nitrogen

Summary

Summary: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight 14. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.

Top Publications

  1. pmc Identification of nitrogen starvation-responsive microRNAs in Arabidopsis thaliana
    Gang Liang
    Key Laboratory of Tropical Forest Ecology, Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan, China
    PLoS ONE 7:e48951. 2012
  2. pmc Reactive oxygen and nitrogen intermediates in the relationship between mammalian hosts and microbial pathogens
    C Nathan
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology and Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College and Program in Immunology, Weill Graduate School of Medical Sciences of Cornell University, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97:8841-8. 2000
  3. ncbi Global biodiversity scenarios for the year 2100
    O E Sala
    Department of Ecology and Instituto de Investigaciones Fisiológicas y Ecológicas vinculadas a la Agricultura, Faculty of Agronomy, University of Buenos Aires, Avenida San Martin 4453, Buenos Aires 1417, Argentina
    Science 287:1770-4. 2000
  4. pmc Deep sequencing analysis of the Methanosarcina mazei Gö1 transcriptome in response to nitrogen availability
    Dominik Jäger
    Institut fur Allgemeine Mikrobiologie, Christian Albrechts Universitat Kiel, 24118 Kiel, Germany
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:21878-82. 2009
  5. ncbi Global analysis of nitrogen and phosphorus limitation of primary producers in freshwater, marine and terrestrial ecosystems
    James J Elser
    School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287, USA
    Ecol Lett 10:1135-42. 2007
  6. doi An Earth-system perspective of the global nitrogen cycle
    Nicolas Gruber
    Environmental Physics Group, Institute of Biogeochemistry and Pollutant Dynamics, ETH Zurich, Universitatstrasse 16, 8092 Zurich, Switzerland
    Nature 451:293-6. 2008
  7. doi Mature ribosomes are selectively degraded upon starvation by an autophagy pathway requiring the Ubp3p/Bre5p ubiquitin protease
    Claudine Kraft
    Institute of Biochemistry, HPM, ETH Honggerberg, 8093 Zurich, Switzerland
    Nat Cell Biol 10:602-10. 2008
  8. ncbi Novel genes for nitrite reductase and Amo-related proteins indicate a role of uncultivated mesophilic crenarchaeota in nitrogen cycling
    Alexander H Treusch
    University of Bergen, Department of Biology, Jahnebakken 5, N 5020 Bergen, Norway
    Environ Microbiol 7:1985-95. 2005
  9. ncbi Global assessment of nitrogen deposition effects on terrestrial plant diversity: a synthesis
    R Bobbink
    B WARE Research Centre, Radboud University Nijmegen, P O Box 9010, 6500 GL Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Ecol Appl 20:30-59. 2010
  10. pmc Cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins: the influence of nitrogen versus phosphorus
    Andrew M Dolman
    Freshwater Conservation, Brandenburg University of Technology, Bad Saarow, Germany
    PLoS ONE 7:e38757. 2012

Detail Information

Publications385 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc Identification of nitrogen starvation-responsive microRNAs in Arabidopsis thaliana
    Gang Liang
    Key Laboratory of Tropical Forest Ecology, Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan, China
    PLoS ONE 7:e48951. 2012
    ..Moreover, several miRNAs were identified in the response to nitrogen (N) deficiency...
  2. pmc Reactive oxygen and nitrogen intermediates in the relationship between mammalian hosts and microbial pathogens
    C Nathan
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology and Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College and Program in Immunology, Weill Graduate School of Medical Sciences of Cornell University, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97:8841-8. 2000
    ..review summarizes recent evidence from knock-out mice on the role of reactive oxygen intermediates and reactive nitrogen intermediates (RNI) in mammalian immunity...
  3. ncbi Global biodiversity scenarios for the year 2100
    O E Sala
    Department of Ecology and Instituto de Investigaciones Fisiológicas y Ecológicas vinculadas a la Agricultura, Faculty of Agronomy, University of Buenos Aires, Avenida San Martin 4453, Buenos Aires 1417, Argentina
    Science 287:1770-4. 2000
    ..For terrestrial ecosystems, land-use change probably will have the largest effect, followed by climate change, nitrogen deposition, biotic exchange, and elevated carbon dioxide concentration...
  4. pmc Deep sequencing analysis of the Methanosarcina mazei Gö1 transcriptome in response to nitrogen availability
    Dominik Jäger
    Institut fur Allgemeine Mikrobiologie, Christian Albrechts Universitat Kiel, 24118 Kiel, Germany
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:21878-82. 2009
    ..mazei. We present a genome-wide analysis of transcription start sites (TSS) in M. mazei grown under different nitrogen availabilities. Pyrosequencing-based differential analysis of primary vs...
  5. ncbi Global analysis of nitrogen and phosphorus limitation of primary producers in freshwater, marine and terrestrial ecosystems
    James J Elser
    School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287, USA
    Ecol Lett 10:1135-42. 2007
    The cycles of the key nutrient elements nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) have been massively altered by anthropogenic activities...
  6. doi An Earth-system perspective of the global nitrogen cycle
    Nicolas Gruber
    Environmental Physics Group, Institute of Biogeochemistry and Pollutant Dynamics, ETH Zurich, Universitatstrasse 16, 8092 Zurich, Switzerland
    Nature 451:293-6. 2008
  7. doi Mature ribosomes are selectively degraded upon starvation by an autophagy pathway requiring the Ubp3p/Bre5p ubiquitin protease
    Claudine Kraft
    Institute of Biochemistry, HPM, ETH Honggerberg, 8093 Zurich, Switzerland
    Nat Cell Biol 10:602-10. 2008
    ..Taken together, our results suggest a link between ubiquitination and the regulated degradation of mature ribosomes by autophagy...
  8. ncbi Novel genes for nitrite reductase and Amo-related proteins indicate a role of uncultivated mesophilic crenarchaeota in nitrogen cycling
    Alexander H Treusch
    University of Bergen, Department of Biology, Jahnebakken 5, N 5020 Bergen, Norway
    Environ Microbiol 7:1985-95. 2005
    ..Taken together, our findings suggest that mesophilic terrestrial and marine crenarchaeota might be capable of ammonia oxidation under aerobic and potentially also under anaerobic conditions...
  9. ncbi Global assessment of nitrogen deposition effects on terrestrial plant diversity: a synthesis
    R Bobbink
    B WARE Research Centre, Radboud University Nijmegen, P O Box 9010, 6500 GL Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Ecol Appl 20:30-59. 2010
    Atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition is a recognized threat to plant diversity in temperate and northern parts of Europe and North America...
  10. pmc Cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins: the influence of nitrogen versus phosphorus
    Andrew M Dolman
    Freshwater Conservation, Brandenburg University of Technology, Bad Saarow, Germany
    PLoS ONE 7:e38757. 2012
    The importance of nitrogen (N) versus phosphorus (P) in explaining total cyanobacterial biovolume, the biovolume of specific cyanobacterial taxa, and the incidence of cyanotoxins was determined for 102 north German lakes, using methods to ..
  11. pmc Identification of genes associated with nitrogen-use efficiency by genome-wide transcriptional analysis of two soybean genotypes
    Qing N Hao
    Institute of Oil Crops Research, Chinese Academy of Agriculture Sciences, Wuhan 430062, China
    BMC Genomics 12:525. 2011
    Soybean is a valuable crop that provides protein and oil. Soybean requires a large amount of nitrogen (N) to accumulate high levels of N in the seed...
  12. doi Endophytic insect-parasitic fungi translocate nitrogen directly from insects to plants
    S W Behie
    Department of Biological Sciences, Brock University, St Catharines, Ontario, Canada
    Science 336:1576-7. 2012
    Most plants obtain nitrogen through nitrogen-fixing bacteria and microbial decomposition of plant and animal material. Many vascular plants are able to form close symbiotic associations with endophytic fungi...
  13. ncbi Consistent effects of nitrogen fertilization on soil bacterial communities in contrasting systems
    Kelly S Ramirez
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309, USA
    Ecology 91:3463-70; discussion 3503-14. 2010
    Ecosystems worldwide are receiving increasing amounts of reactive nitrogen (N) through anthropogenic activities...
  14. doi Nitrogen additions and microbial biomass: a meta-analysis of ecosystem studies
    Kathleen K Treseder
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697, USA
    Ecol Lett 11:1111-20. 2008
    b>Nitrogen (N) enrichment is an element of global change that could influence the growth and abundance of many organisms. In this meta-analysis, I synthesized responses of microbial biomass to N additions in 82 published field studies...
  15. pmc Genomic expression programs in the response of yeast cells to environmental changes
    A P Gasch
    Department of Biochemistry, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305 5428, USA
    Mol Biol Cell 11:4241-57. 2000
    ..agent diamide, the disulfide-reducing agent dithiothreitol, hyper- and hypo-osmotic shock, amino acid starvation, nitrogen source depletion, and progression into stationary phase...
  16. doi Enhanced nitrogen deposition over China
    Xuejun Liu
    College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China
    Nature 494:459-62. 2013
    China is experiencing intense air pollution caused in large part by anthropogenic emissions of reactive nitrogen. These emissions result in the deposition of atmospheric nitrogen (N) in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, with ..
  17. pmc Identification of nutrient-responsive Arabidopsis and rapeseed microRNAs by comprehensive real-time polymerase chain reaction profiling and small RNA sequencing
    Bikram Datt Pant
    Max Planck Institute of Molecular Plant Physiology, 14476 Potsdam, Germany
    Plant Physiol 150:1541-55. 2009
    ..The platform was used to detect phosphorus (P) or nitrogen (N) status-responsive pri-miR species...
  18. pmc Comparative metagenomic, phylogenetic and physiological analyses of soil microbial communities across nitrogen gradients
    Noah Fierer
    Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA
    ISME J 6:1007-17. 2012
    Terrestrial ecosystems are receiving elevated inputs of nitrogen (N) from anthropogenic sources and understanding how these increases in N availability affect soil microbial communities is critical for predicting the associated effects on ..
  19. pmc Three acyltransferases and nitrogen-responsive regulator are implicated in nitrogen starvation-induced triacylglycerol accumulation in Chlamydomonas
    Nanette R Boyle
    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, UCLA, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA
    J Biol Chem 287:15811-25. 2012
    ..Three genes encoding acyltransferases, DGAT1, DGTT1, and PDAT1, are induced by nitrogen starvation and are likely to have a role in TAG accumulation based on their patterns of expression...
  20. doi Significant acidification in major Chinese croplands
    J H Guo
    College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China
    Science 327:1008-10. 2010
    ..001) from the 1980s to the 2000s in the major Chinese crop-production areas. Processes related to nitrogen cycling released 20 to 221 kilomoles of hydrogen ion (H+) per hectare per year, and base cations uptake ..
  21. pmc Linking crenarchaeal and bacterial nitrification to anammox in the Black Sea
    Phyllis Lam
    Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology, Celsiusstrasse 1, 28359 Bremen, Germany
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:7104-9. 2007
    ..Because anammox is a major nitrogen loss in marine suboxic waters, such nitrification-anammox coupling potentially occurring also in oceanic oxygen ..
  22. pmc The Arabidopsis nitrate transporter NRT2.4 plays a double role in roots and shoots of nitrogen-starved plants
    Takatoshi Kiba
    RIKEN Plant Science Center, Tsurumi, Yokohama 230 0045, Japan
    Plant Cell 24:245-58. 2012
    ..4 (triple mutants) has an impact on biomass production under low nitrate supply. Together, our results demonstrate that NRT2.4 is a nitrate transporter that has a role in both roots and shoots under N starvation...
  23. doi The effects of chronic nitrogen fertilization on alpine tundra soil microbial communities: implications for carbon and nitrogen cycling
    Diana R Nemergut
    Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research, Environmental Studies Program, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, USA
    Environ Microbiol 10:3093-105. 2008
    Many studies have shown that changes in nitrogen (N) availability affect primary productivity in a variety of terrestrial systems, but less is known about the effects of the changing N cycle on soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition...
  24. pmc Nitrate and ammonium lead to distinct global dynamic phosphorylation patterns when resupplied to nitrogen-starved Arabidopsis seedlings
    Wolfgang R Engelsberger
    Max Planck Institut fur Molekulare Pflanzenphysiologie, Am Muhlenberg 1, 14476 Golm, Germany
    Plant J 69:978-95. 2012
    b>Nitrogen is an essential macronutrient for plant growth and development. Inorganic nitrogen and its assimilation products control various metabolic, physiological and developmental processes...
  25. doi Nitrogen fixation by marine cyanobacteria
    Jonathan P Zehr
    Department of Ocean Sciences, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064, USA
    Trends Microbiol 19:162-73. 2011
    Discrepancies between estimates of oceanic N(2) fixation and nitrogen (N) losses through denitrification have focused research on identifying N(2)-fixing cyanobacteria and quantifying cyanobacterial N(2) fixation...
  26. pmc Involvement of miR169 in the nitrogen-starvation responses in Arabidopsis
    Meng Zhao
    Key Laboratory of Plant and Soil Interactions, Ministry of Education, China, and College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China
    New Phytol 190:906-15. 2011
    ..However, the functional significance of miRNAs in adaptive responses to nitrogen (N) limitation remains to be explored...
  27. ncbi Microbial nitrogen limitation increases decomposition
    Joseph M Craine
    Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior, 100 Ecology, 1987 Upper Buford Circle, Saint Paul, Minnesota 55108, USA
    Ecology 88:2105-13. 2007
    ..We tested the effects of exogenous nitrogen and phosphorus inputs on litter decomposition across a broad suite of litter and soil types...
  28. doi Transformation of the nitrogen cycle: recent trends, questions, and potential solutions
    James N Galloway
    Environmental Sciences Department, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904, USA
    Science 320:889-92. 2008
    Humans continue to transform the global nitrogen cycle at a record pace, reflecting an increased combustion of fossil fuels, growing demand for nitrogen in agriculture and industry, and pervasive inefficiencies in its use...
  29. ncbi Anaerobic ammonium oxidation by anammox bacteria in the Black Sea
    Marcel M M Kuypers
    Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology, Department of Biogeochemistry, Celsiusstrasse 1, 28359 Bremen, Germany
    Nature 422:608-11. 2003
    The availability of fixed inorganic nitrogen (nitrate, nitrite and ammonium) limits primary productivity in many oceanic regions...
  30. pmc Cell-specific nitrogen responses mediate developmental plasticity
    Miriam L Gifford
    Center for Genomics and Systems Biology, New York University, 100 Washington Square East, New York, NY 10003, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:803-8. 2008
    ..we use cellular profiling of five Arabidopsis root cell types in response to an influx of a critical resource, nitrogen, to uncover a vast and predominantly cell-specific response...
  31. ncbi The APG8/12-activating enzyme APG7 is required for proper nutrient recycling and senescence in Arabidopsis thaliana
    Jed H Doelling
    Cellular and Molecular Biology Program and the Department of Horticulture, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA
    J Biol Chem 277:33105-14. 2002
    ..These findings show that the APG8/12 conjugation pathways have been conserved in plants and may have important roles in autophagic recycling, especially during situations that require substantial nitrogen and carbon mobilization.
  32. ncbi Impact of nitrogen deposition on the species richness of grasslands
    Carly J Stevens
    Department of Earth Sciences, The Open University, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA, UK
    Science 303:1876-9. 2004
    A transect of 68 acid grasslands across Great Britain, covering the lower range of ambient annual nitrogen deposition in the industrialized world (5 to 35 kg Nha-1 year-1), indicates that long-term, chronic nitrogen deposition has ..
  33. pmc Revising the nitrogen cycle in the Peruvian oxygen minimum zone
    Phyllis Lam
    Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology, D 28359 Bremen, Germany
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:4752-7. 2009
    ..zone (OMZ) of the Eastern Tropical South Pacific (ETSP) is 1 of the 3 major regions in the world where oceanic nitrogen is lost in the pelagic realm...
  34. pmc Directional RNA deep sequencing sheds new light on the transcriptional response of Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 to combined-nitrogen deprivation
    Britt L Flaherty
    Division of Biological Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0116, USA
    BMC Genomics 12:332. 2011
    ..potential sources of renewable chemicals and biofuels and serve as model organisms for bacterial photosynthesis, nitrogen fixation, and responses to environmental changes. Anabaena (Nostoc) sp...
  35. doi Oil accumulation is controlled by carbon precursor supply for fatty acid synthesis in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii
    Jilian Fan
    Department of Biology, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973, USA
    Plant Cell Physiol 53:1380-90. 2012
    ..Collectively, our results suggest that carbon availability is a key metabolic factor controlling oil biosynthesis and carbon partitioning between starch and oil in Chlamydomonas...
  36. doi River loads of suspended solids, nitrogen, phosphorus and herbicides delivered to the Great Barrier Reef lagoon
    Frederieke J Kroon
    CSIRO Ecosystem Sciences, P O Box 780, Atherton, QLD 4883, Australia
    Mar Pollut Bull 65:167-81. 2012
    ..5 times to 17,000ktonnes/year, (ii) total nitrogen by 5.7 times to 80,000tonnes/year, (iii) total phosphorus by 8...
  37. ncbi Nitrogen regulation in bacteria and archaea
    John A Leigh
    Department of Microbiology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 7242, USA
    Annu Rev Microbiol 61:349-77. 2007
    A wide range of Bacteria and Archaea sense cellular 2-oxoglutarate (2OG) as an indicator of nitrogen limitation. 2OG sensor proteins are varied, but most of those studied belong to the PII superfamily...
  38. pmc Growth-limiting intracellular metabolites in yeast growing under diverse nutrient limitations
    Viktor M Boer
    Lewis Sigler Institute for Integrative Genomics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA
    Mol Biol Cell 21:198-211. 2010
    ..b>Nitrogen (ammonium) and carbon (glucose) limitation were characterized by low intracellular amino acid and high nucleotide ..
  39. doi Heavy livestock grazing promotes locust outbreaks by lowering plant nitrogen content
    Arianne J Cease
    School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287, USA
    Science 335:467-9. 2012
    Current paradigms generally assume that increased plant nitrogen (N) should enhance herbivore performance by relieving protein limitation, increasing herbivorous insect populations...
  40. doi Nitrogen inputs accelerate phosphorus cycling rates across a wide variety of terrestrial ecosystems
    Alison R Marklein
    Department of Land, Air, and Water Resources, University of California Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    New Phytol 193:696-704. 2012
    Biologically essential elements--especially nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P)--constrain plant growth and microbial functioning; however, human activities are drastically altering the magnitude and pattern of such nutrient limitations ..
  41. pmc Intensive nitrogen loss over the Omani Shelf due to anammox coupled with dissimilatory nitrite reduction to ammonium
    Marlene M Jensen
    Department of Biogeochemistry, Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology, Bremen, Germany
    ISME J 5:1660-70. 2011
    ..the thickest oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) in the world's oceans, and is considered to be a major site of oceanic nitrogen (N) loss...
  42. doi Reference gene selection for quantitative real-time PCR normalization in tomato subjected to nitrogen, cold, and light stress
    Trond Løvdal
    Faculty of Science and Technology, Centre for Organelle Research, University of Stavanger, N 4036 Stavanger, Norway
    Anal Biochem 387:238-42. 2009
    ..Expression stability of candidate reference genes was tested during growth conditions of nitrogen (N) starvation, low temperature, and suboptimal light...
  43. pmc Genetic regulation of nitrogen metabolism in the fungi
    G A Marzluf
    Department of Biochemistry, Ohio State University, Columbus 43210, USA
    Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 61:17-32. 1997
    In the fungi, nitrogen metabolism is controlled by a complex genetic regulatory circuit which ensures the preferential use of primary nitrogen sources and also confers the ability to use many different secondary nitrogen sources when ..
  44. ncbi Autophagy is required for maintenance of amino acid levels and protein synthesis under nitrogen starvation
    Jun Onodera
    Division of Molecular Cell Biology, National Institute for Basic Biology, and Department of Basic Biology, School of Life Science, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Nishigonaka 38, Myodaiji cho, Okazaki 444 8585, Japan
    J Biol Chem 280:31582-6. 2005
    ..Several specific proteins, including amino acid synthesis enzymes and vacuolar enzymes, are increased during nitrogen starvation in wild-type cells but not in autophagy-defective delta atg7 cells despite similar mRNA levels...
  45. pmc Processing of ATG8s, ubiquitin-like proteins, and their deconjugation by ATG4s are essential for plant autophagy
    Kohki Yoshimoto
    Department of Cell Biology, National Institute for Basic Biology, Myodaiji cho, Okazaki 444 8585, Japan
    Plant Cell 16:2967-83. 2004
    ..In Arabidopsis, all nine ATG8 genes and two ATG4 genes were expressed ubiquitously and were induced further by nitrogen starvation...
  46. ncbi Nitrogen assimilation and global regulation in Escherichia coli
    Larry Reitzer
    Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 0688, USA
    Annu Rev Microbiol 57:155-76. 2003
    b>Nitrogen limitation in Escherichia coli controls the expression of about 100 genes of the nitrogen regulated (Ntr) response, including the ammonia-assimilating glutamine synthetase...
  47. ncbi Ionizing radiation-induced, mitochondria-dependent generation of reactive oxygen/nitrogen
    J K Leach
    Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298, USA
    Cancer Res 61:3894-901. 2001
    Transient generation of reactive oxygen or nitrogen (ROS/RNS), detected with dihydrodichlorofluoroscein by fluorescence microscopy, occurs within minutes of exposing cells to ionizing radiation...
  48. ncbi Isolation, characterization and disruption of the areA nitrogen regulatory gene of Gibberella fujikuroi
    B Tudzynski
    Westfalische Wilhelms Universitat Munster, Institut fur Botanik, Germany
    Mol Gen Genet 261:106-14. 1999
    The gene areA-GF, a homologue of the major nitrogen regulatory genes nit-2, areA, nre and NUT1 of Neurospora crassa, Aspergillus nidulans, Penicillium chrysogenum and Magnaporthe grisea, respectively, was cloned from the gibberellin (GA)-..
  49. doi Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli gains a competitive advantage by using ethanolamine as a nitrogen source in the bovine intestinal content
    Yolande Bertin
    Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Unité de Microbiologie UR 454, Centre de Recherche de Clermont Ferrand Theix, 63122 Saint Genes Champanelle, France
    Environ Microbiol 13:365-77. 2011
    ..In this study, we show for the first time that free ethanolamine (EA) constitutes a nitrogen source for the O157:H7 EHEC strain EDL933 in the bovine intestinal content because of induction of the eut (..
  50. pmc Eutrophication of lakes cannot be controlled by reducing nitrogen input: results of a 37-year whole-ecosystem experiment
    David W Schindler
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:11254-8. 2008
    ..Area (ELA), has been fertilized for 37 years with constant annual inputs of phosphorus and decreasing inputs of nitrogen to test the theory that controlling nitrogen inputs can control eutrophication...
  51. doi Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea grow under contrasting soil nitrogen conditions
    Hong J Di
    Centre for Soil and Environmental Research, Lincoln University, Lincoln, Christchurch, New Zealand
    FEMS Microbiol Ecol 72:386-94. 2010
    Nitrification is a key process of the nitrogen (N) cycle in soil with major environmental implications...
  52. doi Responses of ecosystem nitrogen cycle to nitrogen addition: a meta-analysis
    Meng Lu
    Coastal Ecosystems Research Station of the Yangtze River Estuary, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Biodiversity Science and Ecological Engineering, The Institute of Biodiversity Science, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, Shanghai 200433, China
    New Phytol 189:1040-50. 2011
    Anthropogenic nitrogen (N) addition may substantially alter the terrestrial N cycle. However, a comprehensive understanding of how the ecosystem N cycle responds to external N input remains elusive...
  53. ncbi Biocompatibility and toxicological studies of carbon nanotubes doped with nitrogen
    J C Carrero-Sanchez
    Instituto de Investigaciones Biomedicas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Cd Universitaria, 04510, Mexico
    Nano Lett 6:1609-16. 2006
    ..We therefore believe that CNx nanotubes are less harmful than MWNTs or SWNTs and might be more advantageous for bioapplications...
  54. ncbi The challenge of improving nitrogen use efficiency in crop plants: towards a more central role for genetic variability and quantitative genetics within integrated approaches
    Bertrand Hirel
    Unité de Nutrition Azotée des Plantes, UR 511, INRA de Versailles, Route de St Cyr, F 78026 Versailles Cedex, France
    J Exp Bot 58:2369-87. 2007
    In this review, recent developments and future prospects of obtaining a better understanding of the regulation of nitrogen use efficiency in the main crop species cultivated in the world are presented...
  55. doi Nitrogen-doped graphene as efficient metal-free electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction in fuel cells
    Liangti Qu
    Department of Chemistry, School of Science, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, P R China
    ACS Nano 4:1321-6. 2010
    b>Nitrogen-doped graphene (N-graphene) was synthesized by chemical vapor deposition of methane in the presence of ammonia...
  56. ncbi The genome of the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana: ecology, evolution, and metabolism
    E Virginia Armbrust
    School of Oceanography, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
    Science 306:79-86. 2004
    ....
  57. ncbi Soil warming and carbon-cycle feedbacks to the climate system
    J M Melillo
    The Ecosystems Center, Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA 02543, USA
    Science 298:2173-6. 2002
    ..a decade-long soil warming experiment in a mid-latitude hardwood forest, we documented changes in soil carbon and nitrogen cycling in order to investigate the consequences of these changes for the climate system...
  58. doi The Streptomyces coelicolor GlnR regulon: identification of new GlnR targets and evidence for a central role of GlnR in nitrogen metabolism in actinomycetes
    Yvonne Tiffert
    Mikrobiologie Biotechnologie, Institut fur Mikrobiologie, Fakultat fur Biologie, Eberhard Karls Universitat Tubingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 28, D 72076 Tubingen, Germany
    Mol Microbiol 67:861-80. 2008
    Streptomyces coelicolor GlnR is a global regulator that controls genes involved in nitrogen metabolism...
  59. ncbi New processes and players in the nitrogen cycle: the microbial ecology of anaerobic and archaeal ammonia oxidation
    Christopher A Francis
    Department of Geological and Environmental Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 2115, USA
    ISME J 1:19-27. 2007
    Microbial activities drive the global nitrogen cycle, and in the past few years, our understanding of nitrogen cycling processes and the micro-organisms that mediate them has changed dramatically...
  60. ncbi Phosphorus limitation of nitrogen fixation by Trichodesmium in the central Atlantic Ocean
    S A Sañudo-Wilhelmy
    Marine Sciences Research Center, State University of New York, Stony Brook, New York 11794 5000, USA
    Nature 411:66-9. 2001
    Marine fixation of atmospheric nitrogen is believed to be an important source of biologically useful nitrogen to ocean surface waters, stimulating productivity of phytoplankton and so influencing the global carbon cycle...
  61. ncbi The likely impact of elevated [CO2], nitrogen deposition, increased temperature and management on carbon sequestration in temperate and boreal forest ecosystems: a literature review
    Riitta Hyvönen
    Department of Ecology and Environmental Research, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences SLU, PO Box 7072, SE 750 07 Uppsala, Sweden
    New Phytol 173:463-80. 2007
    ..Increasing atmospheric [CO2], increasing temperature, elevated nitrogen deposition and intensified management will change this C store...
  62. doi Elevated CO2 effects on plant carbon, nitrogen, and water relations: six important lessons from FACE
    Andrew D B Leakey
    1406 Institute of Genomic Biology, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
    J Exp Bot 60:2859-76. 2009
    ..Second, elevated CO(2) improves nitrogen use efficiency and, third, decreases water use at both the leaf and canopy scale...
  63. ncbi Stoichiometry and large-scale patterns of leaf carbon and nitrogen in the grassland biomes of China
    Jin sheng He
    Department of Ecology, College of Environmental Sciences and Key Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes of the Ministry of Education, Peking University, 5 Yiheyuan Rd, 100871 Beijing, China
    Oecologia 149:115-22. 2006
    b>Nitrogen (N) and carbon-nitrogen (C:N) ratio are key foliar traits with great ecological importance, but their patterns across biomes have only recently been explored...
  64. doi Metabolic and signaling aspects underpinning the regulation of plant carbon nitrogen interactions
    Adriano Nunes-Nesi
    Max Planck Institute for Molecular Plant Physiology, Am Muhlenberg 1, 14476 Potsdam Golm, Germany
    Mol Plant 3:973-96. 2010
    ..Among these factors, nitrogen is critical, since it is needed to synthesize amino acids, which are the building elements of protein, ..
  65. ncbi Transport mechanisms for organic forms of carbon and nitrogen between source and sink
    Sylvie Lalonde
    ZMBP Plant Physiology, D 72076 Tubingen, Germany
    Annu Rev Plant Biol 55:341-72. 2004
    ..Novel imaging approaches may provide the means to characterize the cellular events and elucidate whole plant control of assimilate partitioning and allocation...
  66. ncbi Potassium, phosphorus, or nitrogen limit root allocation, tree growth, or litter production in a lowland tropical forest
    S Joseph Wright
    Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Apartado 0843 03092, Balboa, Republic of Panama
    Ecology 92:1616-25. 2011
    We maintained a factorial nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) addition experiment for 11 years in a humid lowland forest growing on a relatively fertile soil in Panama to evaluate potential nutrient limitation of tree growth ..
  67. doi Denitrification as the dominant nitrogen loss process in the Arabian Sea
    B B Ward
    Department of Geosciences, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544, USA
    Nature 461:78-81. 2009
    Primary production in over half of the world's oceans is limited by fixed nitrogen availability...
  68. pmc Heterotrophic organisms dominate nitrogen fixation in the South Pacific Gyre
    Hannah Halm
    Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology, Bremen, Germany
    ISME J 6:1238-49. 2012
    ..The major source of nutrient nitrogen in these ecosystems is N(2)-fixation...
  69. doi The evolution and future of Earth's nitrogen cycle
    Donald E Canfield
    Institute of Biology and Nordic Center for Earth Evolution, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, Odense M, Denmark
    Science 330:192-6. 2010
    Atmospheric reactions and slow geological processes controlled Earth's earliest nitrogen cycle, and by ~2...
  70. ncbi Nitrogen deficiency as well as phosphorus deficiency in sorghum promotes the production and exudation of 5-deoxystrigol, the host recognition signal for arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and root parasites
    Kaori Yoneyama
    Weed Science Center, Utsunomiya University, 350 Mine machi, Utsunomiya, Japan
    Planta 227:125-32. 2007
    ..These results suggest that strigolactones may be rapidly released after their production in the roots. Unlike the situation in the roots, neither N nor P deficiency affected the low content of 5-deoxystrigol in sorghum shoot tissues...
  71. pmc Massive nitrogen loss from the Benguela upwelling system through anaerobic ammonium oxidation
    Marcel M M Kuypers
    Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology, Celsiusstrasse 1, 28359 Bremen, Germany
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:6478-83. 2005
    In many oceanic regions, growth of phytoplankton is nitrogen-limited because fixation of N2 cannot make up for the removal of fixed inorganic nitrogen (NH4+, NO2-, and NO3-) by anaerobic microbial processes...
  72. pmc Functional- and abundance-based mechanisms explain diversity loss due to N fertilization
    Katharine N Suding
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 2525, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:4387-92. 2005
    ..As N availability continues to increase globally, management that focuses on locally susceptible functional groups and generally susceptible rare species will be essential to maintain biodiversity...
  73. doi Relationship between N-cycling communities and ecosystem functioning in a 50-year-old fertilization experiment
    Sara Hallin
    Department of Microbiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden
    ISME J 3:597-605. 2009
    ..Here, we investigated how community composition and size of selected functional guilds in the nitrogen cycle correlated with agroecosystem functioning, which was defined as microbial process rates, total crop yield ..
  74. ncbi Iron and phosphorus co-limit nitrogen fixation in the eastern tropical North Atlantic
    Matthew M Mills
    Marine Biogeochemistry, IFM GEOMAR Leibniz Institut für Meereswissenschaften, Düsternbrooker Weg 20, D 24105 Kiel, Germany
    Nature 429:292-4. 2004
    ..Iron supply has been hypothesized to limit nitrogen fixation and hence oceanic primary productivity on geological timescales, providing an alternative to phosphorus ..
  75. doi Global patterns of the dynamics of soil carbon and nitrogen stocks following afforestation: a meta-analysis
    Dejun Li
    Department of Botany and Microbiology, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019, USA
    New Phytol 195:172-81. 2012
    ..the magnitude and direction of soil carbon accumulation following afforestation and its regulation by soil nitrogen (N) dynamics are still not well understood...
  76. ncbi How do plants respond to nutrient shortage by biomass allocation?
    Christian Hermans
    Laboratoire de Physiologie et de Génétique Moléculaire des Plantes, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Boulevard du Triomphe CP 242, 1050 Brussels, Belgium
    Trends Plant Sci 11:610-7. 2006
    ..It has long been known that deficiencies of essential macronutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and magnesium) result in an accumulation of carbohydrates in leaves and roots, and modify ..
  77. ncbi Nitrogen balance and groundwater nitrate contamination: comparison among three intensive cropping systems on the North China Plain
    X T Ju
    Key Laboratory of Plant Soil Interactions, Ministry of Education, College of Agricultural Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing
    Environ Pollut 143:117-25. 2006
    The annual nitrogen (N) budget and groundwater nitrate-N concentrations were studied in the field in three major intensive cropping systems in Shandong province, north China...
  78. ncbi Eutrophication of U.S. freshwaters: analysis of potential economic damages
    Walter K Dodds
    Division of Biology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506, USA
    Environ Sci Technol 43:12-9. 2009
    ..We compared current total nitrogen (TN) and phosphorus (TP) concentrations for the U.S...
  79. doi A review of nitrogen enrichment effects on three biogenic GHGs: the CO2 sink may be largely offset by stimulated N2O and CH4 emission
    Lingli Liu
    Environmental Media Assessment Group MD B243 01, National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, U S EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711, USA
    Ecol Lett 12:1103-17. 2009
    Anthropogenic nitrogen (N) enrichment of ecosystems, mainly from fuel combustion and fertilizer application, alters biogeochemical cycling of ecosystems in a way that leads to altered flux of biogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs)...
  80. pmc GeoChip-based analysis of metabolic diversity of microbial communities at the Juan de Fuca Ridge hydrothermal vent
    Fengping Wang
    Key Laboratory of Marine Biogenetic Resources, Third Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Xiamen 361005, People s Republic of China
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:4840-5. 2009
    ....
  81. ncbi Can diving-induced tissue nitrogen supersaturation increase the chance of acoustically driven bubble growth in marine mammals?
    D S Houser
    SSC SD, National Research Council, Navy Marine Mammal Program, San Diego, CA, 92152 6506, U S A
    J Theor Biol 213:183-95. 2001
    ..The depth of lung collapse limits nitrogen uptake per dive and the surface interval duration influences the amount of nitrogen washout from tissues between ..
  82. pmc Production of N(2) through anaerobic ammonium oxidation coupled to nitrate reduction in marine sediments
    Bo Thamdrup
    Danish Center for Earth System Science, Institute of Biology, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, DK 5230 Odense M, Denmark
    Appl Environ Microbiol 68:1312-8. 2002
    In the global nitrogen cycle, bacterial denitrification is recognized as the only quantitatively important process that converts fixed nitrogen to atmospheric nitrogen gas, N(2), thereby influencing many aspects of ecosystem function and ..
  83. doi Enrichment and characterization of marine anammox bacteria associated with global nitrogen gas production
    Jack van de Vossenberg
    Department of Microbiology, IWWR, Radboud University Nijmegen, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Environ Microbiol 10:3120-9. 2008
    ..This versatile metabolism may be the basis for the global distribution and substantial contribution of the marine Scalindua anammox bacteria to the nitrogen loss from oxygen-limited marine ecosystems.
  84. pmc Transcriptional profiling identifies a role for BrlA in the response to nitrogen depletion and for StuA in the regulation of secondary metabolite clusters in Aspergillus fumigatus
    Kwame Twumasi-Boateng
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    Eukaryot Cell 8:104-15. 2009
    ..mutant, but not the DeltastuA mutant, had impaired downregulation of genes encoding ribosomal proteins under nitrogen-limiting, but not carbon-limiting, conditions...
  85. pmc Dynamics of transcriptional start site selection during nitrogen stress-induced cell differentiation in Anabaena sp. PCC7120
    Jan Mitschke
    Faculty of Biology, University of Freiburg, D 79104 Freiburg, Germany
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:20130-5. 2011
    The fixation of atmospheric N(2) by cyanobacteria is a major source of nitrogen in the biosphere. In Nostocales, such as Anabaena, this process is spatially separated from oxygenic photosynthesis and occurs in heterocysts...
  86. pmc Changes in transcript abundance in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii following nitrogen deprivation predict diversion of metabolism
    Rachel Miller
    Department of Energy Plant Research Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824, USA
    Plant Physiol 154:1737-52. 2010
    ..To begin studying the mechanisms underlying this process, nitrogen (N) deprivation was used to induce triacylglycerol accumulation and changes in developmental programs such as ..
  87. ncbi Nitrogen limitation of net primary productivity in terrestrial ecosystems is globally distributed
    David S LeBauer
    Department of Earth System Science, University of California, Irvine, California 92054, USA
    Ecology 89:371-9. 2008
    Our meta-analysis of 126 nitrogen addition experiments evaluated nitrogen (N) limitation of net primary production (NPP) in terrestrial ecosystems...
  88. ncbi Ecological and toxicological effects of inorganic nitrogen pollution in aquatic ecosystems: A global assessment
    Julio A Camargo
    Departamento de Ecologia, Edificio de Ciencias, Universidad de Alcala, 28871 Alcala de Henares Madrid, Spain
    Environ Int 32:831-49. 2006
    ..assessment, with detailed multi-scale data, of the ecological and toxicological effects generated by inorganic nitrogen pollution in aquatic ecosystems...
  89. doi Loss of plant species after chronic low-level nitrogen deposition to prairie grasslands
    Christopher M Clark
    Department of Ecology, Evolution and Behavior, 100 Ecology, 1987 Upper Buford Circle, University of Minnesota, St Paul, Minnesota 55108, USA
    Nature 451:712-5. 2008
    Rates of atmospheric deposition of biologically active nitrogen (N) are two to seven times the pre-industrial rates in many developed nations because of combustion of fossil fuels and agricultural fertilization...
  90. ncbi Quantitative imaging of nitrogen fixation by individual bacteria within animal cells
    Claude P Lechene
    National Resource for Imaging Mass Spectrometry, Harvard Medical School, and Brigham and Women s Hospital, 65 Landsdowne Street, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
    Science 317:1563-6. 2007
    Biological nitrogen fixation, the conversion of atmospheric nitrogen to ammonia for biosynthesis, is exclusively performed by a few bacteria and archaea...
  91. ncbi Substrate specificity and gene expression of the amino-acid permeases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    B Regenberg
    Department of Yeast Genetics, Carlsberg Laboratory, Copenhagen Valby, Denmark
    Curr Genet 36:317-28. 1999
    ..are transcriptionally induced by an extracellular amino acid, but differ in expression with respect to the nitrogen source. On a non-repressive nitrogen source, AGP1 is induced, while GLN1, BAP2 and BAP3 are not...
  92. doi How Saccharomyces responds to nutrients
    Shadia Zaman
    Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544, USA
    Annu Rev Genet 42:27-81. 2008
    ..cells rely on for perceiving the nutritional landscape, with particular emphasis on those sensitive to carbon and nitrogen sources...
  93. doi Biotechnological solutions to the nitrogen problem
    Giles E D Oldroyd
    John Innes Centre, Norwich Research Park, Norwich NR4 7UH, UK Electronic address
    Curr Opin Biotechnol 26:19-24. 2014
    The availability of nitrogen is one of the major limiting factors to crop growth. In the developed world, farmers use unsustainable levels of inorganic fertilisers to promote crop production...
  94. pmc Reducing environmental risk by improving N management in intensive Chinese agricultural systems
    Xiao Tang Ju
    Key Laboratory of Plant and Soil Interactions, Ministry of Education, China, and College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:3041-6. 2009
    ....
  95. ncbi Isolation of an autotrophic ammonia-oxidizing marine archaeon
    Martin Könneke
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA
    Nature 437:543-6. 2005
    ..The autotrophic metabolism of this isolate, and its close phylogenetic relationship to environmental marine crenarchaeal sequences, suggests that nitrifying marine Crenarchaeota may be important to global carbon and nitrogen cycles.
  96. doi Adjustment of growth and central metabolism to a mild but sustained nitrogen-limitation in Arabidopsis
    Hendrik Tschoep
    Max Planck Institute of Molecular Plant Physiology, Potsdam Golm, Germany
    Plant Cell Environ 32:300-18. 2009
    ..soil-based experimental system that allows a small and sustained restriction of growth of Arabidopsis by low nitrogen (N). Plants were grown in a large volume of a peat-vermiculite mix that contained very low levels of inorganic N...
  97. doi Nitrogen and water availability interact to affect leaf stoichiometry in a semi-arid grassland
    Xiao Tao Lu
    State Key Laboratory of Forest and Soil Ecology, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, 110164, China
    Oecologia 168:301-10. 2012
    ..We conducted a manipulative field experiment with nitrogen (N; 17...
  98. doi Can boron and nitrogen co-doping improve oxygen reduction reaction activity of carbon nanotubes?
    Yu Zhao
    Key Laboratory of Mesoscopic Chemistry of MOE and Jiangsu Provincial Lab for NanoTechnology, Institute of Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, 210093 Nanjing, PR China
    J Am Chem Soc 135:1201-4. 2013
    Two kinds of boron and nitrogen co-doped carbon nanotubes (CNTs) dominated by bonded or separated B and N are intentionally prepared, which present distinct oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) performances...
  99. pmc A galactoglycerolipid lipase is required for triacylglycerol accumulation and survival following nitrogen deprivation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii
    Xiaobo Li
    Department of Energy Plant Research Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824, USA
    Plant Cell 24:4670-86. 2012
    ..Thus, the pgd1 mutant provides evidence for an important biological function of TAG synthesis following N deprivation, namely, relieving a detrimental overreduction of the photosynthetic electron transport chain...
  100. ncbi Influence of biochars on nitrous oxide emission and nitrogen leaching from two contrasting soils
    Bhupinder Pal Singh
    Forest Science Centre, Industry and Investment NSW, P O Box 100, Beecroft, NSW 2119, Australia
    J Environ Qual 39:1224-35. 2010
    The influence of biochar on nitrogen (N) transformation processes in soil is not fully understood...
  101. ncbi Forecasting agriculturally driven global environmental change
    D Tilman
    Department of Ecology, Evolution and Behavior, University of Minnesota, 1987 Upper Buford Circle, St Paul, MN 55108, USA
    Science 292:281-4. 2001
    ..This would be accompanied by 2.4- to 2.7-fold increases in nitrogen- and phosphorus-driven eutrophication of terrestrial, freshwater, and near-shore marine ecosystems, and ..

Research Grants69

  1. ENTERAL PRECURSORS FOR UREA SYNTHESIS IN HUMANS
    Brendan Lee; Fiscal Year: 2006
    The long term goal of the research is to further understand the regulation of nitrogen flow to urea synthesis in humans. A specific focus is on patients with genetic disorders of the urea cycle (UCDs)...
  2. Genetic variation and regulatory networks: Mechanisms and complexity
    DANA PE ER; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..These tools will be made publicly available, including a friendly graphical user interface and visualization. ..
  3. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and birth outcomes in Mexico City
    MARIE SYLVIA O'NEILL; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..5, PM10, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide), matched to the exact locations of participants'homes...
  4. Comparison of Diesel and Biodiesel Emissions and Health Effects in Underground Mi
    Jefferey L Burgess; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Respirable dust, elemental carbon, black carbon, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), aldehydes, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) ..
  5. Novel Peptide MPO Inhibitors for Treating Atherosclerosis
    Kirkwood A Pritchard; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..In turn, MPO oxidizes NO2- to generate nitrogen dioxide ([unreadable]NO2), a radical that is capable of oxidizing lipids, proteins and DNA...
  6. Analysis of gene regulation of Vibrio cholerae during infection
    Jun Zhu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Next we will examine how AphB is modified by reactive nitrogen species (RNS), such as nitric oxide (NO), and oxidative stress from reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated in ..
  7. NITROGEN HETEROCYCLES: METABOLIC EFFECTS AND TOXICITY
    Raymond F Novak; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  8. FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES OF HEMOGLOBINS AND MYOGLOBINS
    John S Olson; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..classes of globins, NO reacts with bound O2 to produce nitrate directly, without the production of toxic reactive nitrogen or oxygen species...
  9. Scavenging of Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species by Cobalamins
    NICOLA ELIZABETH BRASCH; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..These diseases are associated with "oxidative and nitrosative stress" - elevated levels of Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species (ROS/RNS), such as nitric oxide, superoxide, the hydroxyl radical, hydrogen peroxide and peroxynitrite...
  10. METABOLISM, MICRONUTRIENTS, AND ANTIRETROVIRAL THERAPY OUTCOMES IN ZAMBIA
    DOUGLAS CORBETT HEIMBURGER; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..In stored serum samples we will measure additional metabolic analytes (sodium, chloride, bicarbonate, urea nitrogen, and creatinine), selected micronutrients (ferritin for iron status, folic acid, vitamins A, B12, and E, and ..
  11. Ionic currents in gastrointestinal smooth muscle
    Hamid I Akbarali; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In this proposal, we will test the hypothesis that reactive nitrogen species produced during colonic inflammation cause nitration of the tyrosine residues within the c-terminus of ..
  12. Novel Therapeutic Targets in Necrotizing Enterocolitis
    Peter J Giannone; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..NO dysregulation can lead to reactive nitrogen species, leading to cellular protein oxidation and DNA damage...
  13. Transplantation of Reduced-Size Fatty Livers
    Zhi Zhong; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..unique hypotheses that steatosis and partial liver transplantation synergistically increase reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS), inhibit mitochondrial function and suppress liver regeneration...
  14. Dietary Scavenging of Reactive Species in Lung Injury: Role of Macrophages
    THEA NOREEN GOLDEN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..activity of oxidant producing enzymes, leads to pathologic conversion of bioactive NO into oxidized reactive nitrogen species...
  15. International Symposium on Proline Metabolism and Human Health
    Donald F Becker; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The unique roles of proline metabolism in various organisms include osmolyte protection, protein chaperoning, nitrogen and carbon utilization, abiotic/biotic stress response, oxidative stress protection, and nutrient adaptation and ..
  16. Arsenic co-carcinogenesis with UVR: nitrosation and oxidation of target proteins
    Ke Jian Liu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The current project will test the hypothesis that arsenic-generated reactive oxygen and nitrogen species inhibits the activity of zinc finger DNA repair proteins through reaction with redox-sensitive cysteine ..
  17. Gender Bias in Lupus: Contribution of Sex Chromosomes
    Ram Raj Singh; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..this spontaneous model of lupus will be ascertained using disease measures (proteinuria, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and renal pathology), autoantibodies and immune responses...
  18. Biosynthetic Protein Models of Heme-copper Oxidases and Nitric Oxide Reductases
    Yi Lu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The overall goal of the project is to answer a key scientific question in the fields of bioenergetics and the nitrogen cycle, i.e...
  19. Predicting persistent Organ Failure early in Acute Pancreatitis
    Georgios I Papachristou; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..data from this same cohort, we will calculate the accuracy of 5 single markers (glucose, hematocrit, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and C-reactive protein) and 7 scoring systems (Ranson's, acute physiology and chronic health ..
  20. Neprilysin and Pulmonary Vascular Remodeling: Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms
    EDWARD CHARLES DEMPSEY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..mechanisms by which CS exerts an attenuating effect on NEP activity and expression (focus on reactive oxygen and nitrogen species [ROS/RNS] leading to protein degradation by lysosomes and proteasomes and decreased gene expression ..
  21. Pathogenesis of cognitive/neurologic deficits in central nervous system malaria
    Chandy C John; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..g. plasma levels of VCAM-1. ICAM-1, endothelial microparticles, endothelin-1, reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen (RNS) species, and pro- and anti- inflammatory cytokines, and leukocyte heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression;b) ..
  22. Air Pollution, Inflammation and Preterm Birth: A Mechanistic Study in Mexico City
    MARIE SYLVIA O'NEILL; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..5, PM10, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide), matched to locations of participants'homes...
  23. MECHANISM AND CONTROL OF UREA BIOSYNTHESIS
    Frank M Raushel; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..group of enzymes catalyzes the formation of amide functional groups in substrates using ammonia/glutamine as the nitrogen source and ATP as the activating agent...
  24. Novel therapeutics for vesicants and toxic inhaled chemicals (U54)
    Carl W White; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..fibrinolytic approaches), and c) evaluate AEOL10150 and flavonoid silibinin to rescue skin injuries by CEES, nitrogen mustard (NM), and SM...
  25. Redox Regulation of SERCA by Nitric Oxide
    Richard A Cohen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Because of the high levels of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) present in diseased arteries, the function of endothelium-derived nitric oxide (7NO) is decreased, and this contributes to ..
  26. Regulation of Host Nitrogen Balance by the Gut Microbiome
    Gary D Wu; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Classic studies in physiology have shown that the gut microbiome plays an important role in nitrogen balance of the host...
  27. ROLE OF OPIATES IN ALCOHOL-INDUCED NEUROTOXICITY
    DIPAK KUMAR SARKAR; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..To test this hypothesis we will determine whether highly reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species generated extracellularly and intracellularly by various processes initiate and promote ethanol-induced ..
  28. ROLE OF OPIATES IN ALCOHOL-INDUCED NEUROTOXICITY
    DIPAK SARKAR; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..To test this hypothesis we will determine whether highly reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species generated extracellularly and intracellularly by various processes initiate and promote ethanol-induced ..
  29. Prevention and Treatment of Chlorine Gas Induced Injury to the Pulmonary System
    Sadis Matalon; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..We propose that reactive oxygen-chloride and nitrogen intermediates (RONS), formed by the interaction of C12 and its hydrolysis products with nitric oxide (NO), ..
  30. Disease-related defects in dendritic cell processing of bacterial antigens
    Michael S Marks; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..events, leading to acidification, consequent activation of hydrolases, and synthesis of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species...
  31. SPLENIC TOXICITY OF ANILINE
    M Firoze Khan; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Aim 3 will investigate the contribution of reactive nitrogen species to splenic damage by characterizing iNOS regulation and the formation of nitrated proteins, and by ..
  32. High-Tc susceptometer to monitor transfusional iron overload (NSR device)
    Gary M Brittenham; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..project will validate our new high-transition-temperature (high-Tc;operating at 77[unreadable]K, cooled by liquid nitrogen) superconducting magnetic susceptometer as the most clinically effective means for monitoring iron overload in ..
  33. Regulations of DNA Alkylation/Deamination Damage Repair
    Rabindra Roy; Fiscal Year: 2013
    Abstract Reactive nitrogen species, alkylating agents and lipid peroxide radicals generated endogenously and exogenously induce a myriad of DNA lesions, which is thought to affect genomic stability, cellular viability and cause multiple ..
  34. Mechanisms of ENaC Inhibition by Replicating Influenza Virus: Role of M2 Protein
    Sadis Matalon; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..protein that plays a critical role in viral replication, enhances intracellular production of reactive oxygen-nitrogen species (RONS) which (i) oxidize and nitrate ENaC;and (ii) activate PKC(...
  35. Microdialysis Studies of Seizure-Induced Oxidative Stress
    Craig E Lunte; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..is a wealth of research that demonstrates that epileptic seizures lead to the formation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS), which cause oxidative damage to DNA, lipids, and proteins...
  36. Therapeutic Potential of PARP inhibitor for Acute Pancreatitis
    Latha Paka; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..DNA damage by reactive oxygen/nitrogen free radicals in pancreatic injury and consequent over-activation of PARP promotes pancreatic cellular ..
  37. Nutrition and Physical Activity Assessment Study (NPAAS)
    Ross L Prentice; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We will obtain 24-h urine-derived nutritional measures, including nitrogen (protein), fructose, sucrose (sugars), alkylresorcinols (whole grains) and 1- and 3- methylhistidine (meat);and ..
  38. Angiotensin-induced Oxidants and Vascular Cell Phenotype
    Richard Cohen; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..A long-range goal of our group is to understand how reactive oxygen (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) derived from NADPH oxidase and nitric oxide synthase(s) regulate the outcome of the vascular cell ..
  39. Protective Effects of Cannabinoids in HIV Neuropathogenesis
    ROBERT BRYAN ROCK; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..When stimulated by interleukin (IL)-12, astrocytes produce neurotoxic reactive nitrogen species and chemokines, such as CCL2 and CX3CL1, which may recruit macrophages/microglia to the striatum...
  40. Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Ultrasound Measures of Fetal Growth
    MICHELLE WILHELM TURNER; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This hypothesis will be addressed by: (1) estimating prenatal exposures to nitrogen oxides (NOx) - as a marker of traffic-related air pollutants - for BIPS participants using CALINE4 air dispersion ..
  41. Detoxification of Electrophilic Chemical Threat Agents by Nucleophilic Scavengers
    Michael C MacLeod; Fiscal Year: 2010
    One class of chemical threat agents for which medical countermeasures must be developed, the sulfur and nitrogen mustards (SNMs), exert their toxic effects through chemical reactions that involve an electrophilic intermediate...
  42. Oxygen/Nitrogen Stress in Acetaminophen Hepatotoxicity
    Jack A Hinson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..indicate that acetaminophen toxicity occurs with mitochondrial dysfunction and production of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species...
  43. Mesothelioma inhibition by secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG)
    Melpo Christofidou-Solomidou; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Additional studies revealed that asbestos fibers generate reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) and cause oxidation and/or nitrosylation of proteins and DNA...
  44. Microanalytical methods for the detection of reactive nitrogen species
    Susan M Lunte; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..In these and other conditions, neuronal damage or death can be caused by reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, which are generated by endothelial cells as well as astrocytes and glia, reacting with nearby neurons...
  45. Clinical trial of air cleaners to improve indoor air quality and COPD health
    Nadia N Hansel; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..from our research group shows that increased indoor air pollutant concentrations (particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2)) in homes of formers smokers with COPD are associated with respiratory morbidity, including ..
  46. Gonococcal resistance to peroxynitrite
    Virginia L Clark; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..We have determined that N. gonorrhoeae displays remarkable resistance to killing by reactive nitrogen species (RNS), especially peroxynitrite, and we propose that this characteristic allows this organism to escape ..
  47. Neuroprotection by Mitochondria-targeted Antioxidants
    ANUMANTHA GOUNDER KANTHASAMY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..As a corollary, we propose that MTAs attenuate mitochondria-derived reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS), thereby protecting against inactivation of key redox sensors in response to mitochondrial ..
  48. Redox Determinants of Severe Asthma
    Serpil C Erzurum; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..of nitric oxide (NO) metabolism with loss of beneficial S-nitrosothiols and formation of cytotoxic reactive nitrogen species...
  49. Pulmonary Vascular Changes in Early Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)
    R Graham Barr; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..progenitor cells are abnormal early in COPD;3) Plasma VEGF levels and gene expression of apoptotic and nitrogen oxide metabolism pathways in peripheral blood mononucleated cells (PBMCs) are altered early in COPD...
  50. REGULATION OF 15N UREA ISOTOPOMERS PRODUCTION
    Itzhak Nissim; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Data to be obtained will provide new and pivotal information to understand liver nitrogen metabolism in normal and disease states and thus may lead to development of a novel intervention to improve urea ..
  51. METABOLIC SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION IN ADIPOCYTES
    Orian S Shirihai; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Many observations support a causal relationship between redox changes and reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS)...
  52. Free Radicals and Methamphetamine Abuse
    Maria Cecilia Garibaldi Marcondes; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..than neurons will be explored, particularly regarding its potential to induce and/or modulate reactive oxygen and nitrogen intermediates...
  53. ASS, NOS2, AND ALCOHOLIC LIVER DISEASE
    Natalia Nieto; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..nitric oxide synthase (NOS2) leading to excessive generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species affecting cell survival...
  54. 2010 and 2012 Membrane Transport Proteins
    Robert H Edwards; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..transport proteins not only contribute to physiologically important processes from nutrient absorption to nitrogen metabolism, renal function and synaptic transmission, but also play a key role in many human diseases from cancer ..
  55. Ozone Cardiovascular Effects in Genetically Susceptible People
    MARK WALTER FRAMPTON; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..burden to the lung and to the vascular endothelium, via lipid peroxidation and secondary reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS)...
  56. Oxidative Stress and Autoimmunity
    M Firoze Khan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Our long-term goal is to elucidate the role of lipid peroxidation-derived aldehydes (LPDAs) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) in the development of ADs induced and/or exacerbated by chemical exposure...
  57. Role of apolipoprotein M in acute kidney injury
    Didier Portilla; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..We find also increased shedding of urinary ApoM that precedes changes in blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine in wild type mice as well as human ApoM transgenic mice exposed to cisplatin...
  58. Mitochondrial DNA Repair and Biogenesis
    Raquel R Bartz; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..and for mitochondrial biogenesis given that sepsis leads to mtDNA damage by reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species...
  59. Comparison of Bisphosphonate Treatment Regimens on Skeletal Growth &Biomechanics
    Marie Demay; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate, alendronate, prevents phosphate-mediated apoptosis of hypertrophic chondrocytes in ..
  60. Oxidative stress in regional cerebral blood flow alterations after cardiac arrest
    Mioara D Manole; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species play an important role in regulating CBF, and are generated during and after resuscitation from cardiac ..
  61. Diphthamide biosynthesis
    Hening Lin; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..of an adenosine diphosphate ribose (ADP-ribose) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) to one of the nitrogen atoms in the imidazole ring...
  62. Role of innate immunity and injury in transplant-induced reactivation of MCMV
    Michael M Abecassis; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of chemokines that recruit inflammatory cells, which cause further damage through release of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and proteolytic enzymes, and cytokines that activate signaling pathways leading to activation of ..
  63. Myoglobin as a Nitrite Reductase that Regulates Hypoxic Cardiac NO Signaling
    Sruti Shiva; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..that myoglobin, the other major heme globin, may also possess a capability to mediate the metabolism of oxides of nitrogen in a manner influenced by oxygen tension...
  64. GENETIC STUDIES OF GLUTAMINE SYNTHETASE IN BACTERIA
    SYDNEY GOVONS KUSTU; Fiscal Year: 2010
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): We have a longstanding interest in microbial nitrogen metabolism and its regulation and have focused on the transcriptional activator NtrC (nitrogen regulatory protein C) in enteric bacteria...
  65. Novel Nitrogen Enriched Air for Fire Suppression
    DONALD STOOKEY; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..is to develop a new platform technology for fire suppression and fire prevention systems around membrane supplied nitrogen enriched air (NEA)...
  66. Nitrogen Oxides and Heme
    GEORGE RICHTER ADDO; Fiscal Year: 2007
    Iron plays significant roles in the chemistry of nitrogen oxides in the biosphere...
  67. MOFE PROTEIN PROSTHETIC GROUPS IN NITROGENASE CATALYSIS
    WILLIAM NEWTON; Fiscal Year: 2003
    b>Nitrogen is essential for all life processes. Although abundant in the Earth's atmosphere as N2 gas, this gas is not metabolized by most life forms...
  68. H.pylori arginase modulation of ulcers and cancer
    David McGee; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..H. pylori exerts an enormous amount of cellular energy on nitrogen metabolism including the urease enzyme...
  69. NITROGEN OXIDE (NOX) REDOX CHEMISTRY WITH COPPER ION
    KENNETH KARLIN; Fiscal Year: 1993
    Chemical transformations involving the oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and sulfur (SOx) are of considerable environmental and biological importance. Industrial and other combustion (e.g...