....
  98. ncbi Microscopic rotary mechanism of ion translocation in the F(o) complex of ATP synthases
    Denys Pogoryelov
    Department of Structural Biology, Max Planck Institute of Biophysics, Frankfurt am Main, Germany
    Nat Chem Biol 6:891-9. 2010
    ..Rotation thus occurs as c-subunits stochastically alternate between these environments, directionally biased by the electrochemical transmembrane gradient...
  99. ncbi An interaction of inflammatory mediators and protons in small diameter dorsal root ganglion neurons of the rat
    M Kress
    Institut fur Physiologie und Experimentelle Pathophysiologie, Universitat Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany
    Neurosci Lett 224:37-40. 1997
    ..1. We suggest that inflammatory mediators may act to modulate ionic channels, that are operated by protons, possibly via intracellular second messenger action.
  100. ncbi Experimental characterization and physical modelling of the dose distribution of scanned proton pencil beams
    E Pedroni
    Paul Scherrer Institute, CH 5232 Villigen PSI, Switzerland
    Phys Med Biol 50:541-61. 2005
    ..The physical model estimates from first physical principles absolute dose normalized to the number of incident protons. The proton beam flux is measured in practice by plane-parallel ionization chambers (ICs) normalized to protons ..
  101. ncbi Combined proton and photon conformal radiotherapy for intracranial atypical and malignant meningioma
    Christos Boskos
    Institut Curie, Centre de protonthérapie d Orsay, Campus Universitaire, Orsay, France
    Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 75:399-406. 2009
    ..To evaluate retrospectively the efficacy of conformal fractionated radiotherapy combining proton and photon beams after primary surgery for treatment of atypical and malignant meningiomas...

Research Grants68

  1. The effect of pncA expression and POA efflux rate in the level of PZA-resistance
    Mirko J Zimic; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..For example an altered efflux rate of the pyrazinoic acid may affect the accumulation of protons in the cytoplasm;or even though the pyrazinamidase function is appropriate, it may not be expressed in ..
  2. PHYSICOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION OF TASTE
    Vijay Lyall; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..a decrease in intracellular pH, but in the case of strong acids such as gastric acid (HCI) the mechanism by which protons enter taste cells remains unknown...
  3. Understanding coupled transfers of electrons and protons relevant to biological c
    James Mayer; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..a broad perspective, by examining a number of different systems and a diverse set of reactions, this work is uncovering the principles that govern the different classes of coupled transfers of electrons and protons.
  4. THE ROLE OF ACETYLATION IN MITOCHONDRIAL FUNCTION
    Gary Cecchini; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..During this electron transfer process protons are pumped across the mitochondrial membrane generating a proton electrochemical gradient used by complex V (ATP ..
  5. Complex I: Role of L Subunit in Proton Translocation
    Steven B Vik; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..This reduction is coupled to the translocation of protons across the membrane, by an unknown mechanism...
  6. MEMBRANES OF THE DENTAL PATHOGEN STREPTOCOCCUS MUTANS
    L Jeannine Brady; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..is largely mediated by a multi-subunit F1F0 ATPase that spans the cytoplasmic membrane, cleaves ATP and pumps protons from the cell...
  7. STRUCTURE OF THE VACUOLAR ATPase
    Stephan Wilkens; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In polarized cells of higher eukaryotes, a vacuolar type ATPase is pumping protons across the plasma membrane leading to an extra- cellular acidification...
  8. Pathogenic Mechanisms of Pancreatitis
    Rodger A Liddle; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..TRPV1 is activated by heat and protons, but it is unlikely that either high body temperature or acid directly activate TRPV1 in vivo...
  9. Advanced Magnetization Transfer Imaging in Multiple Sclerosis Disease
    Alexey Samsonov; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..otherwise occult treatment effects on demyelination and axonal loss by creating sensitivity to immobile bound protons immeasurable by conventional MRI...
  10. Nonheme Diiron Centers and the Biological Oxidation of Hydrocarbons
    Stephen J Lippard; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..AMO), will enable us to elucidate the carefully orchestrated delivery of four substrates - electrons, protons, O2, and a hydrocarbon (RH) - to their diiron centers to generate product (ROH = alkyl alcohol, aryl alcohol, or ..
  11. Subunit dependent properties of kainate receptors
    David D Mott; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..subunit exhibit significantly increased sensitivity to modulation by a variety of endogenous agents, including protons, polyamines and zinc...
  12. Problems in Membrane Protein Crystallography: Hetero-Oligomeric Cytochrome b6f
    William A Cramer; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..heme cn, and on the mechanism of transfer across the membrane of quinone (ol) that carries the electrons and protons and is reduced by heme cn. Proposed studies: (1) Crystal preparation;proteolysis...
  13. Selectivity and Permeation in the Human Voltage-gated Proton Channel, hHv1
    Susan M E Smith; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This project will determine the key to how the proton channel does its job, which is moving protons across cell membranes, while excluding all other ions...
  14. Developmental Physiology of Ciliated Epithelia
    CHRISTOPHER ROBERT KINTNER; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..role of transcription factors in the formation of these cells, and how these cells become specialized to secrete protons or the base equivalent, carbonate...
  15. Ethanol Regulates Vacuolar ATPase &PEDF
    Chuhan Chung; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The v-ATPase is a highly regulated proton pump that functions to move protons into organelles and out into the extracellular space...
  16. Mechanisms of Cardiac Afferents and CNS Reflex Processing
    John C Longhurst; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These include bradykinin (BK), reactive oxygen species, protons, cyclooxygenase metabolites, serotonin (5HT), histamine, and most recently thromboxane A2 and endothelin...
  17. Imaging of gene delivery in the central nervous system
    Assaf A Gilad; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..A radiofrequency pulse is applied to saturate specific amide protons, reducing the water signal...
  18. Role of Ion Channel in Mononuclear Phagocyte Activation
    Deborah J Nelson; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Alongside the pumps are various channels that shunt the transmembrane potential generated by movement of protons;in different organelles these comprise H+ channels, K+ channels and Cl- channels...
  19. XeBox-E10 Gas Polarizer for Functional MRI of Pediatric Lung Disease
    SEAN BEDILION FAIN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..enable safe production and administration of gas, and a pediatric chest RF-coil designed for imaging both water protons and 129Xe gas under free breathing conditions for structure-function comparison, and 2...
  20. Mycobacterium turberculosis metal transport P-type ATPases
    JOSE M ARGUELLO; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..At the center of its pathogenic strategy is the handling of involved heavy metals (Cu+, Zn2+, Fe2+, Mn2+, etc.), protons and perhaps alkali metals such as K+ and Mg2+. M...
  21. Intercellular networks and luminal acidification in the male reproductive tract
    Sylvie Breton; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Alternatively, some of these factors might directly stimulate clear cells to secrete protons. In Aim 1A, multiphoton intravital microscopy (IVM), functional ion flux assays of proton secretion and ..
  22. Molecular mechanisms of potassium channel permeation and gating
    Crina M Nimigean; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..at the channel bundle crossing will elucidate which residues directly interact or couple to open the channel with protons. In order to gain further insight into the mechanism, the structures of KcsA mutants with altered gating will be ..
  23. Brown Adipose Tissue Quantification Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging
    E Brian Welch; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..background tissues using MRI approaches that enable quantitative measurement of MR properties of water and lipid protons. To achieve these goals, we will pursue the following specific aims: [1] Develop and optimize MRI measurements of ..
  24. Mechanisms of permeation and gating of voltage-sensing domains
    Francesco Tombola; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..protein that lacks the pore domain typical of voltage-gated sodium, potassium, and calcium channels and conducts protons through its VSD...
  25. Mechanisms of Hemoglobin Adaptation to Hypoxia in High-altitude Rodents
    Jay F Storz; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..structural and regulatory changes influence intrinsic oxygen affinity, as well as sensitivities to temperature, protons (Bohr effect), allosteric effectors, and metabolism of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide...
  26. Mechanisms of Regulation Of NHE-1
    John R Raymond; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Disruption of the tethers allows access of ambient protons to the proton sensing and transport regions of NHE-1, thus resulting in its activation...
  27. PROTEIN/LIPID INTERACTIONS
    Robert B Gennis; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..grant period we definitively showed that members of each of the 3 families of heme-copper oxygen reductases pump protons. We will pursue two major thrusts in the next grant period...
  28. Coupled Transfers of Electrons and Protons
    James M Mayer; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The work proposed aims to build a similarly valuable understanding for reactions that involve coupled transfers of electrons and protons.
  29. Optical studies of the cone photoreceptor synapse
    Richard H Kramer; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Our second specific aim is to investigate the mechanisms of HC feedback onto cone terminals. Protons have been proposed to be the signal underlying HC negative feedback...
  30. Dual Oxidase in Lung Epithelium
    HORST B FISCHER; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Aim 2 will determine the effects of expression of DUOX1 on the production of hydrogen peroxide and protons, on bacterial killing, and on alveolar epithelial function...
  31. Roles of Streptococcus mutans YidC1 and YidC2 in membrane biogenesis
    SARA RASER PALMER; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Acid tolerance is mediated in large part by a membrane associated F1 Fo ATPase that pumps protons out of the cytoplasm. We demonstrated in S...
  32. Translation of smart contrast agents for brain tumor characterization by MR
    Garry E Kiefer; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..However BIRDS maps the 1H signals from non-exchangeable protons (i.e...
  33. Genetic Models for Disorders of Acid-Base Transport
    GARY EDWARD SHULL; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The goal of this project is to understand the functions and interactions of proteins that transport acid (protons) and base (bicarbonate) across cell membranes in the gastrointestinal tract and kidney...
  34. 4D Robust Optimization in Intensity-Modulated Proton Therapy
    Wei Liu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..However, characteristics of protons (e.g., the abrupt drop-off of dose beyond the range and scattering) make IMPT highly vulnerable to uncertainties...
  35. Structure and Function of NMDA Receptors
    Hiroyasu Furukawa; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..and are allosterically modulated by binding of modulator compounds including phenylethanolamines, polyamines, protons, and Zn2+ to the amino terminal domain (ATD)...
  36. BICARBONATE TRANSPORT BY THE MATURING RENAL TUBULE
    George J Schwartz; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..There are two functionally distinct subtypes: A-ICs secrete protons via an apical H+ATPase and basolateral Cl-/HCO3- exchanger (kidney AE1), while B-ICs secrete bicarbonate via a ..
  37. CEST/FLEX MRI for the Detection of the Host Immune Response to CNS Grafts
    Miroslaw Janowski; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..information in living tissues, and FLEX, which is complementary and adds information about rapidly exchanging protons. We will use these techniques for the detection of the molecular signature of graft rejection and to monitor the ..
  38. Microfluidics for High-Throughput HDX-MS
    Julian P Whitelegge; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..experiments probe protein structures by monitoring the rate and extent of deuterium exchange with backbone amide protons. This approach has proven to be a powerful and versatile protein analysis technique, which can provide valuable ..
  39. Proton-Coupling Strategies in Alkaliphilic Bacillus
    Terry Ann Krulwich; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..e., membrane-associated processes that are energized by an electrochemical gradient of protons across the membrane, the protonmotive force (pmf)...
  40. SENSORY TRANSDUCTION IN BACTERIAL CHEMOTAXIS
    Howard C Berg; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..flagellar filaments, we will study the behavior of the motor near zero load, a domain in which movement of protons and mechanical components are rate limiting...
  41. INFORMATION RESOURCES FOR RADIATION SCIENCE
    THOMAS SEBASTIAN TENFORDE; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..and cancer therapy procedures;conformal and intensity-modulated radiotherapy procedures;and the use of beams of protons and high linear-energy- transfer particles such as carbon ions for the treatment of cancers located in proximity ..
  42. Na+-pumping NADH:quinone oxidoreductase of V. cholerae
    Blanca Barquera; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..However, Na+-NQR has no homology to Complex I, and instead of translocating protons, pumps sodium ions across the cell membrane creating a sodium motive force that is used by the cell for metabolic ..
  43. Engineering Microbial Rhodopsins as Optical Voltage Sensors
    ADAM EZRA COHEN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In the wild, this protein absorbs sunlight and pumps protons to generate a proton motive force...
  44. LIGHT-DRIVEN ION TRANSPORT IN BACTERIAL RHODOPSINS
    Janos K Lanyi; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..expect to uncover novel means of proton transfer in proteins, with insights into how energy input is used to move protons uphill, across the membrane...
  45. Novel MRI Methods for Neuronal Loss and Iron Quantification in Parkinsons Disease
    Shalom Michaeli; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..T2A is sensitive to diffusion of water protons in environments with different local magnetic susceptibilities and likely reflects iron content;whileT1A reflects ..
  46. Structure of M2 proton channel from influenza A Virus
    William F Degrado; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The channel has a long, water-filled pore that leads to a selectivity filter defined by His37 and Trp41 Protons diffuse through this aqueous pore to bind at the His37 tetrad and open the Trp41 gate...
  47. Dynamics of Histone Acetylation in Cancer Cell Physiology
    SIAVASH KURDISTANI; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..present evidence that global histone acetylation and deacetylation is coupled to the co-transport of acetate and protons in and out of the cell, effectively making chromatin a regulator of intracellular proton load, and hence, of ..
  48. Understanding pH-Dependent Protein Behavior Using Advanced Continuum Theory
    JAYDEEP PORTER BARDHAN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..tissues, which can impair the cells'ability to maintai an appropriate concentration of hydrogen ions (protons) inside...
  49. Monodispersed Biocompatible Magnetic Nanoprobes for Improved Diagnostic Imaging
    KANNAN MANJAPRA KRISHNAN; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..The magnetic nanoparticles will have a million times more signal in MPI compared to the nuclear paramagnetism of protons used in MRI...
  50. Simulation of Proton Translocation in Biomolecules
    Gregory A Voth; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The translocation of protons in biomolecular systems is a phenomenon of fundamental importance to such biological processes as ATP synthesis, enzyme catalysis, the maintenance of pH gradients, proton ..
  51. Cytosolic and plasma membrane circuitry of beta cell redox control
    Emma Heart; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The PMET/NQO1 pathway functions to reoxidize glycolytically-derived NADH and to export protons and electrons from the cell, generating the second messenger hydrogen peroxide...
  52. Proton pumping mechanism in complex I
    EIKO OGISO; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Electron transfer through the respiratory chain concomitantly translocates protons across the inner membrane at three coupling sites (complex I, III, and IV)...
  53. CHEMOSENSORY TRANSDUCTION IN TASTE CELLS
    Stephen D Roper; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..the experiments test the hypotheses that (a) sour taste is transduced primarily by intracellular stimuli (protons) and (b) serotonin and norepinephrine are neurotransmitters involved in sour taste signaling in taste buds...
  54. Conformational rearrangements underlying ASIC1a gating
    MARCELO DANIEL CARATTINO; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..ENaC/Deg channels are gated by diverse stimuli including neuropeptides, mechanical forces, extracellular protons, and some of them are constitutively active, such as ENaCs...
  55. PROTON RADIATION THERAPY RESEARCH
    Thomas F DeLaney; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The challenge is to deliver the appropriate dose to only those tissues containing tumor. Protons, with no exit dose beyond the target, irradiate less normal tissue than comparable photon (X-ray) fields...
  56. Structural Studies of Vesicular Monoamine Transporters
    SATINDER KAUR SINGH; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..generated by V-type ATPase to couple the uptake of one cytoplasmic cationic amine with the efflux of two luminal protons. Substrates include serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine, and histamine...
  57. Separated Concerted Proton-Electron Transfer with Biomimetic Models of Peroxidase
    ALEXANDER RAY FOX; Fiscal Year: 2011
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): A very wide variety of biochemical processes involve movement of protons and electrons, called proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET)...
  58. pH Homeostasis in Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    Sabine Ehrt; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..an acidic pH within phagosomes of interferon-3 activated macrophages and must prevent excessive entry of protons into its cytosol...
  59. Noninvasive Imaging of UCP1-mediated Brown Fat Thermogenesis
    RICHARD LEO WAHL; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..m is the voltage analogue of the proton circuit, and the re-entrance of UCP1-mediated protons is expressed by a proportional decline in (m...
  60. Toxins as molecular probes of pain transduction mechanisms
    JEREMIAH OSTEEN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These putative factors may act in concert with protons to shape the severity and duration of ASIC-mediated pain responses...
  61. MECHANISM OF RESPIRATION AND ENERGY TRANSDUCTION
    Bernard Trumpower; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..and reduces a water-soluble, c-type cytochrome and links this electron transfer reaction to translocation of protons across the membrane in which the bc1 complex resides...
  62. ASIC Channels and Pain
    David Julius; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Indeed, extracellular protons enhance excitability of primary afferent nociceptors, thereby producing acute pain and/or pain hypersensitivity...
  63. Developing New Multicolor Polypeptide MR Contrast Agents for Stem Cell Tracking
    Michael T McMahon; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..iron oxide, gadolinium or other metals to generate contrast by influencing the relaxation time of water protons. The drawbacks of using these agents for cell tracking include the feature that cells are detected as positive or ..
  64. Assessment of Brain Iron and Neuronal Integrity Using Novel T1r and T2r MRI
    Shalom Michaeli; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..T2? is sensitive to diffusion of water protons in environments with different local magnetic susceptibilities and likely reflects iron content;whileT1? reflects ..
  65. Elucidating the Biosynthesis and Transport of Heme A
    ERIC HEGG; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Catalyzing the reduction of molecular oxygen to water concomitant with the pumping of protons across the inner mitochondrial membrane, cytochrome c oxidase generates a proton gradient responsible for ..
  66. Role of Subunit III in Cytochrome Oxidase Function
    Jonathan Hosler; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..provided by applicant): Cytochrome c oxidase is one of the key energy-generating proteins that function to pump protons across the inner membrane of mitochondria...
  67. FTIR Studies of Photosynthetic Oxygen Evolution
    RICHARD DEBUS; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The YZ( radical extracts electrons and protons from the (Mn)4-Ca cluster, leading to the oxidation of water and the release of oxygen...
  68. FORMATION, STORAGE, AND RELEASE OF GASTRIC ACID
    E Ekblad; Fiscal Year: 1990
    The hypothesis is that gastric acid secretion may involve two separate steps, viz. formation of "acid" (protons, buffered protons or an enzyme) that is stored in an intracellular compartment and translocation (i.e...