reactive oxygen species

Summary

Summary: Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Reactive oxygen species have a causal role in multiple forms of insulin resistance
    Nicholas Houstis
    Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02141, USA
    Nature 440:944-8. 2006
  2. ncbi Reactive oxygen species: metabolism, oxidative stress, and signal transduction
    Klaus Apel
    Institute of Plant Sciences, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Universitätstr 2, 8092 Zurich, Switzerland
    Annu Rev Plant Biol 55:373-99. 2004
  3. ncbi Free radicals and antioxidants in normal physiological functions and human disease
    Marian Valko
    Faculty of Chemical and Food Technology, Slovak Technical University, SK 812 37 Bratislava, Slovakia
    Int J Biochem Cell Biol 39:44-84. 2007
  4. ncbi The NOX family of ROS-generating NADPH oxidases: physiology and pathophysiology
    Karen Bedard
    Biology of Ageing Laboratories, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland
    Physiol Rev 87:245-313. 2007
  5. pmc Reactive oxygen species-independent activation of the IL-1beta inflammasome in cells from patients with chronic granulomatous disease
    Frank L van de Veerdonk
    Department of Medicine, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center and Nijmegen Institute for Infection, Inflammation, and Immunity N4i, 6500 HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:3030-3. 2010
  6. pmc How mitochondria produce reactive oxygen species
    Michael P Murphy
    MRC Dunn Human Nutrition Unit, Hills Road, Cambridge CB20XY, UK
    Biochem J 417:1-13. 2009
  7. ncbi Oxidants, oxidative stress and the biology of ageing
    T Finkel
    Laboratory of Molecular Biology, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 1622, USA
    Nature 408:239-47. 2000
  8. pmc Mitochondrial formation of reactive oxygen species
    Julio F Turrens
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of South Alabama, Mobile, AL 36688, USA
    J Physiol 552:335-44. 2003
  9. pmc Oxidative stress and diabetic complications
    Ferdinando Giacco
    Diabetes Research Center, Departments of Medicine Endocrinology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Ave, Bronx, New York 10461 1602, USA
    Circ Res 107:1058-70. 2010
  10. pmc Physiological roles of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species
    Laura A Sena
    Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
    Mol Cell 48:158-67. 2012

Detail Information

Publications327 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Reactive oxygen species have a causal role in multiple forms of insulin resistance
    Nicholas Houstis
    Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02141, USA
    Nature 440:944-8. 2006
    ..Gene expression analysis suggests that reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels are increased in both models, and we confirmed this through measures of cellular redox state...
  2. ncbi Reactive oxygen species: metabolism, oxidative stress, and signal transduction
    Klaus Apel
    Institute of Plant Sciences, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Universitätstr 2, 8092 Zurich, Switzerland
    Annu Rev Plant Biol 55:373-99. 2004
    Several reactive oxygen species (ROS) are continuously produced in plants as byproducts of aerobic metabolism...
  3. ncbi Free radicals and antioxidants in normal physiological functions and human disease
    Marian Valko
    Faculty of Chemical and Food Technology, Slovak Technical University, SK 812 37 Bratislava, Slovakia
    Int J Biochem Cell Biol 39:44-84. 2007
    b>Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS, e.g. nitric oxide, NO(*)) are well recognised for playing a dual role as both deleterious and beneficial species...
  4. ncbi The NOX family of ROS-generating NADPH oxidases: physiology and pathophysiology
    Karen Bedard
    Biology of Ageing Laboratories, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland
    Physiol Rev 87:245-313. 2007
    ..to transport electrons across the plasma membrane and to generate superoxide and other downstream reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
  5. pmc Reactive oxygen species-independent activation of the IL-1beta inflammasome in cells from patients with chronic granulomatous disease
    Frank L van de Veerdonk
    Department of Medicine, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center and Nijmegen Institute for Infection, Inflammation, and Immunity N4i, 6500 HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:3030-3. 2010
    ..due to mutations in p47-phox have defective NADPH activity and thus cannot generate NADPH-dependent reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
  6. pmc How mitochondria produce reactive oxygen species
    Michael P Murphy
    MRC Dunn Human Nutrition Unit, Hills Road, Cambridge CB20XY, UK
    Biochem J 417:1-13. 2009
    The production of ROS (reactive oxygen species) by mammalian mitochondria is important because it underlies oxidative damage in many pathologies and contributes to retrograde redox signalling from the organelle to the cytosol and nucleus...
  7. ncbi Oxidants, oxidative stress and the biology of ageing
    T Finkel
    Laboratory of Molecular Biology, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 1622, USA
    Nature 408:239-47. 2000
    ..of effective cellular strategies to detect and detoxify metabolites of molecular oxygen known as reactive oxygen species. Here we review evidence that the appropriate and inappropriate production of oxidants, together with the ..
  8. pmc Mitochondrial formation of reactive oxygen species
    Julio F Turrens
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of South Alabama, Mobile, AL 36688, USA
    J Physiol 552:335-44. 2003
    ..Even though O2-* is not a strong oxidant, it is a precursor of most other reactive oxygen species, and it also becomes involved in the propagation of oxidative chain reactions...
  9. pmc Oxidative stress and diabetic complications
    Ferdinando Giacco
    Diabetes Research Center, Departments of Medicine Endocrinology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Ave, Bronx, New York 10461 1602, USA
    Circ Res 107:1058-70. 2010
    ..Through these pathways, increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) cause defective angiogenesis in response to ischemia, activate a number of proinflammatory pathways,..
  10. pmc Physiological roles of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species
    Laura A Sena
    Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
    Mol Cell 48:158-67. 2012
    Historically, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mROS) were thought to exclusively cause cellular damage and lack a physiological function...
  11. ncbi A role for mitochondria in NLRP3 inflammasome activation
    Rongbin Zhou
    Department of Biochemistry, Center of Immunity and Infection, University of Lausanne, Chemin des Boveresses 155, CH 1066 Epalinges, Switzerland
    Nature 469:221-5. 2011
    ..that NLRP3 inflammasome activity is negatively regulated by autophagy and positively regulated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) derived from an uncharacterized organelle...
  12. pmc Reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis and redox regulation in cellular signaling
    Paul D Ray
    Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, North Carolina State University, Campus Box 7633, Raleigh, NC 27695 7633, USA
    Cell Signal 24:981-90. 2012
    b>Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated during mitochondrial oxidative metabolism as well as in cellular response to xenobiotics, cytokines, and bacterial invasion...
  13. ncbi Free radicals, metals and antioxidants in oxidative stress-induced cancer
    M Valko
    Faculty of Chemical and Food Technology, Slovak Technical University, SK 812 37 Bratislava, Slovakia
    Chem Biol Interact 160:1-40. 2006
    Oxygen-free radicals, more generally known as reactive oxygen species (ROS) along with reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are well recognised for playing a dual role as both deleterious and beneficial species...
  14. pmc Increased oxidative stress in obesity and its impact on metabolic syndrome
    Shigetada Furukawa
    Department of Medicine and Pathophysiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Organismal Biosystems, Graduate School of Frontier Biosciences, Osaka University, 2 2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565 0871, Japan
    J Clin Invest 114:1752-61. 2004
    ....
  15. ncbi Targeting cancer cells by ROS-mediated mechanisms: a radical therapeutic approach?
    Dunyaporn Trachootham
    Department of Molecular Pathology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, USA
    Nat Rev Drug Discov 8:579-91. 2009
    Increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and an altered redox status have long been observed in cancer cells, and recent studies suggest that this biochemical property of cancer cells can be exploited for therapeutic ..
  16. ncbi Microglia-mediated neurotoxicity: uncovering the molecular mechanisms
    Michelle L Block
    Neuropharmacology Section, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Nat Rev Neurosci 8:57-69. 2007
    ..environmental toxins and endogenous proteins, microglia can enter an overactivated state and release reactive oxygen species (ROS) that cause neurotoxicity...
  17. pmc Reactive oxygen species, cellular redox systems, and apoptosis
    Magdalena L Circu
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, Louisiana University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA 71130, USA
    Free Radic Biol Med 48:749-62. 2010
    b>Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are products of normal metabolism and xenobiotic exposure, and depending on their concentration, ROS can be beneficial or harmful to cells and tissues...
  18. pmc Reactive oxygen species are essential for autophagy and specifically regulate the activity of Atg4
    Ruth Scherz-Shouval
    Department of Biological Chemistry, The Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100 Rehovot, Israel
    EMBO J 26:1749-60. 2007
    ..In this study, we describe the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as signaling molecules in starvation-induced autophagy...
  19. pmc Signal transduction by reactive oxygen species
    Toren Finkel
    Center for Molecular Medicine, National Heart Lung and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Cell Biol 194:7-15. 2011
    Although historically viewed as purely harmful, recent evidence suggests that reactive oxygen species (ROS) function as important physiological regulators of intracellular signaling pathways...
  20. ncbi Killing by bactericidal antibiotics does not depend on reactive oxygen species
    Iris Keren
    Antimicrobial Discovery Center, Department of Biology, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 021156, USA
    Science 339:1213-6. 2013
    ..has been challenged by studies that propose an alternative, unified mechanism of killing, whereby toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced in the presence of antibiotics...
  21. ncbi Oxidative stress, antioxidants and stress tolerance
    Ron Mittler
    Dept of Botany, Plant Sciences Institute, 353 Bessey Hall, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA
    Trends Plant Sci 7:405-10. 2002
    ..These raise several intriguing questions about the relationships between ROI signaling, ROI stress and the production and scavenging of ROIs in the different cellular compartments...
  22. ncbi Reactive oxygen species and antioxidant machinery in abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants
    Sarvajeet Singh Gill
    Plant Molecular Biology Group, International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110 067, India
    Plant Physiol Biochem 48:909-30. 2010
    Various abiotic stresses lead to the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plants which are highly reactive and toxic and cause damage to proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and DNA which ultimately results in oxidative stress...
  23. pmc Association of reactive oxygen species levels and radioresistance in cancer stem cells
    Maximilian Diehn
    Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, USA
    Nature 458:780-3. 2009
    The metabolism of oxygen, although central to life, produces reactive oxygen species (ROS) that have been implicated in processes as diverse as cancer, cardiovascular disease and ageing...
  24. ncbi TIGAR, a p53-inducible regulator of glycolysis and apoptosis
    Karim Bensaad
    The Beatson Institute for Cancer Research, Switchback Road, Glasgow G61 1BD, UK
    Cell 126:107-20. 2006
    ..levels in cells, resulting in an inhibition of glycolysis and an overall decrease in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels...
  25. ncbi Mitochondria, oxidants, and aging
    Robert S Balaban
    Laboratory of Cardiac Energetics, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Cell 120:483-95. 2005
    The free radical theory of aging postulates that the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species is the major determinant of life span...
  26. pmc Oncogene-induced Nrf2 transcription promotes ROS detoxification and tumorigenesis
    Gina M DeNicola
    Li Ka Shing Centre, Cancer Research UK Cambridge Institute, Robinson Way, Cambridge CB2 0RE, UK
    Nature 475:106-9. 2011
    b>Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are mutagenic and may thereby promote cancer...
  27. pmc Cell death from antibiotics without the involvement of reactive oxygen species
    Yuanyuan Liu
    Department of Microbiology, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
    Science 339:1210-3. 2013
    Recent observations have suggested that classic antibiotics kill bacteria by stimulating the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). If true, this notion might guide new strategies to improve antibiotic efficacy...
  28. pmc Fission and selective fusion govern mitochondrial segregation and elimination by autophagy
    Gilad Twig
    Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02111, USA
    EMBO J 27:433-46. 2008
    ..Together, these findings suggest that fission followed by selective fusion segregates dysfunctional mitochondria and permits their removal by autophagy...
  29. ncbi Reactive oxygen gene network of plants
    Ron Mittler
    Department of Biochemistry, Mail Stop 200, University of Nevada, Reno, NV 89557, USA
    Trends Plant Sci 9:490-8. 2004
  30. ncbi Forkhead transcription factor FOXO3a protects quiescent cells from oxidative stress
    Geert J P L Kops
    Department of Physiological Chemistry, University Medical Center Utrecht and Center for Biomedical Genetics, 3584 CG Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Nature 419:316-21. 2002
    b>Reactive oxygen species are required for cell proliferation but can also induce apoptosis...
  31. ncbi Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of silver nanoparticles in human cells
    P V AshaRani
    Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117543, Singapore 117597
    ACS Nano 3:279-90. 2009
    ..Ag-np reduced ATP content of the cell caused damage to mitochondria and increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in a dose-dependent manner...
  32. pmc From endoplasmic-reticulum stress to the inflammatory response
    Kezhong Zhang
    Department of Biological Chemistry, The University of Michigan Medical Center, 1150 West Medical Center Drive, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA
    Nature 454:455-62. 2008
    ..The knowledge gained from this emerging field will aid in the development of therapies for modulating cellular stress and inflammation...
  33. pmc Fatty acid-induced NLRP3-ASC inflammasome activation interferes with insulin signaling
    Haitao Wen
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA
    Nat Immunol 12:408-15. 2011
    ..This pathway involves mitochondrial reactive oxygen species and the AMP-activated protein kinase and unc-51-like kinase-1 (ULK1) autophagy signaling cascade...
  34. ncbi Reactive oxygen species in cell signaling
    V J Thannickal
    Pulmonary and Critical Care Division, Department of Medicine, New England Medical Center Tupper Research Institute, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02111, USA
    Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 279:L1005-28. 2000
    b>Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated as by-products of cellular metabolism, primarily in the mitochondria...
  35. ncbi ROS signaling: the new wave?
    Ron Mittler
    Department of Biological Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, University of North Texas, 1155 Union circle 305220, Denton, TX 76203, USA
    Trends Plant Sci 16:300-9. 2011
    b>Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a multitude of signaling roles in different organisms from bacteria to mammalian cells...
  36. pmc Inhibition of pyruvate kinase M2 by reactive oxygen species contributes to cellular antioxidant responses
    Dimitrios Anastasiou
    Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Department of Medicine Division of Signal Transduction, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Science 334:1278-83. 2011
    Control of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) concentrations is critical for cancer cell survival...
  37. ncbi Reactive oxygen species produced by NADPH oxidase regulate plant cell growth
    Julia Foreman
    Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, John Innes Centre, Norwich NR4 7UH, UK
    Nature 422:442-6. 2003
    ..a protein that transfers electrons from NADPH to an electron acceptor leading to the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
  38. pmc Selective killing of cancer cells by a small molecule targeting the stress response to ROS
    Lakshmi Raj
    Cutaneous Biology Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Building 149 13th Street, Charlestown, Massachusetts 02129, USA
    Nature 475:231-4. 2011
    ..Piperlongumine increases the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptotic cell death in both cancer cells and normal cells engineered to have a cancer genotype,..
  39. ncbi FoxOs are critical mediators of hematopoietic stem cell resistance to physiologic oxidative stress
    Zuzana Tothova
    Division of Hematology, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital, and Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Cell 128:325-39. 2007
    ..Notably, there was a marked context-dependent increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) in FoxO-deficient HSC compared with wild-type HSC that correlated with changes in expression of ..
  40. pmc Redox regulation of cell survival
    Dunyaporn Trachootham
    Department of Molecular Pathology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    Antioxid Redox Signal 10:1343-74. 2008
    b>Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) play important roles in regulation of cell survival...
  41. pmc The Nrf2-antioxidant response element signaling pathway and its activation by oxidative stress
    Truyen Nguyen
    Schering Plough Research Institute, Summit, New Jersey 07901, USA
    J Biol Chem 284:13291-5. 2009
    ..In addition, a possible role of the Nrf2-antioxidant response element transcriptional pathway in neuroprotection will also be discussed...
  42. ncbi ROS as signalling molecules: mechanisms that generate specificity in ROS homeostasis
    Michel B Toledano
    CEA, iBiTecS, SBIGeM, Laboratoire Stress Oxydants et Cancer, Batiment 142, Commissariat à l Energie Atomique Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette, France
    Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 8:813-24. 2007
    b>Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been shown to be toxic but also function as signalling molecules. This biological paradox underlies mechanisms that are important for the integrity and fitness of living organisms and their ageing...
  43. ncbi Reactive oxygen species promote TNFalpha-induced death and sustained JNK activation by inhibiting MAP kinase phosphatases
    Hideaki Kamata
    Laboratory of Gene Regulation and Signal Transduction, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    Cell 120:649-61. 2005
    ..Sustained JNK activation in NF-kappaB-deficient cells was suggested to depend on reactive oxygen species (ROS), but how ROS affect JNK activation was unclear...
  44. ncbi Oxidative DNA damage: mechanisms, mutation, and disease
    Marcus S Cooke
    Oxidative Stress Group, Department of Clinical Biochemistry, University of Leicester, Leicester Royal Infirmary, University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust, Leicester, LE2 7LX, UK
    FASEB J 17:1195-214. 2003
    ....
  45. pmc Wolbachia induces reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent activation of the Toll pathway to control dengue virus in the mosquito Aedes aegypti
    Xiaoling Pan
    Department of Entomology and Genetics Program, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:E23-31. 2012
    ..Infection with this bacterium leads to induction of oxidative stress and an increased level of reactive oxygen species in its mosquito host...
  46. pmc Cellular defenses against superoxide and hydrogen peroxide
    James A Imlay
    Department of Microbiology, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
    Annu Rev Biochem 77:755-76. 2008
    ..Current research seeks to identify these, and bacteria comprise an exceptionally accessible experimental system that has provided many of the answers. This manuscript reviews recent developments and identifies remaining puzzles...
  47. pmc Crosstalk of reactive oxygen species and NF-κB signaling
    Michael J Morgan
    Cell and Cancer Biology Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, NIH, 37 Convent Drive, RM1130, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Cell Res 21:103-15. 2011
    ..b>Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) are created by a variety of cellular processes as part of cellular signaling events...
  48. ncbi Mitochondrial free radical generation, oxidative stress, and aging
    E Cadenas
    Department of Molecular Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy University of Southern California, Los Angeles 90033, USA
    Free Radic Biol Med 29:222-30. 2000
    ..In this article we review the mitochondrial rates of production and steady state levels of these reactive oxygen species. Reactive oxygen species generated by mitochondria, or from other sites within or outside the cell, cause ..
  49. ncbi NOX enzymes and the biology of reactive oxygen
    J David Lambeth
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Emory University Medical School, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA
    Nat Rev Immunol 4:181-9. 2004
  50. ncbi Suppression of reactive oxygen species and neurodegeneration by the PGC-1 transcriptional coactivators
    Julie St-Pierre
    Dana Farber Cancer Institute and Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Cell 127:397-408. 2006
    ..Since the mitochondrial electron transport chain is the main producer of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in most cells, we examined the effect of PGC-1alpha on the metabolism of ROS...
  51. ncbi The NLRP3 inflammasome: a sensor for metabolic danger?
    Kate Schroder
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Lausanne, CH 1066 Epalinges, Switzerland
    Science 327:296-300. 2010
    Interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) are all implicated in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)...
  52. ncbi Mitochondria, oxidative stress and cell death
    Martin Ott
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, S 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden
    Apoptosis 12:913-22. 2007
    ..This, in turn, seems to be intimately linked to their role as the major intracellular source of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are mainly generated at Complex I and III of the respiratory chain...
  53. pmc Comparison of the mechanism of toxicity of zinc oxide and cerium oxide nanoparticles based on dissolution and oxidative stress properties
    Tian Xia
    Division of NanoMedicine, Department of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA
    ACS Nano 2:2121-34. 2008
    ..7 and BEAS-2B cell lines. ZnO induced toxicity in both cells, leading to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), oxidant injury, excitation of inflammation, and cell death...
  54. ncbi Advanced glycation end products: sparking the development of diabetic vascular injury
    Alison Goldin
    Cardiovascular Division, Brigham and Women s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 75 Francis St, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Circulation 114:597-605. 2006
    ..AGEs block nitric oxide activity in the endothelium and cause the production of reactive oxygen species. Because of the emerging evidence about the adverse effects of AGEs on the vasculature of patients with ..
  55. pmc DNA damage induces reactive oxygen species generation through the H2AX-Nox1/Rac1 pathway
    M A Kang
    Department of Molecular Biosciences, IBIS Program, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60201, USA
    Cell Death Dis 3:e249. 2012
    The DNA damage response (DDR) cascade and ROS (reactive oxygen species) signaling are both involved in the induction of cell death after DNA damage, but a mechanistic link between these two pathways has not been clearly elucidated...
  56. ncbi Alternative Perspectives on Aging in Caenorhabditis elegans: Reactive Oxygen Species or Hyperfunction?
    David Gems
    Institute of Healthy Ageing and Department of Genetics, Evolution and Environment, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom
    Antioxid Redox Signal 19:321-9. 2013
    ..theory has it that aging is the result of an accumulation of molecular damage, caused in particular by reactive oxygen species produced by mitochondria...
  57. ncbi NLRP3 inflammasome activation: The convergence of multiple signalling pathways on ROS production?
    Jurg Tschopp
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Lausanne, Epalinges, Switzerland
    Nat Rev Immunol 10:210-5. 2010
    ..we review the different signalling pathways that have been proposed to engage the NLRP3 inflammasome and suggest a model in which one of the crucial elements for NLRP3 activation is the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS).
  58. ncbi Oxidative stress and stress-activated signaling pathways: a unifying hypothesis of type 2 diabetes
    Joseph L Evans
    University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143, USA
    Endocr Rev 23:599-622. 2002
    ..Studies with antioxidants such as vitamin E, alpha-lipoic acid, and N-acetylcysteine suggest that new strategies may become available to treat these conditions...
  59. ncbi Regulation of autophagy by ROS: physiology and pathology
    Ruth Scherz-Shouval
    Department of Molecular Cell Biology, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, 76100, Israel
    Trends Biochem Sci 36:30-8. 2011
    b>Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are small and highly reactive molecules that can oxidize proteins, lipids and DNA. When tightly controlled, ROS serve as signaling molecules by modulating the activity of the oxidized targets...
  60. pmc Feedback between p21 and reactive oxygen production is necessary for cell senescence
    João F Passos
    Ageing Research Laboratories, Institute for Ageing and Health, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK
    Mol Syst Biol 6:347. 2010
    ..activation of the checkpoint gene CDKN1A (p21) induces mitochondrial dysfunction and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) through serial signalling through GADD45-MAPK14(p38MAPK)-GRB2-TGFBR2-TGFbeta...
  61. ncbi NAD(P)H oxidase: role in cardiovascular biology and disease
    K K Griendling
    Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Circ Res 86:494-501. 2000
    b>Reactive oxygen species have emerged as important molecules in cardiovascular function. Recent work has shown that NAD(P)H oxidases are major sources of superoxide in vascular cells and myocytes...
  62. ncbi Biomarkers of oxidative damage in human disease
    Isabella Dalle-Donne
    Department of Biology, University of Milan, Milan, Italy
    Clin Chem 52:601-23. 2006
    ..Here we discuss some of the more commonly used biomarkers of oxidative/nitrosative damage and include selected examples of human studies...
  63. ncbi Oxidative stress and neurodegeneration: where are we now?
    Barry Halliwell
    Department of Biochemistry, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore
    J Neurochem 97:1634-58. 2006
    ..After a long lag period, therapeutic and other interventions based on a knowledge of redox biology are on the horizon for at least some of the neurodegenerative diseases...
  64. ncbi HIF-1-mediated expression of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase: a metabolic switch required for cellular adaptation to hypoxia
    Jung whan Kim
    Graduate Program of Pathobiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    Cell Metab 3:177-85. 2006
    ..These studies reveal a hypoxia-induced metabolic switch that shunts glucose metabolites from the mitochondria to glycolysis to maintain ATP production and to prevent toxic ROS production...
  65. ncbi Calorie restriction reduces oxidative stress by SIRT3-mediated SOD2 activation
    Xiaolei Qiu
    Department of Nutritional Science and Toxicology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    Cell Metab 12:662-7. 2010
    ..and numerous diseases is thought to be cumulative oxidative stress, resulting from the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during respiration...
  66. pmc Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species regulate cellular signaling and dictate biological outcomes
    Robert B Hamanaka
    Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Northwestern University Medical School, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
    Trends Biochem Sci 35:505-13. 2010
    b>Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have historically been viewed as toxic metabolic byproducts and causal agents in a myriad of human pathologies...
  67. pmc TNF dually mediates resistance and susceptibility to mycobacteria via mitochondrial reactive oxygen species
    Francisco J Roca
    Department of Microbiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
    Cell 153:521-34. 2013
    ..TNF excess induces mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) in infected macrophages through RIP1-RIP3-dependent pathways...
  68. pmc Nox proteins in signal transduction
    David I Brown
    Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Emory University, 1639 Pierce Drive, 319 WMB Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Free Radic Biol Med 47:1239-53. 2009
    ..O(2)(*-)) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))-producing proteins has emerged as an important source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in signal transduction...
  69. pmc Selective degradation of mitochondria by mitophagy
    Insil Kim
    Center for Cell Death, Injury and Regeneration, Departments of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425, USA
    Arch Biochem Biophys 462:245-53. 2007
    Mitochondria are the essential site of aerobic energy production in eukaryotic cells. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are an inevitable by-product of mitochondrial metabolism and can cause mitochondrial DNA mutations and dysfunction...
  70. ncbi Glucose restriction extends Caenorhabditis elegans life span by inducing mitochondrial respiration and increasing oxidative stress
    Tim J Schulz
    Department of Human Nutrition, Institute of Nutrition, University of Jena, D 07743 Jena, Germany
    Cell Metab 6:280-93. 2007
    ..Reduced glucose availability promotes formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), induces catalase activity, and increases oxidative stress resistance and survival rates, ..
  71. ncbi Reactive oxygen species homeostasis and signalling during drought and salinity stresses
    Gad Miller
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Nevada, Reno, 89557, USA
    Plant Cell Environ 33:453-67. 2010
    ..increase photorespiration, altering the normal homeostasis of cells and cause an increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
  72. pmc UCP2 mediates ghrelin's action on NPY/AgRP neurons by lowering free radicals
    Zane B Andrews
    Section of Comparative Medicine, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, New York, New York 10021, USA
    Nature 454:846-51. 2008
    ..These results reveal a signalling modality connecting mitochondria-mediated effects of G-protein-coupled receptors on neuronal function and associated behaviour...
  73. pmc A mitochondrial superoxide signal triggers increased longevity in Caenorhabditis elegans
    Wen Yang
    Department of Biology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    PLoS Biol 8:e1000556. 2010
    ..is a major source of the superoxide anion (O(⋅) (-)), which in turn generates several types of toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS), and aging is accompanied by increased oxidative stress, which is an imbalance between the ..
  74. ncbi Targeting mitochondria for cancer therapy
    Simone Fulda
    University Children s Hospital, Ulm University, Eythstrasse 24, D 89075 Ulm, Germany
    Nat Rev Drug Discov 9:447-64. 2010
    ....
  75. ncbi Aggregated alpha-synuclein activates microglia: a process leading to disease progression in Parkinson's disease
    Wei Zhang
    Neuropharmacology Section, Laboratory of Pharmacology and Chemistry, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA
    FASEB J 19:533-42. 2005
    ..depended on phagocytosis of alpha-synuclein and activation of NADPH oxidase with production of reactive oxygen species. These results suggest that nigral neuronal damage, regardless of etiology, may release aggregated alpha-..
  76. pmc Impaired balance of mitochondrial fission and fusion in Alzheimer's disease
    Xinglong Wang
    Department of Pathology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, USA
    J Neurosci 29:9090-103. 2009
    ..Based on these findings, we suggest that an altered balance in mitochondrial fission and fusion is likely an important mechanism leading to mitochondrial and neuronal dysfunction in AD brain...
  77. ncbi How increased oxidative stress promotes longevity and metabolic health: The concept of mitochondrial hormesis (mitohormesis)
    Michael Ristow
    Dept of Human Nutrition, Institute of Nutrition, University of Jena, Germany
    Exp Gerontol 45:410-8. 2010
    ..with Harman's free radical theory of aging (FRTA), these effects may be due to increased formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) within the mitochondria causing an adaptive response that culminates in subsequently increased ..
  78. pmc Reactive oxygen and nitrogen intermediates in the relationship between mammalian hosts and microbial pathogens
    C Nathan
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology and Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College and Program in Immunology, Weill Graduate School of Medical Sciences of Cornell University, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97:8841-8. 2000
    ..Genetic and biochemical approaches have identified candidates for RNI-resistance genes in Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other pathogens...
  79. ncbi Necrotic death as a cell fate
    Wei Xing Zong
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, State University of New York at Stony Brook, New York 11794, USA
    Genes Dev 20:1-15. 2006
    ..By initiating these adaptive responses, programmed cell necrosis may serve to maintain tissue and organismal integrity...
  80. ncbi A reversible form of axon damage in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and multiple sclerosis
    Ivana Nikic
    Research Unit Therapy Development, Institute of Clinical Neuroimmunology, Ludwig Maximilians Universitat Munchen, Munich, Germany
    Nat Med 17:495-9. 2011
    ..Finally, axonal changes consistent with FAD can be detected in acute human multiple sclerosis lesions. In summary, our data suggest that inflammatory axon damage might be spontaneously reversible and thus a potential target for therapy...
  81. ncbi Reactive oxygen species, antioxidants, and the mammalian thioredoxin system
    J Nordberg
    Medical Nobel Institute for Biochemistry, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden
    Free Radic Biol Med 31:1287-312. 2001
    b>Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are known mediators of intracellular signaling cascades. Excessive production of ROS may, however, lead to oxidative stress, loss of cell function, and ultimately apoptosis or necrosis...
  82. ncbi Selective killing of oncogenically transformed cells through a ROS-mediated mechanism by beta-phenylethyl isothiocyanate
    Dunyaporn Trachootham
    Department of Molecular Pathology, The University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    Cancer Cell 10:241-52. 2006
    b>Reactive oxygen species (ROS) stimulate cell proliferation and induce genetic instability, and their increase in cancer cells is often viewed as an adverse event...
  83. pmc Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species promote production of proinflammatory cytokines and are elevated in TNFR1-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS)
    Ariel C Bulua
    Immunoregulation Section, Autoimmunity Branch, National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, National Institutesof Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Exp Med 208:519-33. 2011
    b>Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have an established role in inflammation and host defense, as they kill intracellular bacteria and have been shown to activate the NLRP3 inflammasome...
  84. pmc Oxygen, oxidative stress, hypoxia, and heart failure
    Frank J Giordano
    Department of Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06510, USA
    J Clin Invest 115:500-8. 2005
    ....
  85. ncbi Mitochondria and reactive oxygen species
    Alicia J Kowaltowski
    Departamento de Bioquimica, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil
    Free Radic Biol Med 47:333-43. 2009
    Mitochondria are a quantitatively relevant source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the majority of cell types...
  86. ncbi ROS-generating mitochondrial DNA mutations can regulate tumor cell metastasis
    Kaori Ishikawa
    Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1 1 1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305 8572, Japan
    Science 320:661-4. 2008
    ..produced a deficiency in respiratory complex I activity and were associated with overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
  87. pmc CD14 and toll-like receptors 2 and 4 are required for fibrillar A{beta}-stimulated microglial activation
    Erin G Reed-Geaghan
    Department of Neurosciences, Center for Global Health and Diseases, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, USA
    J Neurosci 29:11982-92. 2009
    ..We find that cells lacking these receptors could not initiate a Src-Vav-Rac signaling cascade leading to reactive oxygen species production and phagocytosis...
  88. ncbi Extension of murine life span by overexpression of catalase targeted to mitochondria
    Samuel E Schriner
    Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 91895, USA
    Science 308:1909-11. 2005
    To determine the role of reactive oxygen species in mammalian longevity, we generated transgenic mice that overexpress human catalase localized to the peroxisome, the nucleus, or mitochondria (MCAT)...
  89. pmc Inhibition of respiration extends C. elegans life span via reactive oxygen species that increase HIF-1 activity
    Seung Jae Lee
    Division of Molecular and Life Science, School of Interdisciplinary Bioscience and Bioengineering, and World Class University Information Technology Convergence Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang, Kyungbuk 790 784, South Korea
    Curr Biol 20:2131-6. 2010
    ..Inhibiting respiration appears to activate HIF-1 by elevating the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
  90. ncbi Mammalian mitochondrial complex I: biogenesis, regulation, and reactive oxygen species generation
    Werner J H Koopman
    Department of Biochemistry, Nijmegen Centre for Molecular Life Sciences, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Antioxid Redox Signal 12:1431-70. 2010
    ..process, electrons can escape from CI and react with ambient oxygen to produce superoxide and derived reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
  91. ncbi Aging: ROS or TOR
    Mikhail V Blagosklonny
    Ordway Research Institute, and Oncotarget, Albany, New York 12208, USA
    Cell Cycle 7:3344-54. 2008
    It is widely believed that aging is caused by the accumulation of random molecular damage due to reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here I discuss evidence for and against the ROS theory...
  92. ncbi Signaling by ROS drives inflammasome activation
    Fabio Martinon
    Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Eur J Immunol 40:616-9. 2010
    ..Recent findings suggest that ROS are produced by NLRP3/NALP3 activators and are essential secondary messengers signaling NLRP3/NALP3 inflammasome activation...
  93. ncbi Abeta oligomers induce neuronal oxidative stress through an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-dependent mechanism that is blocked by the Alzheimer drug memantine
    Fernanda G De Felice
    Department of Neurobiology and Physiology, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208, USA
    J Biol Chem 282:11590-601. 2007
    ..Using hippocampal neuronal cultures, we found that ADDLs stimulated excessive formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) through a mechanism requiring N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDA-R) activation...
  94. ncbi Reactive oxygen species as signals that modulate plant stress responses and programmed cell death
    Tsanko S Gechev
    Institute of Plant Sciences, ETH Zurich, Switzerland
    Bioessays 28:1091-101. 2006
    b>Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are known as toxic metabolic products in plants and other aerobic organisms...
  95. ncbi ROS stress in cancer cells and therapeutic implications
    Helene Pelicano
    Department of Molecular Pathology, Box 89, The University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Drug Resist Updat 7:97-110. 2004
    b>Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are constantly generated and eliminated in the biological system, and play important roles in a variety of normal biochemical functions and abnormal pathological processes...
  96. ncbi Redox regulation in photosynthetic organisms: signaling, acclimation, and practical implications
    Christine H Foyer
    School of Agriculture, Food and Rural Development, Agriculture Building, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom
    Antioxid Redox Signal 11:861-905. 2009
    b>Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have multifaceted roles in the orchestration of plant gene expression and gene-product regulation...
  97. ncbi Syk kinase signalling couples to the Nlrp3 inflammasome for anti-fungal host defence
    Olaf Gross
    III Medizinische Klinik, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universitat Munchen, Ismaninger Str 22, 81675 Munich, Germany
    Nature 459:433-6. 2009
    ..pro-IL-1beta synthesis selectively uses the Card9 pathway, inflammasome activation by the fungus involves reactive oxygen species production and potassium efflux...
  98. ncbi Chronic oxidative stress as a central mechanism for glucose toxicity in pancreatic islet beta cells in diabetes
    R Paul Robertson
    Pacific Northwest Research Institute, Seattle, Washington 98122, USA
    J Biol Chem 279:42351-4. 2004
  99. pmc Arabidopsis OST1 protein kinase mediates the regulation of stomatal aperture by abscisic acid and acts upstream of reactive oxygen species production
    Anna Chiara Mustilli
    Institut des Sciences du Vegetal, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Unité Propre de Recherche 2355, 91190 Gif sur Yvette, France
    Plant Cell 14:3089-99. 2002
    ..b>Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were shown recently to be an essential intermediate in guard cell ABA signaling...
  100. ncbi Physiological functions of the mitochondrial uncoupling proteins UCP2 and UCP3
    Martin D Brand
    MRC Dunn Human Nutrition Unit, Hills Road, Cambridge, United Kingdom
    Cell Metab 2:85-93. 2005
    ..Evidence that they export fatty acids physiologically is weak. UCP2 and UCP3 are important potential targets for treatment of aging, degenerative diseases, diabetes, and perhaps obesity...
  101. ncbi High glucose level and free fatty acid stimulate reactive oxygen species production through protein kinase C--dependent activation of NAD(P)H oxidase in cultured vascular cells
    T Inoguchi
    Department of Medicine and Bioregulatory Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushyu University, Fukuoka, Japan
    Diabetes 49:1939-45. 2000
    Recent studies have revealed that vascular cells can produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) through NAD(P)H oxidase, which may be involved in vascular injury...

Research Grants71

  1. Optimization of DNA Repair by Abh8
    Lauren Endres; Fiscal Year: 2013
    b>Reactive oxygen species and electrophiles arising from endogenous and environmental sources can induce single and double strand breaks in DNA...
  2. Brain mast cells and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
    Theoharis C Theoharides; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..between expression of the mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2), which also regulates production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cytosolic calcium, and mast cell activation. There are no effective therapies for CFS...
  3. Air Pollution on Adiposity and Vascular Dysfunction: White or Brown Matters?
    Qinghua Sun; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..5) pollution induces adipose dysfunction via reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent activation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and potentiation of insulin resistance...
  4. Ang II and Aldosterone Effects on Insulin Resistance in Cardiovascular Tissue
    JAMES RUSSELL SOWERS; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..posit that activation of serine (Ser) kinase signaling pathways, in conjunction with excess generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), constitute one of the mechanisms whereby angiotensin II (Ang II) and aldosterone contribute to ..
  5. Peroxynitrite Decomposition Catalyst and Nitric Oxide Donor for Endotoxemia
    GARRY JOHN SOUTHAN; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..that releases NO, and 2) a pyrrolidine nitroxide that acts as a trifunctional catalyst of reactive oxygen species degradation: a superoxide dismutase mimetic, a catalase mimic that detoxifies hydrogen peroxide, and a ..
  6. ROLE OF Rac AND REACTIVE OXYGEN SPECIES IN KAPOSI'S SARCOMA VIRAL ONCOGENESIS
    Enrique A Mesri; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..labs has led to the identification of the Rac1 GTPase, a signaling mediator that triggers production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by non-phagocytic NADPH-oxidase (NOX), as a potential major player in KS...
  7. Inhibition of human neutrophil function by Francisella tularensis
    Lee Ann H Allen; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Toward this end we will utilize chemiluminescence fluorescence and other biochemical assays to quantify reactive oxygen species;confocal microscopy to localize NADPH oxidase components;immunofluorescence microscopy and immuno-..
  8. Effect of PPARy Ligands on Alcohol-Induced Alveolar Macrophage Oxidative Stress
    Samantha M Yeligar; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In alveolar macrophages (AMs), NADPH oxidase (Nox) 1, Nox2, and Nox4 are critical sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and Nox2 is essential for the respiratory burst involved in killing microbes after phagocytosis...
  9. THE ROLE OF ACETYLATION IN MITOCHONDRIAL FUNCTION
    Gary Cecchini; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Second, does acetylation effect ROS (reactive oxygen species) formation from the E3 (lipoamide dehydrogenase) component of the very large 1-ketoglutarte/pyruvate ..
  10. Investigating Mechanism of Intracellular Rotational Transport with Optical T
    Jeffrey N Anker; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..This inflammation and associated overproduction of reactive oxygen species further oxidize RNA/DNA/proteins, leading to fibrosis, mutagenesis and lung cancer...
  11. Targeting Inflammation for the Amelioration of Cisplatin-Hearing Loss
    Vickram Ramkumar; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..One current treatment strategy uses antioxidants to decrease reactive oxygen species (ROS), which has been implicated in cisplatin ototoxicity...
  12. Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Adipose Insulin Resistance
    David A Bernlohr; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..cell culture and molecular studies have correlated increased oxidative stress and the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide anion and hydroxyl radicals to type 2 diabetes...
  13. Group A Streptococcus responses to oxidative stress
    Ioannis Gryllos; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..by applicant): Group A Streptococcus (GAS) employs multiple defense strategies to resist killing by reactive oxygen species (ROS) formed either by reduction of atmospheric oxygen or by phagocytes upon activation of the host ..
  14. DNA methylation of extracellular superoxide dismutase in pulmonary hypertension
    EVA NOZIK GRAYCK; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..key factor that contributes to the pathogenesis of vascular diseases, including PAH, is an increase in reactive oxygen species, such as superoxide (O2-), that exceed antioxidant capabilities...
  15. A Hybrid Katp Channel Opener to Prevent Radiocontrast-Induced Nephropathy
    Kanneganti Murthy; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The addition of the redox catalytic function provides R-801 with the capacity to neutralize not only reactive oxygen species generated by CM administration but also the removal of superoxide anion generated by mitoK+-ATP channel ..
  16. Nanoparticle Coupled Antioxidants for Respiratory Illness in Veterans
    RODNEY JON SCHLOSSER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Quick degradation of free radicals results in reactive oxygen species (ROS)4-6. Antioxidant enzymes that metabolize ROS, thus serve as potential therapeutic agents...
  17. Prostate cancer chemoprevention by penta-galloyl-glucose
    Junxuan Lu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..and DU145 (mutant p53, androgen independent) PCa cells as well as caspase- mediated apoptosis involving reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
  18. Role of the Mammalian Siderophore in Cellular Iron Metabolism and Erythropoiesis
    Laxminarayana R Devireddy; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Unbound iron catalyzes the formation of harmful reactive oxygen species;therefore, most biological iron is sequestered to keep it in an unreactive form...
  19. Vascular dysfunction and oxidative stress in primary amyloidosis
    RAYMOND QUEZON MIGRINO; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..overall hypothesis that primary amyloid light chains acutely impair endothelial function by increasing reactive oxygen species production in both coronary arterioles and adipose arterioles from subjects without amyloid disease...
  20. Role of Diabetes in Development of Renal Cell Carcinoma
    SAMY LEWIZ HABIB; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Diabetes and hyperglycemia are associated with enhanced production of reactive oxygen species and induce DNA damage by several mechanisms...
  21. Prevention of UV-induced carcinogenesis by cyanidin-3-glucoside
    Xianglin Shi; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..C3G also functions as an antioxidant by inhibiting the generation of reactive oxygen species and inducing antioxidant-regulative transcription factors...
  22. Monitoring cellular redox signaling and oxidant stress in vivo
    Paul T Schumacker; Fiscal Year: 2010
    Healthy cells use low levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as second messengers in signal transduction pathways. High levels of ROS cause oxidative damage to proteins, lipids and DNA...
  23. Systemic Inflammation and Central Nervous System Dysfunction
    Laura L Dugan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Nox2 is designed to produce large amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS), primarily superoxide anion...
  24. Prolonged Inhibition of Pathologic Neovascularization by Catalytic Antioxidants
    JAMES FRANCIS MCGINNIS; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..progression of these neovascular diseases is thought to occur through the production of toxic molecules, Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS)...
  25. A novel peroxidase in vascular endothelium and the development of atherosclerosis
    Guangjie Cheng; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..focused on novel NADPH- oxidases (Noxes) including Nox1, Nox4 and Nox5, which are major sources of reactive oxygen species in and adjacent to the vessel wall...
  26. Human neutrophils, phospholipase A2 and S.aureus: microbial targets and responses
    William M Nauseef; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..antimicrobial activity and exert ~ all of their antimicrobial effort within phagosomes, where reactive oxygen species (ROS) and granule contents collaborate to kill and degrade microbes...
  27. REGULATION OF PULMONARY CIRCULATION IN FETUS AND NEWBORN
    Girija G Konduri; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Increase in O2 availability and oxidative phosphorylation at birth may lead to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mitochondria...
  28. Sirtuin/FOXO Signaling in the Regulation of Bone Mass
    Stavroula Kousteni; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..by mechanisms that involve decreased defense against oxidative stress and/or increased production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS)...
  29. Pathogenesis of the Metabolic Syndrome
    W Timothy Garvey; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..metabolome is the result of intrinsic mitochondrial defects that both impair FA oxidation and generate reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
  30. Antiarrhythmic Mechanisms in the Hearts of Hibernating Mammals
    Lai Hua Xie; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..b>Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are released acutely in large amounts during ischemia or ischemia/reperfusion injury...
  31. Molecular mechanisms of lung disease in ataxia telangiectasia
    JoAnn M Sekiguchi; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..roles in the control of oxidative stress, and ATM deficiency leads to increased levels of highly reactive oxygen species as well as defects in antioxidant systems...
  32. Analysis of gene regulation of Vibrio cholerae during infection
    Jun Zhu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..AphB is modified by reactive nitrogen species (RNS), such as nitric oxide (NO), and oxidative stress from reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated in vivo and how these modifications affect AphB functionality, including ..
  33. Metabolic mechanisms of antiestrogen resistance in breast cancer
    UBALDO EMILIO MARTINEZ OUTSCHOORN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We have recently demonstrated that a tumor stroma with increased reactive oxygen species (ROS), low oxidative phosphorylation metabolism (OXPHOS) and high glycolysis is found in aggressive ..
  34. Purkinje Origin of Ischemic Ventricular Tachycardia and Fibrillation
    James B Martins; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Furthermore the effect of statins may result from inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS) since a ROS scavenger called TEMPO blocks both VT and TA in a similar manner while decreasing ..
  35. Mechanism-Based Discovery of Protectants Against Iron-Dependant Oxidative Injury
    JUSTIN M SCHWARTZ; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) after reintroduction of oxygenated blood to ischemic tissue is a major precipitating event causing ..
  36. NEURAL REGULATION OF PANCREATIC FUNCTION
    KIMBERLY SAUNDERS KIRKWOOD; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..We have recently discovered that 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), an aldehyde generated by the action of reactive oxygen species (ROS) on membrane lipids, is an endogenous agonist of TRPA1 which causes peptide release, neurogenic ..
  37. Role of Peroxidasin in Glomerular Matrix Homeostasis
    Gautam Bhave; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..S. A central derangement in diabetic nephropathy is excessive generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
  38. Small Molecule targeting of NADPH oxidase in neutrophils
    Marie Dominique Filippi; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This is caused by release of free radical and reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammatory cytokines (e.g., TNF-1) from the activated neutrophils infiltrating the lungs...
  39. Arsenic Trioxide and Acute Myeloid Leukemia
    Yongkui Jing; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..We and others determined that, through generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), As2O3 induced apoptosis of APL cells...
  40. Nitric Oxide in Hemodialysis AV Fistula Maturation
    Richard A Cohen; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..We will quantify NO release, measure reactive oxygen species, determine the redox status of the sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA), and assess ..
  41. Prevention of Inherited Retinal Diseases by Therapeutic Rare Earth Nanoparticles
    JAMES FRANCIS MCGINNIS; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This is "oxidative stress" as a result of a chronic or acute rise in Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS)...
  42. Air Pollution on Adiposity and Vascular Dysfunction: White or Brown Matters?
    Qinghua Sun; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..accumulation of white fat mass, and potentiates vascular dysfunction via monocyte/macrophage dependent reactive oxygen species (ROS) of NAD(P)H oxidase pathway. To achieve this goal, we first explore the impact of PM2...
  43. Role of Glutathione S-Transferase P in Heart Failure
    Sumanth D Prabhu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..stress is a hallmark of heart failure (HF), clinical trials with antioxidants targeting first generation reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as O2/ and H2O2 have not yielded compelling benefits...
  44. Prevention of age-associated musculoskeletal loss by n-3 fatty acids
    Md Mizanur Rahman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..damage levels of muscle to determine muscle quality;analyze mitochondrial functions by measuring reactive oxygen species and ATP production, membrane potential, respiratory rates, and electron transport complex activities to ..
  45. Protection of Brain Injury from Cyanide Poisoning by Carnosic Acid
    Stuart A Lipton; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..cyanide-induced neuronal damage, including inhibition of Cytochrome C oxidase (CcOX) and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in response to cyanide- induced lipid peroxidation...
  46. Functional characters of non-coding RNAs in alcoholic liver injury
    Fanyin Meng; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..the direct effects of alcohol and its toxic metabolites on various cell types in the liver, induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), upregulation of the inflammatory cascade, and other cell-specific effects in the liver...
  47. Transplatin: A Novel Agent to Mitigate Cisplatin Toxicity
    Vickram Ramkumar; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We have pursued hypothesis that cisplatin ototoxicity is mediated by its ability to increase reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in cochlear cells...
  48. Mechanisms of Stem Cell Self-Renewal and Aging
    PAUL CHRISTIAN SCHILLER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Progerin accumulation is characterized by increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to oxidative stress and DNA damage...
  49. Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Adipose Insulin Resistance
    DAVID BERNLOHR; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..cell culture and molecular studies have correlated increased oxidative stress and the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide anion and hydroxyl radicals to type 2 diabetes...
  50. Photodynamic Therapy of Localized Infections
    Michael R Hamblin; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..frequently red light for increased tissue penetration) that combine in the presence f oxygen to produce reactive oxygen species that damage biological molecules such as proteins, lipids and nucleic acids and subsequently cause cell ..
  51. Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury of Human Endothelium: Role of Glucose and Statins
    THOMAS JAY EBERT; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These interactions will be studied in humans. In addition, the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the nitric oxide pathway in the harmful effects of hyperglycemia and the beneficial effects of ..
  52. Alcohol-Induced Bone Resorption: The Role of Oxidative Stress
    Martin J J Ronis; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In vitro data suggest that the ERK/STAT3/RANKL pathway is stimulated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by an ethanol-induced NADPH oxidase (NOX4)...
  53. Intracellular Serpin Regulation of Intestinal Cell Necrosis
    GARY ARTHUR SILVERMAN; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..necrosis is uncertain, risk factors include anisotonic fluids, toxins, ischemia- reperfusion injury and reactive oxygen species. These stressors perturb peptidase-inhibitor balance, which leads to excessive intracellular proteolysis, ..
  54. Roles of oxidation and inflammation in aortic stiffening
    David G Harrison; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Biochemical and experimental studies have also implicated reactive oxygen species in modifications of elastin and collagen that would promote arterial stiffening...
  55. Metabolic regulation of diabetic nephropathy
    Karen Block; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), activation of Nox4-dependent generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and mitochondrial dysfunction...
  56. DNA Repair Deficiency Associated with Obesity and the Metabolic Syndrome
    R Stephen Lloyd; Fiscal Year: 2013
    Exposure to oxidative stress conditions and the generation of excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generally hypothesized to be a common causative factor in the etiology of several human diseases including, but not limited to, ..
  57. Novel Means to Establish Free Radical Balance in the Neonatal Premature Lung
    Prakash Jagtap; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..In combination, these functionalities allow R-100 to remove toxic reactive oxygen species and deliver NO without the confounding effect of producing ONOO-...
  58. Mechanisms of Angiogenesis in Retinopathy of Prematurity
    Mary Elizabeth Hartnett; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Furthermore, oxygen fluctuations activate EC NADPH oxidase to release reactive oxygen species that trigger apoptosis of ECs and endothelial precursor cells contributing to avascular retina, whereas ..
  59. PET Imaging of Myocardial Oxidative Stress in T2DM
    KOORESH ISAAC SHOGHI; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ABSTRACT Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important mediators in the pathogenesis of a wide range of diseases such as cancer, neurocognitive and neurodenerative disorders, and diabetes mellitus...
  60. The effect of trichloroethylene exposure on adverse pregnancy outcomes
    Iman Hassan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..be tested by two specific aims: 1) to test the subhypothesis that exposure to TCE increases production of reactive oxygen species and activates inflammatory pathways in placental and extraplacental tissue in rat;and 2) to test the ..
  61. Platelet TSP1 Mediates Vascular Disease and pulmonary hypertension in Sickle Cell
    Enrico M Novelli; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..ligand receptor interaction not only inhibits NO signaling in endothelial cells, but also increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and endothelin A (ETA) receptor expression in smooth muscle, both canonical ..
  62. High throughput screen for selective inhibitors of cyclophilin B
    Richard J Bram; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Biochemical analysis revealed that knockdown of CypB enhanced ER stress, and led to elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decreased levels of Chk1 and mutant p53, as well as decreased activation of Stat3, all of which ..
  63. DNA Repair Capacity and Risk of Pre-malignant Lesion in Lung Epithelium
    Hua Zhao; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..that the genotoxicity of neutrophils, including induction of oxidative DNA damage through release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and myeloperoxidase (MPO)-related metabolic activation of chemical carcinogens, is a crucial ..
  64. DIETARY & GENETIC CONTROL OF ROS DAMAGE TO THE LENS
    Norman S Wolf; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..the lens surface and migration to the interior at abnormal sites, with bits of nuclear DNA, free DNA, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) at those sites we find to be characteristic of ARC...
  65. Bacterial Response to Singlet Oxygen
    Timothy Donohue; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..While O2 is relatively inert, it is converted to different chemical classes of toxic reactive oxygen species by either one electron transfer or energy transfer reactions...
  66. GENETIC RESPONSE TO OXIDATIVE STREET IN E COLI
    SPENCER FARR; Fiscal Year: 1993
    DESCRIPTION: (adapted from investigators application) Normal aerobic metabolism produces reactive oxygen species including superoxide anions, hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals...
  67. Acute Phase Treatment of Spinal Cord Injury Using Hydrogel Blends Loaded with Glu
    Ryan Gilbert; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..most interventions involve a bolus injection or intravenous injection of agents that reduce reactive oxygen species at the injury site...
  68. RICKETTSIA RICKETTSII IN HUMAN ENDOTHELIAL CELLS
    David Silverman; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..been determined by the Principal Investigator's laboratory that cell injury appears to be initiated by reactive oxygen species produced during internalization and intracellular rickettsial growth...
  69. Nox Isoforms and Vascular Cell Phenotype
    John Keaney; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Aged blood vessels are characterized by reduced control of antioxidant enzymes, an increased flux of reactive oxygen species, and vascular dysfunction...
  70. Regulation of NADPH Oxidase by Angiotensin II-Role in Myometrial Hypertrophy
    Xiaolan Cui; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..NADPH oxidase isoforms, via generation of reactive oxygen species, have been shown to be responsible for the growth promoting effect of angiotensin II which is mediated by ..
  71. Molecular mechanisms of oxidative stress resistance in an animal model of aging w
    Sarah Milton; Fiscal Year: 2009
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress on protein organization, cellular homeostasis, and apoptosis are recognized as key factors in aging and senescence, and ROS damage is ..