Summary: An element that is a member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23. With a valence of 1, it has a strong affinity for oxygen and other nonmetallic elements. Sodium provides the chief cation of the extracellular body fluids. Its salts are the most widely used in medicine. (From Dorland, 27th ed) Physiologically the sodium ion plays a major role in blood pressure regulation, maintenance of fluid volume, and electrolyte balance.

Top Publications

  1. pmc The crystal structure of a voltage-gated sodium channel
    Jian Payandeh
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA
    Nature 475:353-8. 2011
  2. ncbi Crystal structure of parallel quadruplexes from human telomeric DNA
    Gary N Parkinson
    The Cancer Research UK Biomolecular Structure Unit, Chester Beatty Laboratories, The Institute of Cancer Research, 237 Fulham Road, London SW3 6JB, UK
    Nature 417:876-80. 2002
  3. ncbi Salt tolerance conferred by overexpression of a vacuolar Na+/H+ antiport in Arabidopsis
    M P Apse
    Department of Botany, University of Toronto, 25 Willcocks Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3B2, Canada
    Science 285:1256-8. 1999
  4. ncbi Regulation of ion homeostasis under salt stress
    Jian Kang Zhu
    Department of Plant Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721, USA
    Curr Opin Plant Biol 6:441-5. 2003
  5. pmc Molecular basis of alternating access membrane transport by the sodium-hydantoin transporter Mhp1
    Tatsuro Shimamura
    Division of Molecular Biosciences, Membrane Protein Crystallography Group, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ, UK
    Science 328:470-3. 2010
  6. pmc The Arabidopsis thaliana salt tolerance gene SOS1 encodes a putative Na+/H+ antiporter
    H Shi
    Department of Plant Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97:6896-901. 2000
  7. ncbi Crystal structure of the sodium-potassium pump
    J Preben Morth
    Centre for Membrane Pumps in Cells and Disease PUMPKIN, Danish National Research Foundation, University of Aarhus, Gustav Wieds Vej 10C, DK 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark
    Nature 450:1043-9. 2007
  8. pmc X-ray structures of LeuT in substrate-free outward-open and apo inward-open states
    Harini Krishnamurthy
    Vollum Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, 3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, Oregon 97239, USA
    Nature 481:469-74. 2012
  9. ncbi A rice quantitative trait locus for salt tolerance encodes a sodium transporter
    Zhong Hai Ren
    National Key Laboratory of Plant Molecular Genetics, Shanghai Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology, Shanghai Institute for Biological Sciences, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, 300 Fenglin Road, Shanghai 200032, China
    Nat Genet 37:1141-6. 2005
  10. pmc Crystal structure of the mammalian GIRK2 K+ channel and gating regulation by G proteins, PIP2, and sodium
    Matthew R Whorton
    Laboratory of Molecular Neurobiology and Biophysics, Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10065, USA
    Cell 147:199-208. 2011

Detail Information

Publications397 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc The crystal structure of a voltage-gated sodium channel
    Jian Payandeh
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA
    Nature 475:353-8. 2011
    Voltage-gated sodium (Na(V)) channels initiate electrical signalling in excitable cells and are the molecular targets for drugs and disease mutations, but the structural basis for their voltage-dependent activation, ion selectivity and ..
  2. ncbi Crystal structure of parallel quadruplexes from human telomeric DNA
    Gary N Parkinson
    The Cancer Research UK Biomolecular Structure Unit, Chester Beatty Laboratories, The Institute of Cancer Research, 237 Fulham Road, London SW3 6JB, UK
    Nature 417:876-80. 2002
    ..This DNA structure suggests a straightforward path for telomere folding and unfolding, as well as ways in which it can recognize telomere-associated proteins...
  3. ncbi Salt tolerance conferred by overexpression of a vacuolar Na+/H+ antiport in Arabidopsis
    M P Apse
    Department of Botany, University of Toronto, 25 Willcocks Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3B2, Canada
    Science 285:1256-8. 1999
    ..One possible mechanism by which plants could survive salt stress is to compartmentalize sodium ions away from the cytosol...
  4. ncbi Regulation of ion homeostasis under salt stress
    Jian Kang Zhu
    Department of Plant Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721, USA
    Curr Opin Plant Biol 6:441-5. 2003
    ..The protein kinase complex then phosphorylates and activates various ion transporters, such as the plasma membrane Na(+)/H(+) antiporter SOS1...
  5. pmc Molecular basis of alternating access membrane transport by the sodium-hydantoin transporter Mhp1
    Tatsuro Shimamura
    Division of Molecular Biosciences, Membrane Protein Crystallography Group, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ, UK
    Science 328:470-3. 2010
    The structure of the sodium-benzylhydantoin transport protein Mhp1 from Microbacterium liquefaciens comprises a five-helix inverted repeat, which is widespread among secondary transporters...
  6. pmc The Arabidopsis thaliana salt tolerance gene SOS1 encodes a putative Na+/H+ antiporter
    H Shi
    Department of Plant Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97:6896-901. 2000
    ..SOS1 gene expression in plants is up-regulated in response to NaCl stress. This up-regulation is abated in sos3 or sos2 mutant plants, suggesting that it is controlled by the SOS3/SOS2 regulatory pathway...
  7. ncbi Crystal structure of the sodium-potassium pump
    J Preben Morth
    Centre for Membrane Pumps in Cells and Disease PUMPKIN, Danish National Research Foundation, University of Aarhus, Gustav Wieds Vej 10C, DK 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark
    Nature 450:1043-9. 2007
    The Na+,K+-ATPase generates electrochemical gradients for sodium and potassium that are vital to animal cells, exchanging three sodium ions for two potassium ions across the plasma membrane during each cycle of ATP hydrolysis...
  8. pmc X-ray structures of LeuT in substrate-free outward-open and apo inward-open states
    Harini Krishnamurthy
    Vollum Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, 3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, Oregon 97239, USA
    Nature 481:469-74. 2012
    Neurotransmitter sodium symporters are integral membrane proteins that remove chemical transmitters from the synapse and terminate neurotransmission mediated by serotonin, dopamine, noradrenaline, glycine and GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid)...
  9. ncbi A rice quantitative trait locus for salt tolerance encodes a sodium transporter
    Zhong Hai Ren
    National Key Laboratory of Plant Molecular Genetics, Shanghai Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology, Shanghai Institute for Biological Sciences, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, 300 Fenglin Road, Shanghai 200032, China
    Nat Genet 37:1141-6. 2005
    ..Physiological analysis suggested that SKC1 is involved in regulating K(+)/Na(+) homeostasis under salt stress, providing a potential tool for improving salt tolerance in crops...
  10. pmc Crystal structure of the mammalian GIRK2 K+ channel and gating regulation by G proteins, PIP2, and sodium
    Matthew R Whorton
    Laboratory of Molecular Neurobiology and Biophysics, Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10065, USA
    Cell 147:199-208. 2011
    ..These data provide a structural basis for understanding multiligand regulation of GIRK channel gating...
  11. pmc Hyponatremia and mortality among patients on the liver-transplant waiting list
    W Ray Kim
    Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
    N Engl J Med 359:1018-26. 2008
    ..Under the current liver-transplantation policy, donor organs are offered to patients with the highest risk of death...
  12. ncbi Evidence-based incorporation of serum sodium concentration into MELD
    Scott W Biggins
    University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA
    Gastroenterology 130:1652-60. 2006
    Serum sodium (Na) concentrations have been suggested as a useful predictor of mortality in patients with end-stage liver disease awaiting liver transplantation.
  13. ncbi The structure of the potassium channel: molecular basis of K+ conduction and selectivity
    D A Doyle
    Laboratory of Molecular Neurobiology and Biophysics and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Science 280:69-77. 1998
    ..The architecture of the pore establishes the physical principles underlying selective K+ conduction...
  14. doi Mechanisms of salinity tolerance
    Rana Munns
    CSIRO Plant Industry, Canberra, ACT, Australia
    Annu Rev Plant Biol 59:651-81. 2008
    ..Molecular genetics and functional genomics provide a new opportunity to synthesize molecular and physiological knowledge to improve the salinity tolerance of plants relevant to food production and environmental sustainability...
  15. pmc A two-domain elevator mechanism for sodium/proton antiport
    Chiara Lee
    Division of Molecular Biosciences, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ, UK
    Nature 501:573-7. 2013
    b>Sodium/proton (Na(+)/H(+)) antiporters, located at the plasma membrane in every cell, are vital for cell homeostasis...
  16. pmc Functional characterization of a Na+-dependent aspartate transporter from Pyrococcus horikoshii
    Renae M Ryan
    Membrane Transport Biophysics Unit, Porter Neuroscience Center, NINDS, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Biol Chem 284:17540-8. 2009
    ..We propose a kinetic model of transport in which at least two Na+ ions are coupled to the cotransport of each aspartate molecule by GltPh, and where an ion- and substrate-free transporter reorients to complete the transport cycle...
  17. pmc Mortality associated with low serum sodium concentration in maintenance hemodialysis
    Sushrut S Waikar
    Renal Division, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass 02115, USA
    Am J Med 124:77-84. 2011
    low serum sodium concentrations are associated with an increased risk of death in the general population, but causality is uncertain due to confounding from clinical conditions such as congestive heart failure and cirrhosis, in which ..
  18. pmc Binding of an octylglucoside detergent molecule in the second substrate (S2) site of LeuT establishes an inhibitor-bound conformation
    Matthias Quick
    Center for Molecular Recognition, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, 630 West 168th Street, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:5563-8. 2009
    The first crystal structure of the neurotransmitter/sodium symporter homolog LeuT revealed an occluded binding pocket containing leucine and 2 Na(+); later structures showed tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) in an extracellular vestibule ..
  19. doi Urinary sodium and potassium excretion and risk of cardiovascular events
    Population Health Research Institute, Hamilton General Hospital, McMaster University, 237 Barton St E, Third Floor, Hamilton, ON, L8L 2X2, Canada
    JAMA 306:2229-38. 2011
    The precise relationship between sodium and potassium intake and cardiovascular (CV) risk remains uncertain, especially in patients with CV disease.
  20. pmc The ionic stoichiometry of the GLAST glutamate transporter in salamander retinal glia
    Simen Gylterud Owe
    Department of Physiology, University College London, London, WC1E 6BT, UK
    J Physiol 577:591-9. 2006
    ..A less powerful accumulation of glutamate by GLAST than by GLT-1 cannot be used to explain the high glutamate concentration measured by microdialysis...
  21. pmc The putative plasma membrane Na(+)/H(+) antiporter SOS1 controls long-distance Na(+) transport in plants
    Huazhong Shi
    Department of Plant Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721, USA
    Plant Cell 14:465-77. 2002
    ..We present a model in which SOS1 functions in retrieving Na(+) from the xylem stream under severe salt stress, whereas under mild salt stress it may function in loading Na(+) into the xylem...
  22. doi Salinity tolerance in halophytes
    Timothy J Flowers
    School of Life Sciences, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton, Sussex, BN1 9QG, UK
    New Phytol 179:945-63. 2008
  23. pmc Regulated expression of claudin-4 decreases paracellular conductance through a selective decrease in sodium permeability
    C Van Itallie
    Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 8019, USA
    J Clin Invest 107:1319-27. 2001
  24. doi Structural insight into the ion-exchange mechanism of the sodium/calcium exchanger
    Jun Liao
    Department of Physiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390 9040, USA
    Science 335:686-90. 2012
    b>Sodium/calcium (Na(+)/Ca(2+)) exchangers (NCX) are membrane transporters that play an essential role in maintaining the homeostasis of cytosolic Ca(2+) for cell signaling...
  25. doi Salt intake of the Slovene population assessed by 24 h urinary sodium excretion
    Cirila Hlastan Ribič
    National Institute of Public Health, Chronic Diseases Prevention Centre CINDI, Zaloška c 29, SI 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
    Public Health Nutr 13:1803-9. 2010
    To investigate average sodium excretion in 24 h urine as a marker for salt intake in the Slovene population.
  26. pmc Mortality and serum sodium: do patients die from or with hyponatremia?
    Arun Chawla
    Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Hofstra North Shore LIJ School of Medicine, Great Neck, New York, USA
    Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 6:960-5. 2011
    ..Severe hyponatremia (<120 mEq/L) in hospitalized patients has a high mortality rate. We hypothesized that underlying diseases causing hyponatremia attribute to mortality rather than hyponatremia itself...
  27. pmc Structure and molecular mechanism of a nucleobase-cation-symport-1 family transporter
    Simone Weyand
    Membrane Protein Laboratory, Diamond Light Source Limited, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE, UK
    Science 322:709-13. 2008
    ..The reciprocal opening and closing of these cavities is synchronized by the inverted repeat helices 3 and 8, providing the structural basis of the alternating access model for membrane transport...
  28. pmc Not so crystal clear: the structure of the human telomere G-quadruplex in solution differs from that present in a crystal
    Jing Li
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Mississippi Medical Center, 2500 North State Street, Jackson, MS 39216 4505, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 33:4649-59. 2005
    ..These models suggest that the biologically relevant structure of the human telomere quadruplex in K+ solution is not the one determined in the published crystalline state...
  29. pmc Primary structure and functional expression of the human cardiac tetrodotoxin-insensitive voltage-dependent sodium channel
    M E Gellens
    Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia 19104
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 89:554-8. 1992
    The principal voltage-sensitive sodium channel from human heart has been cloned, sequenced, and functionally expressed...
  30. pmc An ancient pathway combining carbon dioxide fixation with the generation and utilization of a sodium ion gradient for ATP synthesis
    Anja Poehlein
    Göttingen Genomics Laboratory, Institute for Microbiology and Genetics, Georg August University, Gottingen, Germany
    PLoS ONE 7:e33439. 2012
    ..It generates a sodium ion potential across the cell membrane by the sodium-motive ferredoxin:NAD oxidoreductase (Rnf)...
  31. pmc A coastal cline in sodium accumulation in Arabidopsis thaliana is driven by natural variation of the sodium transporter AtHKT1;1
    Ivan Baxter
    United States Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service, Plant Genetics Research Unit, Donald Danforth Plant Sciences Center, St Louis, Missouri, United States of America
    PLoS Genet 6:e1001193. 2010
    ..studies to identify cis-regulatory expression level polymorphisms at the AtHKT1;1 locus, encoding a known sodium (Na(+)) transporter, as being a major factor controlling natural variation in leaf Na(+) accumulation capacity ..
  32. ncbi Alternans and spiral breakup in a human ventricular tissue model
    K H W J ten Tusscher
    Utrecht University, Department of Theoretical Biology, Padualaan 8, 3584 CH Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 291:H1088-100. 2006
    ..We show that an important determinant for the onset of instability is the recovery dynamics of the fast sodium current...
  33. ncbi Structure of a Na+/H+ antiporter and insights into mechanism of action and regulation by pH
    Carola Hunte
    Department of Molecular Membrane Biology, Max Planck Institute of Biophysics, Max von Laue Str 3, D 60438 Frankfurt, Germany
    Nature 435:1197-202. 2005
    The control by Na+/H+ antiporters of sodium/proton concentration and cell volume is crucial for the viability of all cells...
  34. pmc A competitive inhibitor traps LeuT in an open-to-out conformation
    Satinder K Singh
    Vollum Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, 3181 Southwest Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, OR 97239, USA
    Science 322:1655-61. 2008
    ..We used crystallographic and functional studies on the leucine transporter (LeuT), a model for neurotransmitter sodium symporters, to show that various amino acid substrates induce the same occluded conformational state and that a ..
  35. pmc The cells and peripheral representation of sodium taste in mice
    Jayaram Chandrashekar
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Neurobiology, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 0649, USA
    Nature 464:297-301. 2010
    ..robust behavioural aversion, whereas low concentrations of NaCl are typically attractive, particularly after sodium depletion...
  36. ncbi Functional effects of two voltage-gated sodium channel mutations that cause generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus type 2
    J Spampanato
    Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of California, Irvine, California 92697-4025, USA
    J Neurosci 21:7481-90. 2001
    ..1 voltage-gated sodium channel (Escayg et al., 2000)...
  37. ncbi Mechanisms of altered excitation-contraction coupling in canine tachycardia-induced heart failure, II: model studies
    R L Winslow
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, Center for Computational Medicine and Biology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Circ Res 84:571-86. 1999
    ..Model analyses also suggest that altered expression of Ca2+ handling proteins plays a significant role in prolongation of action potential duration in failing canine myocytes...
  38. ncbi Increased airway epithelial Na+ absorption produces cystic fibrosis-like lung disease in mice
    Marcus Mall
    Cystic Fibrosis Pulmonary Research and Treatment Center, School of Medicine, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 7011 Thurston Bowles Building, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 7248, USA
    Nat Med 10:487-93. 2004
    ..We conclude that increasing airway Na(+) absorption initiates cystic fibrosis-like lung disease and produces a model for the study of the pathogenesis and therapy of this disease...
  39. pmc Early painful diabetic neuropathy is associated with differential changes in tetrodotoxin-sensitive and -resistant sodium channels in dorsal root ganglion neurons in the rat
    Shuangsong Hong
    Department of Internal Medicine and Pharmacology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA
    J Biol Chem 279:29341-50. 2004
    ..Alterations in the expression and function of voltage-gated tetrodotoxin-resistant (TTX-R) sodium channels have been implicated in animal models of neuropathic pain, including models of diabetic neuropathy...
  40. ncbi Glutamate uptake
    N C Danbolt
    Department of Anatomy, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1105, Blindern, N-0317, Oslo, Norway
    Prog Neurobiol 65:1-105. 2001
    ..g. osteoporosis) can be properly understood unless more is learned about these transporter proteins. Like glutamate itself, glutamate transporters are somehow involved in almost all aspects of normal and abnormal brain activity...
  41. pmc Na+ tolerance and Na+ transport in higher plants
    Mark Tester
    Department of Plant Sciences, University of Cambridge, Downing St, Cambridge CB2 3EA, UK
    Ann Bot 91:503-27. 2003
    ..For further understanding of whole plant tolerance, we require more knowledge of cell-specific transport processes and the consequences of manipulation of transporters and signalling elements in specific cell types...
  42. ncbi Two types of HKT transporters with different properties of Na+ and K+ transport in Oryza sativa
    T Horie
    Graduate School of Biological Sciences, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, 8916-5 Takayama-cho, Ikoma-shi, Nara 630-0101, Japan
    Plant J 27:129-38. 2001
    ..These results suggest that two isoforms of HKT transporters, a Na+ transporter (OsHKT1) and a Na+- and K+-coupled transporter (OsHKT2), may act harmoniously in the salt tolerant indica rice...
  43. pmc Transport mechanism of a bacterial homologue of glutamate transporters
    Nicolas Reyes
    Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Weill Cornell Medical College, 1300 York Avenue, Box 75, New York, New York 10065, USA
    Nature 462:880-5. 2009
    ..of Glt(Ph) in the outward facing state, the structure of the crosslinked mutant allows us to propose a molecular mechanism by which Glt(Ph) and, by analogy, mammalian glutamate transporters mediate sodium-coupled substrate uptake.
  44. pmc Coupled global and local changes direct substrate translocation by neurotransmitter-sodium symporter ortholog LeuT
    Mary Hongying Cheng
    Department of Computational and Systems Biology, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA
    Biophys J 105:630-9. 2013
    Significant advances have been made in recent years in characterizing neurotransmitter:sodium symporter (NSS) family structure and function...
  45. ncbi Coupling substrate and ion binding to extracellular gate of a sodium-dependent aspartate transporter
    Olga Boudker
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Columbia University, 650 West 168th Street, New York, New York 10032, USA
    Nature 445:387-93. 2007
    ..Here we describe crystallographic and thermodynamic studies of Glt(Ph), a sodium (Na+)-coupled aspartate transporter, defining sites for aspartate, two sodium ions and d,l-threo-beta-..
  46. doi Predialysis serum sodium level, dialysate sodium, and mortality in maintenance hemodialysis patients: the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS)
    Manfred Hecking
    Arbor Research Collaborative for Health, Ann Arbor, MI 48104, USA
    Am J Kidney Dis 59:238-48. 2012
    Predialysis serum sodium concentrations recently have been linked to patient characteristics and outcomes in hemodialysis patients and may have implications for the dialysate sodium prescription.
  47. pmc Structure and mechanism of a Na+-independent amino acid transporter
    Paul L Shaffer
    Vollum Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, 3181 Southwest Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, OR 97239, USA
    Science 325:1010-4. 2009
    ..reveals an inward-facing, apo state and an amine moiety of lysine-158 located in a position equivalent to the sodium ion site Na2 of LeuT...
  48. pmc Hyponatremia, hypernatremia, and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease with and without congestive heart failure
    Csaba P Kovesdy
    Division of Nephrology, Salem Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 1970 Roanoke Blvd, Salem, VA 24153, USA
    Circulation 125:677-84. 2012
    ..Congestive heart failure is common in patients with chronic kidney disease, but the association of serum sodium concentration with mortality in such patients is not well characterized.
  49. pmc Regulation of sodium transport in the inner ear
    Sung Huhn Kim
    Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 250 Seongsanno, Seodaemun gu, Seoul 120 752, Republic of Korea
    Hear Res 280:21-9. 2011
    ..Highly Na(+)-selective epithelial sodium channels (ENaCs) control absorption by Reissner's membrane, saccular extramacular epithelium, semicircular canal ..
  50. ncbi Gitelman's variant of Bartter's syndrome, inherited hypokalaemic alkalosis, is caused by mutations in the thiazide-sensitive Na-Cl cotransporter
    D B Simon
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Genetics, Boyer Center for Molecular Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA
    Nat Genet 12:24-30. 1996
    ..We speculate that these mutant alleles lead to reduced sodium chloride reabsorption in the more common heterozygotes, potentially protecting against development of hypertension.
  51. doi PSP toxin release from the cyanobacterium Raphidiopsis brookii D9 (Nostocales) can be induced by sodium and potassium ions
    Katia Soto-Liebe
    Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Facultad de Ciencias Biologicas, Alameda 340, 8331150 Santiago, Chile
    Toxicon 60:1324-34. 2012
    ..Based upon the known importance of monovalent cations (such as sodium) in the maintenance of cellular homeostasis and ion channel function, we examined the effect of high extracellular ..
  52. pmc Simulations of the alternating access mechanism of the sodium symporter Mhp1
    Joshua L Adelman
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA
    Biophys J 101:2399-407. 2011
    b>Sodium coupled cotransporters of the five-helix inverted repeat (5HIR) superfamily use an alternating access mechanism to transport a myriad of small molecules across the cell membrane...
  53. pmc Plasma sodium stiffens vascular endothelium and reduces nitric oxide release
    Hans Oberleithner
    Institute of Physiology II and Department of Internal Medicine D, University of Munster, 48149 Munster, Germany
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:16281-6. 2007
    ..Recent observations suggest that a small increase in plasma sodium concentration may contribute to the pressor response of dietary salt...
  54. pmc Promiscuous archaeal ATP synthase concurrently coupled to Na+ and H+ translocation
    Katharina Schlegel
    Molecular Microbiology and Bioenergetics, Institute of Molecular Biosciences, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University Frankfurt am Main, 60438 Frankfurt am Main, Germany
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:947-52. 2012
    ..acetivorans can be driven by the H(+) and Na(+) gradients resulting from methanogenesis. We propose that this promiscuity is a molecular mechanism of adaptation to life at the thermodynamic limit...
  55. doi Action potential generation requires a high sodium channel density in the axon initial segment
    Maarten H P Kole
    Division of Neuroscience, John Curtin School of Medical Research, Australian National University, Garran Road, Canberra ACT 0200, Australia
    Nat Neurosci 11:178-86. 2008
    ..It is commonly assumed that this process requires a high density of voltage-gated sodium (Na(+)) channels...
  56. pmc On the selective ion binding hypothesis for potassium channels
    Ilsoo Kim
    Department of Chemistry, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:17963-8. 2011
  57. pmc Salt overload damages the glycocalyx sodium barrier of vascular endothelium
    Hans Oberleithner
    Institute of Physiology II, University of Munster, Robert Koch Str 27b, 48149, Munster, Germany
    Pflugers Arch 462:519-28. 2011
    b>Sodium overload stiffens vascular endothelial cells in vitro and promotes arterial hypertension in vivo...
  58. pmc Dynamics of the extracellular gate and ion-substrate coupling in the glutamate transporter
    Zhijian Huang
    Department of Biochemistry, Beckman Institute, and Center for Biophysics and Computational Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, USA
    Biophys J 95:2292-300. 2008
    ..Finally, binding of Na2 locks the extracellular gate and completes the formation of the occluded state of GluT...
  59. pmc Cation binding to 15-TBA quadruplex DNA is a multiple-pathway cation-dependent process
    Roman V Reshetnikov
    Department of Boiengineering and Bioinformatics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, GSP 1, Leninskie Gory, Moscow, 119991, Russian Federation
    Nucleic Acids Res 39:9789-802. 2011
    ..The incoming ion then readily replaces the bound ion while minimizing any destabilization of the solute molecule during the exchange...
  60. pmc Root apoplastic barriers block Na+ transport to shoots in rice (Oryza sativa L.)
    Pannaga Krishnamurthy
    National Centre for Biological Sciences, TIFR, Bangalore 560065, India
    J Exp Bot 62:4215-28. 2011
    ..Overall the data suggest that in rice roots Na(+) bypass flow is reduced by the deposition of apoplastic barriers, leading to improved plant survival under salt stress...
  61. pmc Cell-surface receptors for gibbon ape leukemia virus and amphotropic murine retrovirus are inducible sodium-dependent phosphate symporters
    M P Kavanaugh
    Vollum Institute for Advanced Biomedical Research, Oregon Health Sciences University, Portland 97201
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 91:7071-5. 1994
    ..By expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes and in mammalian cells, we have identified Glvr-1 and Ram-1 as sodium-dependent phosphate symporters...
  62. doi Fatal and nonfatal outcomes, incidence of hypertension, and blood pressure changes in relation to urinary sodium excretion
    Katarzyna Stolarz-Skrzypek
    Studies Coordinating Centre, Division of Hypertension and Cardiovascular Rehabilitation, Department of Cardiovascular Diseases, University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
    JAMA 305:1777-85. 2011
    ..Extrapolations from observational studies and short-term intervention trials suggest that population-wide moderation of salt intake might reduce cardiovascular events...
  63. doi Alternating-access mechanism in conformationally asymmetric trimers of the betaine transporter BetP
    Camilo Perez
    Max Planck Institute of Biophysics, Department of Structural Biology, D 60438 Frankfurt am Main, Germany
    Nature 490:126-30. 2012
    ..that underlie the molecular transport mechanism, which partially resemble structural changes observed in other sodium-coupled LeuT-like fold transporters, but show differences we attribute to the osmolytic nature of betaine, the ..
  64. pmc Arrangements of human telomere DNA quadruplex in physiologically relevant K+ solutions
    D Renciuk
    Nucleic Acids Res 37:6625-34. 2009
  65. pmc Energetics and kinetics of a conformational switch in G-quadruplex DNA
    Robert D Gray
    James Graham Brown Cancer Center, University of Louisville, 529 South Jackson Street, Louisville, Kentucky 40202, USA
    J Phys Chem B 113:2676-83. 2009
    ..of the conformational switch of the human telomere quadruplex formed by the sequence d[AGGG(TTAGGG)3] between the sodium basket form and the potassium hybrid form...
  66. doi Na(+):aspartate coupling stoichiometry in the glutamate transporter homologue Glt(Ph)
    Maarten Groeneveld
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Groningen, Groningen Biomolecular Science and Biotechnology Institute, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen, The Netherlands
    Biochemistry 49:3511-3. 2010
    ..Here we measure transport of (22)Na(+) and [(14)C]aspartate in proteoliposomes containing purified Glt(Ph) and demonstrate that three Na(+) ions are symported with aspartate...
  67. ncbi Sodium-hydrogen exchanger, cardiac overload, and myocardial hypertrophy
    Horacio E Cingolani
    Centro de Investigaciones Cardiovasculares, Facultad de Ciencias Medicas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Calle 60 y 120, 1900 La Plata, Argentina
    Circulation 115:1090-100. 2007
  68. ncbi Diversity of the mammalian sodium/proton exchanger SLC9 gene family
    John Orlowski
    Department of Physiology, McGill University, McIntyre Medical Science Bldg 3655 Promenade Sir William Osler, H3G 1Y6, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    Pflugers Arch 447:549-65. 2004
    b>Sodium/proton antiporters or exchangers (NHE) are integral membrane proteins present in most, if not all, living organisms...
  69. pmc Time-resolved mechanism of extracellular gate opening and substrate binding in a glutamate transporter
    Indira H Shrivastava
    Department of Computational Biology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA
    J Biol Chem 283:28680-90. 2008 their important role in substrate binding and close interaction with mediating water molecules and/or sodium ions...
  70. ncbi Clinical consequences of an individualized dialysate sodium prescription in hemodialysis patients
    Flavio M de Paula
    Division of Nephrology, State University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
    Kidney Int 66:1232-8. 2004
    Predialysis plasma sodium (Na(+)) concentration is relatively constant in hemodialysis (HD) patients, and a higher dialysate Na(+) concentration can promote an increase in the interdialytic fluid ingestion to achieve an individual's ..
  71. ncbi Sodium and potassium in the pathogenesis of hypertension
    Horacio J Adrogue
    Department of Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, USA
    N Engl J Med 356:1966-78. 2007
  72. ncbi Plasma sodium: ignored and underestimated
    Feng J He
    Blood Pressure Unit, St George s Hospital Medical School, London, UK
    Hypertension 45:98-102. 2005
    ..It has been suggested that this results in a greater tendency to retain sodium and an increased compensatory response that is responsible for the rise in blood pressure...
  73. ncbi Antidepressant binding site in a bacterial homologue of neurotransmitter transporters
    Satinder K Singh
    The Vollum Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, 3181 S W Sam Jackson Road, Portland, Oregon 97239, USA
    Nature 448:952-6. 2007
    b>Sodium-coupled transporters are ubiquitous pumps that harness pre-existing sodium gradients to catalyse the thermodynamically unfavourable uptake of essential nutrients, neurotransmitters and inorganic ions across the lipid bilayer...
  74. pmc Human telomeric sequence forms a hybrid-type intramolecular G-quadruplex structure with mixed parallel/antiparallel strands in potassium solution
    Attila Ambrus
    College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona, 1703 E Mabel St, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 34:2723-35. 2006
  75. ncbi Crystal structure of a bacterial homologue of Na+/Cl--dependent neurotransmitter transporters
    Atsuko Yamashita
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics and
    Nature 437:215-23. 2005
    ..a bacterial homologue of these transporters from Aquifex aeolicus, in complex with its substrate, leucine, and two sodium ions...
  76. pmc HKT transporter-mediated salinity resistance mechanisms in Arabidopsis and monocot crop plants
    Tomoaki Horie
    Group of Molecular and Functional Plant Biology, Research Institute for Bioresources, Okayama University, Kurashiki, Okayama 710 0046, Japan
    Trends Plant Sci 14:660-8. 2009
    ..biomass production and agricultural productivity, as most plant species are sensitive to high concentrations of sodium (Na(+)), which causes combined Na(+) toxicity and osmotic stress...
  77. ncbi Inhibition of nociceptors by TRPV1-mediated entry of impermeant sodium channel blockers
    Alexander M Binshtok
    Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, Massachusetts 02129, USA
    Nature 449:607-10. 2007
    ..anaesthetics used clinically are relatively hydrophobic molecules that gain access to their blocking site on the sodium channel by diffusing into or through the cell membrane...
  78. ncbi Persistent ascites and low serum sodium identify patients with cirrhosis and low MELD scores who are at high risk for early death
    Douglas M Heuman
    Department of Medicine, Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine, Richmond, VA, USA
    Hepatology 40:802-10. 2004
    ..MELD score, persistent ascites, and low serum sodium (<135 meq/L) were independent predictors of early mortality...
  79. doi SLC24A5 encodes a trans-Golgi network protein with potassium-dependent sodium-calcium exchange activity that regulates human epidermal melanogenesis
    Rebecca S Ginger
    Unilever Corporate Research, Colworth Science Park, Sharnbrook, Bedfordshire, MK44 1LQ, England, United Kingdom
    J Biol Chem 283:5486-95. 2008
    ..Multiple sequence alignments predict that this gene encodes a member of the potassium-dependent sodium-calcium exchanger family denoted NCKX5...
  80. pmc Effects of dietary sodium reduction on blood pressure in subjects with resistant hypertension: results from a randomized trial
    Eduardo Pimenta
    Hypertension Unit, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Ipswich Road, Woolloongabba, Brisbane, QLD, Australia
    Hypertension 54:475-81. 2009
    Observational studies indicate a significant relation between dietary sodium and level of blood pressure. However, the role of salt sensitivity in the development of resistant hypertension is unknown...
  81. ncbi Early death due to defective neonatal lung liquid clearance in alpha-ENaC-deficient mice
    E Hummler
    Institut de Pharmacologie et de Toxicologie de l Université, Lausanne, Switzerland
    Nat Genet 12:325-8. 1996
    The amiloride-sensitive epithelial sodium channel, ENaC, is a heteromultimeric protein made up of three homologous subunits (alpha, beta and gamma) (1,2)...
  82. pmc Estimating 24-hour urinary sodium excretion from casual urinary sodium concentrations in Western populations: the INTERSALT study
    Ian J Brown
    MRC HPACentre for Environment and Health, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, St Mary s Campus, Norfolk Place, London W2 1PG, UK
    Am J Epidemiol 177:1180-92. 2013
    High intakes of dietary sodium are associated with elevated blood pressure levels and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease...
  83. pmc Voltage-gated sodium channels and metastatic disease
    William J Brackenbury
    Department of Biology, University of York, York, UK
    Channels (Austin) 6:352-61. 2012
  84. ncbi Sodium in the Finnish diet: 20-year trends in urinary sodium excretion among the adult population
    T Laatikainen
    Department of Epidemiology and Health Promotion, National Public Health Institute KTL, Helsinki, Finland
    Eur J Clin Nutr 60:965-70. 2006
    High sodium intake increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases and may also be associated with higher rates of stomach cancer, asthma disorders and infections...
  85. pmc A large-scale cluster randomized trial to determine the effects of community-based dietary sodium reduction--the China Rural Health Initiative Sodium Reduction Study
    Nicole Li
    The George Institute for Global Health at Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing, China
    Am Heart J 166:815-22. 2013
    ..High blood pressure caused by excess intake of dietary sodium is widespread and an effective sodium reduction program has potential to improve cardiovascular health.
  86. pmc Fibroblast growth factor 14 is an intracellular modulator of voltage-gated sodium channels
    Jun Yang Lou
    Department of Molecular Biology and Pharmacology, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO 63110, USA
    J Physiol 569:179-93. 2005
    ..Together, these findings implicate FGF14 as a unique modulator of Nav channel activity in the CNS and provide a possible mechanism to explain the neurological phenotypes observed in mice and humans with mutations in Fgf14...
  87. ncbi Sodium transport and salt tolerance in plants
    E Blumwald
    Department of Botany, University of Toronto, Toronto, M5S 3B2, Canada
    Curr Opin Cell Biol 12:431-4. 2000
    The ability of plant cells to maintain low cytosolic sodium concentrations is an essential process associated with the ability of plants to grow in high salt concentrations...
  88. pmc Structural basis for allosteric regulation of GPCRs by sodium ions
    Wei Liu
    Department of Molecular Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Science 337:232-6. 2012
    ..The central cluster harbors a putative sodium ion bound to the highly conserved aspartate residue Asp(2.50)...
  89. doi Angiotensin II induces phosphorylation of the thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride cotransporter independent of aldosterone
    Nils van der Lubbe
    Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    Kidney Int 79:66-76. 2011
    We studied here the independent roles of angiotensin II and aldosterone in regulating the sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC) of the distal convoluted tubule. We adrenalectomized three experimental and one control group of rats...
  90. pmc Identification of the third Na+ site and the sequence of extracellular binding events in the glutamate transporter
    Zhijian Huang
    Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Beckman Institute, and Center for Biophysics and Computational Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, Urbana, Illinois, USA
    Biophys J 99:1416-25. 2010
    ..Our results, however, provide additional information about the sites involved in these binding events...
  91. pmc Evidence for a third sodium-binding site in glutamate transporters suggests an ion/substrate coupling model
    H Peter Larsson
    Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Miami, Miami, FL 33101, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:13912-7. 2010
    ..Glutamate transporters couple the uptake of one glutamate to the cotransport of three sodium ions and one proton and the countertransport of one potassium ion...
  92. pmc Late sodium current contributes to diastolic cell Ca2+ accumulation in chronic heart failure
    Nidas A Undrovinas
    Department of Internal Medicine, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI 48202 2689, USA
    J Physiol Sci 60:245-57. 2010
    ..We conclude that INaL contributes to diastolic Ca2+ accumulation and spontaneous Ca2+ release in HF...
  93. pmc Ion/substrate-dependent conformational dynamics of a bacterial homolog of neurotransmitter:sodium symporters
    Derek P Claxton
    Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee, USA
    Nat Struct Mol Biol 17:822-9. 2010
    ..Furthermore, the binding of the transport inhibitors tryptophan, clomipramine and octyl-glucoside is shown to induce structural changes that distinguish the resulting inhibited conformation from the Na(+)/leucine-bound state...
  94. doi Mechanism of ion permeation and selectivity in a voltage gated sodium channel
    Ben Corry
    School of Biomedical, Biomolecular and Chemical Sciences, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 Australia
    J Am Chem Soc 134:1840-6. 2012
    The rapid and selective transport of Na(+) through sodium channels is essential for initiating action potentials within excitable cells...
  95. pmc Loss of halophytism by interference with SOS1 expression
    Dong Ha Oh
    Department of Plant Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA
    Plant Physiol 151:210-22. 2009
    The contribution of SOS1 (for Salt Overly Sensitive 1), encoding a sodium/proton antiporter, to plant salinity tolerance was analyzed in wild-type and RNA interference (RNAi) lines of the halophytic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana)-..
  96. pmc Sodium overload and water influx activate the NALP3 inflammasome
    Christine Schorn
    Department of Internal Medicine 3, University of Erlangen Nuremberg, 91054 Erlangen, Germany
    J Biol Chem 286:35-41. 2011
    ..The low pH in the phagolysosome causes a massive release of sodium and raises the intracellular osmolarity...
  97. doi Dietary salt influences postprandial plasma sodium concentration and systolic blood pressure
    Rebecca J Suckling
    Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, St George s University of London, London, UK
    Kidney Int 81:407-11. 2012
    The plasma sodium concentration has a direct effect on blood pressure in addition to its effects on extracellular volume regulated through changes in the endothelium...
  98. ncbi Sodium channels and cystic fibrosis
    Scott H Donaldson
    Cystic Fibrosis Research and Treatment Center, 6007B Thurston Bowles Building, CB 7248, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    Chest 132:1631-6. 2007
    The epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) represents the rate-limiting step of sodium absorption across airway epithelia and thereby constitutes the major pathway for volume absorption from the airway surface liquid compartment...
  99. pmc Mechanisms of proximal tubule sodium transport regulation that link extracellular fluid volume and blood pressure
    Alicia A McDonough
    Department of Cell and Neurobiology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089 9142, USA
    Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 298:R851-61. 2010
    ..These variables all converge on regulation of renal proximal tubule (PT) sodium transport. The PT reabsorbs two-thirds of the filtered Na(+) and volume at baseline...
  100. pmc Sodium channel molecular conformations and antiarrhythmic drug affinity
    Michael F Sheets
    University of Utah, The Nora Eccles Harrison Cardiovascular Research and Teaching Institute, Department of Internal Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA
    Trends Cardiovasc Med 20:16-21. 2010
    ..Both of these clinical uses depend upon block of sodium current (I(Na)), but it is the presence of use-dependent I(Na) block, that is, an increasing amount of block at ..
  101. pmc Diversity in expression patterns and functional properties in the rice HKT transporter family
    Mehdi Jabnoune
    Biochimie et Physiologie Moleculaire des Plantes, UMR 5004 CNRS INRA SupAgro M UM2, Campus SupAgro M INRA, 34060 Montpellier Cedex 1, France
    Plant Physiol 150:1955-71. 2009
    ..Such a large diversity within the HKT transporter family might be central to the regulation of K(+) and Na(+) accumulation in monocots...

Research Grants79

  1. Transcription factors regulating sensory gene expression and pain pathways
    Eric E Turner; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Other examples include specialized sodium channels of the Nav family, with roles in inflammatory pain and in the transmission of pain at low temperatures, ..
  2. Exercise training and blood pressure in hypertension: integrated mechanisms
    Noreen F Rossi; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..central nitritergic signaling and decreasing renal sympathetic nerve activity that regulates distal tubular sodium reabsorption...
  3. Agrin/alpha 3 Na,K-ATPase signaling at the neuromuscular junction
    Martin A Smith; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..presynaptic effects is unknown but a good candidate is the a3 Na,K-ATPase (NKA), a neuron-specific isoform of the sodium-potassium pump that binds all forms of agrin...
    Melanie H Cobb; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..We will also elucidate mechanisms of regulation of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) by WNK1...
  5. DNA Damage and Response in the Bladder Microenvironment.
    Bradley P Dixon; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..epithelial cell lines from the H-2Kb- tsA58 mouse will be gradually adapted to hyperosmolal conditions with sodium chloride or urea, or maintained in isoosmolal conditions, then exposed to different forms of DNA damage...
  6. Vitamin D Hormone Signaling in Bone Mineral Homeostasis
    Mark R Haussler; Fiscal Year: 2010 small intestine and kidney through the enhanced expression of epithelial calcium transporter 1 (TRPV6) and sodium-phosphate cotransporter 2c (Npt2c), respectively...
  7. Genistein, microRNAs and kidney cancer
    Rajvir Dahiya; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..cells with genistein and then analyze hypomethylation of CpG Islands in putative promoter regions of miRNAs using sodium bisulfite methylation techniques and direct DNA sequencing...
  8. Role for Na,K-ATPase in Nucleoplasmic Calcium Homeostasis
    Craig Gatto; Fiscal Year: 2010
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase (i.e. Na,K-ATPase) is responsible for controlling cellular fluid and electrolyte balance in higher eukaryotes...
  9. Steroid Responsive Mechanisms in the Ear
    DENNIS ROYAL TRUNE; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Therefore, our working hypothesis is that two steroid-responsive mechanisms exist in the ear: a direct sodium and potassium transport (ion homeostatic) gene expression mediated by the mineralocorticoid receptor, and an ..
  10. Using Drosophila to understand WNK and SPAK/OSR1 regulation of SLC12 cotransporte
    AYLIN RACHEL RODAN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The SLC12 family of cation-chloride cotransporters, which includes sodium-chloride, sodium-potassium-two-chloride, and potassium-chloride cotransporters (NCC, NKCC, and KCC), plays a key ..
  11. New insights in mechanisms of renal injury
    Balakuntalam S Kasinath; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Specific Aim 2: In vivo studies. To test the requirement of GSK3b inactivation in diabetic renal disease. Sodium nitroprusside (SNP) stimulates GSK3beta and inhibits renal hypertrophy and albuminuria in type 1 diabetic mice...
  12. The Relationship Between STK39, Salt Sensitivity, and HCTZ-induced BP Response
    YEN PEI CHRISTY CHANG; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..a functional variant that may influence BP by increasing STK39 expression and consequently altering renal sodium excretion...
  13. Parathyroid Hormone & Vitamin D Effects on Salt Sensitivity and Vascular Function
    ANNA LIZA BELEN VALINA TOTH; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..enrolled in the NIH-funded ONOSS study to examine the following before and after a 6 week period of dietary sodium supplementation: Aim #1: determine blood pressure (BP)(cuff and ambulatory 24 hour), arterial stiffness (AS), ..
  14. An Aldosterone-Endothelin Feedback Mechanism on Sodium Homeostasis
    Charles S Wingo; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..aldosterone and endothelin-1 (ET-1) and the potential role of this interaction as a feedback system on renal sodium (Na) transport...
  15. Therapeutic Effect of a Novel Antioxidant on Degenerative Eye Disorders
    Nuran Ercal; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..We will also use a chemically-induced model, in which sodium iodate will be injected into C57/BL6 mice to induce RPE degeneration...
  16. Role of stearoyl CoA desaturase-1 in TLR5 KO mice colitis and metabolic syndrome
    Matam Vijay Kumar; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Interestingly, SCD-1 deficiency exacerbates intestinal inflammation in an acute model of Dextran Sodium Sulfate (DSS) and C. rodentium induced colitis and SCD-1 overexpression significantly attenuated such colitis...
    Anisa Shaker; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..We will extend these observations to the dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) colitis and azoxymethane (AOM)/DSS CAC models...
  18. Mechanism Underlying Nitrite Sensitivity of Mucoid Pseudomonas in COPD
    Daniel J Hassett; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Improved treatment options, in this case the use of sodium nitrite for the management of COPD exacerbations precipitated by PA infection are needed to reduce mortality and ..
  19. Treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Disease with Ceramidase Inhibitors
    Lynn W Maines; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Each of the novel ceramidase inhibitors will be tested for efficacy in the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) model of ulcerative colitis in mice, using a combination of clinical, morphological and biochemical ..
  20. Therapeutic Approaches for Extinction of Conditioned Drug Reward
    Gary B Kaplan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..propose to examine the treatment effects of epigenetic regulation of BDNF using clinically available HDACi's, sodium butyrate and valproate, on the extinction and priming-induced reinstatement of COR...
  21. Neuropeptide regulation of neurohypophyseal function
    Francis W Flynn; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..release of vasopressin (VP) and oxytocin (OT) into the blood where the hormones act to promote water retention and sodium excretion...
  22. Genetic &Functional Analyses of Hypertension Susceptibility Genes
    YEN PEI CHRISTY CHANG; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Non-genetic factors such as obesity, high fat/sodium diet, stress, and physical inactivity contribute to a steady increase in the prevalence of HTN despite remarkable ..
  23. Transcriptional Regulation of Natriuetic Sensitivity in Diabetes Mellitus
    PATIENCE O OBIH; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..cause of end-stage renal disease (ESDR) which manifests as disturbances in the ability of the kidneys to handle sodium. The thiazolidinediones (TZDs) have been introduced for the treatment of type 2 diabetes...
    ..In stored serum samples we will measure additional metabolic analytes (sodium, chloride, bicarbonate, urea nitrogen, and creatinine), selected micronutrients (ferritin for iron status, folic ..
  25. Controlled delivery of polypeptide hormone calcitonin
    Jagdish Singh; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..sCT as well as sCT in the gel will be evaluated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, circular dichroism, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, native sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel ..
  26. K-Mg-citrate as a BP lowering agent in African Americans; role of natriuresis
    ROBERT FRANKLIN REILLY; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..When combined with sodium restriction in mildly hypertensive African Americans the diet lowered blood pressure to the same degree as single ..
  27. Biomarkers to Assess Selenium Chemoprevention for NSCLC
    Steven A Belinsky; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Treatment of A/J mice 42 weeks after carcinogen exposure with rosiglitazone, a PPAR-3 agonist;sodium phenylbutyrate, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, hydralazine, a 5- methylcytosine demethylating agent, and ..
  28. Epithelial Sodium Channels in the Supraoptic Vasopressin and Oxytocin Neurons
    Ryoichi Teruyama; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE Epithelial sodium channels which present in kidney and which play an important role in development of hypertension in human, have ..
    ..and differentiation resulting in zona glomerulosa remodeling" in response to physiological need, such as sodium deprivation. The following specific aims are proposed to test these hypotheses: 1...
  30. Use of Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors to Evaluate the Pathobiology of CF
    JENNIFER L TAYLOR-COUSAR; Fiscal Year: 2013 the pathology that leads to the morbidity and mortality from CF: 1) Dehydrated airway surfaces resulting from sodium hyperabsorption and lack of chloride secretion, and 2) Airway damage caused by chronic lung infection and ..
  31. Mechanisms of Vasovagal Syncope
    Julian M Stewart; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..studies after NOS inhibition with nitro-L-arginine (NLA) and after repletion of NO during perfusion with NLA+sodium nitroprusside (SNP). We will obtain skin biopsies for NOS isoform protein and expression...
  32. Reversing Corticosteroid-Induced Memory Impairment
    E Sherwood Brown; Fiscal Year: 2013 an antiseizure and bipolar disorder medication that decreases glutamate release through interactions with sodium and calcium channels...
  33. MicroRNAs in the Progression and Metastisis of Prostate Cancer
    Rajvir Dahiya; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..CpG methylation in putative promoter regions of miRNAs will be examined by sodium bisulfite methylation techniques and confirm by direct DNA sequencing...
  34. Markers of Renal Damage in Renovascular Hypertension
    Juan C Romero; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..In the kidney O2 consumption is determined by sodium (Na) reabsorption in distal tubules by Na, K ATPase...
  35. Arsenic, Histone Modification, and Transcription
    LYNN SHELDON; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..methylation, will be identified at the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) promoter in the presence and absence of sodium arsenite in vivo by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis (Specific Aim I)...
  36. Masked Hypertension in Chronic Kidney Disease
    Rajiv Agarwal; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..sleep disturbances, reduced day-time activity, increasing adiposity and increments in ambulatory BP with greater sodium intake. Methods: This project will study 450 subjects with CKD with NTN, MHTN, and HTN...
  37. Characterization of the ER associated Biogenesis and Degradation of ENaC
    Teresa M Buck; Fiscal Year: 2013 proposed here is to characterize the requirements for the ER associated degradation (ERAD) of the Epithelial Sodium Channel (ENaC)...
  38. ANP Receptor: Molecular approach of signaling mechanisms
    Kailash N Pandey; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is a cardiac hormone that regulates sodium excretion, fluid volume, and vasorelaxation, important factors in the control of blood pressure and blood volume...
  39. Nitrated fatty acids/PPARgamma in the control of renal and vascular functions
    Tianxin Yang; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..on fluid metabolism and blood pressure (Bp) control through a complex mechanism involving regulation of renal sodium transport as well as vascular function...
  40. Endogenous Aldosterone and Glucose Homeostasis
    JAMES MATTHEW LUTHER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..More recently, we have determined that renin-angiotensin- aldosterone system stimulation with low sodium intake attenuates insulin secretion in healthy humans (Preliminary Studies)...
  41. GILZ Regulation of ENaC
    David Pearce; Fiscal Year: 2012
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Aldosterone-regulated sodium transport in the kidney distal nephron is essential for fluid and electrolyte homeostasis and blood pressure regulation in mammals...
  42. Chemokine Decoy Receptor: a novel therapy of IBD
    Kanneganti Murthy; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Specific Aims: Establish the pharmacodynamic profile of mR-421 in mice utilizing 1) a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) model and 2) a dintrobenzenesulfonic (DNBS) model of intestinal inflammation Treatment with mR-421 (3, 10, ..
  43. Regulation Of Inorganic Phosphorus (Pi) Metabolism By Estrogen
    Hassane Amlal; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This effect resulted from a specific downregulation of type IIa apical sodium-dependent phosphate cotransporter (NaPi-IIa), independently of changes in food intake and parathyroid hormone (PTH)..
  44. Combined neuroprotection and metabolic correction to treat leukodystrophies
    ERNESTO ROQUE BONGARZONE; Fiscal Year: 2013 mutant neurons;2) determine whether flecainide, an antiarrhythmic drug with a proven ability to reduce sodium channel firing and NCX1 activity, improves NCX1-mediated influx of calcium in axons;and 3) determine whether these ..
  45. Regulation of ENaC Transcription
    Bruce C Kone; Fiscal Year: 2013 a large gap in understanding how a constrained, but favorable transcriptional ground state for the epithelial sodium channel ??subunit (??ENaC) gene is maintained, and how complex interactions between multiple regulatory proteins, ..
    Benjamin L Shneider; Fiscal Year: 2012
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT) is the major carrier protein involved in intestinal reclamation of bile salts...
    CURT DANIEL SIGMUND; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..and rate limiting step in the production of angiotensin peptides which have pleiotropic effects on blood pressure, sodium and water homeostasis, sympathetic nervous system and systemic metabolism...
  48. Regulation of ENaC in salt-sensitive hypertension via inflammation-induced ROS pr
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) is a key regulator of sodium homeostasis in aldosterone-sensitive distal nephron (ASDN) controlling body liquid volume and blood pressure...
  49. GI-Safer Formulation of Indomethacin for use in Preterm Neonates
    UPENDRA K MARATHI; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..were developmentally increasing levels of both intestinal bile acid and ileal bile acid uptake transporter (apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter, ASBT) which may be associated with indomethacin GI toxicity...
  50. A Functional Role for the Circadian Clock Protein Per1 in the Regulation of ??ENa
    Michelle L Gumz; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Aldosterone is the major mineralocorticoid hormone that regulates sodium (Na) homeostasis and its action contributes to the maintenance of blood pressure and cardiac function...
    William A Catterall; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Electrical excitability in most vertebrate cells depends on voltage-gated sodium (Na) channels, which open briefly in response to depolarization to allow rapid influx of Na and depolarize the ..
  52. Nuclear Lipids in Steroidogenesis
    Marion B Sewer; Fiscal Year: 2013 applicant): Steroid hormones are key regulators of a diverse array of physiological processes, including sodium homeostasis, reproduction, and the development of secondary sex characteristics...
  53. Prevention and Treatment of Chlorine Gas Induced Injury to the Pulmonary System
    Sadis Matalon; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..damage alveolar epithelial cells decreasing their ability to produce and secrete surfactant, actively transport sodium (Na+) ions and maintain a tight, semi-permeable barrier...
  54. Molecular mechanisms of bacterial homologs of neurotransmitter:sodium symporters
    Jonathan A Javitch; Fiscal Year: 2013
    6. Project Summary/Abstract Neurotransmitter:sodium symporters (NSS) couple the accumulation of substrate to the movement of sodium ions down their concentration gradient across the plasma membrane, and as such constitute key elements in ..
  55. Eotaxin in Colitis and Colitis-Associated Carcinogenesis
    Lori A Coburn; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Eotaxin-1 has been shown to be increased in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induced colitis by my collaborator, and we now show for the first time that eotaxin-1 is upregulated in: 1) ..
  56. Osteoarthritis: Identification of Novel Imaging Biomarkers via 23Na/1H MRI at 7 T
    Gregory Chang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..microstructural and biochemical imaging biomarkers of osteoarthritis (OA) via ultra high field (UHF) 7 Tesla (T) sodium and proton MRI techniques...
  57. Prolylcarboxypeptidase is a Risk Factor for Cardiovascular Disease
    Alvin H Schmaier; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..and without adjustment for body mass index (BMI) status using DNA from individuals in the NIH/NHLBI PEACE and DASH-sodium studies...
  58. Protein Phosphatase Regulation of the Principal Renal Sodium Transporter NHE3
    Ion Alexandru Bobulescu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..and highly innovative techniques to define the role of Protein Phosphatase 2A (PP2A) in the regulation of renal sodium/proton exchange, and then apply for funding under the R01 mechanism to explore one or more of the scientific ..
  59. Epigenetic regulation of liver transporters
    Frederick J Suchy; Fiscal Year: 2013 bile acid-dependent activation of FXR, regulating the genes encoding BSEP (the Bile Salt Export Pump), the sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (Ntcp) and the organic solute transporter (OST1-OST2)...
  60. Phospholemman and Cardiac Contracility
    Joseph Y Cheung; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..uses 2 different genetically altered mice specifically engineered to critically evaluate whether regulation of sodium-calcium exchanger or sodium-potassium pump is the major mechanism by which phospholemman affects heart contraction...
  61. PLCgamma regulates HNE3 activity through direct binding and dynamic complexes
    ..In the intestine, impaired sodium absorption results in decreased water absorption and diarrhea...
  62. Epigenic Control of ENaC Transcription and Sodium Transport
    Wenzheng Zhang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..novel epigenetic mechanisms controlling Na+ homeostasis in mIMCD3 cells and in mouse kidney, with ENaC (epithelial sodium channel) as the model...
  63. Novel bundled mechanical and pharmacological CPR platform
    Anja Metzger; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..developed intrathoracic pressure regulation (IPR) technology to test the hypothesis that by using a combination of sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a potent vasodilator, and mechanical, non-invasive CPR adjuncts like Active Compression ..
    SAMUEL HOPKINS; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Studies indicate that the buccal mucosa resembles other squamous epithelia in its ability to transport sodium transepithelially...
    Theodore Kurtz; Fiscal Year: 1990
    The concept of "sodium-dependent" hypertension is based almost entirely on studies in which the dietary intake of sodium (Na+) has been varied by varying the dietary intake of NaC1...
    HALCYON WATKINS; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..It is also suggested that endogenous DA formed within the kidney may play a role in promoting sodium excretion...
  67. Prevention of ischemia reperfusion injury associated with acute myocardial infarc
    Craig Sherman; Fiscal Year: 2010
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Hope Pharmaceuticals is a small business that distributes Sodium Nitrite Injection and owns patent rights to a recently discovered use for sodium nitrite as a means to prevent ischemia-reperfusion ..
  68. Sodium and Cardiovascular Disease in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease
    Jiang He; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The few prospective epidemiologic studies that examined the relationship between dietary sodium and potassium intake and risk of CVD provided contradictory findings...
    Manoj K Patel; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Since sodium channels control cellular excitability, they have become important targets for the suppression of seizures...
  70. Sodium Transport Inhibitors for Hypertension and Cystic Fibrosis
    Erik Schwiebert; Fiscal Year: 2009
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Sodium Transport Inhibitors for Hypertension and Cystic Fibrosis Scientific Summary Description Hypertension is a confounding multifactorial disorder that affects millions of patients worldwide...
    J Cunningham; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The studies proposed examine the integration of neural and humoral factors influencing sodium ingestion in the HU model of bed rest...
    ALFRED GEORGE; Fiscal Year: 2009
    Voltage-gated sodium channels are heteromultimeric integral membrane proteins that are responsible for the initial phase of the action potential in most excitable cells...
    DAVID SODERLUND; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..cause toxic effects in vertebrate nerves and muscles by modifying the normal function of voltage-sensitive sodium channels...
    Mark Zeidel; Fiscal Year: 1990
    Atrial natriuretic peptides (ANP) induce large increases in renal sodium excretion. Evidence is accumulating that ANP induces natriuresis in part by directly altering sodium transport in the inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD)...
    Dan Roden; Fiscal Year: 1990
    Although the interaction between antiarrhythmic drugs and cardiac sodium channels has been intensively studied in vitro, the effects of these agents on sodium channel-dependent phenomena in the cardiac syncytium is less well-characterized...
  76. gamma-MSH and Sodium Metabolism
    Michael Humphreys; Fiscal Year: 2007
    Variations in dietary sodium intake initiate integrated adjustments in neural and hormonal systems regulating sodium excretion by the kidneys in order to maintain overall sodium balance...
    Steven Graves; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..Our objective is to clarify one of these, that PIH results from a defect in the regulation of sodium and volume, and assess consequent mechanisms, including changes in circulating hormones, that lead to other ..
    Todd Scheuer; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..b>Sodium channels are responsible for the initial depolarization of the action potential in most neurons...
    NANCY KOLODNY; Fiscal Year: 1990
    The specific aim of the proposed research is to use sodium magnetic resonance imaging (23Na MRI) and sodium chemical shift imaging (23Na CSI) to characterize the state of the vitreous body in two animal models of diabetic retinopathy...