chromium

Summary

Summary: A trace element that plays a role in glucose metabolism. It has the atomic symbol Cr, atomic number 24, and atomic weight 52. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP85-002,1985), chromium and some of its compounds have been listed as known carcinogens.

Top Publications

  1. pmc Genetic and epigenetic mechanisms in metal carcinogenesis and cocarcinogenesis: nickel, arsenic, and chromium
    Konstantin Salnikow
    National Cancer Institute, Frederick, MD 21702, USA
    Chem Res Toxicol 21:28-44. 2008
  2. ncbi Six-year results of a prospective study of metal ion levels in young patients with metal-on-metal hip resurfacings
    J Daniel
    The McMinn Centre, 25 Highfield Road, Birmingham B15 3DP, UK
    J Bone Joint Surg Br 91:176-9. 2009
  3. ncbi Hexavalent chromium-induced erythrocyte membrane phospholipid asymmetry
    Adrian Lupescu
    Department of Physiology, University of Tubingen, Tubingen, Germany
    Biometals 25:309-18. 2012
  4. pmc Modulation of histone methylation and MLH1 gene silencing by hexavalent chromium
    Hong Sun
    Nelson Institute of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, 57 Old Forge Road, Tuxedo, New York 10987, USA
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 237:258-66. 2009
  5. ncbi Sensitivity and specificity of blood cobalt and chromium metal ions for predicting failure of metal-on-metal hip replacement
    A J Hart
    Imperial College London, Department of Musculoskeletal Surgery, Charing Cross Hospital Campus, Fulham Palace Road, London W6 8RF, UK
    J Bone Joint Surg Br 93:1308-13. 2011
  6. pmc Nitric oxide-mediated bcl-2 stabilization potentiates malignant transformation of human lung epithelial cells
    Neelam Azad
    Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hampton University, Hampton, Virginia 23668, USA
    Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 42:578-85. 2010
  7. pmc Health effects of arsenic and chromium in drinking water: recent human findings
    Allan H Smith
    School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA
    Annu Rev Public Health 30:107-22. 2009
  8. ncbi Cytotoxicity and oxidative mechanisms of different forms of chromium
    Debasis Bagchi
    Department of Pharmacy Sciences, Creighton University School of Pharmacy and Health Professions, 2500 California Plaza, Omaha, NE 68178, USA
    Toxicology 180:5-22. 2002
  9. ncbi Importance of chromium-DNA adducts in mutagenicity and toxicity of chromium(VI)
    Anatoly Zhitkovich
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Brown University, Box G E507, Providence, Rhode Island 02912, USA
    Chem Res Toxicol 18:3-11. 2005
  10. ncbi Chromium exhibits adverse effects at environmental relevant concentrations in chronic toxicity assay system of nematode Caenorhabditis elegans
    Quili Wu
    Key Laboratory of Environmental Medicine Engineering in Ministry of Education, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical School of Southeast University, Nanjing 210009, China
    Chemosphere 87:1281-7. 2012

Detail Information

Publications348 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc Genetic and epigenetic mechanisms in metal carcinogenesis and cocarcinogenesis: nickel, arsenic, and chromium
    Konstantin Salnikow
    National Cancer Institute, Frederick, MD 21702, USA
    Chem Res Toxicol 21:28-44. 2008
    Chronic exposure to nickel(II), chromium(VI), or inorganic arsenic (iAs) has long been known to increase cancer incidence among affected individuals...
  2. ncbi Six-year results of a prospective study of metal ion levels in young patients with metal-on-metal hip resurfacings
    J Daniel
    The McMinn Centre, 25 Highfield Road, Birmingham B15 3DP, UK
    J Bone Joint Surg Br 91:176-9. 2009
    ..increase in the 24-hour urinary excretion of metal ions, reaching a peak at six months (cobalt) and one year (chromium) after operation. Subsequently there is a decreasing trend in excretion of both cobalt and chromium...
  3. ncbi Hexavalent chromium-induced erythrocyte membrane phospholipid asymmetry
    Adrian Lupescu
    Department of Physiology, University of Tubingen, Tubingen, Germany
    Biometals 25:309-18. 2012
    Hexavalent (VI) chromium is a global contaminant with cytotoxic activity. Chromium (VI) induces oxidative stress, inflammation, cell proliferation, malignant transformation and may trigger carcinogenesis and at the same time apoptosis...
  4. pmc Modulation of histone methylation and MLH1 gene silencing by hexavalent chromium
    Hong Sun
    Nelson Institute of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, 57 Old Forge Road, Tuxedo, New York 10987, USA
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 237:258-66. 2009
    Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is a mutagen and carcinogen, and occupational exposure can lead to lung cancers and other adverse health effects...
  5. ncbi Sensitivity and specificity of blood cobalt and chromium metal ions for predicting failure of metal-on-metal hip replacement
    A J Hart
    Imperial College London, Department of Musculoskeletal Surgery, Charing Cross Hospital Campus, Fulham Palace Road, London W6 8RF, UK
    J Bone Joint Surg Br 93:1308-13. 2011
    ..We investigated the 7 ppb cut-off level for the maximum of cobalt or chromium and determined optimal mathematical cut-off levels from receiver-operating characteristic curves...
  6. pmc Nitric oxide-mediated bcl-2 stabilization potentiates malignant transformation of human lung epithelial cells
    Neelam Azad
    Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hampton University, Hampton, Virginia 23668, USA
    Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 42:578-85. 2010
    Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) compounds are known human carcinogens associated with the incidence of lung cancer...
  7. pmc Health effects of arsenic and chromium in drinking water: recent human findings
    Allan H Smith
    School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA
    Annu Rev Public Health 30:107-22. 2009
    ..Hexavalent chromium differs from arsenic in that it discolors water, turning the water yellow at high concentrations...
  8. ncbi Cytotoxicity and oxidative mechanisms of different forms of chromium
    Debasis Bagchi
    Department of Pharmacy Sciences, Creighton University School of Pharmacy and Health Professions, 2500 California Plaza, Omaha, NE 68178, USA
    Toxicology 180:5-22. 2002
    b>Chromium exists mostly in two valence states in nature: hexavalent chromium [chromium(VI)] and trivalent chromium [chromium(III)]...
  9. ncbi Importance of chromium-DNA adducts in mutagenicity and toxicity of chromium(VI)
    Anatoly Zhitkovich
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Brown University, Box G E507, Providence, Rhode Island 02912, USA
    Chem Res Toxicol 18:3-11. 2005
  10. ncbi Chromium exhibits adverse effects at environmental relevant concentrations in chronic toxicity assay system of nematode Caenorhabditis elegans
    Quili Wu
    Key Laboratory of Environmental Medicine Engineering in Ministry of Education, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical School of Southeast University, Nanjing 210009, China
    Chemosphere 87:1281-7. 2012
    ..whether the assay system (10-d) in Caenorhabditis elegans can be used to evaluate chronic toxicity of chromium (Cr(VI)) at environmental relevant concentrations ranging from 5.2 μg L(-1) to 260 μg L(-1)...
  11. ncbi Zinc, copper, iron, and chromium concentrations in young patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus
    M Basaki
    Department of Biochemistry, School of Veterinary Medicine, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71345 1731, Iran
    Biol Trace Elem Res 148:161-4. 2012
    ..The aim of present study was to compare the concentration of essential trace elements, zinc, copper, iron, and chromium in serum of patients who have type 2 diabetes mellitus (n = 20) with those of nondiabetic control subjects (n = ..
  12. ncbi Effects of chromium on the immune system
    Richa Shrivastava
    Biomembrane Division, Industrial Toxicology Research Centre, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow 226001, India
    FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 34:1-7. 2002
    b>Chromium is a naturally occurring heavy metal found commonly in the environment in trivalent, Cr(III), and hexavalent, Cr(VI), forms...
  13. pmc Nickel, cobalt, chromium, palladium and gold induce a mixed Th1- and Th2-type cytokine response in vitro in subjects with contact allergy to the respective metals
    J T Minang
    Department of Immunology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden
    Clin Exp Immunol 146:417-26. 2006
    ..involved in contact allergy has been limited, we investigated the cytokine profile induced by Ni, cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), palladium (Pd) and gold (Au) in PBMC from patients with patch test reactivity to the respective metals...
  14. ncbi Chromium is not an essential trace element for mammals: effects of a "low-chromium" diet
    Kristin R Di Bona
    Department of Biological Sciences, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487, USA
    J Biol Inorg Chem 16:381-90. 2011
    b>Chromium was proposed to be an essential trace element over 50 years ago and has been accepted as an essential element for over 30 years. However, the studies on which chromium's status are based are methodologically flawed...
  15. pmc Exposure to nickel, chromium, or cadmium causes distinct changes in the gene expression patterns of a rat liver derived cell line
    Matthew G Permenter
    Excet, Inc, Fort Detrick, Maryland, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 6:e27730. 2011
    Many heavy metals, including nickel (Ni), cadmium (Cd), and chromium (Cr) are toxic industrial chemicals with an exposure risk in both occupational and environmental settings that may cause harmful outcomes...
  16. pmc Oxidative stress, DNA damage, and antioxidant enzyme activity induced by hexavalent chromium in Sprague-Dawley rats
    Anita K Patlolla
    Molecular Toxicology Research Laboratory, NIH Center for Environmental Health, College of Science, Engineering and Technology, CSET, Jackson State University, Jackson, Mississippi, USA
    Environ Toxicol 24:66-73. 2009
    b>Chromium is a widespread industrial compound. The soluble hexavalent chromium Cr (VI) is an environmental contaminant widely recognized as carcinogen, mutagen, and teratogen toward humans and animals...
  17. pmc NADPH oxidase activation is required in reactive oxygen species generation and cell transformation induced by hexavalent chromium
    Xin Wang
    Graduate Center for Toxicology, 1095 V A Drive, 306 Health Sciences Research Building, Lexington, KY 40536, USA
    Toxicol Sci 123:399-410. 2011
    Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is a well-known human carcinogen associated with the incidence of lung cancer...
  18. ncbi Serum metal ion levels after second-generation metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty
    Takao Imanishi
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, 2 174 Edobashi, Tsu, Mie, 514 8507, Japan
    Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 130:1447-50. 2010
    ..We investigated serum levels of cobalt and chromium ions in patients with successfully implanted second-generation metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty (THA) using ..
  19. ncbi Etching enamel for orthodontics with an erbium, chromium:yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet laser system
    Guvenc Basaran
    Dicle University, Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Campus, Diyarbakir, Turkey
    Angle Orthod 77:117-23. 2007
    ..bond strength, surface characteristics, and fracture mode of brackets that are bonded to enamel etched with an erbium, chromium:yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser operated at different power outputs: 0.5 W, 1 W, and 2 W.
  20. ncbi Human bronchial epithelial cells malignantly transformed by hexavalent chromium exhibit an aneuploid phenotype but no microsatellite instability
    C F D Rodrigues
    Centro de Investigação em Meio Ambiente, Genética e Oncobiologia CIMAGO, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal
    Mutat Res 670:42-52. 2009
    Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is a well-recognized human lung carcinogen. In order to gain further insight into Cr(VI)-induced carcinogenesis, we have established an adequate in vitro cellular model for the study of this process...
  21. ncbi A quantitative assessment of the carcinogenicity of hexavalent chromium by the oral route and its relevance to human exposure
    Alan H Stern
    New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, Office of Science, 428 E State St, Trenton, NJ 08625, USA
    Environ Res 110:798-807. 2010
    Hexavalent chromium (Cr(6+)) has long been recognized as an inhalation carcinogen. Useful data on its carcinogenicity by ingestion have been slower to develop...
  22. pmc Genesis of hexavalent chromium from natural sources in soil and groundwater
    Christopher Oze
    Department of Geological and Environmental Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 2115, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:6544-9. 2007
    ..Our results demonstrate that Cr(III) within ultramafic- and serpentinite-derived soils/sediments can be oxidized and dissolved through natural processes, leading to hazardous levels of aqueous Cr(VI) in surface and groundwater...
  23. ncbi Chromium activates glucose transporter 4 trafficking and enhances insulin-stimulated glucose transport in 3T3-L1 adipocytes via a cholesterol-dependent mechanism
    Guoli Chen
    Department of Cellular and Integrative Physiology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Center for Diabetes Research, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202, USA
    Mol Endocrinol 20:857-70. 2006
    Evidence suggests that chromium supplementation may alleviate symptoms associated with diabetes, such as high blood glucose and lipid abnormalities, yet a molecular mechanism remains unclear...
  24. pmc Chromium in drinking water: sources, metabolism, and cancer risks
    Anatoly Zhitkovich
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Brown University, 70 Ship Street, Providence, RI 02912, United States
    Chem Res Toxicol 24:1617-29. 2011
    Drinking water supplies in many geographic areas contain chromium in the +3 and +6 oxidation states. Public health concerns are centered on the presence of hexavalent Cr that is classified as a known human carcinogen via inhalation...
  25. ncbi Chromium toxicity in plants
    Arun K Shanker
    Department of Crop Physiology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, India
    Environ Int 31:739-53. 2005
    Due to its wide industrial use, chromium is considered a serious environmental pollutant. Contamination of soil and water by chromium (Cr) is of recent concern...
  26. pmc Chromium genotoxicity: A double-edged sword
    Kristen P Nickens
    Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, The George Washington University Medical Center, Washington, DC 20037, United States
    Chem Biol Interact 188:276-88. 2010
    Certain forms of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] are known respiratory carcinogens that induce a broad spectrum of DNA damage...
  27. ncbi Oxidative protein damage causes chromium toxicity in yeast
    Edward R Sumner
    School of Biology, Institute of Genetics, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD, UK
    Microbiology 151:1939-48. 2005
    Oxidative damage in microbial cells occurs during exposure to the toxic metal chromium, but it is not certain whether such oxidation accounts for the toxicity of Cr...
  28. ncbi Hexavalent chromium and lung cancer in the chromate industry: a quantitative risk assessment
    Robert M Park
    US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, MS C 15, Cincinnati, OH 45226 1998, USA
    Risk Anal 24:1099-108. 2004
    ..was to estimate excess lifetime risk of lung cancer death resulting from occupational exposure to hexavalent-chromium-containing dusts and mists...
  29. ncbi The protective effect of alpha-tocopherol against dichromate-induced renal tight junction damage is mediated via ERK1/2
    Laura Arreola-Mendoza
    Toxicology Dept, Centre for Research and Advanced Studies, National Polytechnic Institute Cinvestav IPN, Av Instituto Politecnico Nacional 2508, Col San Pedro Zacatenco, Mexico DF, 07360, Mexico
    Toxicol Lett 191:279-88. 2009
    ..This study provides evidence of the beneficial effect of alpha-TOC on TJ structure and function undergoing oxidative damage, and we suggest the participation of ERK1/2 in the mechanisms leading to protection by the antioxidant...
  30. ncbi Hexavalent chromium reduction by free and immobilized cell-free extract of Arthrobacter rhombi-RE
    R Elangovan
    Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Chennai, India
    Appl Biochem Biotechnol 160:81-97. 2010
    In the present study, hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) reduction potential of chromium reductase associated with the cell-free extracts (CFE) of Arthrobacter rhombi-RE species was evaluated...
  31. ncbi Arsenic and chromium in drinking water promote tumorigenesis in a mouse colitis-associated colorectal cancer model and the potential mechanism is ROS-mediated Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway
    Xin Wang
    Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536, USA
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 262:11-21. 2012
    Exposure to carcinogenic metals, such as trivalent arsenic [As(III)] and hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)], through drinking water is a major global public health problem and is associated with various cancers...
  32. pmc Undetectable role of oxidative DNA damage in cell cycle, cytotoxic and clastogenic effects of Cr(VI) in human lung cells with restored ascorbate levels
    Mindy Reynolds
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912, USA
    Mutagenesis 27:437-43. 2012
    ..deficiency of cultured cells in ascorbate (Asc) impacts the formation of oxidative DNA damage by hexavalent chromium (chromate)...
  33. pmc The John Charnley Award: Metal-on-metal hip resurfacing versus large-diameter head metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty: a randomized clinical trial
    Donald S Garbuz
    Division of Lower Limb Reconstruction and Oncology, Department of Orthopaedics, University of British Columbia, Room 3114, 910 West 10th Avenue, Vancouver, BC, V5Z 4E3, Canada
    Clin Orthop Relat Res 468:318-25. 2010
    ..There was no difference in quality of life between the two arms in the study. Serum levels of cobalt and chromium were measured in a subset of 30 patients. In both groups cobalt and chromium was elevated compared to baseline...
  34. pmc The effect of inhaled chromium on different exhaled breath condensate biomarkers among chrome-plating workers
    Andrea Caglieri
    Laboratory of Industrial Toxicology, Department of Clinical Medicine, Nephrology and Health Sciences, University of Parma, Via Gramsci 14, 43100 Parma, Italy
    Environ Health Perspect 114:542-6. 2006
    b>Chromium is corrosive, cytotoxic, and carcinogenic for humans and can induce acute and chronic lung tissue toxicity...
  35. pmc Assessment of Cr(VI)-induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity using high content analysis
    Chad M Thompson
    ToxStrategies, Katy, Texas, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 7:e42720. 2012
    Oral exposure to high concentrations of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] induces intestinal redox changes, villus cytotoxicity, crypt hyperplasia, and intestinal tumors in mice...
  36. pmc Chromium-induced biochemical, genotoxic and histopathologic effects in liver and kidney of goldfish, carassius auratus
    Venkatramreddy Velma
    Environmental Toxicology Research Laboratory, NIH RCMI Center for Environmental Health, College of Science, Engineering and Technology Jackson State University, 1400 Lynch Street, Jackson, Mississippi, USA
    Mutat Res 698:43-51. 2010
    ..Hexavalent chromium (Cr (VI)), due to its redox potential can induce oxidative stress (OS) in fish and impair their health...
  37. pmc Elevation of circulating HLA DR(+) CD8(+) T-cells and correlation with chromium and cobalt concentrations 6 years after metal-on-metal hip arthroplasty
    Nils P Hailer
    Department of Orthopedics, Institute of Surgical Sciences, Uppsala University Hospital, Sweden
    Acta Orthop 82:6-12. 2011
    ..We hypothesized that changes in lymphocyte subpopulations would be associated with elevated metal ion concentrations...
  38. ncbi Chromium(VI) bioremediation by aquatic macrophyte Callitriche cophocarpa Sendtn
    Joanna Augustynowicz
    Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Horticulture, University of Agriculture in Krakow, Al 29 Listopada 54, Krakow, Poland
    Chemosphere 79:1077-83. 2010
    Callitriche cophocarpa (water-starwort)--aquatic widespread macrophyte--was found to be an excellent chromium accumulator...
  39. ncbi Induction of protein oxidation by cobalt and chromium ions in human U937 macrophages
    Alain Petit
    Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research, McGill University, The SMBD Jewish General Hospital, 3755 Ch Cote Ste Catherine, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3T 1E2
    Biomaterials 26:4416-22. 2005
    ..metal ions from metal-on-metal prostheses, the aim of this study was to examine the effect of cobalt (Co2+) and chromium (Cr3+) ions on protein oxidation in human U937 macrophages...
  40. pmc Exposure of soil microbial communities to chromium and arsenic alters their diversity and structure
    Cody S Sheik
    Department of Botany and Microbiology, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 7:e40059. 2012
    Extensive use of chromium (Cr) and arsenic (As) based preservatives from the leather tanning industry in Pakistan has had a deleterious effect on the soils surrounding production facilities...
  41. ncbi Comparative proteomic analysis of Typha angustifolia leaf under chromium, cadmium and lead stress
    Alieu Mohamed Bah
    Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Huajiachi Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029, China
    J Hazard Mater 184:191-203. 2010
    ..Contrarily, elF4F was inhibited by Cr/Pb, chloroplast FtsZ-like protein and GF14 omega impeded by Cd and Pb, respectively...
  42. ncbi Elevated intakes of supplemental chromium improve glucose and insulin variables in individuals with type 2 diabetes
    R A Anderson
    Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, U S Department of Agriculture, Maryland 20705 2350, USA
    Diabetes 46:1786-91. 1997
    b>Chromium is an essential nutrient involved in normal carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. The chromium requirement is postulated to increase with increased glucose intolerance and diabetes...
  43. ncbi One-year prospective comparative study of three large-diameter metal-on-metal total hip prostheses: serum metal ion levels and clinical outcomes
    J F Lardanchet
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, North Amiens Teaching Hospital Center, 1, Place Victor Pauchet, 80000 Amiens, France
    Orthop Traumatol Surg Res 98:265-74. 2012
    ..are related to the geometry and metal composition of the prosthesis components, we conducted a prospective study of clinical outcomes and serum chromium and cobalt levels 1 year after implantation of three different acetabular cups.
  44. ncbi Dermatological toxicity of hexavalent chromium
    Susan R Shelnutt
    Center for Toxicology and Environmental Health, North Little Rock, Arkansas, USA
    Crit Rev Toxicol 37:375-87. 2007
    Hexavalent chromium causes two types of dermatological toxicities: allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) and skin ulcers. This report reviews the etiology, prevalence, pathology, dose-response, and prognosis of both of these reactions...
  45. ncbi Serum levels of cobalt and chromium in patients with Sikomet metal-metal total hip replacements
    Ingrid Milosev
    Jozef Stefan Institute, Department of Physical and Organic Chemistry, Ljubljana, Slovenia
    J Orthop Res 23:526-35. 2005
    ..4-fold increase in chromium compared with the control group...
  46. ncbi Circulating levels of cobalt and chromium from metal-on-metal hip replacement are associated with CD8+ T-cell lymphopenia
    A J Hart
    Department of Musculoskeletal Surgery Charing Cross, Imperial College, London, England
    J Bone Joint Surg Br 91:835-42. 2009
    ..Our aim was to evaluate the relationship between metal-on-metal replacements, the levels of cobalt and chromium ions in whole blood and the absolute numbers of circulating lymphocytes...
  47. pmc Metal ion levels and functional results after either resurfacing hip arthroplasty or conventional metal-on-metal hip arthroplasty
    José M H Smolders
    Department of Orthopaedics, Hospital Rijnstate, Arnhem, The Netherlands
    Acta Orthop 82:559-66. 2011
    ....
  48. pmc Intracellular chromium localization and cell physiological response in the unicellular alga Micrasterias
    Stefanie Volland
    Plant Physiology Division, Cell Biology Department, University of Salzburg, Hellbrunnerstr 34, 5020 Salzburg, Austria
    Aquat Toxicol 109:59-69. 2012
    ..The heavy metal chromium has a wide industrial use and exists in two stable oxidation states: trivalent and hexavalent...
  49. ncbi Lymphocyte proliferation responses in patients with pseudotumors following metal-on-metal hip resurfacing arthroplasty
    Young Min Kwon
    Nuffield Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Oxford, Windmill Road, Oxford OX3 7LD, United Kingdom
    J Orthop Res 28:444-50. 2010
    ..A delayed hypersensitivity reaction type IV to nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr), or cobalt (Co) has been suggested to play a role in its aetiology...
  50. ncbi The effect of component size and orientation on the concentrations of metal ions after resurfacing arthroplasty of the hip
    D J Langton
    Joint Replacement Unit, University Hospital of North Tees, Hardwick, Stockton on Tees TS19 8PE, UK
    J Bone Joint Surg Br 90:1143-51. 2008
    ..b>Chromium and cobalt ion concentrations in the whole blood of patients with smaller (<or= 51 mm) femoral components were ..
  51. ncbi Whole blood metal ion concentrations in correlation with activity level in three different metal-on-metal bearings
    Christophe A Pattyn
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery and Traumatology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium
    J Arthroplasty 26:58-64. 2011
    ..Whole blood cobalt and chromium levels were analyzed preoperatively, at 3 months, 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years...
  52. ncbi Chromium accumulation by the hyperaccumulator plant Leersia hexandra Swartz
    Xue hong Zhang
    Department of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Guilin University of Technology, Jiangan Road 12, Guilin, Guangxi 541004, PR China
    Chemosphere 67:1138-43. 2007
    Leersia hexandra Swartz (Gramineae), which occurs in Southern China, has been found to be a new chromium hyperaccumulator by means of field survey and pot-culture experiment...
  53. ncbi Correlation between inclination of the acetabular component and metal ion levels in metal-on-metal hip resurfacing replacement
    R de Haan
    University Hospital Brussels, Laarbeeklaan 101, 1090 Brussels, Belgium
    J Bone Joint Surg Br 90:1291-7. 2008
    We examined the relationships between the serum levels of chromium and cobalt ions and the inclination angle of the acetabular component and the level of activity in 214 patients implanted with a metal-on-metal resurfacing hip replacement...
  54. ncbi Exposure to chromium, cobalt and molybdenum from metal-on-metal total hip replacement and hip resurfacing arthroplasty
    Wolf Christoph Witzleb
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Universty Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden University of Technology, Dresden, Germany
    Acta Orthop 77:697-705. 2006
    ..Because cobalt and chromium have been shown to be carcinogenic and mutagenic in human and animal models, systemic toxicity and cancer risk ..
  55. ncbi Serum cobalt and chromium elevations following hip resurfacing with the Cormet 2000 device
    D Gordon Allan
    Southern Illinois University, School of Medicine, Division of Orthopedics and Rehabilitation, Springfield, IL 62794 9679, USA
    J Surg Orthop Adv 16:12-8. 2007
    This study was designed to monitor serum cobalt (Co) and chromium (Cr) levels at multiple time points following hip resurfacing with the Cormet 2000 device...
  56. ncbi Monitoring of lead, cadmium, chromium and nickel in placenta from an e-waste recycling town in China
    Yongyong Guo
    Analytical Cytology Laboratory, Shantou University Medical College, Guangdong, P R China
    Sci Total Environ 408:3113-7. 2010
    ..We aimed to investigate concentrations of heavy metals, including lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), and nickel (Ni) in placenta from Guiyu and compared them with those from a control area where no e-waste ..
  57. pmc Do ion levels in hip resurfacing differ from metal-on-metal THA at midterm?
    A Moroni
    Department II of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Bologna University, Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, Via G C Pupilli 1, 40136 Bologna, Italy
    Clin Orthop Relat Res 469:180-7. 2011
    ..Metal-on-metal Birmingham hip resurfacing (MOM-BHR) is an alternative to metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty (MOM-THA), especially for young and/or active patients. However, wear resulting in increased serum ion levels is a concern...
  58. ncbi Prevalence of pseudotumor in asymptomatic patients after metal-on-metal hip arthroplasty
    Daniel H Williams
    Division of Lower Limb Reconstruction and Oncology, Department of Orthopaedics, University of British Columbia, 910 West 10th Avenue, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    J Bone Joint Surg Am 93:2164-71. 2011
    ..A secondary purpose was to assess whether a correlation exists between elevated serum metal ion levels and pseudotumor formation...
  59. pmc Chronic occupational exposure to hexavalent chromium causes DNA damage in electroplating workers
    Xu Hui Zhang
    Hangzhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Hangzhou 310021, PR China
    BMC Public Health 11:224. 2011
    Occupational exposure to chromium compounds may result in adverse health effects. This study aims to investigate whether low-level hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) exposure can cause DNA damage in electroplating workers.
  60. ncbi Lung cancer risk associated with occupational exposure to nickel, chromium VI, and cadmium in two population-based case-control studies in Montreal
    Rachelle Beveridge
    Departement de Medecine sociale et preventive, Universite de Montreal, Montreal, QC, Canada
    Am J Ind Med 53:476-85. 2010
    Nickel, chromium VI, and cadmium have been identified as lung carcinogens in highly exposed cohorts...
  61. ncbi Lung cancer among workers in chromium chemical production
    H J Gibb
    U S Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC 20460, USA
    Am J Ind Med 38:115-26. 2000
    ..This excess risk is believed to be the result of exposure to hexavalent chromium. There have been mixed reports about whether trivalent chromium exposure is also associated with an excess lung ..
  62. pmc Comparison of kidney injury molecule-1 and other nephrotoxicity biomarkers in urine and kidney following acute exposure to gentamicin, mercury, and chromium
    Yuzhao Zhou
    Center for Devices and Radiological Health, U S Food and Drug Administration, White Oak Life Sciences Laboratory, Silver Spring, MD 20993, USA
    Toxicol Sci 101:159-70. 2008
    ..Male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with a range of doses of gentamicin, mercury (Hg; HgCl2), or chromium (Cr; K2Cr2O7)...
  63. ncbi Role of chromium in human health and in diabetes
    William T Cefalu
    Division of NutritionChronic Disease, The Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State University, 6400 Perkins Rd, Baton Rouge, LA 70808, USA
    Diabetes Care 27:2741-51. 2004
  64. ncbi Threshold mechanisms and site specificity in chromium(VI) carcinogenesis
    S De Flora
    Department of Health Sciences, Section of Hygiene and Preventive Medicine, University of Genoa, Via A Pastore 1, I 16132 Genoa, Italy
    Carcinogenesis 21:533-41. 2000
    ..years have elapsed since the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) evaluated the carcinogenicity of chromium and chromium compounds...
  65. ncbi Cancer mortality in chinese populations surrounding an alloy plant with chromium smelting operations
    Brent D Kerger
    Health Science Resource Integration, Tallahassee, FL 32309, USA
    J Toxicol Environ Health A 72:329-44. 2009
    ..cancer mortality study of a population (about 10,000) exposed to groundwater contaminated by hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] up to 20 mg/L near JinZhou City in the LiaoNing Province of China between 1960 and 1978...
  66. ncbi Genotoxic evaluation of welders occupationally exposed to chromium and nickel using the Comet and micronucleus assays
    K Danadevi
    Owaisi Hospital and Research Center, Deccan College of Medical Sciences, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India
    Mutagenesis 19:35-41. 2004
    b>Chromium (Cr) and nickel (Ni) are widely used industrial chemicals. Welders in India are inclined to possible occupational Cr and Ni exposure...
  67. pmc A retrospective comparative study of mortality and causes of death among patients with metal-on-metal and metal-on-polyethylene total hip prostheses in primary osteoarthritis after a long-term follow-up
    Tuomo Visuri
    Research Institute of Military Medicine, Helsinki, Finland
    BMC Musculoskelet Disord 11:78. 2010
    ..We analyzed the causes of total and site-specific mortality among a cohort of patients with MM and with metal-on-polyethylene (MP) THA after a long follow-up time...
  68. ncbi Chromium (VI)-induced oxidative stress, apoptotic cell death and modulation of p53 tumor suppressor gene
    D Bagchi
    Creighton University School of Pharmacy and Allied Health Professions, Omaha, NE 68178, USA
    Mol Cell Biochem 222:149-58. 2001
    b>Chromium (VI) is a widely used industrial chemical, extensively used in paints, metal finishes, steel including stainless steel manufacturing, alloy cast irons, chrome, and wood treatment...
  69. ncbi Adverse reaction to metal debris following hip resurfacing: the influence of component type, orientation and volumetric wear
    D J Langton
    Northern Deanery, Goldcrest Way, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE15 8NY, UK
    J Bone Joint Surg Br 93:164-71. 2011
    ..There were 58 failures associated with ARMD. The median chromium and cobalt concentrations in the failed group were significantly higher than in the control group (p < 0.001)...
  70. ncbi Concentrations of seven trace elements in different hematological matrices in patients with type 2 diabetes as compared to healthy controls
    C Ekmekcioglu
    Department of Physiology, University of Vienna, Medical School, Austria
    Biol Trace Elem Res 79:205-19. 2001
    ..Furthermore, significantly lower chromium levels (p < 0.05) were found in the plasma of diabetic individuals as compared to controls...
  71. ncbi Blood and urine metal ion levels in young and active patients after Birmingham hip resurfacing arthroplasty: four-year results of a prospective longitudinal study
    J Daniel
    The McMinn Centre, 25 Highfield Road, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 3DP, UK
    J Bone Joint Surg Br 89:169-73. 2007
    This is a longitudinal study of the daily urinary output and the concentrations in whole blood of cobalt and chromium in patients with metal-on-metal resurfacings over a period of four years...
  72. ncbi Effects of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, and lead on gene expression regulated by a battery of 13 different promoters in recombinant HepG2 cells
    D B Tully
    Environmental Toxicology Program, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, 27709, USA
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 168:79-90. 2000
    ..we chose four of the high-priority metal pollutants from ATSDR's HAZDAT list, including arsenic, cadmium, chromium, and lead, to test in a commercially developed assay system, CAT-Tox(L) (Xenometrix)...
  73. pmc Hexavalent chromium is carcinogenic to F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice after chronic oral exposure
    Matthew D Stout
    National Toxicology Program, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 117:716-22. 2009
    Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is a human carcinogen after inhalation exposure. Humans also ingest Cr(VI) from contaminated drinking water and soil; however, limited data exist on the oral toxicity and carcinogenicity of Cr(VI).
  74. pmc A novel chromate reductase from Thermus scotoductus SA-01 related to old yellow enzyme
    Diederik Johannes Opperman
    Department of Microbial, Biochemical and Food Biotechnology, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein 9300, South Africa
    J Bacteriol 190:3076-82. 2008
    ..Sequence analysis shows the chromate reductase to be related to the old yellow enzyme family, in particular the xenobiotic reductases involved in the oxidative stress response...
  75. ncbi Niacin bound chromium treatment induces myocardial Glut-4 translocation and caveolar interaction via Akt, AMPK and eNOS phosphorylation in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats after ischemia-reperfusion injury
    Suresh Varma Penumathsa
    Molecular Cardiology and Angiogenesis Laboratory, Department of Surgery, University of Connecticut Health Center, 263 Farmington Avenue, Farmington, CT 06030 1110, USA
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1792:39-48. 2009
    ..Refined diets that lack micronutrients, mainly trivalent chromium (Cr(3+)) have been identified as the contributor in the rising incidence of diabetes...
  76. pmc Chromium dinicocysteinate supplementation can lower blood glucose, CRP, MCP-1, ICAM-1, creatinine, apparently mediated by elevated blood vitamin C and adiponectin and inhibition of NFkappaB, Akt, and Glut-2 in livers of zucker diabetic fatty rats
    Sushil K Jain
    Department of Pediatrics, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA 71130, USA
    Mol Nutr Food Res 54:1371-80. 2010
    b>Chromium and cysteine supplementation can improve glucose metabolism in animal studies...
  77. ncbi An evaluation of the mode of action framework for mutagenic carcinogens case study II: chromium (VI)
    Nancy McCarroll
    Health Effects Division, Office of Pesticide Programs OPP, US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC 20460, USA
    Environ Mol Mutagen 51:89-111. 2010
    ..b>Chromium (VI) [Cr (VI)], a carcinogen in animals and humans via inhalation, was reassessed by the National Toxicology ..
  78. ncbi The association between metal ions from hip resurfacing and reduced T-cell counts
    A J Hart
    Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Stanmore, UK
    J Bone Joint Surg Br 88:449-54. 2006
    ..Peripheral blood samples were analysed for lymphocyte subtypes and whole blood cobalt and chromium ion levels in 68 patients (34 with metal-on-metal hip resurfacings and 34 with standard metal-on-polyethylene ..
  79. ncbi Metal-on-metal hip resurfacing arthroplasty: a review of periprosthetic biological reactions
    Guillaume Mabilleau
    Nuffield Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Institute of Musculoskeletal Science, Botnar Research Centre, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
    Acta Orthop 79:734-47. 2008
    ..The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the current literature on the adverse periprosthetic biological reactions associated with metal-on-metal hip resurfacing arthroplasty...
  80. ncbi How do serum cobalt and chromium levels change after metal-on-metal hip resurfacing?
    Diane L Back
    Melbourne Orthopaedic Group, Melbourne, Australia
    Clin Orthop Relat Res 438:177-81. 2005
    We prospectively monitored changes in serum cobalt and chromium levels after a new generation metal-on-metal hip resurfacing and the affect on renal function...
  81. ncbi Cup inclination angle of greater than 50 degrees increases whole blood concentrations of cobalt and chromium ions after metal-on-metal hip resurfacing
    A J Hart
    Department of Musculoskeletal Surgery, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, Charing Cross Hospital, London, UK
    Hip Int 18:212-9. 2008
    ..Below this threshold, the mean whole blood cobalt and chromium were 1.6 ppb and 1.88 ppb respectively; above this threshold, the mean blood cobalt and chromium were 4...
  82. pmc Extracellular reduction of hexavalent chromium by cytochromes MtrC and OmcA of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1
    Sara M Belchik
    Microbiology Group, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Blvd, MSIN J4 18, Richland, WA 99352, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 77:4035-41. 2011
    ..3 ± 7.9 μM, respectively. Together, these results consistently demonstrate that MtrC and OmcA are the terminal reductases used by S. oneidensis MR-1 for extracellular Cr(VI) reduction where OmcA is a predominant Cr(VI) reductase...
  83. pmc Distinct contributions of JNK and p38 to chromium cytotoxicity and inhibition of murine embryonic stem cell differentiation
    Liang Chen
    Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio 45267, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 117:1124-30. 2009
    ..Cr(VI) exposure leads to activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), including c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)1/2, p38, and extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK)1/2...
  84. ncbi A prospective metal ion study of large-head metal-on-metal bearing: a matched-pair analysis of hip resurfacing versus total hip replacement
    Paul E Beaule
    The Ottawa Hospital, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada
    Orthop Clin North Am 42:251-7, ix. 2011
    ..002) 1 year (4.51 vs 1.02, P = .002), and 2 years (3.77 vs 1.22, P<.001) following surgery. No differences in chromium ions were observed...
  85. ncbi Genotypic and environmental variation in chromium, cadmium and lead concentrations in rice
    Fanrong Zeng
    Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Huajiachi Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029, China
    Environ Pollut 153:309-14. 2008
    ..However, there was a significant correlation between Cd and Pb in slightly and highly contaminated soils. The results suggest the possibility to develop the rice cultivars with low Cd and Pb concentrations in grain...
  86. pmc Hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) up-regulates COX-2 expression through an NFκB/c-Jun/AP-1-dependent pathway
    Zhenghong Zuo
    Nelson Institute of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, Tuxedo, New York 10987, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 120:547-53. 2012
    Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is recognized as a human carcinogen via inhalation. However, the molecular mechanisms by which Cr(VI) causes cancers are not well understood.
  87. ncbi Role of reactive oxygen species and p53 in chromium(VI)-induced apoptosis
    J Ye
    Health Effects Laboratory Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, West Virginia 26505, USA
    J Biol Chem 274:34974-80. 1999
    ..The present study investigates chromium(VI) (Cr(VI))-induced apoptosis and the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and p53 in this response...
  88. pmc Investigation of the mode of action underlying the tumorigenic response induced in B6C3F1 mice exposed orally to hexavalent chromium
    Chad M Thompson
    ToxStrategies, Inc, Katy, Texas 77494, USA
    Toxicol Sci 123:58-70. 2011
    Chronic ingestion of high concentrations of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] in drinking water induces intestinal tumors in mice...
  89. ncbi The need for combined inorganic, biochemical, and nutritional studies of chromium(III)
    John B Vincent
    Department of Chemistry, The University of Alabama, Tucaloosa, AL 35487 0336, USA
    Chem Biodivers 9:1923-41. 2012
    ..b>Chromium (Cr), as the trivalent ion, has been proposed to be an essential element, a body mass and muscle development ..
  90. ncbi Serum metal ion concentrations after unilateral vs bilateral large-head metal-on-metal primary total hip arthroplasty
    Christopher E Pelt
    University of Utah Department of Orthopaedics, Utah, USA
    J Arthroplasty 26:1494-500. 2011
    ..Elevated levels (chromium, 17 μg/L; cobalt, 19 μg/L) have been associated with poorly functioning MOM THA with metallosis...
  91. ncbi Toxicity of hexavalent chromium and its reduction by bacteria isolated from soil contaminated with tannery waste
    M Megharaj
    CSIRO Land and Water, PMB 2, Glen Osmond, SA 5064, Australia
    Curr Microbiol 47:51-4. 2003
    ..isolated from a long-term tannery waste contaminated soil, were examined for their tolerance to hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] and their ability to reduce Cr(VI) to Cr(III), a detoxification process in cell suspensions and cell ..
  92. ncbi Adsorption mechanism of hexavalent chromium by redox within condensed-tannin gel
    Y Nakano
    Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Nagatsuta, Midori ku, Yokohama 226 8502, Japan
    Water Res 35:496-500. 2001
    We have proposed a new recovery system of hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) that is of great toxicity utilizing condensed-tannin gels derived from a natural polymer with many polyhydroxyphenyl groups...
  93. ncbi Formation of cationic peptide radicals by gas-phase redox reactions with trivalent chromium, manganese, iron, and cobalt complexes
    Christopher K Barlow
    School of Chemistry and Bio21 Institute of Molecular Science and Biotechnology, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010, Australia
    J Am Chem Soc 127:6109-15. 2005
    ....
  94. pmc Ecotoxicology of hexavalent chromium in freshwater fish: a critical review
    Venkatramreddy Velma
    NIH RCMI Center for Environmental Health, College of Science, Engineering and Technology, Jackson State University, Jackson, Mississippi, USA
    Rev Environ Health 24:129-45. 2009
    b>Chromium (Cr) is a naturally occurring element found in rocks, animals, plants, and soil, predominantly in its insoluble trivalent form [Cr(III)]...
  95. ncbi Bifunctionalized mesoporous silicas for Cr(VI) reduction and concomitant Cr(III) immobilization
    Nataliya Shevchenko
    Laboratoire de Chimie Physique et Microbiologie pour l Environnement, UMR 7564, CNRS Nancy Université 405, rue de Vandoeuvre, F 54600 Villers les Nancy, France
    Environ Sci Technol 42:6922-8. 2008
    ..The resulting organic-inorganic hybrid was applied to the uptake of chromium species according to a reduction-sorption mechanism involving reduction of Cr(VI) by thiol groups and ..
  96. ncbi Chromium supplementation does not improve glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, or lipid profile: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of supplementation in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance
    Jenny E Gunton
    Section on Cellular and Molecular Physiology, Joslin Diabetes Center, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Diabetes Care 28:712-3. 2005
  97. ncbi Beneficial effects of combined treatment with niacin and chromium on the liver of hyperlipemic rats
    Sema Bolkent
    Department of Medical Biology, Cerrahpasa Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul University, 34300 Cerrahpaşa, Istanbul, Turkey
    Biol Trace Elem Res 101:219-29. 2004
    ..In addition, it can be said that niacin and Cr can regenerate some of the hepatocytes. This study reveals that combined treatment is a better specific drug in hyperlipemia...
  98. ncbi Anti-inflammatory arene--chromium complexes acting as specific inhibitors of NOD2 signalling
    Harald Bielig
    Institute for Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Hygiene, University of Cologne, Germany
    ChemMedChem 5:2065-71. 2010
    ..Herein we report on the synthesis and use of some chromium-containing compounds (arene--Cr(CO)₃ complexes) with a core structure related to anti-inflammatory diterpenes ..
  99. ncbi In vitro reduction of hexavalent chromium by a cell-free extract of Bacillus sp. ES 29 stimulated by Cu2+
    F A O Camargo
    Department of Environmental Science, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, USA
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 62:569-73. 2003
    b>Chromium-resistant bacteria (CRB) isolated from soils can be used to reduce toxic Cr(VI) from contaminated environments...
  100. ncbi Metal ion levels following resurfacing arthroplasty of the hip: serial results over a ten-year period
    R M deSouza
    University Hospitals Coventry and Warwickshire NHS Trust, Clifford Bridge Road, Coventry CV2 2DX, UK
    J Bone Joint Surg Br 92:1642-7. 2010
    ..In these patients there is an increase in both cobalt and chromium levels above the accepted reference ranges during the first 18 months after operation...
  101. ncbi EDTA chelation effects on urinary losses of cadmium, calcium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, magnesium, and zinc
    R S Waters
    Waters Preventive Medical Center Ltd, Wisconsin Dells, WI 53965, USA
    Biol Trace Elem Res 83:207-21. 2001
    ..There were no significant increases in urinary cobalt, chromium, or copper as a result of EDTA infusion...

Research Grants67

  1. Heavy Metals, Obesity and Cardiovascular Risk
    Eliseo Guallar; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..b>Chromium, in particular, has been associated with obesity, diabetes, and weight loss...
  2. DNA Damage and Tobacco-Induced Lung Cancer
    ERIC MOON SHONG TANG; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..We recently found that nickel, chromium, and lipid peroxidation metabolites can greatly reduce cellular DNA repair capacity...
  3. MOLECULAR MECHANISMS OF COMPLEX MIXTURE TOXICITY
    Alvaro Puga; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Of these, hexavalent chromium, a carcinogenic metal often found as an environmental co-contaminant with PAHs, and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a ..
  4. Human developmental toxicity of metal mixture exposure from e-waste recycling
    Aimin Chen; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..E-waste contains high levels of several metals (lead [Pb], mercury [Hg], cadmium [Cd], chromium [Cr], manganese [Mn], etc...
  5. Apple peel extract inhibits Cr(VI)-induced lung cancer
    Zhuo Zhang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..involve direct scavenging of [unreadable]OH radical and chelation of Cr(V) by apple peel extract to make this chromium intermediate less reactive toward hydrogen peroxide(H2O2) for [unreadable]OH radical generation...
  6. Bangladesh Centre for Global Environmental and Occupational Health
    Dewan Shamsul Alam; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..may also be exposed to unsafe levels of other toxic metals including lead, nickel, manganese, uranium and chromium. Evidence suggests that much like arsenic, these toxic metals may contribute to adverse health outcomes including ..
  7. Effects of Lactational Exposure to Chromium (VI) on Ovarian Development
    SAKHILA BANU; Fiscal Year: 2010
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI), has been used in a wide-range of industries, such as chrome plating, welding, painting, and metal finishes, for more than a century...
  8. Allergic asthma and chromium exposure
    Steven R Patierno; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..One reason is that workers in the chromium industry are co-exposed to many occupational air pollutants, making it difficult to conclude which specific ..
  9. Mechanisms of particulate chromium lung carcinogenesis
    SUSAN M CERYAK; Fiscal Year: 2011
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Certain chromium compounds are well-established human respiratory toxins and carcinogens...
  10. Eicosanoids and carbon monoxide in neonatal cerebral microcirculation
    ALIE JOSEPH KANU; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..indicate that AA- and PGE2-induced increases in cerebral vasodilation are inhibited by: a) the HO inhibitor chromium mesoporphyrin;b) the nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor L-nitro-Nw-arginine;and c) the adenylyl cyclase-cAMP ..
  11. Chromium and Hedgehog signaling
    Hong Sun; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI), is widely used in numerous industrial processes, including chrome pigment production, chrome plating, stainless steel manufacturing, and leather tanning, etc...
  12. Mechanisms of Telomeric DNA Loss and Repair
    PATRICIA LYNN OPRESKO; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..telomeric DNA deletions that may occur either spontaneously or after exposure to the environmental mutagen chromium (VI)...
  13. ABSORPTION, DISTRIBUTION, METABOLISM, AND EXCRETION (ADME) IN MAMMALS
    Jacob McDonald; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Dimethylethanolamine;2',2'''-Dithiobisbenzanilide, 2-Hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone, Chromium, Tungsten...
  14. ABSORPTION, DISTRIBUTION, METABOLISM, AND EXCRETION (ADME) IN MAMMALS
    Jacob McDonald; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..2-Hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone, Chromium, Tungsten...
  15. Chromium VI-induced toxicity on Female Reproductive Function
    SAKHILA BANU; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..with CrVI is a major threat to human health and has been increasing due to the wide range of industrial uses of chromium. Women working in Cr industries and living around Cr-contaminated environment experience various reproductive ..
  16. Engineering of computational receptors and gene circuits for T-cell immunotherapy
    YVONNE YU HSUAN CHEN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..assays including western blots, surface and intracellular antibody staining, cytokine production profiling, and chromium release (cell lysis) assays will be performed to ascertain the expression and functional activities of new ..
  17. Particulate Cr(VI) Toxicology in Human Lung Epithelial Cells and Fibroblasts
    John Pierce Wise; Fiscal Year: 2013
    Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) or chromate is a major public health concern. Chromates, particularly the insoluble compounds, are well-established human lung carcinogens...
  18. Sub-Wavelength Imaging of Intracellular Metal Ions
    Joseph R Lakowicz; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..EB is faster than FIB for larger patterns. We will prepare similar patterns in non-plasmonic materials like chromium to compare with the metal structure...
  19. The Synergistic effect and Mechanism of Arsenic on Chromium (VI) Carcinogenesis
    Hong Xie; Fiscal Year: 2012
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) and arsenic are both major environmental concern, because they are known human lung carcinogens and exposure is widespread...
  20. GENOTOXICITY OF CHROMIUM COMPOUNDS
    Anatoly Zhitkovich; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ABSTRACT Hexavalent chromium (Cr-6) is a firmly established human carcinogen with widespread exposure in metal- processing and other industries...
  21. Chromium Mesoporphyrin in the Prevention of Neonatal Jaundice
    David K Stevenson; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..In this proposal, we will extend our preliminary studies of chromium mesoporphyrin (CrMP), which is a potent HO inhibitor, absorbable orally and photo-inert, in the newborn mouse...
  22. Biotribological Layers in Metal-on-Metal Hip Replacement
    Joshua J Jacobs; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..and in-vitro samples and demonstrate the effect of embedded organic constituents;and 3) to demonstrate that the presence of a mechanically mixed zone will beneficially effect the (tribo-)corrosion behavior of the cobalt-chromium alloy
  23. Novel Role for Piwi/piRNA pathway in developmental robustness
    VAMSI GANGARAJU; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..how Hsp90-Piwi/piRNA pathway counteracts environmental stress induced by industrial pollutants like hexavalent chromium (CrVI)...
  24. Innate Effector Function and HIV-1 Control
    Luis J Montaner; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..HIV-induced DC-dependent cytotoxic function of NK cells against autologous HIV-1 infected CD4 primary T cell via chromium release and CD107 degranulation assays...
  25. HIF-alphia in Cr(VI) carcinogenesis
    Zhuo Zhang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is a known human carcinogen...
  26. ELECTROSTATIC SURFACE OPTIMIZATION FOR OSSEOINTEGRATION
    Michele Marcolongo; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..In contrast, the more commonly used bone implant materials, titanium alloy (Ti6A14V) and cobalt chromium alloy, will not support osteoblast adhesion and direct bone bonding in vivo, instead the resulting interface ..
  27. In Vivo Characterization of Bacteria-mediated Extracellular Reduction of Chromium
    H Peter Lu; Fiscal Year: 2011
    DESCRIPTION (provided by the applicant): Hexavalent chromium[Cr(VI)]exists at the Superfund sites where it poses major health concerns to humans...
  28. MECHANISM OF METAL ANTAGONISTIC EFFECT ON BPDE MUTANTS
    DAVID REINHOLD; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..This proposal will specifically examine the interaction of metals (chromium and nickel) and benz[a]alpyrene diol epoxide (BPDE), all common environmental carcinogens, on the mutant ..
  29. METAL CARCINOGEN-INDUCED MUTATIONS IN MAMMALIAN GENES
    EDWIN MURPHY; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..g., compounds of nickel, chromium and cadmium) known to induce respiratory and bladder cancers as well as birth defects...
  30. REDUCTION OF POLYETHYLENE WEAR IN SURGICAL IMPLANTS
    Piran Sioshansi; Fiscal Year: 1990
    The cobalt-chromium-molybdenum alloy designated standard specification F- 75 by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) is the most commonly used alloy in orthopedic prostheses for total and partial joint replacement...
  31. Divalent Metal Transporter: Role in Manganese Toxicity
    JEROME ROTH; Fiscal Year: 2004
    Chronic exposure to the divalent heavy metals, lead, manganese (Mn) and chromium, has all been linked to development of severe and irreversible neurological disorders as well as increased risk to develop Parkinson disease...
  32. Metal processing by dendritic cells and osteoclasts
    Luis Filgueira; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Aluminum, chromium and titanium will be used as model metals, as they are extensively used in modern daily life and in biomedicine, ..
  33. MECHANISM OF CHROMIUM CARCINOGENICITY
    KAREN WETTERHAHN; Fiscal Year: 1993
    The overall objective of this research project is to understand the mechanism by which chromium(VI) compounds act as carcinogens...
  34. Human Resistance to Herpes Simplex Virus Infections
    Christine Posavad; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..We will characterize systemic and local T cell responses to HSV using standard chromium release assays, Elispot, intracellular cytokine staining and tetramer analysis...
  35. CARCINOGENESIS TESTING OF SINTERED POROUS COCRMP IMPLANT
    BENDICHT PAULI; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..studies suggested that the risk of such tumor development might be attributed to (1) high nickel, cobalt, or chromium contents in the implants; and (2) large implant surface areas, typical of cementless porous sintered devices...
  36. HEALTH EFFECTS AND BIODEGRADATION OF COMPLEX MIXTURE
    Paul Bishop; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..will make use of assay systems in yeast, mammalian cell, and transgenic mouse to elucidate the mutagenicity of chromium and arsenic, and their impact on the mutagenicity of PAHs...
  37. SYNTHESIS OF ANTHRACYCLINONES
    WILLIAM WULFF; Fiscal Year: 1993
    A general synthetic strategy, based on the reactions of chromium carbene complexes with acetylenes, is presented for the synthesis of several anthracyclinones, anthracyclines, aureolic acid aglycones, and constituents of antitumor ..
  38. Proactive Prevention of Exposure Respirable Chromium
    Clifford Jolly; Fiscal Year: 2006
    Occupational exposures to hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI), occur during the production and use of stainless steel, chromate chemicals, and chromate pigments and operations such as chrome plating and coating processes...
  39. Chromium analysis and diabetes
    KENNETH PAUL; Fiscal Year: 2002
    Diabetes is one of the most costly health problems in America and the seventh leading cause of death Chromium has been implicated in the regulation of insulin metabolism and a number of the signs and symptoms of diabetes are shared in ..
  40. O3 AND MODULATING CR TOXICITY AND THE LUNG
    Judith Zelikoff; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..In this regard, chromium (Cr) is released with ozone (O3) during welding, and a major health hazard from inhalation exposure to Cr-..
  41. MECHANISMS OF METAL MUTAGENESIS: CR, NI, & BE
    Elizabeth Snow; Fiscal Year: 1991
    A number of industrially important metals and carcinogens. Nickel and chromium stand out because they are human and animal carcinogens and also positive in short-term toxicity tests...
  42. ATM and ATR in Chromium-Induced S-Phase Arrest
    Bo Xu; Fiscal Year: 2005
    Hexavalent chromium (Cr [VI]) is a common industrial waste product and an environmental pollutant, and it is a known human carcinogen...
  43. Ultra Low Profile Coronary Stent Delivery Catheter
    ALAN ZAMORE; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..We will mount a commercially available stent, such as the Medtronic "Racer" cobalt-chromium stent in order to test our catheter device...
  44. MODULATION OF BENZENE METABOLISM BY EXPOSURE TO ENVIRONM
    Clifford Weisel; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..ROS), such as iron, and 2) the toxicity of environmental pollutant mixtures, such as benzene and MTBE, iron or chromium, is due, in part, to interactive cellular effects induced by the reactive intermediates of the individual ..
  45. Proactive Prevention of Exposure to Respirable Chromium
    Clifford Jolly; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..b>Chromium (VI) is a particularly toxic metal that is commonly found in environmental samples...
  46. Chromium Genotoxicity: Response and Repair Mechanisms
    Steven Patierno; Fiscal Year: 2007
    unreadable] DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Certain chromium compounds are environmentally and occupationally important human respiratory carcinogens that are mutagenic and carcinogenic at exposure levels which induce some growth ..
  47. MORTALITY AMONG FORMER CHROMIUM SMELTER WORKERS
    Kenneth Rosenman; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..The eventual goal is to attempt to identify sensitive techniques for identifying workers at high risk of developing lung cancer...
  48. Chromium and Insulin Action
    William Cefalu; Fiscal Year: 2001
    Rationale: Chromium supplementation has been postulated to have a beneficial effect in the management of diabetes, but routine use is not currently recommended due to the conflicting evidence regarding efficacy...
  49. PARTICULATE CHROMIUM TOXICITY AND CARCINOGENESIS
    Steven Patierno; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..primary object of the proposed research is to investigate the interaction of particulate and soluble hexavalent chromium compounds with normal human small airway epithelial cells (HSAE) and fibroblasts (HLF), which are representative ..
  50. Effects of Chromium on Progression of Insulin Resistance
    Peter Havel; Fiscal Year: 2006
    b>Chromium supplementation has been demonstrated to improve insulin sensitivity in some, but not all, studies conducted in insulin-resistant subjects. Chromium has also been suggested to have effects to improve plasma lipid profiles...
  51. Novel Method for Chromium Analysis in Biological Fluids
    Ziling Xue; Fiscal Year: 2005
    There is a need to develop new reliable method for the analysis of chromium in biological fluids to assess chromium deficiency and the effect of chromium as adjuvant therapy for type 2 Diabetes...
  52. OXIDATION STATE DETERMINATION IN CHROMIUM CARCINOGENESIS
    ZEWU CHEN; Fiscal Year: 2000
    DESCRIPTION: (Adapted from the applicant's abstract) Some chromium(VI) compounds are documented human carcinogens but the exact mechanism of Cr-induced cancer is unknown...
  53. Chromium Picolinate in the Metabolic Syndrome
    Nayyar Iqbal; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Supplemental trivalent chromium (Cr+3) has been shown to improve insulin sensitivity in some patients with T2DM, but its effect in patients at ..
  54. OXIDATION STATE DETERMINATION IN CHROMIUM CARCINOGENESIS
    ZEWU CHEN; Fiscal Year: 2003
    Some chromium (VI) compounds are documented human propose measuring the intracellular oxidation state of Cr carcinogens, but the exact mechanism of Cr induced cancer is unknown...
  55. BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SUPPORT GRANT
    Henry Thompson; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..Higher resolution will also be attained by better specimen preparation using the high resolution Denton chromium sputtering device on the DV502-A Vacuum Evaporator we are requesting...
  56. THE ROLE OF CHROMIUM DEFICIENCY IN INSULIN RESISTANCE
    ELLISON TAYLOR; Fiscal Year: 1991
    b>Chromium deficiency causes severe insulin resistance and glucose intolerance. Average dietary chromium intake in the U.S...
  57. Chromium and Insulin Resistance
    Umesh Masharani; Fiscal Year: 2007
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Background: Chromium is an essential nutrient for the maintenance of normal glucose tolerance...
  58. REGULATION OF TRANSCRIPTIONAL COMPETENCE BY CHROMIUM
    Aaron Barchowsky; Fiscal Year: 2005
    Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) is in the top 20 compounds of the ATSDR/EPA priority list since it promotes interstitial lung fibrosis, induces asthma, and is recognized as a probable human lung carcinogen...
  59. Chromium Effects in Imparied Glucose Tolerance
    David Katz; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..In this context, the potential role of chromium (Cr), an insulin co-factor, in IGT is of great interest...
  60. SERUM AND URINE LEVELS OF CHROMIUM IN DIABETES
    RAYMOND VANDERLINDE; Fiscal Year: 1980
    In view of the relationship of chromium and the glucose tolerance factor (GTF) to diabetes with over 8 million diabetics in the U.S.A...
  61. NOVEL METHOD TO EVALUATE HIV-SPECIFIC CTL RESPONSES
    Mark Feinberg; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..While the gold standard chromium release assays for CTL cytotoxicity based on release of radioactive chromium from labeled target cells are ..
  62. Human Lung Chromium Toxicity: Oxidant Stress
    Charles R Myers; Fiscal Year: 2010
    b>Chromium(VI) compounds cause pulmonary, hepatic, renal, and gastrointestinal toxicity...
  63. Bioreactivity Markers in Total Hip Replacments
    Nadim Hallab; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Additionally, variable immunologic responses induced by implant degradation products (i.e. lymphocyte response to metal ions and monocyte/macrophage response to particulate debris) will be correlated with the development of osteolysis ..
  64. SYNTHESIS OF COCARCINOGENIC DITERPENES
    JAMES RIGBY; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..These projected investigations should generate substantial new knowledge about complex synthesis as well as providing additional insight into some of the bioactivity exhibited by the subject natural products. ..
  65. Adjuvant Therapy for Vascular Inflammation in Diabetes
    Sushil Jain; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Our preliminary studies also show that chromium (Cr3+) and vitamin E (VE) inhibit the secretion of TNF-alpha and IL-6 caused by ketones (AA) and high glucose (HG)..
  66. SYNTHESIS OF CYTOTOXIC GUAIANOLIDES AND OTHER TERPENOIDS
    JAMES RIGBY; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..unreadable] [unreadable]..