nitrous oxide

Summary

Summary: Nitrogen oxide (N2O). A colorless, odorless gas that is used as an anesthetic and analgesic. High concentrations cause a narcotic effect and may replace oxygen, causing death by asphyxia. It is also used as a food aerosol in the preparation of whipping cream.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Nitrous oxide (Entonox) inhalation and tolerance of transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy: a double-blind randomized controlled study
    J Masood
    Department of Urology, Harold Wood Hospital, Romford, United Kingdom
    J Urol 168:116-20; discussion 120. 2002
  2. ncbi Influence of biochars on nitrous oxide emission and nitrogen leaching from two contrasting soils
    Bhupinder Pal Singh
    Forest Science Centre, Industry and Investment NSW, P O Box 100, Beecroft, NSW 2119, Australia
    J Environ Qual 39:1224-35. 2010
  3. pmc The unaccounted yet abundant nitrous oxide-reducing microbial community: a potential nitrous oxide sink
    Christopher M Jones
    Department of Microbiology, Uppsala BioCenter, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden
    ISME J 7:417-26. 2013
  4. pmc Insights into the effect of soil pH on N(2)O and N(2) emissions and denitrifier community size and activity
    Jiri Cuhel
    Biology Centre of the ASCR, v v i, Institute of Soil Biology, and University of South Bohemia, Faculty of Science, Na Sadkach 7, 370 05 Ceske Budejovice, Czech Republic
    Appl Environ Microbiol 76:1870-8. 2010
  5. ncbi Phylogenetic analysis of nitrite, nitric oxide, and nitrous oxide respiratory enzymes reveal a complex evolutionary history for denitrification
    Christopher M Jones
    Department of Microbiology, Swedish Agricultural University, Uppsala, Sweden
    Mol Biol Evol 25:1955-66. 2008
  6. ncbi Long-term impairment of acquisition of a spatial memory task following isoflurane-nitrous oxide anesthesia in rats
    Deborah J Culley
    Department of Anesthesia, Harvard Medical School, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Anesthesiology 100:309-14. 2004
  7. ncbi Effects of sevoflurane, propofol, and adjunct nitrous oxide on regional cerebral blood flow, oxygen consumption, and blood volume in humans
    Kaike K Kaisti
    Department of Anesthesiology, Turku University Hospital, Finland
    Anesthesiology 99:603-13. 2003
  8. pmc Sustainable biochar to mitigate global climate change
    Dominic Woolf
    School of the Environment and Society, Swansea University, Singleton Park, Swansea SA2 8PP, UK
    Nat Commun 1:56. 2010
  9. ncbi Fluxes of carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide in two contrastive fringing zones of coastal lagoon, Lake Nakaumi, Japan
    Mitsuru Hirota
    Environmental Biology Division, National Institute for Environmental Studies, Onogawa 16 2, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305 8506, Japan
    Chemosphere 68:597-603. 2007
  10. pmc Functional domains of NosR, a novel transmembrane iron-sulfur flavoprotein necessary for nitrous oxide respiration
    Patrick Wunsch
    Lehrstuhl fur Mikrobiologie, Universitat Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe, Germany
    J Bacteriol 187:1992-2001. 2005

Detail Information

Publications343 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Nitrous oxide (Entonox) inhalation and tolerance of transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy: a double-blind randomized controlled study
    J Masood
    Department of Urology, Harold Wood Hospital, Romford, United Kingdom
    J Urol 168:116-20; discussion 120. 2002
    ..randomized, placebo controlled double-blind trial to evaluate the effectiveness of Entonox (BOC Gases, Manchester, United Kingdom), that is 50% nitrous oxide and oxygen, as analgesia during transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy.
  2. ncbi Influence of biochars on nitrous oxide emission and nitrogen leaching from two contrasting soils
    Bhupinder Pal Singh
    Forest Science Centre, Industry and Investment NSW, P O Box 100, Beecroft, NSW 2119, Australia
    J Environ Qual 39:1224-35. 2010
    ..C, nonactivated, and at 550 degrees C, activated, abbreviated as: W400, PM400, W550, PM550, respectively) on nitrous oxide (N2O) emission and N leaching from an Alfisol and a Vertisol...
  3. pmc The unaccounted yet abundant nitrous oxide-reducing microbial community: a potential nitrous oxide sink
    Christopher M Jones
    Department of Microbiology, Uppsala BioCenter, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden
    ISME J 7:417-26. 2013
    b>Nitrous oxide (N(2)O) is a major radiative forcing and stratospheric ozone-depleting gas emitted from terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems...
  4. pmc Insights into the effect of soil pH on N(2)O and N(2) emissions and denitrifier community size and activity
    Jiri Cuhel
    Biology Centre of the ASCR, v v i, Institute of Soil Biology, and University of South Bohemia, Faculty of Science, Na Sadkach 7, 370 05 Ceske Budejovice, Czech Republic
    Appl Environ Microbiol 76:1870-8. 2010
    ..However, this highlights the need for further studies combining analysis of denitrifier ecology and quantification of denitrification end products for a comprehensive understanding of the regulation of N fluxes by denitrification...
  5. ncbi Phylogenetic analysis of nitrite, nitric oxide, and nitrous oxide respiratory enzymes reveal a complex evolutionary history for denitrification
    Christopher M Jones
    Department of Microbiology, Swedish Agricultural University, Uppsala, Sweden
    Mol Biol Evol 25:1955-66. 2008
    Denitrification is a facultative respiratory pathway in which nitrite (NO2(-)), nitric oxide (NO), and nitrous oxide (N2O) are successively reduced to nitrogen gas (N(2)), effectively closing the nitrogen cycle...
  6. ncbi Long-term impairment of acquisition of a spatial memory task following isoflurane-nitrous oxide anesthesia in rats
    Deborah J Culley
    Department of Anesthesia, Harvard Medical School, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Anesthesiology 100:309-14. 2004
    The authors demonstrated previously that isoflurane-nitrous oxide anesthesia attenuates performance improvement on an already-learned spatial memory task and that the effect persists for weeks...
  7. ncbi Effects of sevoflurane, propofol, and adjunct nitrous oxide on regional cerebral blood flow, oxygen consumption, and blood volume in humans
    Kaike K Kaisti
    Department of Anesthesiology, Turku University Hospital, Finland
    Anesthesiology 99:603-13. 2003
    Anesthetic agents, especially volatile anesthetics and nitrous oxide (N2O), are suspected to perturb cerebral homeostasis and vascular reactivity...
  8. pmc Sustainable biochar to mitigate global climate change
    Dominic Woolf
    School of the Environment and Society, Swansea University, Singleton Park, Swansea SA2 8PP, UK
    Nat Commun 1:56. 2010
    ..Annual net emissions of carbon dioxide (CO(2)), methane and nitrous oxide could be reduced by a maximum of 1...
  9. ncbi Fluxes of carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide in two contrastive fringing zones of coastal lagoon, Lake Nakaumi, Japan
    Mitsuru Hirota
    Environmental Biology Division, National Institute for Environmental Studies, Onogawa 16 2, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305 8506, Japan
    Chemosphere 68:597-603. 2007
    We measured fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO(2)), methane (CH(4)), and nitrous oxide (N(2)O) simultaneously in two typical fringing zones, sandy shore and salt marsh, of coastal lagoon, Lake Nakaumi, Japan, in mid-summer 2003...
  10. pmc Functional domains of NosR, a novel transmembrane iron-sulfur flavoprotein necessary for nitrous oxide respiration
    Patrick Wunsch
    Lehrstuhl fur Mikrobiologie, Universitat Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe, Germany
    J Bacteriol 187:1992-2001. 2005
    Bacterial nitrous oxide (N2O) respiration depends on the polytopic membrane protein NosR for the expression of N2O reductase from the nosZ gene...
  11. ncbi The membrane bioreactor: a novel tool to grow anammox bacteria as free cells
    Wouter R L van der Star
    Department of Biotechnology, Delft University of Technology, Julianalaan 67, 2628BC Delft, The Netherlands
    Biotechnol Bioeng 101:286-94. 2008
    ..The production of anammox bacteria in suspension with high purity and productivity makes the MBR a promising tool for the cultivation and study of anammox bacteria...
  12. pmc Contrasting denitrifier communities relate to contrasting N2O emission patterns from acidic peat soils in arctic tundra
    Katharina Palmer
    Department of Ecological Microbiology, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany
    ISME J 6:1058-77. 2012
    ..mixed by frost action; pH 3-4) in the Russian discontinuous permafrost tundra are nitrate-rich 'hotspots' of nitrous oxide (N(2)O) emissions in arctic ecosystems, whereas adjacent unturbated peat areas are not...
  13. ncbi Mechanisms of N2O production in biological wastewater treatment under nitrifying and denitrifying conditions
    Pascal Wunderlin
    Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Ueberlandstrasse 133, P O Box 611, 8600 Duebendorf, Switzerland
    Water Res 46:1027-37. 2012
    b>Nitrous oxide (N2O) is an important greenhouse gas and a major sink for stratospheric ozone...
  14. pmc Isoflurane/nitrous oxide anesthesia induces increases in NMDA receptor subunit NR2B protein expression in the aged rat brain
    Lana J Mawhinney
    Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL 33136, USA
    Brain Res 1431:23-34. 2012
    ..Three-month-old and 18-month-old male Fischer 344 rats were randomly assigned to receive 1.8% isoflurane/70% nitrous oxide (N(2)O) anesthesia for 4h or no anesthesia...
  15. ncbi Denitrification gene pools, transcription and kinetics of NO, N2O and N2 production as affected by soil pH
    Binbin Liu
    Department of Chemistry, Biotechnology and Food Sciences, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, As, Norway
    FEMS Microbiol Ecol 72:407-17. 2010
    ..1 than at pH 8.0. The most plausible explanation is that the translation/assembly of N(2)O reductase is more sensitive to low pH than that of the other reductases involved in denitrification...
  16. ncbi Avoidance of nitrous oxide for patients undergoing major surgery: a randomized controlled trial
    Paul S Myles
    Department of Anaesthesia and Perioperative Medicine, Alfred Hospital, Academic Board of Anaesthesia and Perioperative Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    Anesthesiology 107:221-31. 2007
    b>Nitrous oxide is widely used in anesthesia, often administered at an inspired concentration around 70%...
  17. pmc Changes in denitrifier abundance, denitrification gene mRNA levels, nitrous oxide emissions, and denitrification in anoxic soil microcosms amended with glucose and plant residues
    Sherri L Henderson
    Potato Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri Food Canada, Fredericton, NB E3B 4Z7, Canada
    Appl Environ Microbiol 76:2155-64. 2010
    ..soybean, and barley plant residues and of glucose on denitrifier abundance, denitrification gene mRNA levels, nitrous oxide (N(2)O) emissions, and denitrification rates were quantified in anoxic soil microcosms for 72 h...
  18. ncbi Bacterial gene abundances as indicators of greenhouse gas emission in soils
    Sergio E Morales
    Microbial Ecology Program, Division of Biological Sciences, The University of Montana, Missoula, MT 59812 1006, USA
    ISME J 4:799-808. 2010
    ..Quantification of nitrogen-related functional genes (nitrite reductase, nirS; nitrous oxide reductase, nosZ; and nitrogenase, nifH) as well as two dominant 16S ribotypes (belonging to the phyla ..
  19. ncbi Nitrosospira spp. can produce nitrous oxide via a nitrifier denitrification pathway
    Liz J Shaw
    Imperial College London, Wye Campus, Department of Agricultural Sciences, Wye, Kent, UK
    Environ Microbiol 8:214-22. 2006
    b>Nitrous oxide (N(2)O) emission from soils is a major contributor to the atmospheric loading of this potent greenhouse gas...
  20. ncbi Microorganisms and climate change: terrestrial feedbacks and mitigation options
    Brajesh K Singh
    Macaulay Land Use Research Institute, Aberdeen AB15 8QH, UK
    Nat Rev Microbiol 8:779-90. 2010
    ..have a central role in the global fluxes of the key biogenic greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide) and are likely to respond rapidly to climate change...
  21. ncbi Mitigating release of the potent greenhouse gas N(2)O from the nitrogen cycle - could enzymic regulation hold the key?
    David Richardson
    Centre for Molecular Structure and Biochemistry CMSB, School of Biological Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, NR4 7TJ, UK
    Trends Biotechnol 27:388-97. 2009
    ..This takes place extensively in nitrogen-rich soils and generates the gaseous products nitric oxide (NO), nitrous oxide (N(2)O) and dinitrogen (N(2))...
  22. ncbi Bispectral index monitoring allows faster emergence and improved recovery from propofol, alfentanil, and nitrous oxide anesthesia. BIS Utility Study Group
    T J Gan
    Department of Anesthesiology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    Anesthesiology 87:808-15. 1997
    ..This study determined whether addition of BIS monitoring to standard anesthetic practice results in improvements in the conduct of anesthesia or in patient outcomes...
  23. ncbi Impact of copper on the diversity, abundance and transcription of nitrite and nitrous oxide reductase genes in an urban European estuary
    Catarina M Magalhães
    Centre of Marine and Environmental Research CIIMAR, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal
    FEMS Microbiol Ecol 77:274-84. 2011
    ....
  24. ncbi Molecular characterization of nosRZDFYLX genes coding for denitrifying nitrous oxide reductase of Bradyrhizobium japonicum
    Leonardo Velasco
    Departamento de Biotecnología Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo Agroalimentario, E 03150 La Alberca, Murcia, Spain
    Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 85:229-35. 2004
    The nosRZDFYLX gene cluster for the respiratory nitrous oxide reductase from Bradyrhizobium japonicum strain USDA110 has been cloned and sequenced...
  25. ncbi Effect of nutrient and selective inhibitor amendments on methane oxidation, nitrous oxide production, and key gene presence and expression in landfill cover soils: characterization of the role of methanotrophs, nitrifiers, and denitrifiers
    Sung Woo Lee
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The University of Michigan, 1351 Beal Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 2125, USA
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 85:389-403. 2009
    Methane and nitrous oxide are both potent greenhouse gasses, with global warming potentials approximately 25 and 298 times that of carbon dioxide...
  26. ncbi Spatio-temporal variation in soil derived nitrous oxide emissions under sugarcane
    Xiaodong Huang
    Mathematical Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia
    Sci Total Environ 409:4572-8. 2011
    b>Nitrous oxide (N(2)O) is a significant greenhouse gas with a global warming potential that is 300 times than that of carbon dioxide...
  27. ncbi Biochar and hydrochar effects on greenhouse gas (carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane) fluxes from soils
    Claudia Kammann
    Department of Plant Ecology, Justus Liebig University, Giessen, Germany
    J Environ Qual 41:1052-66. 2012
    ..In conclusion, BC reduced NO emissions and improved the GHG-to-yield ratio under field-relevant conditions. However, the risk of increased NO emissions with HC addition must be carefully evaluated...
  28. pmc Actinobacterial nitrate reducers and proteobacterial denitrifiers are abundant in N2O-metabolizing palsa peat
    Katharina Palmer
    Department of Ecological Microbiology, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany
    Appl Environ Microbiol 78:5584-96. 2012
    ..permanently frozen ice lens) and are strong to moderate sources or even temporary sinks for the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N(2)O). Palsa peats are predicted to react sensitively to global warming...
  29. ncbi Energy balance and emissions associated with biochar sequestration and pyrolysis bioenergy production
    John L Gaunt
    College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14850, USA
    Environ Sci Technol 42:4152-8. 2008
    ....
  30. pmc Regulation of denitrification at the cellular level: a clue to the understanding of N2O emissions from soils
    Lars R Bakken
    Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Aas, Norway
    Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 367:1226-34. 2012
    ..More sophisticated ways to reduce emissions may emerge in the future as we learn more about the regulation of denitrification at the cellular level...
  31. pmc Biological sources and sinks of nitrous oxide and strategies to mitigate emissions
    Andrew J Thomson
    School of Biological Sciences, Norwich Research Park, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK
    Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 367:1157-68. 2012
    b>Nitrous oxide (N(2)O) is a powerful atmospheric greenhouse gas and cause of ozone layer depletion. Global emissions continue to rise...
  32. pmc Combining nitrous oxide with carbon dioxide decreases the time to loss of consciousness during euthanasia in mice--refinement of animal welfare?
    Aurelie A Thomas
    Comparative Biology Centre, Medical School, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 7:e32290. 2012
    ..b>Nitrous oxide is used in man to speed induction of anaesthesia with volatile anaesthetics, via a mechanism referred to as ..
  33. ncbi Nitrous oxide emissions for early warning of biological nitrification failure in activated sludge
    M D Butler
    Southern Water, Captstone Road, Chatham, Kent, ME57QA, UK
    Water Res 43:1265-72. 2009
    Experiments were carried out to establish whether nitrous oxide (N2O) could be used as a non-invasive early warning indicator for nitrification failure...
  34. ncbi Nitrate reduction, nitrous oxide formation, and anaerobic ammonia oxidation to nitrite in the gut of soil-feeding termites (Cubitermes and Ophiotermes spp.)
    David Kamanda Ngugi
    Department of Biogeochemistry, Max Planck Institute for Terrestrial Microbiology, Marburg, Germany
    Environ Microbiol 14:860-71. 2012
    ..4 to 3.9 nmol h(-1) (g fresh wt.)(-1), providing direct evidence that soil-feeding termites are a hitherto unrecognized source of this greenhouse gas in tropical soils...
  35. ncbi Greenhouse gas production and efficiency of planted and artificially aerated constructed wetlands
    Gabriel Maltais-Landry
    Departement des Sciences Biologiques, Université de Montréal 90, rue Vincent D Indy, Montreal QC, Canada
    Environ Pollut 157:748-54. 2009
    ..We studied the effect of 3 different macrophyte species and artificial aeration on the rates of nitrous oxide (N(2)O), carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and methane (CH(4)) production in CW mesocosms over three seasons...
  36. ncbi Nitrous oxide emissions from an intensively managed greenhouse vegetable cropping system in Northern China
    Feifei He
    Key Laboratory of Plant soil Interactions of Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Plant Nutrition of Minstry of Agriculture, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Haidian District, Beijing 100193, China
    Environ Pollut 157:1666-72. 2009
    b>Nitrous oxide (N(2)O) emissions from a typical greenhouse vegetable system in Northern China were measured from February 2004 to January 2006 using a close chamber method. Four nitrogen management levels (NN, MN, CN, and SN) were used...
  37. ncbi Emission of N2O and CH4 from a constructed wetland in southeastern Norway
    A K Søvik
    Norwegian Institute for Agricultural and Environmental Research Soil and Environment Division Bioforsk, Frederik A Dahls vei 20, 1432 As, Norway
    Sci Total Environ 380:28-37. 2007
    ..Fluxes of nitrous oxide (N(2)O) and methane (CH(4)) have been measured during the autumn, winter and summer from all three ponds as ..
  38. ncbi Free nitrous acid inhibition on nitrous oxide reduction by a denitrifying-enhanced biological phosphorus removal sludge
    Yan Zhou
    Advanced Water Management Centre AWMC, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Brisbane, QLD 4072, Australia
    Environ Sci Technol 42:8260-5. 2008
    ..A higher FNA concentration caused slower recovery...
  39. ncbi Is the isotopic composition of nitrous oxide an indicator for its origin from nitrification or denitrification? A theoretical approach from referred data and microbiological and enzyme kinetic aspects
    Hanns Ludwig Schmidt
    Lehrstuhl fur Biologische Chemie, Technische Universitat Munchen, An der Saatzucht 5, D 85350 Freising Weihenstephan, Germany
    Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 18:2036-40. 2004
    Literature data on the isotopic composition of nitrous oxide indicate a general predominance of the alpha-15N-isotopomer and a parallel 18O-enrichment in N2O from nitrification and denitrification, respectively...
  40. ncbi Bispectral index does not correlate with observer assessment of alertness and sedation scores during 0.5% bupivacaine epidural anesthesia with nitrous oxide sedation
    Kyung Soo Park
    Department of Pharmacology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
    Anesth Analg 103:385-9, table of contents. 2006
    ..We evaluated the effect of increasing concentrations of nitrous oxide (N2O) on BIS and compared it with the Observer's Assessment of Alertness and Sedation (OAA/S) scale in ..
  41. ncbi Reduced iron induced nitric oxide and nitrous oxide emission
    Marlies J Kampschreur
    Delft University of Technology, Department of Biotechnology, Delft, The Netherlands
    Water Res 45:5945-52. 2011
    Formation of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide in water treatment systems is predominantly studied as a biological phenomenon. There are indications that also chemical processes contribute to these emissions...
  42. ncbi Xenon provides faster emergence from anesthesia than does nitrous oxide-sevoflurane or nitrous oxide-isoflurane
    T Goto
    Department of Anesthesia, Teikyo University, School of Medicine, Ichihara Hospital, Chiba, Japan
    Anesthesiology 86:1273-8. 1997
    ..14). Therefore, we predicted that xenon would provide more rapid emergence from anesthesia than does N2O+isoflurane or N2O+sevoflurane of equivalent MAC...
  43. ncbi Stress hormone changes in general anesthesia of long duration: isoflurane-nitrous oxide vs sevoflurane-nitrous oxide anesthesia
    Tomoki Nishiyama
    Department of Anesthesiology, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 113 8655 Tokyo, Japan
    J Clin Anesth 17:586-91. 2005
    ..comparative studies of stress hormone changes during general anesthesia with long duration between isoflurane-nitrous oxide and sevoflurane-nitrous oxide anesthesia...
  44. ncbi N2O binding at a [4Cu:2S] copper-sulphur cluster in nitrous oxide reductase
    Anja Pomowski
    Lehrstuhl für Biochemie, Institut fur Organische Chemie und Biochemie, Albert Ludwigs Universitat Freiburg, Albertstr 21, 79104 Freiburg, Germany
    Nature 477:234-7. 2011
    b>Nitrous oxide (N(2)O) is generated by natural and anthropogenic processes and has a critical role in environmental chemistry...
  45. ncbi Alternatives to neuraxial analgesia for labor
    Petri Volmanen
    Department of Anesthesia, Savonlinna Central Hospital, Savonlinna, Finland
    Curr Opin Anaesthesiol 24:235-41. 2011
    ..Although millions of parturients profit from neuraxial analgesia for labor, there are far more of those who do not have this choice for one reason or another. They need alternative ways to relieve labor pain...
  46. ncbi Total intravenous anaesthesia techniques for ambulatory surgery
    Henrik Eikaas
    Department of Anaesthesia, Oslo University Hospital, Ullevaal, Oslo, Norway
    Curr Opin Anaesthesiol 22:725-9. 2009
    ..The purpose of the present review is to provide an updated discussion on the use of total intravenous anaesthesia (TIVA) for ambulatory surgery, based on results from recent studies put into the context of issues already known...
  47. ncbi Grazing-induced reduction of natural nitrous oxide release from continental steppe
    Benjamin Wolf
    Institute for Meteorology and Climate Research, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Kreuzeckbahnstrasse 19, 82467 Garmisch Partenkirchen, Germany
    Nature 464:881-4. 2010
    Atmospheric concentrations of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N(2)O) have increased significantly since pre-industrial times owing to anthropogenic perturbation of the global nitrogen cycle, with animal production being one of the main ..
  48. pmc Steady-state nitrogen isotope effects of N2 and N2O production in Paracoccus denitrificans
    C C Barford
    Division of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 65:989-94. 1999
    ..Application of both isotope effects to N2O cycling studies is discussed...
  49. ncbi Phylogenetic and functional diversity of denitrifying bacteria isolated from various rice paddy and rice-soybean rotation fields
    Kanako Tago
    Department of Applied Biological Chemistry, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 1 1 1 Yayoi, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113 8657, Japan
    Microbes Environ 26:30-5. 2011
    Denitrifiers can produce and consume nitrous oxide (N(2)O). While little N(2)O is emitted from rice paddy soil, the same soil produces N(2)O when the land is drained and used for upland crop cultivation...
  50. ncbi Nitrous oxide emission during wastewater treatment
    Marlies J Kampschreur
    Delft University of Technology, Department of Biotechnology, Julianalaan 67, 2628 BC, Delft, Netherlands
    Water Res 43:4093-103. 2009
    b>Nitrous oxide (N(2)O), a potent greenhouse gas, can be emitted during wastewater treatment, significantly contributing to the greenhouse gas footprint...
  51. ncbi Adverse effect of nitrous oxide in a child with 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase deficiency
    Rebecca R Selzer
    Department of Anesthesiology, University of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, USA
    N Engl J Med 349:45-50. 2003
  52. ncbi Survey on sedation in paediatric dentistry: a global perspective
    Stephen Wilson
    Division of Pediatric Dentistry, Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, USA
    Int J Paediatr Dent 21:321-32. 2011
    ..Paediatric dentists receive training in sedation during their advanced education training, but evidence suggests that this training varies widely...
  53. ncbi Nitrous oxide cryotherapy for primary periocular basal cell carcinoma: outcome at 5 years follow-up
    I Moesen
    Moorfields Eye Hospital, London, UK
    Br J Ophthalmol 95:1679-81. 2011
    To report the outcome at 5-year follow-up of a defined series of patients with primary periocular basal cell carcinoma treated by cryotherapy using a nitrous oxide probe.
  54. ncbi Oxygen exchange between (de)nitrification intermediates and H2O and its implications for source determination of NO3- and N2O: a review
    D M Kool
    Alterra, Wageningen University and Research Centre, Wageningen, The Netherlands
    Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 21:3569-78. 2007
    Stable isotope analysis of oxygen (O) is increasingly used to determine the origin of nitrate (NO(3)-) and nitrous oxide (N(2)O) in the environment...
  55. ncbi Nitrous oxide nitrification and denitrification 15N enrichment factors from Amazon forest soils
    Tibisay Pérez
    Atmospheric Chemistry Laboratory, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas IVIC Apartado 21827, Caracas 1020 A, Venezuela
    Ecol Appl 16:2153-67. 2006
    ....
  56. ncbi Respiratory transformation of nitrous oxide (N2O) to dinitrogen by Bacteria and Archaea
    Walter G Zumft
    Institute of Applied Biosciences, Division of Molecular Microbiology, University of Karlsruhe, D 76128 Karlsruhe, Germany
    Adv Microb Physiol 52:107-227. 2007
    ..We focus this review on the respiratory aspect of N2O transformation catalysed by the multicopper enzyme nitrous oxide reductase (N2OR) that provides the bacterial cell with an electron sink for anaerobic growth...
  57. ncbi A review of stable isotope techniques for N2O source partitioning in soils: recent progress, remaining challenges and future considerations
    E M Baggs
    School of Biological Sciences Plant and Soil Science, University of Aberdeen, Cruickshank Building, St Machar Drive, Aberdeen AB24 3UU, UK
    Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 22:1664-72. 2008
    b>Nitrous oxide is produced in soil during several processes, which may occur simultaneously within different micro-sites of the same soil...
  58. ncbi Model of the molecular basis for hydroxylamine oxidation and nitrous oxide production in methanotrophic bacteria
    Mark A Campbell
    Evolutionary and Genomic Microbiology Laboratory, Department of Biology, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USA
    FEMS Microbiol Lett 322:82-9. 2011
    ..MOB) have been shown to aerobically oxidize ammonia and hydroxylamine (NH(2)OH) to produce nitrite and nitrous oxide (N(2)O)...
  59. ncbi Dynamics of nitric oxide and nitrous oxide emission during full-scale reject water treatment
    Marlies J Kampschreur
    Department of Biotechnology, Delft University of Technology, Julianalaan 67, 2628 BC, Delft, Netherlands
    Water Res 42:812-26. 2008
    ..Preliminary measurements of the N2O emission from a one-reactor nitritation-anammox system indicate that the emission is lower than in two-reactor systems...
  60. ncbi Biochar incorporation into pasture soil suppresses in situ nitrous oxide emissions from ruminant urine patches
    Arezoo Taghizadeh-Toosi
    Dep of Soil and Physical Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture and Life Sciences, P O Box 84, Lincoln Univ, Lincoln, 7647 NZ, USA
    J Environ Qual 40:468-76. 2011
    b>Nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from grazing animal excreta are estimated to be responsible for 1.5 Tg of the total 6.7 Tg of anthropogenic N2O emissions...
  61. ncbi Intraoperative remifentanil infusion does not increase postoperative opioid consumption compared with 70% nitrous oxide
    Libby H Y Lee
    Department of Anaesthesiology, Queen Mary Hospital, The University of Hong Kong, China
    Anesthesiology 102:398-402. 2005
    Remifentanil is commonly used to replace nitrous oxide in general anesthesia to avoid the side effects of the latter. However, there are reports that intraoperative remifentanil infusion can lead to acute opioid tolerance...
  62. pmc Distinguishing nitrous oxide production from nitrification and denitrification on the basis of isotopomer abundances
    R L Sutka
    Department of Zoology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 72:638-44. 2006
    ..Site preferences of approximately 33 per thousand and approximately 0 per thousand are characteristic of nitrification and denitrification, respectively, and provide a basis to quantitatively apportion N2O...
  63. ncbi Increased marine production of N2O due to intensifying anoxia on the Indian continental shelf
    S W Naqvi
    National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa, India
    Nature 408:346-9. 2000
    ..We also report the highest accumulations yet observed of hydrogen sulphide (H2S) and nitrous oxide (N2O) in open coastal waters...
  64. ncbi Indirect emissions from biofuels: how important?
    Jerry M Melillo
    The Ecosystems Center, Marine Biological Laboratory MBL, 7 MBL Street, Woods Hole, MA 02543, USA
    Science 326:1397-9. 2009
    ..loss (up to twice as much) than direct land use; however, because of predicted increases in fertilizer use, nitrous oxide emissions will be more important than carbon losses themselves in terms of warming potential...
  65. ncbi Xenon pretreatment attenuates anesthetic-induced apoptosis in the developing brain in comparison with nitrous oxide and hypoxia
    Yi Shu
    Division of Surgery, Department of Surgery, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom
    Anesthesiology 113:360-8. 2010
    ..Preconditioning (pretreatment) can reduce tissue injury caused by a severe insult; the authors investigated whether pretreatment strategies can protect the developing brain from anesthetic-induced neurotoxicity...
  66. ncbi Risk factors for severe postoperative nausea and vomiting in a randomized trial of nitrous oxide-based vs nitrous oxide-free anaesthesia
    K Leslie
    Department of Anaesthesia and Pain Management, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Grattan St, Parkville, Vic, 3050, Australia
    Br J Anaesth 101:498-505. 2008
    ..As risk stratification may aid in prophylaxis and treatment, we explored risk factors for severe PONV in patients enrolled in a large international, randomized controlled trial (the ENIGMA trial)...
  67. ncbi Mechanisms of transient nitric oxide and nitrous oxide production in a complex biofilm
    Frank Schreiber
    Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology, Bremen, Germany
    ISME J 3:1301-13. 2009
    Nitric oxide (NO) and nitrous oxide (N(2)O) are formed during N-cycling in complex microbial communities in response to fluctuating molecular oxygen (O(2)) and nitrite (NO(2)(-)) concentrations...
  68. ncbi Randomized, controlled, cross-over clinical trial comparing intravenous midazolam sedation with nitrous oxide sedation in children undergoing dental extractions
    K E Wilson
    Department of Sedation, Newcastle Dental School and Hospital, Framlington Place, Newcastle upon Tyne NE2 4BW, UK
    Br J Anaesth 91:850-6. 2003
    ..A study was therefore designed to investigate the use of midazolam, for i.v. sedation in paediatric dental patients...
  69. ncbi Impaired acquisition of spatial memory 2 weeks after isoflurane and isoflurane-nitrous oxide anesthesia in aged rats
    Deborah J Culley
    Department of Anesthesiology, Brigham and Women s Hospital, 75 Francis Street, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Anesth Analg 99:1393-7; table of contents. 2004
    Aged rats are impaired on a spatial memory task for at least 24-48 h after isoflurane-nitrous oxide anesthesia. In this study, we tested how long the impairment lasts and investigated the role of nitrous oxide...
  70. ncbi Nitrogen isotopomer site preference of N2O produced by Nitrosomonas europaea and Methylococcus capsulatus Bath
    R L Sutka
    Department of Geological Sciences, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
    Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 17:738-45. 2003
    The relative importance of individual microbial pathways in nitrous oxide (N(2)O) production is not well known. The intramolecular distribution of (15)N in N(2)O provides a basis for distinguishing biological pathways...
  71. ncbi Challenges for simultaneous nitrification, denitrification, and phosphorus removal in microbial aggregates: mass transfer limitation and nitrous oxide production
    Rikke Louise Meyer
    Advanced Wastewater Management Centre, The University of Queensland, Building 64A, Research Road, QLD 4072, Australia
    FEMS Microbiol Ecol 52:329-38. 2005
    ..b>Nitrous oxide was identified as a product of denitrification, when based on stored PHA as carbon source...
  72. pmc Nitrous oxide emission from denitrification in stream and river networks
    Jake J Beaulieu
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:214-9. 2011
    b>Nitrous oxide (N(2)O) is a potent greenhouse gas that contributes to climate change and stratospheric ozone destruction...
  73. ncbi Potentially neuroprotective and therapeutic properties of nitrous oxide and xenon
    Jacques H Abraini
    Centre Cyceron, UMR 6185, Université de Caen CNRS, Boulevard Henri Becquerel, B P 5229, 14074 Caen Cedex, France
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1053:289-300. 2005
    ..Interestingly, nitrous oxide and xenon, which are anesthetic gases with a remarkably safe clinical profile, have been shown to be effective ..
  74. ncbi Inhalation anesthetics: a review
    G Torri
    Department of Anesthesiology, S Raffaele University, Milan, Italy
    Minerva Anestesiol 76:215-28. 2010
    ..The cardioprotective effect of halogenated agents and the actual role of nitrous oxide and xenon are discussed...
  75. ncbi Intermitted pharmacologic pretreatment by xenon, isoflurane, nitrous oxide, and the opioid morphine prevents tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced adhesion molecule expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells
    Nina C Weber
    Laboratory of Experimental Intensive Care and Anesthesiology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Anesthesiology 108:199-207. 2008
    ..The authors investigated the impact of different anesthetics and morphine on TNF-alpha-induced endothelial cell adhesion molecule expression...
  76. ncbi Laparoscopic peritoneal dialysis catheter implantation using a Tenckhoff trocar under local anesthesia with nitrous oxide gas insufflation
    Amir Keshvari
    Department of Surgery, Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran, Iran
    Am J Surg 197:8-13. 2009
    ..The ability to perform laparoscopy with the patient under local anesthesia allows renal failure patients, who ordinarily might not be considered candidates for general anesthesia, an opportunity to undergo this procedure...
  77. pmc Nitrous oxide plus isoflurane induces apoptosis and increases beta-amyloid protein levels
    Yu Zhen
    Department of Anesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine, Genetics and Aging Research Unit, MassGeneral Institute for Neurodegenerative Disease, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 114 16th Street, Charlestown, MA 02129, USA
    Anesthesiology 111:741-52. 2009
    ..b>Nitrous oxide and isoflurane are common anesthetics...
  78. ncbi Gamma-aminobutyric acid neuropharmacological investigations on narcosis produced by nitrogen, argon, or nitrous oxide
    Jacques H Abraini
    UMR CNRS 6551 Mort Neuronale, Neuroprotection, Neurotransmission, Universite de Caen, Centre Cyceron, France
    Anesth Analg 96:746-9, table of contents. 2003
    Inhaled anesthetics, including the gaseous anesthetics nitrous oxide and xenon, are thought to act by interacting directly with ion-channel receptors...
  79. ncbi Nitrous oxide in ambulatory anaesthesia: does it have a place in day surgical anaesthesia or is it just a threat for personnel and the global environment?
    Ian Smith
    University Hospital of North Staffordshire, Stoke on Trent, Staffordshire, UK
    Curr Opin Anaesthesiol 19:592-6. 2006
    b>Nitrous oxide is by far the oldest anaesthetic still in routine use and its continued use is often questioned...
  80. ncbi Modification of behavior with 50% nitrous oxide/oxygen conscious sedation over repeated visits for dental treatment a 3-year prospective study
    Valérie Collado
    Univ Clermont1, UFR d Odontologie, Clermont Ferrand, France
    J Clin Psychopharmacol 26:474-81. 2006
    In various medical domains, inhalation of nitrous oxide (N2O) in oxygen (O2) is indicated to alleviate pain and anxiety during routine treatment. Repeat treatment may often be indicated...
  81. ncbi Quantifying the contribution of nitrification and denitrification to the nitrous oxide flux using 15N tracers
    O Mathieu
    UMR 1229 Microbiologie et Géochimie des Sols, INRA Université de Bourgogne, Centre des Sciences de la Terre, 6 Boulevard Gabriel, 21000 Dijon, France
    Environ Pollut 144:933-40. 2006
    Microbial transformations of nitrification and denitrification are the main sources of nitrous oxide (N2O) from soils...
  82. pmc Symbiotic Bradyrhizobium japonicum reduces N2O surrounding the soybean root system via nitrous oxide reductase
    Reiko Sameshima-Saito
    Graduate School of Life Sciences, Tohoku University, Katahira, Aoba ku, Sendai 980 8577, Japan
    Appl Environ Microbiol 72:2526-32. 2006
    ..japonicum carrying the nos genes are able to remove very low concentrations of N(2)O...
  83. ncbi Ceasing routine use of nitrous oxide-a follow up
    M Enlund
    Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, Central Hospital, SE 721 89 Västerås, Sweden
    Br J Anaesth 90:686-8. 2003
    The role of nitrous oxide in modern anaesthesia is questioned. The routine use of nitrous oxide was almost completely stopped in our department after November 1, 2000, and we now report some consequences.
  84. ncbi Inhaled methoxyflurane (Penthrox) sedation for third molar extraction: a comparison to nitrous oxide sedation
    W A Abdullah
    Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, College of Dentistry, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
    Aust Dent J 56:296-301. 2011
    ..to evaluate the use of inhaled methoxyflurane (Penthrox) in the reduction of dental anxiety in patients undergoing mandibular third molar removal in a specialist surgical suite and compare it to the conventional nitrous oxide sedation.
  85. ncbi Acceptance and side effects of nitrous oxide oxygen sedation for oral surgical procedures
    T I Berge
    Institute of Odontology Oral Surgery and Oral Medicine, Faculty of Odontology, University of Bergen, Norway
    Acta Odontol Scand 57:201-6. 1999
    Two hundred and forty-one treatment sessions with nitrous oxide oxygen sedation were performed in 194 patients undergoing ambulatory oral surgery procedures...
  86. ncbi High laryngeal mask airway pressures resulting from nitrous oxide do not increase pharyngeal mucosal injury in dogs
    T M Abud
    Department of Anesthesiology, The School of Medicine of The University Of São Paulo UNESP, Bottucatu, Sao Paulo, Brazil
    Can J Anaesth 48:800-6. 2001
    During general anesthesia, nitrous oxide (N2O) diffuses rapidly into the air-filled laryngeal mask airway (LMA) cuff, increasing intracuff pressure. There is no clear correlation between LMA intracuff pressure and pressure on the pharynx...
  87. ncbi Climate, duration, and N placement determine N2 O emissions in reduced tillage systems: a meta-analysis
    Chris van Kessel
    Department of Plant Sciences, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    Glob Chang Biol 19:33-44. 2013
    ..In addition, NT/RT practices need to be sustained for a prolonged time, particularly in dry climates, to become an effective mitigation strategy for reducing N2 O emissions...
  88. ncbi Comparison of partial and full nitrification processes applied for treating high-strength nitrogen wastewaters: microbial ecology through nitrous oxide production
    Joon Ho Ahn
    Department of Earth and Environmental Engineering, Columbia University, 500 West 120th Street, New York, New York 10027, United States
    Environ Sci Technol 45:2734-40. 2011
    ..The transition from full-nitrification to partial nitrification resulted in a protracted transient spike of nitrous oxide (N2O) and nitric oxide (NO) emissions, which later stabilized...
  89. pmc Staphylococcal entertotoxins of the enterotoxin gene cluster (egcSEs) induce nitrous oxide- and cytokine dependent tumor cell apoptosis in a broad panel of human tumor cells
    David S Terman
    Molecular Genetics Program, Jenomic Research Institute, Carmel, CA 93953, USA
    Front Cell Infect Microbiol 3:38. 2013
    ..We investigated the hypothesis that egcSEs induce nitrous oxide (NO) and associated cytokine production and that these agents may be involved in tumoricidal effects against a ..
  90. ncbi Method development for the determination of fluorine in toothpaste via molecular absorption of aluminum mono fluoride using a high-resolution continuum source nitrous oxide/acetylene flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer
    Nil Ozbek
    Istanbul Technical University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Chemistry, 34469 Maslak, Istanbul, Turkey
    Talanta 94:246-50. 2012
    ..Maximum sensitivity and a good linearity were obtained in acetylene-nitrous oxide flame at a flow rate of 210 L h(-1) and a burner height of 8mm using 3000 mg L(-1) of Al for 10-1000 mg L(-1)..
  91. ncbi Relationships between nitrogen transformation rates and gene abundance in a riparian buffer soil
    Lin Wu
    Department of Soil Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 7619, USA
    Environ Manage 50:861-74. 2012
    ..of this study were to examine the influence of specific types of soluble organic matter on nitrate loss and nitrous oxide production rates, and to elucidate the relationships between these rates and the abundances of functional ..
  92. ncbi Nitrous oxide and dinitrogen emissions from soil under different water regimes and straw amendment
    Z Cai
    Institute of Soil Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, People s Republic of China
    Chemosphere 42:113-21. 2001
    ..However, peak N2 evolution rates were observed after the onset of both drainage and re-flooding. Considerable quantities of N2 but no detectable N2O were entrapped in the flooded soil...
  93. ncbi Emissions of ammonia, nitrous oxide, methane, and carbon dioxide during storage of dairy cow manure as affected by dietary forage-to-concentrate ratio and crust formation
    M J Aguerre
    Department of Dairy Science, University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA
    J Dairy Sci 95:7409-16. 2012
    ..Taken together, these results suggested that the formation of an air-dried crust resulting from the straw bedding present in the manure reduced drastically NH(3)-N, and CH(4) emissions, but was conducive of N(2)O production and emission...
  94. ncbi Effectiveness of premedication agents administered prior to nitrous oxide/oxygen
    Ozgul Baygin
    Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon, Turkey
    Eur J Anaesthesiol 27:341-6. 2010
    ..The present study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of oral premedication with different agents on children scheduled for dental treatment under nitrous oxide/oxygen (N2O/O2) sedation.
  95. ncbi Effects of nitrous oxide on mask induction of anesthesia with sevoflurane or isoflurane in dogs
    T Mutoh
    Laboratory of Veterinary Surgery, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Japan
    Am J Vet Res 62:1727-33. 2001
    OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of nitrous oxide (N2O) on the speed and quality of mask induction with sevoflurane or isoflurane in dogs. ANIMALS: 7 healthy Beagles...
  96. ncbi Regional cerebral metabolic rate (positron emission tomography) during inhalation of nitrous oxide 50% in humans
    P Reinstrup
    Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care, University Hospital, S22185 Lund, Sweden
    Br J Anaesth 100:66-71. 2008
    Recent studies in man have shown that cerebral blood flow increases during inhalation of nitrous oxide (N2O), a finding which is believed to be a result of an increased cerebral metabolic rate (CMR)...
  97. ncbi The calibration of the intramolecular nitrogen isotope distribution in nitrous oxide measured by isotope ratio mass spectrometry
    Marian B Westley
    Department of Oceanography, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI, USA
    Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 21:391-405. 2007
    Two alternative approaches for the calibration of the intramolecular nitrogen isotope distribution in nitrous oxide using isotope ratio mass spectrometry have yielded a difference in the 15N site preference (defined as the difference ..
  98. ncbi A novel type of catalytic copper cluster in nitrous oxide reductase
    K Brown
    Architecture et Fonction des Macromolecules Biologiques, UPR 9039, CNRS, 31 Chemin Joseph Aiguier, 13402 Marseille Cedex 20, France
    Nat Struct Biol 7:191-5. 2000
    b>Nitrous oxide (N20) is a greenhouse gas, the third most significant contributor to global warming. As a key process for N20 elimination from the biosphere, N20 reductases catalyze the two-electron reduction of N20 to N2...
  99. ncbi The use of nitrous oxide in paediatric anaesthetic practice in the United Kingdom: a questionnaire survey
    T E Sheraton
    Department of Anaesthetics and Intensive Care, University Hospital of Wales University of Wales College of Medicine, Heath Park, Cardiff, Wales, UK
    Anaesthesia 62:62-6. 2007
    b>Nitrous oxide pollution is common in paediatric anaesthetic practice...
  100. ncbi Pupil dilation response to noxious stimulation: effect of varying nitrous oxide concentration
    Shunichi Oka
    Department of Dental Anesthesiology, Nihon University School of Dentistry, 1 8 13, Kanda Surugadai Tokyo 101 8310, Japan
    Clin Neurophysiol 118:2016-24. 2007
    ..report examines the pain-related pupil dilation response (PDR), tracking it across mixture concentrations of nitrous oxide (N(2)O) in oxygen (O(2)) and relating its variation to change in long latency somatosensory evoked potentials (..
  101. ncbi Comparison of the sedative, cognitive, and analgesic effects of nitrous oxide, sevoflurane, and ethanol
    R Duarte
    Department of Neuroscience, 1 George Square, Edinburgh EH8 9JZ, UK
    Br J Anaesth 100:203-10. 2008
    ..Anaesthetics which work by different mechanisms may have different patterns of effect. Measurement of these patterns thus may elucidate their mechanisms of action and allow therapeutic choices between the agents...

Research Grants63

  1. Genetic control of denitrification in Pseudomonas aeruginosa
    Valley J Stewart; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..fermentation enzymes has been suggested to be regulated exclusively by Anr, whereas the nosR operon encoding nitrous oxide reductase has been suggested to be regulated exclusively by Dnr...
  2. Predicting toxicity and success of anti-GD2 immunotherapy of neuroblastoma
    Alice L Yu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..and clinical outcome in patients randomized to immunotherapy;3) Determine if the serum cytokine IL-6 or serum nitrous oxide is associated with common toxicities associated with ch14...
  3. Indoleamine 2, 3 dioxygenase signaling and function in Type 1 Diabetes
    Suparna Sarkar; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..co exposure of IL1(, IFN( and TNF( to human islets resulted in induction of both IDO and inducible form of Nitrous oxide synthase (iNOS)...
  4. Perioperative pharmacogenetics: Nitrous oxide and anesthetic outcomes
    Peter Nagele; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..investigating the association between gene variants in intermediary metabolic pathways known to be altered by nitrous oxide and postoperative myocardial ischemia. Nitrous oxide is the most commonly used general anesthetic in the world...
  5. Propofol in Exhaled Breath: Real-time Detection by Surface Acoustic Wave Sensors
    DONN MICHAEL DENNIS; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..g., desflurane, nitrous oxide) to maintain the appropriate "level of consciousness"/depth of anesthesia...
  6. Effects of general vs. regional anesthesia on infant neurodevelopment and apnea
    Mary Ellen McCann; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Studies in animal models provide compelling evidence that commonly used agents (e.g., isoflurane, midazolam, nitrous oxide) enhance neuronal cell death in the immature brain, in some studies at doses lower than those required to ..
  7. Advancing the Understanding of Drug-Induced Allostasis
    Douglas S Ramsay; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Repeated administrations of nitrous oxide (N2O) lead to a frank intra-administration allostatic thermoregulatory state underlain by an imbalance between ..
  8. Discriminative stimulus effects of abused inhalants
    Keith L Shelton; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..to discriminate one of four different inhalants from air: toluene, 1,1,1-trichlroethane (TCE), isoflurane or nitrous oxide. We will subsequently conduct cross-tests among these four compounds as well as with other representative ..
  9. Drug-Induced Allostasis and Its Motivational Effects During Adolescence
    Douglas S Ramsay; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..This proposal investigates nitrous oxide (N2O)-induced allostatic changes and the motivational consequences of being in an allostatic state...
  10. Synthetic Modeling of Copper Protein Active Sites
    William B Tolman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..significant chemical reactions and the reduction of oxidized nitrogen-containing compounds like nitrite and nitrous oxide (N2O) during microbial respiratory processes important within the global nitrogen cycle...
  11. Acute and Chronic Effects of Inhalants in ICSS
    MATTHEW ED TRACY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..procedures for assessing abuse-related effects of two prototypic inhalants in these procedures: toluene and nitrous oxide. Our first goal will be to examine the acute rewarding effects of these inhalants...
  12. INHALATIONAL ANESTHETICS AND CORONARY VASOMOTION
    JOHN SILL; Fiscal Year: 1992
    Effects of the anesthetics isoflurane, halothane, enflurane, and nitrous oxide upon epicardial coronary dimensions and coronary arteriolar tone will be studied in dogs and humans...
  13. MERCURY AND REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH IN WOMEN DENTISTS
    David Savitz; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..Some of the confounders an effect modifiers to be studies include; nitrous oxide, smoking, coffee, alcohol, reproductive history, age of the mother at pregnancy, other occupational exposures, ..
  14. STRUCTURE & FUNCTION OF B12 BINDING PROTEINS
    Robert Allen; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..human and animal blood and tissues, in multivitamin-mineral pills and animal chows, and in animals exposed to nitrous oxide. We will determine the biologic activities and inhibitory properties of a variety of Cb1 analogues, use them ..
  15. ANESTHESIA RESEARCH CENTER
    William Hamilton; Fiscal Year: 1980
    ..The pharmacokinetics of dTC during narcotic-nitrous oxide vs halothane anesthesia in patients undergoing surgery...
  16. Anesthetics block neuronal voltage-gated Ca2+ currents
    SLOBODAN TODOROVIC; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Our preliminary results indicate that the volatile general anesthetics (VA) isoflurane and nitrous oxide (N2O;laughing gas) block slowly inactivating T-type Ca2+ currents and underlying burst of action potentials in ..
  17. NITROGEN OXIDE (NOX) REDOX CHEMISTRY WITH COPPER ION
    KENNETH KARLIN; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..studies of the chemistry of copper ion catalyzed processes, known to effect the reduction of nitrite ion to nitrous oxide (possibly through nitric oxide, NO) and N2O to dinitrogen...
  18. Nitrous Oxide, Individual Differences, and Conditioning
    Douglas Ramsay; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The proposed research investigates individual differences in the physiological mechanisms mediating tolerance to nitrous oxide (N20)-induced hypothermia...
  19. EFFECTS OF INHALATIONAL ANESTHETICS ON REPRODUCTION
    Robert Wharton; Fiscal Year: 1980
    ..if chronic exposure to subanesthetic and anesthetic concentrations of the inhalational anesthetics, halothane, nitrous oxide, methoxyflurane, enflurane and isoflurane, adversely effect the reproductive processes...
  20. SIGNALING PATHWAY FOR BENZODIAZEPINE INDUCED BEHAVIORS
    RAYMOND QUOCK; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..benzodiazepine chlordiazepoxide, the GABAA agonist 4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-isoxazolo[5,4-c]pyridin-3-ol (THIP) and nitrous oxide, another drug of abuse that appears to work at least in part through benzodiazepine/GABAA receptors, in mice ..
  21. Ceramide, Membrane Glycolipids and Glycoprotein Expression
    Myles C Cabot; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Many agents - chemotherapy drugs, nitrous oxide, gamma-irradiation - promote an increase in cellular ceramide, which elicits apoptosis...
  22. HYPOTHERMIC CARDIAC ARREST AND PERINATAL BRAIN DAMAGE
    ROBERT VANNUCCI; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..Experimental procedures will involve the induction of hypothermia by surface cooling in mildly anesthetized (nitrous oxide), paralyzed and artificially ventilated newborn dogs to 20 degrees C followed by cardiac arrest for 30, 60, 90,..
  23. Miniature Capnometer
    GREGORY ZELTSER; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..drawbacks: addition of a dead space, slow system response, and erroneous readings caused by the presence of nitrous oxide or oxygen, and by varying barometric pressure...
  24. REGULATION TO FOLATE METABOLISM
    ROWENA MATTHEWS; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..We will investigate the mechanism by which the enzyme is inactivated by the commonly used anesthetic, nitrous oxide, and will attempt to design agents that are capable of inactivation of the enzyme by a similar mechanism...
  25. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES AND ADDICTIVE VULNERABILITY
    Douglas Ramsay; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..female Long-Evans rats with regards to the hypothermic effects of a 4-hour steady-state administration of 60% nitrous oxide (N2O)...
  26. NITROUS OXIDE CONSCIOUS SEDATION--ANXIOYSIS
    RAYMOND QUOCK; Fiscal Year: 1990
    b>Nitrous oxide is widely used for production of conscious sedation in clinical dentistry. This clinical application of low concentrations of nitrous oxide specifically for reduction of anxiety is unique to dentistry...
  27. The metalloenzymes of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria
    A Pacheco; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Nitrite is a potential precursor for carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds, and for the potent greenhouse gas nitrous oxide. As much as 50% of ammonia fertilizer may be oxidized to nitrite by soil-inhabiting bacteria before it can ..
  28. BONE MARROW ASPIRATIONS IN CHILDREN; TREATMENT OUTCOME
    SUSAN JAY; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..The aim of the current proposal is to evaluate general anesthesia (nitrous oxide and halothane) as compared to the CBTP in terms of patient, parent, and staff distress; cost/benefit ratio and ..
  29. The mechanisms of N2O block of T-type Ca2+ channels in the pain pathway
    PEIHAN SU; Fiscal Year: 2009
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Nitrous oxide has been used as a powerful analgesic for centuries, but little is known of its cellular mechanism of action...
  30. Exacerbation of Alzheimer's Disease by Nitrous Oxide
    W Kofke; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..NMDA antagonists such as nitrous oxide (N20) and MK801 have been demonstrated to have a bimodal dose-related protective and then neurotoxic effect in ..
  31. DENTIST SCIENTIST AWARD--INSTITUTIONAL
    BEVERLY DALE CRUNK; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..applying various predictions of the hypothesis to the study of the pain- and anxiety-relieving properties of nitrous oxide, a drug commonly used in dental practice...
  32. METHYL DONOR DEFICIT AFTER N2O WITH OTHER DRUGS
    ROY DORRIS; Fiscal Year: 1990
    b>Nitrous oxide (N2O) is widely used by the dental profession for the control of patient anxiety...
  33. SUBTLE DISTURBANCES OF COBALAMIN STATUS
    Ralph Carmel; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The proposal aims to study whether nitrous oxide (N2O), used in most general anesthesia in the US, worsens cobalamin status in elderly people who have ..
  34. BEHAVIORAL EFFECTS OF NITROUS OXIDE IN HUMANS
    James Zacny; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..this application to examine the subjective and reinforcing (rewarding) effects of a commonly-abused inhalant, nitrous oxide, in healthy volunteers...
  35. NITROUS OXIDE AND ENDOGENOUS OPIOID SYSTEMS
    RAYMOND QUOCK; Fiscal Year: 1993
    b>Nitrous oxide is a gaseous pharmacological agent with a broad range of clinical applications in medicine and dentistry. Despite the use of nitrous oxide as a clinical analgesic agent, its mechanism of action remains somewhat nebulous...
  36. BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF NITROUS OXIDE USED IN DENTISTRY
    A Verrusio; Fiscal Year: 1980
    ..Since nitrous oxide is the oldest and the most widely used anesthetic agent in the current dental practice, there is a need for ..
  37. Miniature Capnometer
    GREGORY ZELTSER; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..including addition of a dead space, slow system response, and erroneous readings caused by the presence of nitrous oxide and oxygen, as well as varying barometric pressure...
  38. PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY IN BEHAVIORAL DENTISTRY AND MEDICINE
    Douglas Ramsay; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..of his current experiments investigates the relationship between acute and chronic tolerance development to nitrous oxide anagesia in human volunteers. Dr.Ramsay also studies drug effects on human performance...
  39. A SMALL-ANIMAL MODEL OF INHALANT SELF-ADMINISTRATION
    Douglas Ramsay; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..will be placed inside a gas-tight cylinder with a maintained, linear concentration gradient of an abused drug, nitrous oxide. The gradient spans a range of nitrous oxide concentration from 0 to 60 percent...
  40. ANESTHETIC ACTION ON OPIATE PEPTIDE GENE EXPRESSION
    Gregory Crosby; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..Some anesthetic agents are known to provide preemptive analgesia (nitrous oxide, morphine, pentobarbital) and others do not (halothane and isoflurane)...
  41. Catalytic oxidations based on nitrous oxide
    JOSHUA LAWRENCE; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..new oxidation reactions based on the metal promoted reactivity of a strong but kinetically inert oxidant, nitrous oxide. As such, nitrous oxide the potential to be a selective oxidant in fine chemical or pharmaceutical synthesis, ..
  42. PAIN MANAGEMENT IN ALCOHOLICS
    Louis Fiset; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..setting at baseline and in the presence of peripherally acting local anesthesia and centrally acting nitrous oxide. Alcoholic subjects will be clustered on severity of disease, time since withdrawal from alcohol, and stait ..
  43. GENETIC CONTROL OF RESPONSIVENESS TO N20 ANTIOCICEPTION
    RAYMOND QUOCK; Fiscal Year: 1999
    DESCRIPTION: (Applicant's Abstract) The mechanism of nitrous oxide (N20) analgesia remains uncertain, although research in mice has implicated an involvement of both kappa-opioid receptors and nitric oxide (N0)...
  44. Genetic Profiles for Perioperative Applications
    ROBERT KWIATKOWSKI; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..patient responses to neuromuscular blocking agents (BChE, RYR1, CACNA1S), opioids and antiarrythmics (CYP2D6), nitrous oxide (MTHFR, MTR, MTRR, CBS), volatile anesthetics (RYR1, CACNA1s), and the risk and severity of sepsis (TNF-alpha, ..
  45. NITRATE BIOSENSOR BASED ON PLANT NITRATE REDUCTASE
    ELLEN CAMPBELL; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..Generic enzyme electrode technology will be adapted for Nitrite, Nitrous Oxide, and Nitric Oxide Biosensors for a suite of implantable sensors.
  46. MOLECULAR MECHANISMS OF NITROSATIVE STRESS RESISTANCE
    JONATHAN STAMLER; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..In this pathway, SNO is cleaved to release NO, and is also reduced to nitrous oxide. The free NO released is oxidized to nitrate by the SNO/NO-inducible HMP...
  47. A Model of Inhalant Abuse Using Inhalant Responders
    James Zacny; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abuse (Busto et al, 1999) Subjects who report such subjective effects in response to the inhalants we test (nitrous oxide [N2O] and volatile anesthetics) will serve as surrogates for inhalant abusers in our laboratory model There ..
  48. OPIOID MECHANISMS IN NITROUS OXIDE DEPENDENCE
    LINDA VAUGHN; Fiscal Year: 1991
    b>Nitrous oxide (N2O) is widely used in clinical dentistry because of its anxiolytic and analgesic properties and because it is a weak anesthetic. It is also used in medicine as an adjunct to other anesthetics...
  49. Modeling the Catalytic Site of Nitrous Oxide Reductase
    Eric Brown; Fiscal Year: 2004
    b>Nitrous oxide reductase (N2OR) is a homodimeric protein containing one dicopper site ("CUA") and one tetracopper site ("CuZ") per subunit...
  50. HANDHELD MONITOR FOR ETHYLENE OXIDE IN HOSPITALS
    WILLIAM PENROSE; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..Similar technology may be adapted to the measurement of nitrous oxide and other anaesthesia gases.
  51. 2005 Small Integrin-Binding Proteins Gordon Conference
    William Butler; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..of mineral initiation in bones and teeth; kidney and salivary stone prevention; cytokine-like activity; nitrous oxide regulation etc. independently developed within the various areas of research...
  52. FIBER COUPLED SPECTROSCOPIC AIRWAY GAS MONITOR
    Kenneth Levin; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..spectral data will permit the identification and quantification of the anesthetic agents, carbon dioxide, and nitrous oxide. Infrared transmitting fluoride glass fibers will be optimized for use in the 2-5 micron spectral region...
  53. FIBER COUPLED SPECTROSCOPIC AIRWAY GAS MONITOR
    Kenneth Levin; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..AOTF) coupled to fluoride glass fibers will be developed to monitor airway gases such as carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and the anesthesia agents...
  54. Determinants of Tolerance to Nitrous Oxide Hypothermia
    Karl Kaiyala; Fiscal Year: 2004
    This is an R21 proposal to investigate the physiological mechanisms of tolerance development to nitrous oxide (N2O)-induced hypothermia...
  55. Neuroadaptive Substrates for Nitrous Oxide Tolerance
    Karl Kaiyala; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..R21 proposal to identify brain regions that participate in the neuroadaptive responses underlying tolerance to nitrous oxide (N2O) hypothermia. Addictive drugs perturb variables that are subject to homeostatic control...
  56. SITES AND MECHANISMS OF INHALED ANESTHETIC ACTIONS
    EDMOND EGER; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..abstract_text> ..
  57. DEVELOPMENTAL BRAIN DAMAGE BY DRUGS OF ABUSE
    John W Olney; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..abstract_text> ..
  58. ACUTE BRAIN INJURY, MECHANISMS AND PROTECTION
    John Olney; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..The long term goals are to clarify the underlying mechanisms and develop improved methods of treating human pediatric acute brain injury conditions. ..