chlorine

Summary

Summary: A greenish-yellow, diatomic gas that is a member of the halogen family of elements. It has the atomic symbol Cl, atomic number 17, and atomic weight 70.906. It is a powerful irritant that can cause fatal pulmonary edema. Chlorine is used in manufacturing, as a reagent in synthetic chemistry, for water purification, and in the production of chlorinated lime, which is used in fabric bleaching.

Top Publications

  1. pmc Biofilm formation by Escherichia coli O157:H7 on stainless steel: effect of exopolysaccharide and Curli production on its resistance to chlorine
    Jee Hoon Ryu
    Center for Food Safety and Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Georgia, 1109 Experiment St, Griffin, GA 30223 1797, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 71:247-54. 2005
  2. pmc Synergistic substrate binding determines the stoichiometry of transport of a prokaryotic H(+)/Cl(-) exchanger
    Alessandra Picollo
    Department of Anesthesiology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York, USA
    Nat Struct Mol Biol 19:525-31, S1. 2012
  3. ncbi Chlorination of bacterial and neutrophil proteins during phagocytosis and killing of Staphylococcus aureus
    Anna L P Chapman
    Free Radical Research Group, Department of Pathology, Christchurch School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Post Office Box 4345, Christchurch, New Zealand
    J Biol Chem 277:9757-62. 2002
  4. ncbi Kinetics of membrane damage to high (HNA) and low (LNA) nucleic acid bacterial clusters in drinking water by ozone, chlorine, chlorine dioxide, monochloramine, ferrate(VI), and permanganate
    Maaike K Ramseier
    Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Ueberlandstrasse 133, CH 8600 Duebendorf, Switzerland
    Water Res 45:1490-500. 2011
  5. ncbi Population diversity in model potable water biofilms receiving chlorine or chloramine residual
    Margaret M Williams
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    Biofouling 21:279-88. 2005
  6. ncbi Is hyperchloremia associated with mortality in critically ill patients? A prospective cohort study
    Márcio M Boniatti
    Critical Care Department, Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre, Brazil
    J Crit Care 26:175-9. 2011
  7. ncbi Comparative evaluation of methods for counting surviving biofilm cells adhering to a polyvinyl chloride surface exposed to chlorine or drying
    A Asséré
    Agence Francaise de Securite Sanitaire des Aliments, Laboratoire d études et de recherches sur la qualité des aliments et sur les procédés agroalimentaires, Maisons Alfort, France
    J Appl Microbiol 104:1692-702. 2008
  8. ncbi Isolation of novel bacteria within the Chloroflexi capable of reductive dechlorination of 1,2,3-trichloropropane
    J Yan
    Departments of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA
    Environ Microbiol 11:833-43. 2009
  9. ncbi Halogen bond tunability I: the effects of aromatic fluorine substitution on the strengths of halogen-bonding interactions involving chlorine, bromine, and iodine
    Kevin E Riley
    Department of Chemistry, University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras Campus, San Juan, Puerto Rico 00931, USA
    J Mol Model 17:3309-18. 2011
  10. ncbi A comparative study of the effects of ozonation and TiO2-catalyzed ozonation on the selected chlorine disinfection by-product precursor content and structure
    Jelena J Molnar
    University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Sciences, Trg Dositeja Obradovica 3, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia
    Sci Total Environ 425:169-75. 2012

Detail Information

Publications325 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc Biofilm formation by Escherichia coli O157:H7 on stainless steel: effect of exopolysaccharide and Curli production on its resistance to chlorine
    Jee Hoon Ryu
    Center for Food Safety and Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Georgia, 1109 Experiment St, Griffin, GA 30223 1797, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 71:247-54. 2005
    ..43895-EPS (an exopolysaccharide [EPS]-overproducing mutant), and ATCC 43895+ (a curli-producing mutant) to chlorine, a sanitizer commonly used in the food industry, was studied...
  2. pmc Synergistic substrate binding determines the stoichiometry of transport of a prokaryotic H(+)/Cl(-) exchanger
    Alessandra Picollo
    Department of Anesthesiology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York, USA
    Nat Struct Mol Biol 19:525-31, S1. 2012
    ..We propose that the thermodynamics of synergistic substrate binding, rather than the kinetics of conformational changes and ion binding, determine the stoichiometry of transport...
  3. ncbi Chlorination of bacterial and neutrophil proteins during phagocytosis and killing of Staphylococcus aureus
    Anna L P Chapman
    Free Radical Research Group, Department of Pathology, Christchurch School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Post Office Box 4345, Christchurch, New Zealand
    J Biol Chem 277:9757-62. 2002
    ..We conclude that hypochlorous acid is a major intracellular product of the respiratory burst. Although some reacts with the bacteria, most reacts with neutrophil components...
  4. ncbi Kinetics of membrane damage to high (HNA) and low (LNA) nucleic acid bacterial clusters in drinking water by ozone, chlorine, chlorine dioxide, monochloramine, ferrate(VI), and permanganate
    Maaike K Ramseier
    Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Ueberlandstrasse 133, CH 8600 Duebendorf, Switzerland
    Water Res 45:1490-500. 2011
    Drinking water was treated with ozone, chlorine, chlorine dioxide, monochloramine, ferrate(VI), and permanganate to investigate the kinetics of membrane damage of native drinking water bacterial cells...
  5. ncbi Population diversity in model potable water biofilms receiving chlorine or chloramine residual
    Margaret M Williams
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    Biofouling 21:279-88. 2005
    Most water utilities use chlorine or chloramine to produce potable water. These disinfecting agents react with water to produce residual oxidants within a water distribution system (WDS) to control bacterial growth...
  6. ncbi Is hyperchloremia associated with mortality in critically ill patients? A prospective cohort study
    Márcio M Boniatti
    Critical Care Department, Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre, Brazil
    J Crit Care 26:175-9. 2011
    ..The aim of the study was to determine if acid-base variables are associated with hospital mortality...
  7. ncbi Comparative evaluation of methods for counting surviving biofilm cells adhering to a polyvinyl chloride surface exposed to chlorine or drying
    A Asséré
    Agence Francaise de Securite Sanitaire des Aliments, Laboratoire d études et de recherches sur la qualité des aliments et sur les procédés agroalimentaires, Maisons Alfort, France
    J Appl Microbiol 104:1692-702. 2008
    To compare techniques for assessing biofilm populations previously subjected, or not, to inimical treatment by chlorine or drying.
  8. ncbi Isolation of novel bacteria within the Chloroflexi capable of reductive dechlorination of 1,2,3-trichloropropane
    J Yan
    Departments of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA
    Environ Microbiol 11:833-43. 2009
    ..Alkanes containing only a single chlorine substituent (1-chloropropane, 2-chloropropane), chlorinated alkenes (tetrachlorothene, trichlorothene, ..
  9. ncbi Halogen bond tunability I: the effects of aromatic fluorine substitution on the strengths of halogen-bonding interactions involving chlorine, bromine, and iodine
    Kevin E Riley
    Department of Chemistry, University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras Campus, San Juan, Puerto Rico 00931, USA
    J Mol Model 17:3309-18. 2011
    ..It is also shown that aromatic fluorine substitutions affect the optimal geometries of the halogen-bonded complexes, often as the result of secondary interactions...
  10. ncbi A comparative study of the effects of ozonation and TiO2-catalyzed ozonation on the selected chlorine disinfection by-product precursor content and structure
    Jelena J Molnar
    University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Sciences, Trg Dositeja Obradovica 3, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia
    Sci Total Environ 425:169-75. 2012
    ....
  11. ncbi Resistance of Legionella pneumophila serotype 1 biofilms to chlorine-based disinfection
    I R Cooper
    School of Pharmacy and Biomolecular Sciences, University of Brighton, Brighton, UK
    J Hosp Infect 74:152-9. 2010
    ..Despite the inclusion of chlorine in potable supplies and frequent chlorination cycles, the bacterium is a recalcitrant human pathogen capable of ..
  12. pmc Ascorbate and deferoxamine administration after chlorine exposure decrease mortality and lung injury in mice
    Sotirios G Zarogiannis
    Department of Anesthesiology, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 35294, USA
    Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 45:386-92. 2011
    b>Chlorine (Cl(2)) gas exposure poses an environmental and occupational hazard that frequently results in acute lung injury. There is no effective treatment...
  13. ncbi Effects of temperature and biodegradable organic matter on control of biofilms by free chlorine in a model drinking water distribution system
    S Ndiongue
    Department of Civil Engineering, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2L 3G1
    Water Res 39:953-64. 2005
    ..controlled laboratory conditions, the effects of temperature and biodegradable organic matter (BOM) on the free chlorine residual needed to control biofilm accumulation, as measured by heterotrophic plate count (HPC) bacteria...
  14. ncbi Chloride concentration in endosomes measured using a ratioable fluorescent Cl- indicator: evidence for chloride accumulation during acidification
    N D Sonawane
    Department of Medicin, Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143 0521, USA
    J Biol Chem 277:5506-13. 2002
    ..These experiments provide the first direct measurement of endosomal [Cl(-)] and indicate that endosomal acidification is accompanied by significant Cl(-) entry and volume increase...
  15. pmc Basis of substrate binding and conservation of selectivity in the CLC family of channels and transporters
    Alessandra Picollo
    Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Roy J and Lucille A Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, USA
    Nat Struct Mol Biol 16:1294-301. 2009
    ..We propose that CLC-ec1 operates through an affinity-switch mechanism and that the bases of substrate specificity are conserved in the CLC channels and transporters...
  16. ncbi The efficacy of heat and chlorine treatment against thermotolerant Acanthamoebae and Legionellae
    Michael V Storey
    Department of Parasitology, Mycology and Water Microbiology, Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control, SE 171 82 Solna, Sweden
    Scand J Infect Dis 36:656-62. 2004
    ..erythra, and L. pneumophila found located within vacuoles. At concentrations exceeding 2 mg/l, free chlorine was a better disinfectant than combined chlorine against Acanthamoebae-bound Legionellae, though thermal ..
  17. ncbi Formation of assimilable organic carbon during oxidation of natural waters with ozone, chlorine dioxide, chlorine, permanganate, and ferrate
    Maaike K Ramseier
    Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Ueberlandstrasse 133, Duebendorf CH 8600, Switzerland
    Water Res 45:2002-10. 2011
    Five oxidants, ozone, chlorine dioxide, chlorine, permanganate, and ferrate were studied with regard to the formation of assimilable organic carbon (AOC) and oxalate in absence and presence of cyanobacteria in lake water matrices...
  18. ncbi Free chlorine and monochloramine application to nitrifying biofilm: comparison of biofilm penetration, activity, and viability
    Woo Hyoung Lee
    School of Energy, Environmental, Biological and Medical Engineering, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221, USA
    Environ Sci Technol 45:1412-9. 2011
    Biofilm in drinking water systems is undesirable. Free chlorine and monochloramine are commonly used as secondary drinking water disinfectants, but monochloramine is perceived to penetrate biofilm better than free chlorine...
  19. ncbi Reactivity of natural organic matter with aqueous chlorine and bromine
    P Westerhoff
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Arizona State University, ECG 252, Tempe, AZ 85287 5306, USA
    Water Res 38:1502-13. 2004
    While both aqueous bromine (HOBr/OBr(-)) and chlorine (HOCl/OCl(-)) react with natural organic matter (NOM) during water treatment, limited direct parallel comparison of bromine versus chlorine has been conducted...
  20. ncbi Theoretical kinetic study of the formation reactions of methanol and methyl hypohalites in the gas phase
    Katarzyna Brudnik
    Department of Physical Chemistry, Wroclaw Medical University, pl Nankiera 1, 50 140, Wroclaw, Poland
    J Mol Model 15:1061-6. 2009
    ..The kinetic equations derived in this study allow a description of the kinetics of the reactions under investigation in the temperature range of 200-500 K...
  21. ncbi Point of use household drinking water filtration: A practical, effective solution for providing sustained access to safe drinking water in the developing world
    Mark D Sobsey
    Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, CB 7431, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 7431, USA
    Environ Sci Technol 42:4261-7. 2008
    ....
  22. pmc High-level expression, functional reconstitution, and quaternary structure of a prokaryotic ClC-type chloride channel
    M Maduke
    Department of Biochemistry, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Brandeis University, Waltham, Massachusetts 02254 9110, USA
    J Gen Physiol 114:713-22. 1999
    ..Cross-linking studies argue that EriC is a homodimer in both detergent micelles and reconstituted liposomes, a conclusion corroborated by gel filtration and analytical sedimentation experiments...
  23. ncbi Poor efficacy of residual chlorine disinfectant in drinking water to inactivate waterborne pathogens in distribution systems
    P Payment
    Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique INRS Institut Armand Frappier, Universite du Quebec, Laval, Canada
    Can J Microbiol 45:709-15. 1999
    To evaluate the inactivating power of residual chlorine in a distribution system, test microorganisms (Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens, bacteriophage phi-X 170, and poliovirus type 1) were added to drinking water samples ..
  24. ncbi The use of multiple indices of physiological activity to access viability in chlorine disinfected Escherichia coli O157:H7
    J T Lisle
    Montana State University, Department of Microbiology, Bozeman 59717, USA
    Lett Appl Microbiol 29:42-7. 1999
    ..intracellular stains and probes was used, in conjunction with viable plate counts, to assess the effect of chlorine disinfection on membrane potential (rhodamine 123; Rh123 and bis-(1,3-dibutylbarbituric acid) trimethine oxonol; ..
  25. ncbi Case-control study of colon and rectal cancers and chlorination by-products in treated water
    W D King
    Department of Community Health and Epidemiology, Queen s University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 9:813-8. 2000
    ..The results of this study should be interpreted with caution because they are only partially congruent with the limited amount of literature addressing this issue...
  26. ncbi Continuous monitoring of residual chlorine concentrations in response to controlled microbial intrusions in a laboratory-scale distribution system
    Damian E Helbling
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    Water Res 42:3162-72. 2008
    The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficacy of deploying free chlorine sensors as surrogate monitors for bacterial contamination events in drinking water distribution systems...
  27. ncbi Oxygen and nitrogen are pro-carcinogens. Damage to DNA by reactive oxygen, chlorine and nitrogen species: measurement, mechanism and the effects of nutrition
    B Halliwell
    Department of Biochemistry, National University of Singapore, Kent Ridge Crescent, Singapore 119260, Singapore
    Mutat Res 443:37-52. 1999
    ....
  28. ncbi Treatment of Escherichia coli O157:H7 inoculated alfalfa seeds and sprouts with electrolyzed oxidizing water
    Ratna R Sharma
    Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA
    Int J Food Microbiol 86:231-7. 2003
    ..EO water had a pH of 2.6, an oxidation-reduction potential of 1150 mV and about 50 ppm free chlorine. The percentage reduction in bacterial load was determined for reaction times of 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, and 64 min...
  29. pmc Transcriptomic responses of Salmonella enterica serovars Enteritidis and Typhimurium to chlorine-based oxidative stress
    Siyun Wang
    National Center for Food Safety and Technology, Illinois Institute of Technology, Summit Argo, IL 60501, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 76:5013-24. 2010
    ..Typhimurium is frequently linked to tainted poultry meats, fresh produce, and recently, peanut-based products. Chlorine is an oxidative disinfectant commonly used in the food industry to sanitize the surfaces of foods and food ..
  30. ncbi Matrix methods for solving protein substructures of chlorine and sulfur from anomalous data
    R A de Graaff
    Leiden Institute of Chemistry, Gorlaeus Laboratories, University of Leiden, PO Box 9502, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
    Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr 57:1857-62. 2001
    ..Two examples are discussed: the sulfur and chlorine substructure of tetragonal hen egg-white lysozyme and an oligonucleotide containing ten P atoms...
  31. ncbi Comparative in vitro and in vivo activity of the C-8 methoxy quinolone moxifloxacin and the C-8 chlorine quinolone BAY y 3118
    A Dalhoff
    Bayer AG, Pharma Research Center Wuppertal, PH PD SDD AI, Building 402, Aprather Weg 18, D 42113 Wuppertal, Germany
    Clin Infect Dis 32:S16-22. 2001
    ..of the C-8 methoxy quinolone moxifloxacin was compared with that of its structural analogue BAY y 3118 (chlorine moiety at the C-8 position), with Staphylococcus aureus used as the test organism...
  32. pmc "Dehalococcoides" sp. strain CBDB1 extensively dechlorinates the commercial polychlorinated biphenyl mixture aroclor 1260
    Lorenz Adrian
    Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research UFZ, Leipzig, Germany
    Appl Environ Microbiol 75:4516-24. 2009
    Dehalococcoides" sp. strain CBDB1 in pure culture dechlorinates a wide range of PCB congeners with three to eight chlorine substituents...
  33. ncbi Disinfection performances of stored acidic and neutral electrolyzed waters generated from brine solution
    Grace M Nisola
    Energy and Environment Fusion Technology Center, Department of Environmental Engineering and Biotechnology, Myongji University, South Korea
    J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 46:263-70. 2011
    ..Free chlorine (FC) loss, pH and oxidation-reduction potentials were monitored for 30 days...
  34. pmc Spatial and temporal patterns of biocide action against Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms
    William M Davison
    Center for Biofilm Engineering and Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Montana State University Bozeman, Bozeman, MT 59717 3980, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 54:2920-7. 2010
    The dynamic antimicrobial action of chlorine, a quaternary ammonium compound, glutaraldehyde, and nisin within biofilm cell clusters of Staphylococcus epidermidis was investigated using time-lapse confocal scanning laser microscopy...
  35. ncbi Effects of chemically and electrochemically dosed chlorine on Escherichia coli and Legionella beliardensis assessed by flow cytometry
    Yingying Wang
    Laboratory of Microbial Ecology and Technology LabMET, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 87:331-41. 2010
    The present study reports the disinfection effects of chemically and electrochemically dosed chlorine on two models for typical water-borne bacteria (Escherichia coli and Legionella beliardensis) by plating and flow cytometry (FCM) in ..
  36. pmc GRACE: public health recovery methods following an environmental disaster
    Erik R Svendsen
    Arnold School of Public Health and the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control, Columbia, SC, USA
    Arch Environ Occup Health 65:77-85. 2010
    ..valuable public health service, embedded generalizable scientific knowledge, and built a successful foundation for supplemental CBPR through their on-going recovery work after the chlorine gas disaster in Graniteville, South Carolina.
  37. pmc The healthy men study: an evaluation of exposure to disinfection by-products in tap water and sperm quality
    Thomas J Luben
    Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina School of Public Health, Chapel Hill, NC, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 115:1169-76. 2007
    ..In this study we assessed DBP exposure and testicular toxicity, as evidenced by altered semen quality...
  38. ncbi A phase II study to evaluate WF10 in patients with late hemorrhagic radiation cystitis and proctitis
    Vutisiri Veerasarn
    Division of Radiation Oncology, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700, Thailand
    Gynecol Oncol 100:179-84. 2006
    ..To evaluate efficacy and safety of WF10 (TCDO iv solution) therapy in patients with late hemorrhagic radiation cystitis and proctitis in a long-term follow up...
  39. ncbi Differential effects on innate versus adaptive immune responses by WF10
    Thomas Giese
    Institute of Immunology, School of Medicine, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 305, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
    Cell Immunol 229:149-58. 2004
    ..Inhibition of NFAT regulated genes in activated lymphocytes in concert with the induction of several myeloid cell associated pro-inflammatory genes in monocytes represents a novel mechanism of immune modulation...
  40. ncbi Mechanisms of Escherichia coli inactivation by several disinfectants
    Min Cho
    School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 200 Bobby Dodd Way, Atlanta, GA 30332 0373, USA
    Water Res 44:3410-8. 2010
    ..e. surface attack versus intracellular attack, during application of common water disinfectants such as ozone, chlorine dioxide, free chlorine and UV irradiation. Escherichia coli was used as a representative microorganism...
  41. ncbi Insights from soft X-rays: the chlorine and sulfur sub-structures of a CK2alpha/DRB complex
    Jennifer Raaf
    Universitat zu Koln, Institut fur Biochemie, Zulpicher Strasse 47, 50674, Koln, Germany
    Mol Cell Biochem 316:15-23. 2008
    ..be always observed with "soft" X-rays (wavelength around 2 A) since they match the absorption edges of sulfur and chlorine. A particularly useful application of this phenomenon is the experimental detection of the sub-structures of the ..
  42. ncbi Chlorine spot treatment of flooded tube wells, an efficacy trial
    S Luby
    Programme on Infectious Diseases and Vaccine Sciences, ICDDR, B Centre for Health and Population Research, Mohakhali, Dhaka, Bangladesh
    J Appl Microbiol 100:1154-8. 2006
    ..To evaluate the water quality of recently flooded tube wells in Bangladesh and the effect of spot chlorination on improving bacteriological quality...
  43. ncbi Inactivation of norovirus by chlorine disinfection of water
    Gwy Am Shin
    Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98105 6099, USA
    Water Res 42:4562-8. 2008
    In an effort to validate previous research suggesting remarkable resistance of norovirus to free chlorine disinfection, we characterized the disinfection response of purified and dispersed Norwalk virus (NV) by bench-scale free chlorine ..
  44. ncbi Complete reductive dechlorination of tetrachloroethene to ethene by anaerobic microbial enrichment culture developed from sediment
    Byung Hyuk Kim
    Environmental Biotechnology Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology KRIBB, Daejeon, 305 333, Republic of Korea
    Biotechnol Lett 32:1829-35. 2010
    ..Geobacter lovleyi and a Dehalococcoides sp. were identified from their 16S rRNA sequences to be the dominant phylotypes in AMEC-4P...
  45. ncbi Disinfection of swine wastewater using chlorine, ultraviolet light and ozone
    John J Macauley
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Missouri Rolla, 65409, USA
    Water Res 40:2017-26. 2006
    ..This study was conducted to determine the disinfection potential of chlorine, ultraviolet light and ozone against swine lagoon bacteria...
  46. ncbi Matrix metalloproteinases, IL-8 and glutathione in the prognosis of workers exposed to chlorine
    K Maghni
    Axe de recherche en santé respiratoire, Department of ChestMedicine, Sacre Coeur Hospital, 5400 West Gouin Blvd, Montreal, QC, Canada
    Allergy 65:722-30. 2010
    Workers exposed to chlorine may be at risk of deterioration in FEV1.
  47. ncbi Suboptimal chlorine treatment of drinking water leads to selection of multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa
    Richa Shrivastava
    Biomembrane Division, Industrial Toxicology Research Centre, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow 226001, India
    Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 58:277-83. 2004
    ..The chlorine-resistant bacteria had mucoid colonies and grew better at 24 degrees C...
  48. pmc Mitigation of chlorine lung injury by increasing cyclic AMP levels
    Gary W Hoyle
    Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health and Information Sciences, University of Louisville, 319 Abraham Flexner Way, Louisville, KY 40202, USA
    Proc Am Thorac Soc 7:284-9. 2010
    b>Chlorine is considered a chemical threat agent to which humans may be exposed as a result of accidental or intentional release...
  49. pmc Mechanisms and modification of chlorine-induced lung injury in animals
    Amit K Yadav
    Department of Anesthesiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 901 19th Street South, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
    Proc Am Thorac Soc 7:278-83. 2010
    b>Chlorine (Cl(2)) is a reactive oxidant gas used extensively in industrial processes...
  50. pmc Comparing the chlorine disinfection of detached biofilm clusters with those of sessile biofilms and planktonic cells in single- and dual-species cultures
    Sabrina Behnke
    Center for Biofilm Engineering, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 77:7176-84. 2011
    ..Cluster size distributions in chemostats and biofilm reactor effluent were measured. Chlorine susceptibility was assessed for planktonic cultures, attached biofilm, and particles and cells detached from the ..
  51. pmc Loss of basal cells precedes bronchiolitis obliterans-like pathological changes in a murine model of chlorine gas inhalation
    Emily G O'Koren
    1 Department of Immunology
    Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 49:788-97. 2013
    ..Here, we describe a model of chlorine-induced BO in which mice develop tracheal and large airway obliterative lesions within 10 days of exposure to ..
  52. ncbi Reactions of tetracycline antibiotics with chlorine dioxide and free chlorine
    Pei Wang
    School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200240, China
    Water Res 45:1838-46. 2011
    ..The potential reactions of TCs with common water disinfection oxidants such as chlorine dioxide (ClO(2)) and free available chlorine (FAC) have not been studied in depth and are the focus of this study...
  53. ncbi Chlorine disinfection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, total coliforms, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis: revisiting reclaimed water regulations
    Claudia Coronel-Olivares
    Instituto de Ciencias Básicas e Ingeniería Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Hidalgo Carretera Pachuca Tulancingo Hidalgo, Mexico
    Water Sci Technol 64:2151-7. 2011
    ..The detection of this species along with the traditional organisms could be particulary significant for reclaimed water to be used with direct human contact...
  54. pmc Administration of nitrite after chlorine gas exposure prevents lung injury: effect of administration modality
    Andrey A Samal
    Department of Pathology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
    Free Radic Biol Med 53:1431-9. 2012
    ..These data highlight the potential for nitrite as a postexposure therapeutic for Cl(2) gas-induced lung injury and also suggest that administration modality is a key consideration in nitrite therapeutics...
  55. ncbi Decontamination of a drinking water pipeline system contaminated with adenovirus and Escherichia coli utilizing peracetic acid and chlorine
    Ari Kauppinen
    Department of Environmental Health, Water and Health Unit, National Institute for Health and Welfare, P O Box 95, FI 70701 Kuopio, Finland
    J Water Health 10:406-18. 2012
    ..In this study, two chemical decontaminants, peracetic acid (PAA) and chlorine, were used to test how a laboratory-scale pipeline system can be cleaned after simultaneous contamination with ..
  56. pmc Posttraumatic stress and tendency to panic in the aftermath of the chlorine gas disaster in Graniteville, South Carolina
    Jay P Ginsberg
    Shirley L Buchanan Neuroscience Laboratory, Dorn VA Medical Center, Columbia, SC, USA
    Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 47:1441-8. 2012
    Relatively little is known about psychological effects of environmental hazard disasters. This study examines the development of posttraumatic stress (PTS) and tendency to limited panic attack after a large chlorine spill in a community.
  57. pmc Comparative inactivation of murine norovirus, human adenovirus, and human JC polyomavirus by chlorine in seawater
    Adriana de Abreu Corrêa
    Laboratorio de Virologia Aplicada, Departamento de Microbiologia, Imunologia e Parasitologia, CCB, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, Brazil
    Appl Environ Microbiol 78:6450-7. 2012
    ..of inactivation of murine norovirus 1 and human adenovirus 2 in natural and artificial seawater by free available chlorine was studied by quantifying genomic copies (GC) using quantitative PCR and infectious viral particles (PFU)...
  58. ncbi Effects of isocyanuric acid on the monochlorodimedone chlorinating rates with free chlorine and ammonia chloramine in water
    Mariko Tachikawa
    College of Pharmacy, Nihon University, Narashinodai, Funabashi, Japan
    Water Res 36:2547-54. 2002
    Changes in monochlorodimedone (MCD) chlorinating rates with free chlorine (mixture of HOCl and OCl-) and ammonia monochloramine (NH2Cl) in water at pH 7 by the addition of isocyanuric acid (H3Cy) were determined at room temperature...
  59. ncbi Reduction of Escherichia coli on surfaces of utensils and development of a predictive model as a function of concentration and exposure time of chlorine
    Seung Bum Baek
    Department of Food Science and Technology, Chung Ang University, Ansung, South Korea
    Foodborne Pathog Dis 9:1-6. 2012
    ..of Escherichia coli on the surfaces of various materials and to develop a predictive model as a function of chlorine concentration and exposure time. The reduction of E...
  60. ncbi The effects of stainless steel finish on Salmonella Typhimurium attachment, biofilm formation and sensitivity to chlorine
    Dov B Schlisselberg
    Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Engineering, Technion Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000, Israel
    Food Microbiol 35:65-72. 2013
    ..Interestingly, disinfection of biofilms with chlorine was up to 130 times more effective on the EP surface (0.005% surviving) than on the other surfaces...
  61. ncbi The decay of chlorine associated with the pipe wall in water distribution systems
    N B Hallam
    School of Civil Engineering, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, UK
    Water Res 36:3479-88. 2002
    Free chlorine decay rates in water distribution systems for bulk and wall demands should be modelled separately as they have different functional dependencies...
  62. ncbi Molecular chlorine generated by the myeloperoxidase-hydrogen peroxide-chloride system of phagocytes converts low density lipoprotein cholesterol into a family of chlorinated sterols
    S L Hazen
    Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    J Biol Chem 271:23080-8. 1996
    ..Since HOCl is in equilibrium with molecular chlorine (Cl2) through a reaction which requires Cl- and H+, this raised the possibility that Cl2 was the actual ..
  63. ncbi The public health consequences from acute chlorine releases, 1993-2000
    D Kevin Horton
    Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Health Studies Epidemiology and Surveillance Branch, 1600 Clifton Road NE, Mailstop E 31, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    J Occup Environ Med 44:906-13. 2002
    b>Chlorine, a commonly used hazardous substance, can be harmful to human health when improperly released...
  64. ncbi Comparative effectiveness of membrane bioreactors, conventional secondary treatment, and chlorine and UV disinfection to remove microorganisms from municipal wastewaters
    Donna S Francy
    US Geological Survey, Ohio Water Science Center, 6480 Doubletree Ave, Columbus, OH 43229, USA
    Water Res 46:4164-78. 2012
    ..treatment processes: post-preliminary, post-MBR, post-secondary, post-tertiary, and post-disinfection (UV or chlorine)...
  65. pmc Dehalorespiration with polychlorinated biphenyls by an anaerobic ultramicrobacterium
    Harold D May
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Marine Biomedicine and Environmental Science Center, 225 BSB, P O Box 250504, Medical University of South Carolina, 173 Ashley Avenue, Charleston, SC 29425, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 74:2089-94. 2008
    ..The ability of this isolate to grow on PCBs in contaminated sediments represents a significant breakthrough for the development of in situ treatment strategies for this class of persistent organic pollutants...
  66. ncbi Identification of a microorganism that links its growth to the reductive dechlorination of 2,3,5,6-chlorobiphenyl
    L A Cutter
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Marine Biomedicine and Envionmental Sciences Program, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA
    Environ Microbiol 3:699-709. 2001
    ..The consistent association with dechlorinating activity combined with high similarity to other known dechlorinating microorganisms indicates that bacterium o-17 catalyses the reductive ortho-dechlorination of 2,3,5,6-tetrachlorobiphenyl...
  67. pmc Nonenzymatic displacement of chlorine and formation of free radicals upon the reaction of glutathione with PCB quinones
    Yang Song
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, University of Iowa, 100 Oakdale Campus, 124 IREH, Iowa City, IA 52242 5000, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:9725-30. 2009
    ..MS revealed 2 types of reactions yielding different products: (i) a nonenzymatic, nucleophilic displacement of chlorine on the quinone ring yielding a glutathiylated conjugated quinone and (ii) Michael addition of GSH to the quinone, ..
  68. ncbi Comparison of the disinfection by-product formation potential of treated waters exposed to chlorine and monochloramine
    Cynthia M M Bougeard
    Centre for Water Science, Cranfield University, Bedfordshire MK43 0AL, UK
    Water Res 44:729-40. 2010
    ..Samples were collected after treatment at 11 water treatment works but before exposure to chlorine or monochloramine...
  69. ncbi Transformation of the antibacterial agent sulfamethoxazole in reactions with chlorine: kinetics, mechanisms, and pathways
    Michael C Dodd
    School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332, USA
    Environ Sci Technol 38:5607-15. 2004
    ..Kinetics, mechanisms, and products of SMX in reactions with free chlorine (HOCl/OCl-) were studied in detail to evaluate the effect of chlorination processes on the fate of sulfonamides ..
  70. ncbi Transmission electron microscopic analysis showing structural changes to bacterial cells treated with electrolyzed water and an acidic sanitizer
    Lizanel Feliciano
    Department of Food Science and Technology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
    J Food Sci 77:M182-7. 2012
    ..7, oxidation reduction potential; ORP: 1100 mV, free available chlorine; FAC: 150 ppm), NEW (pH 6.9, ORP: 840 mV, FAC: 150 ppm), BEW (pH 11.6, ORP: -810 mV)] were used to treat E...
  71. ncbi Comparative evaluation of biofilm disinfectant efficacy tests
    Kelli Buckingham-Meyer
    Center for Biofilm Engineering, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 3980, USA
    J Microbiol Methods 70:236-44. 2007
    ..Three different disinfectants, chlorine, a quaternary ammonium compound, and a phenolic, were each applied at two concentrations...
  72. ncbi Reduction of Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes with electrolyzed oxidizing water on inoculated hass avocados (Persea americana var. Hass)
    O Rodríguez-Garcia
    Programa de Doctorado en Ciencias para el Desarrollo Sustentable, Centro Universitario de la Costa, Puerto Vallarta, Jalisco 48280, Mexico
    J Food Prot 74:1552-7. 2011
    ..inoculated avocados were treated with a water wash applied by spraying tap water containing 1 mg/liter free chlorine for 15 s (WW); WW treatment and then spraying sodium hypochlorite in water containing 75 mg/liter free chlorine ..
  73. pmc Small molecular, macromolecular, and cellular chloramines react with thiocyanate to give the human defense factor hypothiocyanite
    Bheki A Xulu
    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019, USA
    Biochemistry 49:2068-74. 2010
    ..Our observations are further evidence for the importance of secondary reactions during the redox cascades that are associated with oxidative stress by hypohalous acids...
  74. ncbi Graphene quantum dot as a green and facile sensor for free chlorine in drinking water
    Yongqiang Dong
    Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection for Food Safety, and Department of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, Fujian 350108, China
    Anal Chem 84:8378-82. 2012
    Free chlorine was found to be able to destroy the passivated surface of the graphene quantum dots (GQDs) obtained by pyrolyzing citric acid, resulting in significant quenching of their fluorescence (FL) signal...
  75. pmc Cellular response of the amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii to chlorine, chlorine dioxide, and monochloramine treatments
    Emerancienne Mogoa
    Laboratoire de Chimie et Microbiologie de l Eau, CNRS UMR 6008, Universite de Poitiers, 40 Avenue du Recteur Pineau, 86022 Poitiers Cedex, France
    Appl Environ Microbiol 77:4974-80. 2011
    ..The cellular response to chlorine, chlorine dioxide, and monochloramine was tested on A. castellanii trophozoites...
  76. ncbi Investigating synergism during sequential inactivation of MS-2 phage and Bacillus subtilis spores with UV/H2O2 followed by free chlorine
    Min Cho
    School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 200 Bobby Dodd Way, Atlanta, GA 30332 0373, USA
    Water Res 45:1063-70. 2011
    A sequential application of UV as a primary disinfectant with and without H(2)O(2) addition followed by free chlorine as secondary, residual disinfectant was performed to evaluate the synergistic inactivation of selected indicator ..
  77. ncbi Effect of pH on the formation of disinfection byproducts in swimming pool water--is less THM better?
    Kamilla M S Hansen
    Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark DTU, Kgs Lyngby, Denmark
    Water Res 46:6399-409. 2012
    ..0 ≤ pH ≤ 8.0. Either the initial concentration of active chorine or free chlorine was kept constant in the tested pH range...
  78. ncbi Chlorine residuals and haloacetic acid reduction in rapid sand filtration
    Yi Hsueh Chuang
    Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, 71 Chou Shan Rd, Taipei, Taiwan
    Chemosphere 85:1146-53. 2011
    ..This might be due to frequent backwashes and low substrate levels. High chlorine concentrations may inhibit biofilm development, especially for plants with pre-chlorination...
  79. ncbi [Investigation of an outbreak of acute respiratory illness due to exposure to chlorine gas in a public swimming pool]
    Diego Almagro Nievas
    Unidad de Epidemiología y Programas del Distrito Metropolitano de Granada, Granada, Espana
    Gac Sanit 22:287-90. 2008
    ..The aim was to describe the environmental factors involved in the accident, to assess the effect of chlorine gas on the respiratory system, and to perform a clinical and spirometric follow-up...
  80. ncbi Acute respiratory distress syndrome from chlorine inhalation during a swimming pool accident: a case report and review of the literature
    Rajesh V Babu
    Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Allergy, Pulmonary, Immunology, Critical Care, and Sleep, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas, USA
    J Intensive Care Med 23:275-80. 2008
    b>Chlorine inhalation can result in significant morbidity and mortality. The most common clinical ramification is mucosal irritation. Rarely, depending upon the degree of exposure, patients can develop acute respiratory distress syndrome...
  81. ncbi Atmospheric chemistry of isoflurane, desflurane, and sevoflurane: kinetics and mechanisms of reactions with chlorine atoms and OH radicals and global warming potentials
    Mads P Sulbaek Andersen
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Mail Stop 183 901, Pasadena, California 91109, United States
    J Phys Chem A 116:5806-20. 2012
    ..45 ± 0.16) × 10(-14) cm(3) molecule(-1) was also determined. Chlorine atoms react with CF(3)CHFOCHF(2) via H-abstraction to give CF(3)CFOCHF(2) and CF(3)CHFOCF(2) radicals in yields ..
  82. ncbi Bactericidal activity of electrolyzed acid water from solution containing sodium chloride at low concentration, in comparison with that at high concentration
    Hiromasa Kiura
    Department of Microbiology, Osaka Medical College, Takatsuki, Osaka 569 8686, Japan
    J Microbiol Methods 49:285-93. 2002
    Electrolyzed strong acid water (ESW) containing free chlorine at various concentrations is becoming to be available in clinical settings as a disinfectant...
  83. ncbi A high-field solid-state 35/37Cl NMR and quantum chemical investigation of the chlorine quadrupolar and chemical shift tensors in amino acid hydrochlorides
    Rebecca P Chapman
    Department of Chemistry and Centre for Catalysis Research and Innovation, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, CanadaK1N6N5
    Phys Chem Chem Phys 9:6219-30. 2007
    ..acid, alanine, cysteine, histidine, methionine and threonine, allowed the extraction of information regarding the chlorine electric field gradient (EFG) and chemical shift tensors, including their relative orientation...
  84. ncbi Effects of storage conditions and pH on chlorine loss in electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water
    Soo Voon Len
    Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Georgia, Griffin, GA 30223 1797, USA
    J Agric Food Chem 50:209-12. 2002
    The chlorine loss of electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water was examined during storage under different light, agitation, and packaging conditions. The chlorine loss of pH-adjusted EO water was also examined...
  85. ncbi Getting the best out of long-wavelength X-rays: de novo chlorine/sulfur SAD phasing of a structural protein from ATV
    Adeline Goulet
    Architecture et Fonction des Macromolécules Biologiques UMR 6098, CNRS, Universités d Aix Marseille I et II, Case 932, 163 Avenue de Luminy, 13288 Marseille Cedex 9, France
    Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr 66:304-8. 2010
    ..In such cases, data collection at long wavelengths may be a time-efficient alternative to selenomethionine substitution and heavy-atom derivatization...
  86. pmc Effect of chlorine on incorporation of Helicobacter pylori into drinking water biofilms
    M S Gião
    Institute for Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Centre of Biological Engineering, Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710 057 Braga, Portugal
    Appl Environ Microbiol 76:1669-73. 2010
    ..acid (PNA) probe demonstrated that Helicobacter pylori persisted inside biofilms exposed to low concentrations of chlorine (0.2 and 1.2 mg liter(-1)) for at least 26 days, although no culturable cells were recovered...
  87. pmc Time course of airway remodelling after an acute chlorine gas exposure in mice
    Stephanie A Tuck
    Meakins Christie Laboratories, McGill University, Montreal, Canada
    Respir Res 9:61. 2008
    Accidental chlorine (Cl2) gas inhalation is a common cause of acute airway injury. However, little is known about the kinetics of airway injury and repair after Cl2 exposure...
  88. ncbi Persistent sub-lethal chlorine exposure augments temperature induced immunosuppression in Cyprinus carpio advanced fingerlings
    A K Verma
    College of Biotechnology, Allahabad Agricultural Institute Deemed University, Allahabad 211007, Uttar Pradesh, India
    Fish Shellfish Immunol 22:547-55. 2007
    ..temperature, thermal effluents discharged through cooling systems of nuclear power plants may often contain chlorine (used against bio-fouling), which may affect the immune status of fish...
  89. ncbi Chlorine covers on living bacteria: the initial step in antimicrobial action of active chlorine compounds
    Waldemar Gottardi
    Department of Hygiene, Microbiology and Social Medicine, Division of Hygiene and Medical Microbiology, Innsbruck Medical University, Fritz Pregl Strasse 3, A 6020 Innsbruck, Austria
    J Antimicrob Chemother 55:475-82. 2005
    Although active chlorine compounds are well-known antimicrobial agents in human medicine, their initial steps of action have not been completely clarified...
  90. pmc Post-exposure antioxidant treatment in rats decreases airway hyperplasia and hyperreactivity due to chlorine inhalation
    Michelle V Fanucchi
    Department of Environmental Health Science, School of Public Health, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
    Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 46:599-606. 2012
    ..We assessed the safety and efficacy of combined intravenous and aerosolized antioxidant administration to attenuate chlorine gas-induced airway alterations when administered after exposure...
  91. ncbi Eye and respiratory symptoms in poultry processing workers exposed to chlorine by-products
    Bradley S King
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health NIOSH, Division of Surveillance, Hazard Evaluations, and Field Studies DSHEFS, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA
    Am J Ind Med 49:119-26. 2006
    ..CDC/NIOSH responded to a request to investigate complaints of eye and respiratory irritation among workers in a poultry processing facility's evisceration department...
  92. pmc Identification of a bacterium that specifically catalyzes the reductive dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls with doubly flanked chlorines
    Qingzhong Wu
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Medical University of South Carolina, 173 Ashley Ave, Charleston, SC 29425 2230, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 68:807-12. 2002
    ..The PCB dechlorinator, designated bacterium DF-1, reductively dechlorinates congeners with doubly flanked chlorines when it is supplied with formate or H(2)-CO(2) (80:20)...
  93. pmc Membrane damage and microbial inactivation by chlorine in the absence and presence of a chlorine-demanding substrate
    R Virto
    Tecnologia de los Alimentos, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de Zaragoza, Miguel Servet 177, 50 013 Zaragoza, Spain
    Appl Environ Microbiol 71:5022-8. 2005
    ..and Bacillus subtilis, and two gram-negative organisms, Yersinia enterocolitica and Escherichia coli, exposed to chlorine in the absence and presence of 150 ppm of organic matter (Trypticase soy broth). L. monocytogenes and B...
  94. ncbi Control of biofouling by Cordylophora caspia in freshwater using one-off, pulsed and intermittent dosing of chlorine: laboratory evaluation
    R C Mant
    Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
    Biofouling 28:433-40. 2012
    ..a ready source of hot water so laboratory experiments were conducted to assess whether using pulsed doses of chlorine is an alternative solution. C...
  95. ncbi The natural chlorine cycle--fitting the scattered pieces
    G Oberg
    Department Thematic Studies, Campus Norrköping, Linkopings Universitet, 60174 Norrköping, Sweden
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 58:565-81. 2002
    b>Chlorine is one of the most abundant elements on the surface of the earth...
  96. pmc Chlorine gas inhalation: human clinical evidence of toxicity and experience in animal models
    Carl W White
    Pediatrics, National Jewish Health, 1400 Jackson St, Denver, CO 80206, USA
    Proc Am Thorac Soc 7:257-63. 2010
    Humans can come into contact with chlorine gas during short-term, high-level exposures due to traffic or rail accidents, spills, or other disasters. By contrast, workplace and public (swimming pools, etc...
  97. ncbi A comparison of the soil migration and plant uptake of radioactive chlorine and iodine from contaminated groundwater
    D J Ashworth
    Department of Environmental Science and Technology, Imperial College London, Silwood Park, Ascot, Berkshire SL5 7PY, UK
    J Environ Radioact 89:61-80. 2006
    ..In the context of radioactive waste disposal, where these radionuclides may potentially be released into groundwater, (36)Cl would be expected to present a greater potential for contamination of the biosphere than (129)I...
  98. ncbi Effects of chlorine and pH on efficacy of electrolyzed water for inactivating Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes
    Hoon Park
    Department of Food Science and Technology, College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, University of Georgia, Griffin, GA 30223 1797, USA
    Int J Food Microbiol 91:13-8. 2004
    The effects of chlorine and pH on the bactericidal activity of electrolyzed (EO) water were examined against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes. The residual chlorine concentration of EO water ranged from 0.1 to 5...
  99. ncbi Airway remodeling and inflammation in competitive swimmers training in indoor chlorinated swimming pools
    Valerie Bougault
    Centre de Recherche de l Institut Universitaire de Cardiologie et de Pneumologie de Quebec, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 129:351-8, 358.e1. 2012
    ..Airway disorders are common in regular chlorinated swimming pool attendees, particularly competitive athletes, but the impact of intense swimming training on airway function and structure remains unclear...
  100. ncbi The effect of free chlorine on Burkholderia pseudomallei in potable water
    Kay Howard
    Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Western Australian Centre for Pathology and Medical Research, Locked Bag 2009, WA 6909, Nedlands, Australia
    Water Res 37:4425-32. 2003
    b>Chlorine is widely used in public water supplies to provide a disinfection barrier. The effect of chlorine disinfection on the water-borne pathogen Burkholderia pseudomallei was assessed using multiple techniques...
  101. ncbi Using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) absorbance spectroscopy and multivariate analysis to study the effect of chlorine-induced bacterial injury in water
    Hamzah M Al-Qadiri
    Department of Nutrition and Food Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, The University of Jordan, Amman 11942 Jordan
    J Agric Food Chem 56:8992-7. 2008
    The effect of chlorine-induced bacterial injury on spectral features using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) absorbance spectroscopy was studied using a mixed bacterial culture of (1:1) ca...

Research Grants63

  1. A Hybrid PARP Inhibitor and Redox Catalyst for Lung Transplantation
    GARRY JOHN SOUTHAN; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..and remarkably protective in vivo, as shown in murine LD100 models of zymosan-induced multiple organ failure and chlorine inhalational lung injury...
  2. A Hybrid Katp Channel Opener to Prevent Radiocontrast-Induced Nephropathy
    Kanneganti Murthy; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..benefits have been observed in other rodent redox models, including myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury and chlorine inhalational lung injury...
  3. Resuscitation of smoke inhalation and burn injury with a thioredoxin mimetic
    ANDREW LURIE SALZMAN; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..In a murine LD100 model of severe redox stress induced by acute chlorine gas inhalation, post-insult administration of R-901 reduced pulmonary PMN infiltration by 50%...
  4. Enhanced Membrane Systems for Supplying Quality Drinking Water
    Andrew Feiring; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Background: Chlorine dioxide and other halogens are routinely used for oxidation...
  5. Repair of Airway Epithelium Following Chlorine Lung Injury
    Gary W Hoyle; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..b>Chlorine gas is a highly toxic respiratory irritant that is considered a chemical threat agent because of the possibility ..
  6. Novel therapeutics for vesicants and toxic inhaled chemicals (U54)
    Carl W White; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..fibrin-containing casts formed after inhalation exposures to CEES or SM, and similar lesions were apparent after chlorine (400 ppm)...
  7. Prevention and Treatment of Chlorine Gas Induced Injury to the Pulmonary System
    Sadis Matalon; Fiscal Year: 2011
    b>Chlorine (C12) is a moderately soluble, highly reactive oxidant gas, used extensively for water purification, manufacturing of Pharmaceuticals and chemicals and as a potent disinfectant...
  8. Targeting Injury Pathways to Counteract Pulmonary Agent and Vesicant Toxicity
    Sven Eric Jordt; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Chlorine (CI2), phosgene, vesicants and electrophilic reactive chemicals (industrial and riot control agents) are considered among the most imminent chemical threats to be diverted for terrorism ..
  9. Mitochondrial Bioenergetic Dysfunction and Chlorine Toxicity
    Sadis Matalon; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Chlorine (Cl2) is a highly irritant and reactive gas produced in large quantities throughout the world and used extensively for pulp bleaching, waste sanitation and in the manufacturing of various ..
  10. Countermeasures for chlorine-induced airway fibrosis
    Gary W Hoyle; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Chlorine gas is a highly toxic respiratory irritant that is considered a chemical threat agent because of the possibility that it could be released in industrial accidents or terrorist attacks...
  11. Functional Genomics of Chemical-Induced Acute Lung Injury
    GEORGE DOUGLAS LEIKAUF; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..period we developed and validated mouse models of acute lung injury to 5 common chemicals (acrolein, ammonia, chlorine, phosgene, and sulfuric acid)...
  12. Synthetic surfactant and toxic chemical lung injury
    Frans J Walther; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..g., chlorine) or liquids (e.g., hydrochloric acid)...
  13. Antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and antispore paints
    YUYU contact SUN; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Challenging conditions (e.g., heavy soil, flooding, etc.) may consume more chlorine and thus shorten the antimicrobial duration...
  14. Development of therapeutics for chlorine-induced airway and lung injury
    Michael D Gunn; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Human inhalation of chlorine and other toxic gasses leads to several acute and chronic respiratory abnormalities including Acute Lung Injury (ALI), Reactive Airways Dysfunction Syndrome (RADS), and ..
  15. Countermeasure for Chlorine Inhalation
    SIGRIDUR G SUMAN; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..R21 application outlines an approach to reduce chloramines formed in human tissue after accidental exposure to chlorine gas following an industrial accident or terrorist attack...
  16. A Four-arm Prospective, Multicenter Study to Assess the Clinical Efficacy, Effect
    Daniel J Sexton; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The second phase will investigate the hypothesis that enhanced terminal room disinfection protocols (using chlorine-based cleaning agents with or without UV-C light-emitting devices) will decrease the overall risk of HAIs in the ..
  17. Long-Term Lung Health After Exposure to Chlorine Gas
    ERIK ROBERT SVENDSEN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Chlorine gas is a potential weapon of mass destruction and is one of the most commonly used chemicals [1-5]...
  18. Mucosal Immunity and the Role of TH1 Cytokines in a Model of Cryptosporidiosis
    Jan R Mead; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of cryptosporidiosis are reported in the US, mainly due to ingestion of water that has been contaminated by the chlorine-resistant pathogen Cryptosporidium...
  19. Identifying components of Toxoplasma oocysts that confer environmental resistance
    HEATHER MICHELLE FRITZ; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The goal of this project is to understand the critical components in the oocyst that make it resistant to methods of water treatment, including chlorine, UV and ozone.
  20. A Better High-level Disinfectant for Endoscopes and Other Medical Equipments/Devi
    Neera Satsangi; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..in water just before use, the mixture would concomitantly generate two separate disinfectant agents, including chlorine dioxide, for the reinforcement of bioactivity...
  21. Multifunctional therapeutics for treatment of acute chlorine inhalational injury
    GARRY JOHN SOUTHAN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..agents that represent the first molecules proven effective in the resuscitation of a pre-clinical model of acute chlorine inhalational injury (CILI)...
  22. Asymmetric Lewis Base Catalysis in Main Group Chemistry
    Scott Eric Denmark; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These reactions are efficiently initiated by electrophilic sulfur(II), chlorine(I), bromine(I), and iodine(I) reagents The design of Lewis bases to catalyze and control the constitutional and ..
  23. Enantioselective Metabolism Influences PCB Developmental Neurotoxicity
    Isaac N Pessah; Fiscal Year: 2013
    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners with multiple ortho chlorine substituents are potent sensitizers of the ryanodine receptor (RyR) and this activity is thought to contribute to the developmental neurotoxicity associated with ..
  24. Accelerating Inflammation Resolution to CounterACT Chemical Injury
    Sven Eric Jordt; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Pulmonary exposures to chlorine trigger a potent inflammatory response resulting in vascular leakage, cardiopulmonary depression, neutrophil ..
  25. A Novel Nanocomposite Photocatalyst for Water Treatment
    ANUNCIA GONZALEZ MARTIN; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..However disinfection byproducts (DBPs) are formed by the reactions between chlorine and the natural organic matter (NOM), bromide, and iodide dissolved in water...
  26. Structural Elucidation, Synthesis and Study of the Chlorosulfolipids
    Christopher D Vanderwal; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Nature makes extensive use of chlorine in biosynthesis;to date, over 2000 chlorinated natural products have been identified...
  27. Network-based Health Interventions in Rural Honduras
    Alison R Hwong; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..a research team and I conducted a randomized controlled trial of network-based public health interventions: chlorine for water purification and multivitamins for micronutrient deficiencies...
  28. Developing a ClO2 Compliance Service: Minimizing Water Borne Microbial Infection
    SPENDEL U WOLFGANG; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Microbial pathogens from tap water are a significant source of HAI (2). Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) (CD) is a chemical disinfectant used to treat public drinking water supplies, primarily by ..
  29. Evaluation of Neuroprotective Effects of AEOL10150 against Chemical Threat Agents
    Manisha N Patel; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..countermeasures have identified AEOL10150 as a lead compound that rescues lung injury caused by mustard and chlorine. The goal of this project is to determine if AEOL10150 is a neuroprotective medical countermeasure against ..
  30. Novel Therapies for Chlorine-Induced Lung Injury
    Gary W Hoyle; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Chlorine gas is a highly toxic respiratory irritant that is considered a chemical threat agent...
  31. Characterization of bleach-specific transcriptional regulators in bacteria
    URSULA H JAKOB; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Chlorine-based bleach is the most widely used disinfectant in the world...
  32. Novel Treatments of Chlorine Induced Injury to the Cardio-Respiratory Systems-U54
    Sadis Matalon; Fiscal Year: 2011
    This Research Center of Excellence (RCE) entitled: "Novel Treatments of Chlorine Induced Injury to the Cardio-Respiratory Systems" consists of three projects and two cores...
  33. Nitrite dependent protection against Cl2 gas toxicity_role of chlorinated lipids
    RAKESH PRAVINCHANDRA PATEL; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Chlorine (Cl2) gas mediated injury is complex involving a direct toxicity that occurs during the exposure and a robust post exposure toxicity that occurs over hrs-days to the airways, pulmonary and ..
  34. Total Synthesis of Plocamium Polyhalogenated Monoterpenes, Analogues, and Biologi
    Carl Vogel; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..featuring several units of unsaturation, as well as multiple halogens, including two contiguous stereogenic chlorine-bearing carbons...
  35. Neuroprotective effects of AEOL 10150 against organophosphate toxicity
    Manisha N Patel; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..countermeasures have identified AEOL10150 as a lead compound that rescues lung injury caused by mustard and chlorine. The goal of this project is to determine if AEOL10150 is a neuroprotective medical countermeasure against a ..
  36. Salinosporamide Biosynthesis and Engineering
    Bradley S Moore; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..new crotonyl-CoA reductase-based expression systems for the engineered biosynthesis of new polyketide synthase extender units with halogenated (fluorine and chlorine) and branched side chains for the design of new polyketide molecules.
  37. Finding effective treatments for inhaled chlorine-induced injury related pain
    Timothy J Ness; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Chlorine (Cl2) is a highly irritant and reactive gas produced in large quantities throughout the world...
  38. GABAERGIC INSECTICIDE TOXICOLOGY
    JOHN CASIDA; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..pounds of these channel blockers have been used for pest control in the past 50 years and they range in chlorine content from 52-73%...
  39. SUPERFUND TOXIC SUBSTANCES--EXPOSURE AND DISEASE
    Karl Kelsey; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..These studies encompass specific exposures to metals and to organo-chlorine compounds...
  40. Assessment of Health Services Needs Pre- and Post-Disaster in Rural SC
    SACOBY MIGUEL WILSON; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The project is novel because it will study the long-term health impacts of a chlorine spill in a small rural medically underserved area for the first time...
  41. Understanding the Evolution of Halogenation in Biological Systems
    EMILY PATRICIA BALSKUS; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..As a result the development and mechanistic investigation of methods, both chemical and biological, for the selective installation of chlorine and other halogen atoms into molecules is an important area of research.
  42. Determining the structural basis for the mechanism of catalytic O2 evolution by t
    Gudrun Lukat Rodgers; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..It can also be applied to the development of systems for removing toxic chlorine-based pollutants from waste and ground water.
  43. NASAL IRRITANT SENSITIVITY AND ALLERGIC RHINITIS
    Dennis Shusterman; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..challenge studies comparing subjects' response to filtered air with their response to a 15-minute exposure to chlorine gas (Cl2) at 1.0 part-per-million administered via nasal mask in a climate controlled chamber...
  44. DEVELOPMENT OF A MARINE ANTI-PLAQUE COMPOUND
    TREVOR CASTOR; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..Marine microorganisms, which can generate compounds that integrate halogens such as chlorine and bromine, can thus be an important resource for the discovery of anti-plaque compounds...
  45. INDIVIDUAL FACTORS IN NASAL IRRITANT SENSITIVITY
    Dennis Shusterman; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..will be studies by examining changes in nasal airway resistance (NAR) after both chemical irritant (low-level chlorine) and pharmacologic (aerosolized histamine) provocation...
  46. MIBG ANALOGUE RADIOPHARMACEUTICALS
    Ganesan Vaidyanathan; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..The structural alterations planned include introduction of chlorine, bromine, iodine, nitro and sulfonic acid moieties at the 4-position in the benzene ring of MIBG and replacement ..
  47. NMR STUDY OF METAL-ION COMPLEXATION
    ANTHONY FRATIELLO; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..A multinuclear approach using hydrogen-1, carbon-13, nitrogen-14, chlorine- 35, yttrium-89, and lanthanum-139 NMR spectroscopy will be applied in this structural study...
  48. PROTOZOA-LEGIONELLA INTERACTIONS AND DISINFECTION
    Sharon Berk; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..Age of cysts up to 2 years will be tested. Resistance of Legionella within cysts to chlorine and chloramine will be assessed...
  49. MINIATURE SYSTEM FOR REMOVAL OF DISINFECTION BYPRODUCTS
    JINSEONG KIM; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Unfortunately, disinfection byproducts (DPBs) are formed when chlorine and other disinfectants are used in water treatment plants...
  50. Point Source Ozonation to Minimize Antibiotic Resistance
    SCOTT OSBORN; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..will focus on stable contaminants and refractory microbes that are not removed from wastewater using standard chlorine-based disinfection...
  51. Medical Instrument Compatible Disinfectant Generator
    CHARLES TENNAKOON; Fiscal Year: 2005
    The long-term goal of this proposal is to develop an automated, on-demand, electrochemical generator of chlorine dioxide solution for endoscope reprocessing in collaboration with a reputed Health Science Center...
  52. The Removal of Disinfection Byoproducts from Water (1000-641)
    ARJAN GIAYA; Fiscal Year: 2007
    unreadable] DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The use of chlorine for the disinfection of domestic water supplies produces a range of halogenated organic compounds as a result of chemical reactions between the chlorine and naturally ..
  53. Low Cost Ozone Sanitization of Drinking Water
    DONALD STOOKEY; Fiscal Year: 2004
    There is a significant interest in displacing chlorine with ozone in a variety of water treatment processes. Some processes include wastewater treatment, purification of drinking water and bleaching operations...
  54. Environmental Determinants of Pulmonary Disease: A new approach to an old problem
    Erik Svendsen; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..To accomplish my research project, I have compiled a registry cohort of over 950 victims acutely exposed to chlorine gas during a community environmental disaster...
  55. IMPROVEMENTS IN CHLORINE DIOXIDE DISINFECTION OF WATER
    BERNARD BUBNIS; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..99% inactivation of Giardia. Water treatment facilitates that utilize surface water will have to use ozone or chlorine dioxide to be cost effective in meeting the new regulations...
  56. DISPOSITION METABOLISM & TOXICITY OF HALOALDEHYDES
    DEAN CARTER; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..known to directly react with amine functional groups on endogenous compounds like proteins but the presence of chlorine atoms on the alpha carbon raises the possibility of nucleophilic attack on that carbon with elimination of a ..
  57. NEUTRON ACTIVATION FOR C AND N--THE CLINICAL ENVIRONMENT
    Richard Pierson; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..been developed to the status of a criterion method for the measurement of the elements carbon, nitrogen, sodium, chlorine, phosphorus, and calcium, serially, non-invasively, and with safety, in intact human subjects...
  58. Disinfecting Drinking Water Via Hybrid Ozone Systems
    JOHN BOWSER; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..Although chlorine is widely used and is cheaper to use that ozone, its use results in the formation of carcinogenic trihalomethanes...
  59. MINIATURE SYSTEM FOR REMOVAL OF DISINFECTION BYPRODUCTS
    K McKenzie; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..However, there appears to be no substitute for chlorine for providing a residual biocide in water delivery lines...
  60. NOVEL APPARTUS FOR THE DISINFECTION OF BURN WOUNDS
    Thomas Rogers; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..PROPOSED COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS: Ozone technology is beginning to emerge as the preferred alternative to chlorine and chlorine based disinfectants, a market worth billions of dollars annually...
  61. The Removal of Disinfection Byproducts from Water
    ARJAN GIAYA; Fiscal Year: 2004
    The use of chlorine for the disinfection of domestic water supplies produces a range of halogenated organic compounds as a result of chemical reactions between the chlorine and naturally occurring organic material (NOM)...
  62. RELATION OF CANCER RATES AND SOURCE OF DRINKING WATER
    Irina Cech; Fiscal Year: 1980
    ..to the health risk from waterborne chloro-organic compounds, some of which were shown to be a product of chlorine-disinfection process...
  63. DIRECT TEST FOR CHOLORAMINES IN HEMODIALYSIS WATER
    JAMES CHRISTNER; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..Rather, the level of chloramines is obtained by calculation of the difference between the total chlorine and free chlorine levels...