Summary: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight 12.011. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Temperature sensitivity of soil carbon decomposition and feedbacks to climate change
    Eric A Davidson
    The Woods Hole Research Center, PO Box 296, Woods Hole, Massachusetts 02543, USA
    Nature 440:165-73. 2006
  2. doi Carbon catabolite repression in bacteria: many ways to make the most out of nutrients
    Boris Görke
    Department of General Microbiology, Institute of Microbiology and Genetics, Georg August University Gottingen, Grisebachstr 8, D 37077 Gottingen, Germany
    Nat Rev Microbiol 6:613-24. 2008
  3. doi A large and persistent carbon sink in the world's forests
    Yude Pan
    U S Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Newtown Square, PA 19073, USA
    Science 333:988-93. 2011
  4. pmc Carbon nutrition of Escherichia coli in the mouse intestine
    Dong Eun Chang
    Advanced Center for Genome Technology, Department of Botany and Microbiology, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 0245, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:7427-32. 2004
  5. doi Terrestrial ecosystem carbon dynamics and climate feedbacks
    Martin Heimann
    Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry, Hans Knöll Strasse 10, D 07745 Jena, Germany
    Nature 451:289-92. 2008
  6. pmc A review of update clinical results of carbon ion radiotherapy
    Hirohiko Tsujii
    Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba, Japan
    Jpn J Clin Oncol 42:670-85. 2012
  7. doi Persistence of soil organic matter as an ecosystem property
    Michael W I Schmidt
    Department of Geography, University of Zurich, 8050 Zurich, Switzerland
    Nature 478:49-56. 2011
  8. ncbi Soil carbon sequestration impacts on global climate change and food security
    R Lal
    Carbon Management and Sequestration Center, Ohio State University Columbus, OH 43210, USA
    Science 304:1623-7. 2004
  9. doi Mountain pine beetle and forest carbon feedback to climate change
    W A Kurz
    Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, British Columbia, V8Z 1M5, Canada
    Nature 452:987-90. 2008
  10. pmc The response of diatom central carbon metabolism to nitrogen starvation is different from that of green algae and higher plants
    Nicola Louise Hockin
    Laboratory for Global Marine and Atmospheric Chemistry, School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich Research Park, Norwich NR4 7TJ, United Kingdom
    Plant Physiol 158:299-312. 2012

Detail Information

Publications407 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Temperature sensitivity of soil carbon decomposition and feedbacks to climate change
    Eric A Davidson
    The Woods Hole Research Center, PO Box 296, Woods Hole, Massachusetts 02543, USA
    Nature 440:165-73. 2006
    Significantly more carbon is stored in the world's soils--including peatlands, wetlands and permafrost--than is present in the atmosphere. Disagreement exists, however, regarding the effects of climate change on global soil carbon stocks...
  2. doi Carbon catabolite repression in bacteria: many ways to make the most out of nutrients
    Boris Görke
    Department of General Microbiology, Institute of Microbiology and Genetics, Georg August University Gottingen, Grisebachstr 8, D 37077 Gottingen, Germany
    Nat Rev Microbiol 6:613-24. 2008
    Most bacteria can selectively use substrates from a mixture of different carbon sources...
  3. doi A large and persistent carbon sink in the world's forests
    Yude Pan
    U S Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Newtown Square, PA 19073, USA
    Science 333:988-93. 2011
    The terrestrial carbon sink has been large in recent decades, but its size and location remain uncertain. Using forest inventory data and long-term ecosystem carbon studies, we estimate a total forest sink of 2.4 ± 0...
  4. pmc Carbon nutrition of Escherichia coli in the mouse intestine
    Dong Eun Chang
    Advanced Center for Genome Technology, Department of Botany and Microbiology, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 0245, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:7427-32. 2004
    ..Gluconate appeared to be a major carbon source used by E. coli MG1655 to colonize, having an impact on both the initiation and maintenance stages...
  5. doi Terrestrial ecosystem carbon dynamics and climate feedbacks
    Martin Heimann
    Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry, Hans Knöll Strasse 10, D 07745 Jena, Germany
    Nature 451:289-92. 2008
  6. pmc A review of update clinical results of carbon ion radiotherapy
    Hirohiko Tsujii
    Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba, Japan
    Jpn J Clin Oncol 42:670-85. 2012
    Among various types of ion species, carbon ions are considered to have the most balanced, optimal properties in terms of possessing physically and biologically effective dose localization in the body...
  7. doi Persistence of soil organic matter as an ecosystem property
    Michael W I Schmidt
    Department of Geography, University of Zurich, 8050 Zurich, Switzerland
    Nature 478:49-56. 2011
    Globally, soil organic matter (SOM) contains more than three times as much carbon as either the atmosphere or terrestrial vegetation...
  8. ncbi Soil carbon sequestration impacts on global climate change and food security
    R Lal
    Carbon Management and Sequestration Center, Ohio State University Columbus, OH 43210, USA
    Science 304:1623-7. 2004
    The carbon sink capacity of the world's agricultural and degraded soils is 50 to 66% of the historic carbon loss of 42 to 78 gigatons of carbon...
  9. doi Mountain pine beetle and forest carbon feedback to climate change
    W A Kurz
    Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, British Columbia, V8Z 1M5, Canada
    Nature 452:987-90. 2008
    ..During outbreaks, the resulting widespread tree mortality reduces forest carbon uptake and increases future emissions from the decay of killed trees...
  10. pmc The response of diatom central carbon metabolism to nitrogen starvation is different from that of green algae and higher plants
    Nicola Louise Hockin
    Laboratory for Global Marine and Atmospheric Chemistry, School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich Research Park, Norwich NR4 7TJ, United Kingdom
    Plant Physiol 158:299-312. 2012
    ..Diatoms, a group of phytoplankton that are responsible for about 20% of global carbon fixation, respond rapidly to influxes of nitrate and are highly successful in upwelling regions...
  11. doi Membrane-transport systems for sucrose in relation to whole-plant carbon partitioning
    Brian G Ayre
    University of North Texas, Department of Biological Sciences, Denton, Texas, USA
    Mol Plant 4:377-94. 2011
    Sucrose is the principal product of photosynthesis used for the distribution of assimilated carbon in plants...
  12. pmc The bacterial response regulator ArcA uses a diverse binding site architecture to regulate carbon oxidation globally
    Dan M Park
    Department of Biomolecular Chemistry, University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America
    PLoS Genet 9:e1003839. 2013
    ..Our genome-wide analysis reveals that ArcA reprograms metabolism under anaerobic conditions such that carbon oxidation pathways that recycle redox carriers via respiration are transcriptionally repressed by ArcA...
  13. doi Environmental and stoichiometric controls on microbial carbon-use efficiency in soils
    Stefano Manzoni
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 0287, USA
    New Phytol 196:79-91. 2012
    b>Carbon (C) metabolism is at the core of ecosystem function. Decomposers play a critical role in this metabolism as they drive soil C cycle by mineralizing organic matter to CO(2)...
  14. doi Carbon materials for chemical capacitive energy storage
    Yunpu Zhai
    Department of Chemistry, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Molecular Catalysis and Innovative Materials, Key Laboratory of Molecular Engineering of Polymers of the Chinese, Ministry of Education, Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200433, P R China
    Adv Mater 23:4828-50. 2011
    b>Carbon materials have attracted intense interests as electrode materials for electrochemical capacitors, because of their high surface area, electrical conductivity, chemical stability and low cost...
  15. ncbi Photosynthetic overcompensation under nocturnal warming enhances grassland carbon sequestration
    Shiqiang Wan
    State Key Laboratory of Vegetation and Environmental Change, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiangshan, Beijing 100093, China
    Ecology 90:2700-10. 2009
    A mechanistic understanding of the carbon (C) cycle-climate change feedback is essential for projecting future states of climate and ecosystems...
  16. pmc Inhalation vs. aspiration of single-walled carbon nanotubes in C57BL/6 mice: inflammation, fibrosis, oxidative stress, and mutagenesis
    A A Shvedova
    Health Effects Laboratory Div, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV 26505, USA
    Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 295:L552-65. 2008
    ..Because of their unique physicochemical, electrical, mechanical, and thermal properties, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) are finding numerous applications in electronics, aerospace devices, computers, and chemical, ..
  17. doi Central carbon metabolism as a minimal biochemical walk between precursors for biomass and energy
    Elad Noor
    Department of Plant Sciences, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel
    Mol Cell 39:809-20. 2010
    Central carbon metabolism uses a complex series of enzymatic steps to convert sugars into metabolic precursors. These precursors are then used to generate the entire biomass of the cell...
  18. pmc Genomic expression programs in the response of yeast cells to environmental changes
    A P Gasch
    Department of Biochemistry, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305 5428, USA
    Mol Biol Cell 11:4241-57. 2000
    ..Physiological themes in the genomic responses to specific environmental stresses provided insights into the effects of those stresses on the cell...
  19. doi Transcriptome changes initiated by carbon starvation in Aspergillus nidulans
    Melinda Szilágyi
    Department of Microbial Biotechnology and Cell Biology, University of Debrecen, Egyetem ter 1, 4032 Debrecen, Hungary
    Microbiology 159:176-90. 2013
    b>Carbon starvation is a common stress for micro-organisms both in nature and in industry...
  20. ncbi Respiratory toxicity of multi-wall carbon nanotubes
    Julie Muller
    Industrial Toxicology and Occupational Medicine Unit, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Clos Chapelle aux Champs, 30 54 1200 Brussels, Belgium
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 207:221-31. 2005
    b>Carbon nanotubes focus the attention of many scientists because of their huge potential of industrial applications, but there is a paucity of information on the toxicological properties of this material...
  21. ncbi Large-scale forest girdling shows that current photosynthesis drives soil respiration
    P Högberg
    Department of Forest Ecology, SLU, Umea, Sweden
    Nature 411:789-92. 2001
    ..and of the free-living microbial heterotrophs (decomposers) in soils are significant components of the global carbon balance, but their relative contributions remain uncertain...
  22. doi One-pot synthesis of fluorescent carbon nanoribbons, nanoparticles, and graphene by the exfoliation of graphite in ionic liquids
    Jiong Lu
    Department of Chemistry, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 3, Singapore
    ACS Nano 3:2367-75. 2009
    In this work we demonstrate a facile means to generate fluorescent carbon nanoribbons, nanoparticles, and graphene from graphite electrode using ionic liquid-assisted electrochemical exfoliation...
  23. pmc Global transcriptional control by glucose and carbon regulator CcpA in Clostridium difficile
    Ana Antunes
    Laboratoire Pathogenèse des Bactéries Anaérobies, Département de Microbiologie Institut Pasteur, Paris 75015, France
    Nucleic Acids Res 40:10701-18. 2012
    ..involved in sugar uptake, fermentation and amino acids metabolism, confirming the role of CcpA as a link between carbon and nitrogen pathways...
  24. doi The effects of chronic nitrogen fertilization on alpine tundra soil microbial communities: implications for carbon and nitrogen cycling
    Diana R Nemergut
    Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research, Environmental Studies Program, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, USA
    Environ Microbiol 10:3093-105. 2008
    ..Comparisons of aliphatic and aromatic carbon compounds, two broad categories of soil carbon compounds, revealed no between treatment differences...
  25. pmc Central carbon metabolism in Mycobacterium tuberculosis: an unexpected frontier
    Kyu Y Rhee
    Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY 10065, USA
    Trends Microbiol 19:307-14. 2011
    ..In Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), these advances have highlighted major gaps in our understanding of central carbon metabolism (CCM) that have prompted fresh interpretations of the composition and structure of its metabolic ..
  26. pmc Comparative transcriptome and metabolite analysis of oil palm and date palm mesocarp that differ dramatically in carbon partitioning
    Fabienne Bourgis
    Université de Bordeaux Ségalen, Laboratoire de Biogenese Membranaire, Bordeaux, France
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:12527-32. 2011
    ..To gain insight into the mechanisms that lead to such an extreme difference in carbon partitioning, the transcriptome and metabolite content of oil palm and date palm were compared during mesocarp ..
  27. doi Charged particles in radiation oncology
    Marco Durante
    Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung GSI, Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Biophysics Department, Plackstrasse 1, Darmstadt, Germany
    Nat Rev Clin Oncol 7:37-43. 2010
    ..Particle therapy is an emerging technique in radiotherapy. Protons and carbon ions have been used for treating many different solid cancers, and several new centers with large accelerators are ..
  28. ncbi Carbon nanotubes: a review of their properties in relation to pulmonary toxicology and workplace safety
    Ken Donaldson
    MRC University of Edinburgh Centre for Inflammation Research, ELEGI Colt Laboratory, Queen s Medical Research Institute, 47 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh EH16 4TJ, United Kingdom
    Toxicol Sci 92:5-22. 2006
    b>Carbon nanotubes (CNT) are an important new class of technological materials that have numerous novel and useful properties...
  29. pmc Energy starved Candidatus Pelagibacter ubique substitutes light-mediated ATP production for endogenous carbon respiration
    Laura Steindler
    Department of Microbiology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 6:e19725. 2011
    ..P. ubique cells that are starved for carbon, but provides little or no advantage during active growth on organic carbon substrates...
  30. pmc Induction of inflammasome-dependent pyroptosis by carbon black nanoparticles
    Anna C Reisetter
    Department of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
    J Biol Chem 286:21844-52. 2011
    Inhalation of nanoparticles has been implicated in respiratory morbidity and mortality. In particular, carbon black nanoparticles are found in many different environmental exposures...
  31. pmc Comprehensive quantitative analysis of central carbon and amino-acid metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae under multiple conditions by targeted proteomics
    Roeland Costenoble
    Department of Biology, Institute of Molecular Systems Biology, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
    Mol Syst Biol 7:464. 2011
    ..monitoring (SRM) mass spectrometry to quantify abundance changes of the 228 proteins that constitute the central carbon and amino-acid metabolic network in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, at five different metabolic steady states...
  32. pmc Randomized phase II study evaluating a carbon ion boost applied after combined radiochemotherapy with temozolomide versus a proton boost after radiochemotherapy with temozolomide in patients with primary glioblastoma: the CLEOPATRA trial
    Stephanie E Combs
    Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 400, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
    BMC Cancer 10:478. 2010
    ..b>Carbon ions offer physical and biological advantages...
  33. ncbi Microbial nitrogen limitation increases decomposition
    Joseph M Craine
    Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior, 100 Ecology, 1987 Upper Buford Circle, Saint Paul, Minnesota 55108, USA
    Ecology 88:2105-13. 2007
    ..results suggest that basic stoichiometric decomposition theory needs to be revised and ecosystem models restructured accordingly in order to predict ecosystem carbon storage responses to anthropogenic changes in nutrient availability.
  34. ncbi Quantum-sized carbon dots for bright and colorful photoluminescence
    Ya Ping Sun
    Department of Chemistry and Laboratory for Emerging Materials and Technology, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina 29634 0973, USA
    J Am Chem Soc 128:7756-7. 2006
    We report that nanoscale carbon particles (carbon dots) upon simple surface passivation are strongly photoluminescent in both solution and the solid state...
  35. doi Drought sensitivity of the Amazon rainforest
    Oliver L Phillips
    Ecology and Global Change, School of Geography, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
    Science 323:1344-7. 2009
    Amazon forests are a key but poorly understood component of the global carbon cycle. If, as anticipated, they dry this century, they might accelerate climate change through carbon losses and changed surface energy balances...
  36. doi The mechanisms of carbon catabolite repression in bacteria
    Josef Deutscher
    Laboratorie de Microbiologie et Génétique Moléculaire, INRA AgroParisTech CNRS, F 78850 Thiverval Grignon, France
    Curr Opin Microbiol 11:87-93. 2008
    b>Carbon catabolite repression (CCR) is the paradigm of cellular regulation. CCR happens when bacteria are exposed to two or more carbon sources and one of them is preferentially utilised (frequently glucose)...
  37. doi Land clearing and the biofuel carbon debt
    Joseph Fargione
    The Nature Conservancy, 1101 West River Parkway, Suite 200, Minneapolis, MN 55415, USA
    Science 319:1235-8. 2008
    Increasing energy use, climate change, and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from fossil fuels make switching to low-carbon fuels a high priority...
  38. pmc Arabidopsis plants acclimate to water deficit at low cost through changes of carbon usage: an integrated perspective using growth, metabolite, enzyme, and gene expression analysis
    Irène Hummel
    INRA, Ecophysiologie des Plantes sous Stress Environnementaux, UMR 759, Montpellier, France
    Plant Physiol 154:357-72. 2010
    Growth and carbon (C) fluxes are severely altered in plants exposed to soil water deficit. Correspondingly, it has been suggested that plants under water deficit suffer from C shortage...
  39. ncbi Carbon in Amazon forests: unexpected seasonal fluxes and disturbance-induced losses
    Scott R Saleska
    Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    Science 302:1554-7. 2003
    The net ecosystem exchange of carbon dioxide was measured by eddy covariance methods for 3 years in two old-growth forest sites near Santarém, Brazil...
  40. doi Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid): carbon nanofiber composites for myocardial tissue engineering applications
    David A Stout
    School of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912, USA
    Acta Biomater 7:3101-12. 2011
    ..b>carbon nanofiber (CNF) composites to ascertain their potential for myocardial tissue engineering applications...
  41. pmc An mRNA blueprint for C4 photosynthesis derived from comparative transcriptomics of closely related C3 and C4 species
    Andrea Bräutigam
    Institute of Plant Biochemistry, Heinrich Heine University, 40225 Duesseldorf, Germany
    Plant Physiol 155:142-56. 2011
    ..We anticipate that comparative transcriptomics of closely related species will provide deep insight into the evolution of other complex traits...
  42. doi One-carbon metabolism and schizophrenia: current challenges and future directions
    M O Krebs
    INSERM, Pathophysiology of Psychiatric Disorders, CPN, U894, Sainte Anne Hospital, Paris F 75014, France
    Trends Mol Med 15:562-70. 2009
    ..Although these factors have been explored separately, they all involve one-carbon (C1) metabolism...
  43. pmc Carbon isotope compositions of terrestrial C3 plants as indicators of (paleo)ecology and (paleo)climate
    Matthew J Kohn
    Department of Geosciences, Boise State University, Boise, ID 83725, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:19691-5. 2010
    A broad compilation of modern carbon isotope compositions in all C3 plant types shows a monotonic increase in δ(13)C with decreasing mean annual precipitation (MAP) that differs from previous models...
  44. doi Genome-scale metabolic network modeling results in minimal interventions that cooperatively force carbon flux towards malonyl-CoA
    Peng Xu
    Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Center for Biotechnology and Interdisciplinary Studies, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180, USA
    Metab Eng 13:578-87. 2011
    ..knockout targets (ΔfumC and ΔsucC) and overexpression targets (ACC, PGK, GAPD and PDH) can cooperatively force carbon flux towards malonyl-CoA...
  45. doi Nanostructured carbon-metal oxide composite electrodes for supercapacitors: a review
    Mingjia Zhi
    Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26505 6106, USA
    Nanoscale 5:72-88. 2013
    This paper presents a review of the research progress in the carbon-metal oxide composites for supercapacitor electrodes...
  46. pmc The role of terrestrially derived organic carbon in the coastal ocean: a changing paradigm and the priming effect
    Thomas S Bianchi
    Department of Oceanography, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:19473-81. 2011
    ..the major conundrums in oceanography for the past 20 y has been that, although the total flux of dissolved organic carbon (OC; DOC) discharged annually to the global ocean can account for the turnover time of all oceanic DOC (ca...
  47. doi Oil accumulation is controlled by carbon precursor supply for fatty acid synthesis in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii
    Jilian Fan
    Department of Biology, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973, USA
    Plant Cell Physiol 53:1380-90. 2012
    ..reinhardtii as a model system, we show here that starch, rather than oil, is the dominant storage sink for reduced carbon under a wide variety of conditions...
  48. ncbi Soil erosion and the global carbon budget
    R Lal
    School of Natural Resources, The Ohio State University, 2021 Coffey Road, Columbus, OH 43210 1085, USA
    Environ Int 29:437-50. 2003
    ..Despite its global significance, erosion-induced carbon (C) emission into the atmosphere remains misunderstood and an unquantified component of the global carbon budget...
  49. doi Size dependence of the translocation of inhaled iridium and carbon nanoparticle aggregates from the lung of rats to the blood and secondary target organs
    Wolfgang G Kreyling
    Helmholtz Center Munich, Neuherberg Munich, Germany
    Inhal Toxicol 21:55-60. 2009
    ..The inhaled NP were chain aggregates (and agglomerates) of either iridium or carbon, with primary particle sizes of 2-4 nm (Ir) and 5-10 nm (C) and aggregate sizes (mean mobility diameters) between ..
  50. doi Baseline map of carbon emissions from deforestation in tropical regions
    Nancy L Harris
    Ecosystem Services Unit, Winrock International, Arlington, VA 22202, USA
    Science 336:1573-6. 2012
    ..from deforestation would benefit from clearly derived, spatially explicit, statistically bounded estimates of carbon emissions...
  51. ncbi A highly unsaturated fatty acid predicts carbon transfer between primary producers and consumers
    D C Müller-Navarra
    Department of Environmental Science and Policy, University of California, Davis 95616, USA
    Nature 403:74-7. 2000
    ..Zooplankton growth and egg production were strongly related to the primary producer 20:5omega3 to carbon ratio...
  52. pmc Novel roles of cAMP receptor protein (CRP) in regulation of transport and metabolism of carbon sources
    Tomohiro Shimada
    Department of Frontier Bioscience, Hosei University, Koganei, Tokyo, Japan
    PLoS ONE 6:e20081. 2011
    CRP (cAMP receptor protein), the global regulator of genes for carbon source utilization in the absence of glucose, is the best-studied prokaryotic transcription factor...
  53. pmc Global regulatory mutations in csrA and rpoS cause severe central carbon stress in Escherichia coli in the presence of acetate
    B Wei
    Department of Molecular Biology and Immunology, University of North Texas Health Science Center at Fort Worth, Fort Worth, Texas 76107 2699, USA
    J Bacteriol 182:1632-40. 2000
    ..Romeo, Mol. Microbiol. 29:1321-1330, 1998). Its key regulatory role in central carbon metabolism, both as an activator of glycolysis and as a potent repressor of glycogen biosynthesis and ..
  54. pmc Deletion of betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase in mice perturbs choline and 1-carbon metabolism, resulting in fatty liver and hepatocellular carcinomas
    Ya Wen Teng
    Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA
    J Biol Chem 286:36258-67. 2011
    ..These results indicate that BHMT has an important role in Hcy, choline, and one-carbon homeostasis. A lack of Bhmt also affects susceptibility to fatty liver and hepatocellular carcinoma...
  55. pmc The carbon starvation response of Aspergillus niger during submerged cultivation: insights from the transcriptome and secretome
    Benjamin M Nitsche
    Institute of Biology Leiden, Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology, Leiden University, Sylviusweg 72, 2333 BE Leiden, The Netherlands
    BMC Genomics 13:380. 2012
    Filamentous fungi are confronted with changes and limitations of their carbon source during growth in their natural habitats and during industrial applications...
  56. pmc Trehalose 6-phosphate is required for the onset of leaf senescence associated with high carbon availability
    Astrid Wingler
    Research Department of Genetics, Evolution, and Environment, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom
    Plant Physiol 158:1241-51. 2012
    ..T6P content increases when carbon availability is high, and in young growing tissue, T6P inhibits the activity of Snf1-related protein kinase (SnRK1)..
  57. ncbi DNA-assisted dispersion and separation of carbon nanotubes
    Ming Zheng
    DuPont Central Research and Development, Experimental Station, Wilmington, Delaware 19880, USA
    Nat Mater 2:338-42. 2003
    b>Carbon nanotubes are man-made one-dimensional carbon crystals with different diameters and chiralities. Owing to their superb mechanical and electrical properties, many potential applications have been proposed for them...
  58. pmc Gluconeogenic carbon flow of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates is critical for Mycobacterium tuberculosis to establish and maintain infection
    Joeli Marrero
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology and Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY 10065, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:9819-24. 2010
    ..In vitro, Mtb is able to grow on a variety of carbon sources, but mounting evidence has implicated fatty acids as the major source of carbon and energy for Mtb during ..
  59. pmc Enzyme production by filamentous fungi: analysis of the secretome of Trichoderma reesei grown on unconventional carbon source
    He Jun
    Department of Chemistry, Umea University, Umea, Sweden
    Microb Cell Fact 10:68. 2011
    ..In this study, the secretome of Trichoderma reesei Rut C-30 grown either on a spent hydrolysate model medium (SHMM) or on a lactose-based standard medium (LBSM) was explored using proteomics...
  60. pmc Hunger artists: yeast adapted to carbon limitation show trade-offs under carbon sufficiency
    Jared W Wenger
    Department of Genetics, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA
    PLoS Genet 7:e1002202. 2011 that yeast evolved under aerobic glucose limitation show surprisingly few trade-offs when cultured in other carbon-limited environments, under either aerobic or anaerobic conditions...
  61. pmc Contrasting soil pH effects on fungal and bacterial growth suggest functional redundancy in carbon mineralization
    Johannes Rousk
    Department of Microbial Ecology, Lund University, Ecology Building, SE 223 62 Lund, Sweden
    Appl Environ Microbiol 75:1589-96. 2009
    ..The shift in fungal and bacterial importance along the pH gradient decreased the total carbon mineralization, measured as basal respiration, by only about one-third, possibly suggesting functional redundancy...
  62. doi Particle therapy at the Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center (HIT) - Integrated research-driven university-hospital-based radiation oncology service in Heidelberg, Germany
    Stephanie E Combs
    Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital of Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
    Radiother Oncol 95:41-4. 2010
    ..In November 2009, patient treatment has begun. The aim of the center is to provide high-end radiotherapy, and to define the role of particle therapy through clinical trials...
  63. doi A genetic element present on megaplasmids allows Enterococcus faecium to use raffinose as carbon source
    Xinglin Zhang
    Department of Medical Microbiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Environ Microbiol 13:518-28. 2011
    ..Since the 1990s, it has also emerged as a nosocomial pathogen. Little is known about carbon metabolism of E...
  64. doi Alterations in hepatic one-carbon metabolism and related pathways following a high-fat dietary intervention
    Isabel Rubio-Aliaga
    Molecular Nutrition Unit, ZIEL Research Center for Nutrition and Food Sciences, Technische Universitat Munchen, Freising Weihenstephan, Germany
    Physiol Genomics 43:408-16. 2011
    ..Nutrigenomic analysis revealed alterations of key metabolites and enzyme transcript levels of hepatic one-carbon metabolism and related pathways...
  65. pmc The role of the C4 pathway in carbon accumulation and fixation in a marine diatom
    John R Reinfelder
    Department of Environmental Sciences, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA
    Plant Physiol 135:2106-11. 2004
    The role of a C(4) pathway in photosynthetic carbon fixation by marine diatoms is presently debated...
  66. ncbi Fine root branch orders respond differentially to carbon source-sink manipulations in a longleaf pine forest
    Dali L Guo
    Jones Ecological Research Center, Route 2, Box 2324, Newton, GA 39870, USA
    Oecologia 140:450-7. 2004
    Fine roots are a key component of carbon (C) flow and nitrogen (N) cycling in forest ecosystems...
  67. doi Genomic insights into marine microalgae
    Micaela S Parker
    School of Oceanography, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA
    Annu Rev Genet 42:619-45. 2008
    ..We focus our metabolic discussion on carbon, nitrogen, and iron. We then discuss biomineralization and new evidence for programmed cell death in microalgae...
  68. ncbi Soil warming and carbon-cycle feedbacks to the climate system
    J M Melillo
    The Ecosystems Center, Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA 02543, USA
    Science 298:2173-6. 2002
    In a decade-long soil warming experiment in a mid-latitude hardwood forest, we documented changes in soil carbon and nitrogen cycling in order to investigate the consequences of these changes for the climate system...
  69. ncbi Dissolved organic carbon trends resulting from changes in atmospheric deposition chemistry
    Donald T Monteith
    Environmental Change Research Centre, UCL, London, WC1E 6BT, UK
    Nature 450:537-40. 2007
    ..Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain recent, widespread increases in concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the surface waters of glaciated landscapes across eastern North America and northern and central Europe...
  70. doi Carbon metabolism of intracellular bacterial pathogens and possible links to virulence
    Wolfgang Eisenreich
    Lehrstuhl für Biochemie, Technische Universitat Munchen, D 85747 Garching, Germany
    Nat Rev Microbiol 8:401-12. 2010
    ..In this Review, we discuss the recent progress made in determining the major carbon sources and metabolic pathways used by model intracellular bacterial pathogens that replicate either in the ..
  71. pmc Quiescent fibroblasts exhibit high metabolic activity
    Johanna M S Lemons
    Department of Chemistry, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey, USA
    PLoS Biol 8:e1000514. 2010
    ..fluxes from the data, we show that contact-inhibited fibroblasts utilize glucose in all branches of central carbon metabolism at rates similar to those of proliferating cells, with greater overflow flux from the pentose phosphate ..
  72. ncbi Old-growth forests can accumulate carbon in soils
    Guoyi Zhou
    South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, 510650, China
    Science 314:1417. 2006
    Old-growth forests have traditionally been considered negligible as carbon sinks because carbon uptake has been thought to be balanced by respiration...
  73. ncbi Translocation of inhaled ultrafine particles to the brain
    G Oberdorster
    Department of Environmental Medicine, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14642, USA
    Inhal Toxicol 16:437-45. 2004
    ..It could provide a portal of entry into the CNS for solid UFP, circumventing the tight blood-brain barrier. Whether this translocation of inhaled UFP can cause CNS effects needs to be determined in future studies...
  74. ncbi The versatile epsilon-proteobacteria: key players in sulphidic habitats
    Barbara J Campbell
    College of Marine Studies, University of Delaware, Lewes, Delaware 19958, USA
    Nat Rev Microbiol 4:458-68. 2006
    ..These integrated perspectives provide a framework for future culture- and genomic-based studies...
  75. pmc Ligand-enabled reactivity and selectivity in a synthetically versatile aryl C-H olefination
    Dong Hui Wang
    Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Science 327:315-9. 2010
    ..introduction of a halide onto an arene is not always straightforward, direct olefination of aryl carbon-hydrogen (C-H) bonds would obviate the inefficiencies associated with generating halide precursors or their ..
  76. ncbi Stoichiometry and large-scale patterns of leaf carbon and nitrogen in the grassland biomes of China
    Jin sheng He
    Department of Ecology, College of Environmental Sciences and Key Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes of the Ministry of Education, Peking University, 5 Yiheyuan Rd, 100871 Beijing, China
    Oecologia 149:115-22. 2006
    Nitrogen (N) and carbon-nitrogen (C:N) ratio are key foliar traits with great ecological importance, but their patterns across biomes have only recently been explored...
  77. doi Post-transcriptional global regulation by CsrA in bacteria
    Johan Timmermans
    Laboratoire de Génétique et Physiologie Bactérienne, Institut de Biologie et de Médecine Moléculaires, Faculte des Sciences, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, 12 rue des Professeurs Jeener et Brachet, 6041, Gosselies, Belgium
    Cell Mol Life Sci 67:2897-908. 2010
    ..CsrA controls a large variety of physiological processes such as central carbon metabolism, motility and biofilm formation...
  78. ncbi Cytotoxicity of single-wall carbon nanotubes on human fibroblasts
    Furong Tian
    Max Planck Institute for Metals Research, Heisenbergstrasse 3, 70569 Stuttgart, Germany
    Toxicol In Vitro 20:1202-12. 2006
    We present a toxicological assessment of five carbon nanomaterials on human fibroblast cells in vitro. We correlate the physico-chemical characteristics of these nanomaterials to their toxic effect per se, i.e...
  79. pmc Belowground carbon allocation by trees drives seasonal patterns of extracellular enzyme activities by altering microbial community composition in a beech forest soil
    Christina Kaiser
    University of Vienna, Department of Chemical Ecology and Ecosystem Research, Vienna, Austria
    New Phytol 187:843-58. 2010
    Plant seasonal cycles alter carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) availability for soil microbes, which may affect microbial community composition and thus feed back on microbial decomposition of soil organic material and plant N availability...
  80. ncbi The likely impact of elevated [CO2], nitrogen deposition, increased temperature and management on carbon sequestration in temperate and boreal forest ecosystems: a literature review
    Riitta Hyvönen
    Department of Ecology and Environmental Research, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences SLU, PO Box 7072, SE 750 07 Uppsala, Sweden
    New Phytol 173:463-80. 2007
    Temperate and boreal forest ecosystems contain a large part of the carbon stored on land, in the form of both biomass and soil organic matter...
  81. doi Metabolic and signaling aspects underpinning the regulation of plant carbon nitrogen interactions
    Adriano Nunes-Nesi
    Max Planck Institute for Molecular Plant Physiology, Am Muhlenberg 1, 14476 Potsdam Golm, Germany
    Mol Plant 3:973-96. 2010
    ..Due to its importance, much research effort has been expended to understand how carbon and nitrogen metabolism are integrated and regulated according to the rates of photosynthesis, photorespiration, ..
  82. doi Carbon source and myc expression influence the antiproliferative actions of metformin
    Shiva Javeshghani
    Division of Experimental Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    Cancer Res 72:6257-67. 2012
    ..We now show that the effect of exposure of several transformed cell lines to metformin varies with carbon source: in the presence of glutamine and absence of glucose, a 75% decrease in cellular ATP and an 80% decrease in ..
  83. pmc Growth of Candida albicans cells on the physiologically relevant carbon source lactate affects their recognition and phagocytosis by immune cells
    Iuliana V Ene
    Aberdeen Fungal Group, School of Medical Sciences, Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Foresterhill, Aberdeen, United Kingdom
    Infect Immun 81:238-48. 2013
    ..C. albicans regularly colonizes glucose-poor niches, thereby depending upon alternative carbon sources for growth. However, most studies of host immune responses to C...
  84. ncbi Changes in forest biomass carbon storage in China between 1949 and 1998
    J Fang
    Department of Urban and Environmental Science, and Key Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes of the Ministry of Education, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
    Science 292:2320-2. 2001
    The location and mechanisms responsible for the carbon sink in northern mid-latitude lands are uncertain...
  85. ncbi Similar response of labile and resistant soil organic matter pools to changes in temperature
    Changming Fang
    School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB24 3UU, UK
    Nature 433:57-9. 2005 matter (SOM) and soil temperature affects our predictions of the impact of climate change on soil-stored carbon. One current opinion is that the decomposition of soil labile carbon is sensitive to temperature variation whereas ..
  86. pmc Bacterial adaptation through distributed sensing of metabolic fluxes
    Oliver Kotte
    Institute of Molecular Systems Biology, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
    Mol Syst Biol 6:355. 2010
    The recognition of carbon sources and the regulatory adjustments to recognized changes are of particular importance for bacterial survival in fluctuating environments...
  87. ncbi Testing the functional significance of microbial community composition
    Michael S Strickland
    Odum School of Ecology, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602, USA
    Ecology 90:441-51. 2009
    ..We find that rates of carbon dioxide production from litter decomposition were dependent upon the microbial inoculum, with differences in the ..
  88. doi Autotrophic carbon fixation in archaea
    Ivan A Berg
    Mikrobiologie, Fakultat Biologie, Universitat Freiburg, Schanzlestrasse 1, D 79104 Freiburg, Germany
    Nat Rev Microbiol 8:447-60. 2010
    The acquisition of cellular carbon from inorganic carbon is a prerequisite for life and marked the transition from the inorganic to the organic world...
  89. ncbi Transport mechanisms for organic forms of carbon and nitrogen between source and sink
    Sylvie Lalonde
    ZMBP Plant Physiology, D 72076 Tubingen, Germany
    Annu Rev Plant Biol 55:341-72. 2004
    ..Novel imaging approaches may provide the means to characterize the cellular events and elucidate whole plant control of assimilate partitioning and allocation...
  90. doi Heterotrophy in tropical scleractinian corals
    Fanny Houlbrèque
    Stanford University, Geological and Environmental Sciences, 450 Serra Mall, Stanford, CA 94305 2115, USA
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 84:1-17. 2009
    ..Heterotrophy accounts for between 0 and 66% of the fixed carbon incorporated into coral skeletons and can meet from 15 to 35% of daily metabolic requirements in healthy corals ..
  91. doi Metabolomics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis reveals compartmentalized co-catabolism of carbon substrates
    Luiz Pedro S de Carvalho
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY 10065, USA
    Chem Biol 17:1122-31. 2010
    ..Many bacteria use catabolite repression as a regulatory mechanism to maximize growth by consuming individual carbon substrates in a preferred sequence and growing with diauxic kinetics...
  92. ncbi Structure validation by Calpha geometry: phi,psi and Cbeta deviation
    Simon C Lovell
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom
    Proteins 50:437-50. 2003
    ..To run our geometrical evaluations on a user-uploaded file, see MOLPROBITY ( or RAMPAGE (
  93. ncbi Extensive sorption of organic compounds to black carbon, coal, and kerogen in sediments and soils: mechanisms and consequences for distribution, bioaccumulation, and biodegradation
    Gerard Cornelissen
    Department of Applied Environmental Sciences ITM, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm, Sweden
    Environ Sci Technol 39:6881-95. 2005
    ..absorption in amorphous organic matter (AOM) and adsorption to carbonaceous materials such as black carbon (BC), coal, and kerogen, collectively termed "carbonaceous geosorbents" (CG)...
  94. doi Global patterns of the dynamics of soil carbon and nitrogen stocks following afforestation: a meta-analysis
    Dejun Li
    Department of Botany and Microbiology, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019, USA
    New Phytol 195:172-81. 2012
    Afforestation has been proposed as an effective method of carbon (C) sequestration; however, the magnitude and direction of soil carbon accumulation following afforestation and its regulation by soil nitrogen (N) dynamics are still ..
  95. pmc Effects of coral reef benthic primary producers on dissolved organic carbon and microbial activity
    Andreas F Haas
    Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California San Diego, San Diego, California, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 6:e27973. 2011
    ..Rates of photosynthesis, respiration, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) release were assessed for several common benthic reef organisms from the backreef habitat...
  96. pmc Carbon dots for optical imaging in vivo
    Sheng Tao Yang
    Department of Chemistry and Laboratory for Emerging Materials and Technology, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina 29634 0973, USA
    J Am Chem Soc 131:11308-9. 2009
    It was found and recently reported that small carbon nanoparticles can be surface-passivated by organic or biomolecules to become strongly fluorescent...
  97. ncbi Stability of organic carbon in deep soil layers controlled by fresh carbon supply
    Sébastien Fontaine
    INRA, UR 874 Agronomie, 234 avenue du Brezet, 63100 Clermont Ferrand, France
    Nature 450:277-80. 2007
    The world's soils store more carbon than is present in biomass and in the atmosphere...
  98. doi Biological characteristics of carbon-ion therapy
    Koichi Ando
    Medicine and Biology Division, Gunma University Heavy Ion Medical Center, Showa machi 3 39 22, Maebashi shi, Gunma, Japan
    Int J Radiat Biol 85:715-28. 2009
    ..and/or high-linear energy transfer (LET) particles has a long history, starting with proton beams up to now carbon-ions...
  99. ncbi Resource limitation of bacterial production distorts the temperature dependence of oceanic carbon cycling
    Ángel López-Urrutia
    Centro Oceanográfico de Gijón, Instituto Español de Oceanografía, Camín de L Arbeyal, S N, Xixón, Asturies, E 33212 Spain
    Ecology 88:817-22. 2007
    Our view of the effects of temperature on bacterial carbon fluxes in the ocean has been confounded by the interplay of resource availability...
  100. pmc Inorganic carbon limitation induces transcripts encoding components of the CO(2)-concentrating mechanism in Synechococcus sp. PCC7942 through a redox-independent pathway
    Fiona J Woodger
    Molecular Plant Physiology Group, Research School of Biological Sciences, Australian National University, PO Box 475, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 0200, Australia
    Plant Physiol 133:2069-80. 2003 proceed in CO2-limited aquatic environments, and its activity is modulated in response to inorganic carbon (Ci) availability...
  101. doi The sucrose transporter family in Populus: the importance of a tonoplast PtaSUT4 to biomass and carbon partitioning
    Raja S Payyavula
    School of Forest Resources and Environmental Sciences, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI 49931, USA
    Plant J 65:757-70. 2011
    ..Our findings also support the idea that PtaSUT4 modulates sucrose efflux and utilization in concert with plant N-status...

Research Grants81

  1. Genetic variation and regulatory networks: Mechanisms and complexity
    DANA PE ER; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..These tools will be made publicly available, including a friendly graphical user interface and visualization. ..
  2. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and birth outcomes in Mexico City
    MARIE SYLVIA O'NEILL; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..5, PM10, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide), matched to the exact locations of participants'homes...
    Maureen J Charron; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..We predict dietary intervention by adding one carbon donors will prevent these epigenetic modifications...
  4. Comparison of Diesel and Biodiesel Emissions and Health Effects in Underground Mi
    Jefferey L Burgess; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Respirable dust, elemental carbon, black carbon, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), aldehydes, and polycyclic ..
  5. Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Density and Veteran Cigarette Smokers
    Arthur Brody; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..and that menthol cigarette smoking leads to elevated serum levels of nicotine and cotinine, and greater exhaled carbon monoxide levels...
  6. ECG-derived cardiopulmonary coupling biomarkers of sleep, sleep-breathing, and ca
    Robert J Thomas; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The respiratory chemoreflexes track oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) levels in the blood...
    Jarmo Virtamo; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..have pursued and completed investigations of vitamin E and selenium status;carotenoids and other antioxidants;one-carbon metabolism;energy balance, insulin, and growth factors;sex steroids;and genetic variants impacting these exposures...
  8. Complex I: Role of L Subunit in Proton Translocation
    Steven B Vik; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..It oxidizes NADH to NAD+ which allows the citric acid cycle to oxidize carbon compounds...
  9. Intrathoracic Pressure Regulator for Resuscitation
    Keith G Lurie; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..parameters including mean femoral systolic and diastolic arterial blood pressure, oxygen saturation, and end tidal carbon dioxide values when compared to patients treated with a sham ITPR device and CPR;2) demonstrate proof of clinical ..
  10. Metabolic Adapation and Control of Lactation in Humans
    Morey W Haymond; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The primary determinant of milk volume is lactose production. If we understood the carbon source for lactose synthesis and the hormonal and substrate factors which regulate lactose production, we could ..
    Stephen J Lippard; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..b>Carbon nanotubes and biodegradable nanoparticles are devised to deliver platinum prodrugs selectively to cancer cells, ..
  12. Folate and S-adenosyimethionine in Methyl Group and One-carbon Metabolism
    Conrad Wagner; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: This proposal "Folate and S-adenosylmethionine in Methyl Group and One-carbon Metabolism" deals with the effects of the loss of the enzyme, glycine N-methyltransferase, a major enzyme in liver,..
  13. Improving Epigenetic-based Cell Reprogramming with Proteasome Inhibition
    Jaroslaw Staszkiewicz; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..These methods include: 1) * altering the single carbon metabolism pathway and limiting methyl donors in culture medium to modulate * methylation capacity;2) knocking ..
  14. Folate Status, Genomic Uracil, and the Balance of Base Excision Repair Activity
    Michael D Wyatt; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..At a biochemical level, folate derivatives are important sources of one-carbon units for de novo synthesis of nucleotides and are necessary for enzymatic methylation of CpG sequences for gene ..
  15. Histamine modulation of biliary proliferation and damage
    Heather L Francis; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..biliary damage (by apoptosis) induced by treatment with the hepatotoxin, carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)...
  16. Role of Platelet derived growth factor receptor-a in Liver Patho-biology
    SATDARSHAN SINGH MONGA; Fiscal Year: 2013 PDGFR[unreadable] signaling in hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis in murine models of bile duct ligation and carbon tetrachloride administration...
  17. Maternal One Carbon Metabolism and Low Birth Weight Infant
    Satish C Kalhan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Studies with humans and experimental animals have shown that perturbation in the methionine and one carbon metabolism in the mother and possibly in the fetus, impacts fetal growth and "programming" of the metabolism of ..
  18. Interrelationships among nutrients involved in one-carbon metabolism in Banglades
    MEGAN NINA HALL; Fiscal Year: 2011 1) study management and oversight, 2) advanced nutritional biochemistry and the mathematical modeling of one-carbon metabolism, and 3) laboratory sciences...
  19. Regulatory Oxygenases in Vasculopathic Rickettsioses
    SANJEEV SAHNI; Fiscal Year: 2010 enzyme responsible for the degradation of pro-oxidant heme into biologically active molecules (bilirubin, carbon monoxide, and ferritin) with diverse cytoprotective functions;2...
  20. Role of Heme Oxygenase-1 in Sepsis
    Mark A Perrella; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..HO-1 catalyzes the degradation of Heme, a potent oxidant, to generate biliverdin, iron and carbon monoxide (CO)...
  21. Vitamin B6 Effects on One-Carbon Metabolism
    Jesse F Gregory; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..its coenzyme form pyridoxal phosphate (PLP), B6 plays essential roles in the acquisition and processing of one-carbon (1C) units by the glycine cleavage system and serine hydroxymethyltransferase, inter conversion and catabolism of ..
  22. Iowa Phase II Clinical Trials of Novel Therapies for Lung Diseases (U01
    Lakshmi Durairaj; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Xylitol, a 5-carbon sugar, can lower ASL salt concentration without providing a carbon-source for bacteria...
  23. Genetics of Cryptococcus sexual reproduction
    Joseph Heitman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..common environmental niches (pigeon guano, plants/trees) and in response to nutrient limitation, light/darkness, carbon dioxide, and inositol;2) elucidated same-sex genetic cascades involving the novel cell surface receptor Cpr2 and ..
  24. Serotonin transporter-mediated regulation of neuroendocrine exocytosis
    KEVIN P CURRIE; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We will combine patch-clamp, carbon fiber amperometry, calcium imaging, and photolysis of "caged" intracellular messengers with chromaffin cells ..
  25. Chronic Granulomatous Lung Inflammation Elicited by Carbon Nanotubes
    Mary Jane Thomassen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Combustion-generated multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) or nanoparticles are ubiquitous in non-manufacturing environments and detectable in vapors from ..
  26. Rheologic and Vascular Modulators in Sickle Vaso-occlusion
    Dhananjay K Kaul; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..expression will be dependent not only on tissue oxygen tension, but also on nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, carbon monoxide (CO) generation and increased oxidative stress (reperfusion injury)...
    Stephen M Beverley; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..results from a systematic analysis of the Leishmania folate metabolic pathway, comprising interconversions of 1-carbon tetrahydrofolate metabolites needed to make essential metabolites in intermediary metabolism including DNA, RNA, ..
    Elton T Young; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..simplest experimental paradigm for a nutrient shift is the response to loss of glucose, the preferred energy and carbon source in this as in all organisms...
  29. International Symposium on Proline Metabolism and Human Health
    Donald F Becker; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..roles of proline metabolism in various organisms include osmolyte protection, protein chaperoning, nitrogen and carbon utilization, abiotic/biotic stress response, oxidative stress protection, and nutrient adaptation and survival...
  30. Role of Physico-chemical Properties in the Reprotoxicity of Inhaled Cd NP.
    JUDITH TERRY ZELIKOFF; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Most non-carbon NP contain one or more toxicologically-active metals, including cadmium (Cd)...
  31. Human Heme Oxygenase-1 Gene Regulation in Renal Injury
    Anupam Agarwal; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..processes due to the anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects of its reaction products, namely carbon monoxide and biliverdin/bilirubin...
  32. Mechanisms for Cardiovascular Effects of air pollutants: Effect of Age and Sex
    BRITT HOLMEN; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..fuel, and emission testing has shown that biodiesel emissions appear to contain reduced levels of hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and particulate matter (PM) but a higher soluble organic fraction in the particulate phase...
  33. Cyclic AMP Signaling in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Virulence
    Matthew C Wolfgang; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..2) Investigate the mechanism and biological significance of inorganic carbon (bicarbonate and CO2)-stimulated CyaB catalytic activity in vitro and in vivo...
  34. Air Pollution, Inflammation and Preterm Birth: A Mechanistic Study in Mexico City
    MARIE SYLVIA O'NEILL; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..5, PM10, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide), matched to locations of participants'homes...
  35. Carbohydrate Regulation of Hepatic Gene Expression
    Kosaku Uyeda; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Glucose is not only a major fuel of all mammalian tissues but also a source of carbon for fat and protein synthesis...
  36. Heme Oxygenase Enzymes/Carbon Monoxide in Hepatic Dysfunction from hemorrhage
    BRIAN SCOTT ZUCKERBRAUN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Our investigations have focused on the understanding of the role of carbon monoxide (CO) in physiological and pathophysiological conditions, as well as the development of CO as a ..
  37. Lung Toxicity of Carbon Nanotubes in Models of Pre-Existing Respiratory Disease
    ..b>Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) are engineered nanomaterials designed for multiple uses (electronics, engineering, medicine), but ..
    Marcos Intaglietta; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..In this present application we will test the hypothesis that MP4 is an effective carrier of the heme ligands O2, carbon monoxide (CO)and nitric oxide (NO), and will carry out the related physiological studies in order to understand ..
  39. Mechanism and functional role of AKAP79/150 in M current control and excitability
    Mark S Shapiro; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..FRET), total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF), confocal microscopy, patch-clamp electrophysiology, carbon-fiber amperometry and video imaging...
  40. Role of Microbial Translocation in Cardiopulmonary Disease in Children with HIV
    Alison Morris; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..pulmonary hypertension on echocardiography, increased airway obstruction, impairment of diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide, and more rapid progression of pulmonary abnormalities...
  41. Redox Regulation of Lung Mitochondrial Biogenesis in Sepsis/Pneumonia
    Claude A Piantadosi; Fiscal Year: 2013 of mitochondrial biogenesis, which is strongly activated by the induction of the heme oxygenase-1/carbon monoxide system (HO-1/CO) to protect energy metabolism and mitochondrial mass, but which we think may also promote ..
  42. Statins for Pulmonary and Cardiac Complications of Chronic HIV (The SPARC Trial)
    Stephen R Wisniewski; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..HIV+ individuals who received statin therapy within the past year tended to have better diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide, less airway obstruction, lower pulmonary artery pressures and cardiac strain, lower peripheral cytokines,..
    Terri H Beaty; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..and methylmalonic acid in serum samples from mothers of cleft cases to evaluate biological models relevant to one carbon metabolism and DNA methylation...
  44. Brain Nicotine Receptor Density &Response to Nicotine Patch
    Arthur Brody; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..will be assessed at each weekly treatment visit and at the end of treatment using participant reports, exhaled carbon monoxide levels, and urinary cotinine levels...
  45. Developmental defects in serotonin neurons and the response to O2 and CO2
    George B Richerson; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..We have proposed that serotonin neurons of the raphe nuclei are sensors of arterial carbon dioxide that respond to hypercapnia by inducing arousal, an increase in breathing, and other changes aimed at ..
  46. Using PET isotopes to identify drug targets and to diagnose infectious diseases
    Peter J Tonge; Fiscal Year: 2010
    Positron emission tomography (PET) radioisotopes, such as carbon-11 (11C) and fluorine-18 (18F), will be incorporated into current antibiotics, such as the tuberculosis drugs isoniazid and rifampicin, in order to directly identify the ..
  47. Role of Tumor and Stromal Cell Metabolism in Stress Adaptation and Progression
    EILEEN contact WHITE; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..and induction of uncharacterized mammalian homologues of yeast genes required for quiescence induced by carbon source limitation...
  48. Regulation of Carbohydrate Metabolism and Lipogenesis
    Kosaku Uyeda; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Glucose is not only a major fuel of all mammalian tissues but also a source of carbon for fat and protein synthesis...
  49. Cookstove Replacement for Prevention of ARI and Low Birthweight in Nepal
    JAMES MACK TIELSCH; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..reducing the risk of these infections and low birthweight by reducing the exposure to airborne fine particles and carbon monoxide caused by the open burning of biomass fuel sources in the home by replacing the cookstoves with an ..
  50. Mechanisms that Regulate Neonatal Lung Heme Oxygenase in Hyperoxia
    Phyllis A Dennery; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..heme is degraded to generate equimolar quantities of biologically active products such as iron, biliverdin, and carbon monoxide (CO) possibly accounting for the cytoprotective effects attributed to HO-1...
  51. Metabolic flux in a model of reduced oxidative capacity
    CHARLES ROBERT EVANS; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..these studies, in vivo and in vitro metabolomics will be used to measure steady state levels and flux of central carbon metabolism to fully understand the mechanisms that underlie the enhanced oxidative capacity of the HCR compared to ..
  52. Mycobacterium tuberculosis carbon metabolism in vivo
    John D McKinney; Fiscal Year: 2010
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Invasive bacteria must acquire and assimilate carbon substrates from host tissues in order to replicate and persist in vivo...
  53. Rev-ERBa Regulates Mitochondrial Biogenesis, Adiposity, and Insulin Action
    Thomas H Reynolds; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..for Rev-ERBa's binding site, but increases heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), our hypothesis is that the HO-1 product, carbon monoxide, inhibits Rev-ERBa...
  54. Tumor -Targeting Chemotherapeutic Agents
    Iwao Ojima; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..agents bearing multiple guiding modules as well as warheads, we will explore the high potentials of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), ultra-short SWNTs and dendrimers, as well as drug conjugates with small-molecule splitter ..
  55. Hypertension, Kidney and Pregnancy
    Joey P Granger; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..we propose that induction of the stress response gene, hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1), and its catalytic products, carbon monoxide (CO) and bilirubin, may provide a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of PE...
  56. Clinical trial of air cleaners to improve indoor air quality and COPD health
    Nadia N Hansel; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..that use portable air cleaners with HEPA filters successfully reduce PM concentrations and an additional carbon filter in the air cleaner may reduce NO2 concentrations...
  57. Heme Oxygenase Polymorphisms and Hepatopulmonary Syndrome
    KARI EVAN ROBERTS; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Recent evidence from animal and human HPS implicates abnormal heme oxygenase and carbon monoxide signaling in the disease process...
  58. Genetic Risk for Orofacial Clefts in the Folate/Homocysteine Pathway
    NICHOLAS MARINI; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..the evidence suggests that folate intake prevents clefts by compensating for susceptibilities in folate/one-carbon metabolism...
  59. Investigation of Zinc Neurochemistry by Optical Sensing and MRI
    Stephen J Lippard; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Fluorescent reporters include xanthenone and single-walled carbon nanotube derivatives. Phosphorescent sensors are based on cyclometalated iridium(III) complexes...
  60. Oxygen Sensors and P450 Monooxygenases in Mycobacertium tuberculosis
    Paul R Ortiz de Montellano; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This intermediate inhibits growth of MTB on several carbon sources...
  61. Dietary Methyl Score, Genomic DNA Methylation and Colorectal Cancer
    Eunyoung Cho; Fiscal Year: 2012
    One-carbon metabolism is a critical pathway in cancer epigenetics because it directs the methylation of DNA and RNA and is involved in DNA synthesis and repair. There is no good systemic marker of one-carbon metabolism status...
  62. Environmental Triggers of Cardiometabolic Disease
    Sanjay Rajagopalan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..variables [insulin sensitivity, BP, endothelial function] and acute and sub-acute variations in personal black carbon and ambient PM2.5 levels among 100 individuals with the CM syndrome will be investigated...
  63. Regulation of Tumor Metabolism by Retinoblastoma Protein
    Brian F Clem; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..MEFs) resulted in increased glucose uptake and flux to lactate, and simultaneously decreased glucose-derived carbon incorporation into TCA cycle intermediates relative to wild-type (WT) MEFs...
  64. Blood Pressure Regulation: Novel Roles for the Kidney
    Pablo A Ortiz; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Project 3 will test whether heme oxygenases in the macula densa produce carbon monoxide (CO) and biliverdin, which act synergistically and in an autocrine manner to inhibit tubuloglomeailar ..
  65. Effect of Smoking on Adult Stem Cell Differentiation
    Herman S Cheung; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Significant tissue hypoxia mainly attributed to carbon monoxide (CO) and nicotine...
  66. Metabolic reprogramming: A new paradigm for targeting cisplatin resistant cells
    Medhi Wangpaichitr; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..dependent on glycolysis metabolism, but rely on amino acids and/or fatty acids (oxidative metabolism) as their carbon skeleton source...
  67. Anti-fibrotic Coatings for Rapidly Exchangeable Bioprosthetic Heart Valve
    Ivan Vesely; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..fabricate 8 valves each from bare cobalt-chrome, cobalt-chrome treated with a stearate coating, and from pyrolitic carbon. Both stearate and pyrolitic carbon have been shown to repel fibrotic overgrowth in the Phase I study...
  68. Stimulation Induced Modulation of Sleep
    MATTHEW TARLER; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..peripheral chemoreceptors (carotid primarily, and the aortic bodies) detect changes in arterial blood oxygen and carbon dioxide, and initiate reflexes that are important for maintaining homeostasis during hypoxemia...
  69. The Effects of Hyper and Hypocapnia on Phonatory Laryngeal Resistance
    Amanda I Gillespie; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..of the current proposal is to address this gap by assessing the effects of varying concentrations of arterial carbon dioxide on laryngeal function during phonation...
    Milton Saier; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..coli controls the utilization of numerous carbon and nitrogen sources not taken up via the PTS-catalyzed group translocation mechanism. About 1% of all E...
    THOMAS APPLE; Fiscal Year: 1993
    Vapor-grown carbon fibers combine the desirable characteristics of high thermal and electrical conductivity, high strength to weight ratio, non- catastrophic failure modes, high modulus, marked anisotropy and chemical resistance...
  72. Optimization of SWCNT/siRNA complex formulation for tumor accumulation
    Lynn Kirkpatrick; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Richard Smalley of Rice University. The rights to Dr. Smalley's work on carbon nanotube technology in the area of therapeutics, as well as other critical carbon nanotube patents, have been in-..
    Andrew Streitwieser; Fiscal Year: 1999
    DESCRIPTION: The principal investigator notes that the Aldol addition reaction is one of the most important carbon-carbon bond forming reactions in synthetic organic chemistry, that it is widely used in the synthesis of drugs and other ..
  74. Multiplex Fluorescent Zdyes for Differential Glycomic Detection
    EDWARD DRATZ; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The irradiated benzophenone is designed to abstract a hydrogen atom from the carbohydrate backbone and form a carbon-carbon bond between the carbohydrate and the carbonyl carbon of the benzophenone...
  75. Realtime Monitoring of Trace Amounts of Pesticides from Water Using Carbo
    ANNE M contact SCHWARTZ; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..We propose to use carbon nanotube matrices as the active biosensor area for the effective immobilization of the pesticides through antibody ..
    Brian Hansen; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..the patients that need them the most, and the global warming potential is 1300 times higher for HFA-134a than for carbon dioxide...
    CHARLES LEFFLER; Fiscal Year: 2009
    The gas, carbon monoxide (CO), is produced physiologically by catabolism of heme via heme oxygenase...
  78. Carbon Nanotube Fibers as Implantable Neural Electrodes
    Douglas Adamson; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..R01 project focuses on the design of a novel class of nanomaterials for neurobiological applications based on carbon nanotube fibers (CNF)...
    JESSE GREGORY; Fiscal Year: 2004
    DESCRIPTION: One-carbon (Cl) metabolism consists of the generation of carbon units for use in cellular processes including DNA synthesis, regeneration of methionine (Met) from homocysteine (Hcy), and methylation of many biological ..
  80. Novel approaches to evaluate carbon nanotube health impacts
    KENT ED PINKERTON; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..b>Carbon-based engineered nanomaterials, such as single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), have received notable attention ..
  81. Nitrogen Dioxide and Light-Absorbing Carbon Sensors for Personal Exposure Assessm
    Andrew Freedman; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..species that are injurious to human health - in this particular case, nitrogen dioxide and light-absorbing carbon. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is a highly toxic gas which when inhaled, causes the formation of nitric acid in the lungs ..