hypochlorous acid

Summary

Summary: An oxyacid of chlorine (HClO) containing monovalent chlorine that acts as an oxidizing or reducing agent.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Hypochlorous acid, a macrophage product, induces endothelial apoptosis and tissue factor expression: involvement of myeloperoxidase-mediated oxidant in plaque erosion and thrombogenesis
    Seigo Sugiyama
    Leducq Center for Cardiovascular Research, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass 02115, USA
    Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 24:1309-14. 2004
  2. pmc Linoleic acid hydroperoxide reacts with hypochlorous acid, generating peroxyl radical intermediates and singlet molecular oxygen
    Sayuri Miyamoto
    Departamento de Bioquimica, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, CP26077, CEP 05513 970, Sao Paulo, Brazil
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:293-8. 2006
  3. pmc Hypochlorous acid regulates neutrophil extracellular trap release in humans
    L J Palmer
    Periodontal Research Group and MRC Centre for Immune Regulation, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
    Clin Exp Immunol 167:261-8. 2012
  4. pmc Hypochlorous acid and hydrogen peroxide-induced negative regulation of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium ompW by the response regulator ArcA
    Eduardo H Morales
    Laboratorio de Microbiologia Molecular, Facultad Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Andres Bello, Santiago, Chile
    BMC Microbiol 12:63. 2012
  5. ncbi Modeling the reactions of superoxide and myeloperoxidase in the neutrophil phagosome: implications for microbial killing
    Christine C Winterbourn
    Department of Pathology, Christchurch School of Medicine and Health Sciences, P O Box 4345, Christchurch, New Zealand
    J Biol Chem 281:39860-9. 2006
  6. ncbi Immunohistochemical evidence for the myeloperoxidase/H2O2/halide system in human atherosclerotic lesions: colocalization of myeloperoxidase and hypochlorite-modified proteins
    E Malle
    Institute of Medical Biochemistry and Biochemistry, Karl Franzens University Graz, Austria
    Eur J Biochem 267:4495-503. 2000
  7. ncbi Chlorination of bacterial and neutrophil proteins during phagocytosis and killing of Staphylococcus aureus
    Anna L P Chapman
    Free Radical Research Group, Department of Pathology, Christchurch School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Post Office Box 4345, Christchurch, New Zealand
    J Biol Chem 277:9757-62. 2002
  8. pmc Growth of Escherichia coli in model distribution system biofilms exposed to hypochlorous acid or monochloramine
    Margaret M Williams
    Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, New York 12201, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 69:5463-71. 2003
  9. pmc Microbicidal activity of vascular peroxidase 1 in human plasma via generation of hypochlorous acid
    Hong Li
    Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA
    Infect Immun 80:2528-37. 2012
  10. pmc S-bacillithiolation protects conserved and essential proteins against hypochlorite stress in firmicutes bacteria
    Bui Khanh Chi
    Institute for Microbiology, Ernst Moritz Arndt University of Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany
    Antioxid Redox Signal 18:1273-95. 2013

Detail Information

Publications282 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Hypochlorous acid, a macrophage product, induces endothelial apoptosis and tissue factor expression: involvement of myeloperoxidase-mediated oxidant in plaque erosion and thrombogenesis
    Seigo Sugiyama
    Leducq Center for Cardiovascular Research, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass 02115, USA
    Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 24:1309-14. 2004
    Superficial erosion of coronary plaques due to endothelial loss causes acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Macrophages at erosive sites of human coronary atheroma present myeloperoxidase (MPO), an enzyme that produces hypochlorous acid (HOCl).
  2. pmc Linoleic acid hydroperoxide reacts with hypochlorous acid, generating peroxyl radical intermediates and singlet molecular oxygen
    Sayuri Miyamoto
    Departamento de Bioquimica, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, CP26077, CEP 05513 970, Sao Paulo, Brazil
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:293-8. 2006
    The reaction of hypochlorous acid (HOCl) with hydrogen peroxide is known to generate stoichiometric amounts of singlet molecular oxygen [O2 (1Deltag)]...
  3. pmc Hypochlorous acid regulates neutrophil extracellular trap release in humans
    L J Palmer
    Periodontal Research Group and MRC Centre for Immune Regulation, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
    Clin Exp Immunol 167:261-8. 2012
    ..However, treatment with myeloperoxidase inhibitors and direct addition of hypochlorous acid (HOCl; generated in situ from sodium hypochlorite) established that HOCl was a necessary and sufficient ROI ..
  4. pmc Hypochlorous acid and hydrogen peroxide-induced negative regulation of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium ompW by the response regulator ArcA
    Eduardo H Morales
    Laboratorio de Microbiologia Molecular, Facultad Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Andres Bello, Santiago, Chile
    BMC Microbiol 12:63. 2012
    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and hypochlorous acid (HOCl) are reactive oxygen species that are part of the oxidative burst encountered by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) upon internalization by phagocytic cells...
  5. ncbi Modeling the reactions of superoxide and myeloperoxidase in the neutrophil phagosome: implications for microbial killing
    Christine C Winterbourn
    Department of Pathology, Christchurch School of Medicine and Health Sciences, P O Box 4345, Christchurch, New Zealand
    J Biol Chem 281:39860-9. 2006
    ..Myeloperoxidase converts chloride and hydrogen peroxide to hypochlorous acid (HOCl), which is strongly microbicidal...
  6. ncbi Immunohistochemical evidence for the myeloperoxidase/H2O2/halide system in human atherosclerotic lesions: colocalization of myeloperoxidase and hypochlorite-modified proteins
    E Malle
    Institute of Medical Biochemistry and Biochemistry, Karl Franzens University Graz, Austria
    Eur J Biochem 267:4495-503. 2000
    ..secreted by activated phagocytes, generates modified/oxidized (lipo)proteins via intermediate formation of hypochlorous acid (HOCl)...
  7. ncbi Chlorination of bacterial and neutrophil proteins during phagocytosis and killing of Staphylococcus aureus
    Anna L P Chapman
    Free Radical Research Group, Department of Pathology, Christchurch School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Post Office Box 4345, Christchurch, New Zealand
    J Biol Chem 277:9757-62. 2002
    Myeloperoxidase is proposed to play a central role in bacterial killing by generating hypochlorous acid within neutrophil phagosomes...
  8. pmc Growth of Escherichia coli in model distribution system biofilms exposed to hypochlorous acid or monochloramine
    Margaret M Williams
    Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, New York 12201, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 69:5463-71. 2003
    ..of disinfectants on bacterial populations was determined after exposure of established biofilms to 1 ppm of hypochlorous acid (ClOH) for 67 min or 4 ppm of monochloramine (NH(2)Cl) for 155 min...
  9. pmc Microbicidal activity of vascular peroxidase 1 in human plasma via generation of hypochlorous acid
    Hong Li
    Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA
    Infect Immun 80:2528-37. 2012
    ..reported to be capable of using chloride ion as a substrate to form the highly microbicidal species hypochlorous acid (HOCl) at neutral pH...
  10. pmc S-bacillithiolation protects conserved and essential proteins against hypochlorite stress in firmicutes bacteria
    Bui Khanh Chi
    Institute for Microbiology, Ernst Moritz Arndt University of Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany
    Antioxid Redox Signal 18:1273-95. 2013
    ..subtilis, B. megaterium, B. pumilus, B. amyloliquefaciens, and Staphylococcus carnosus and also measured the BSH/oxidized bacillithiol disulfide (BSSB) redox ratio after NaOCl stress...
  11. ncbi Myeloperoxidase in kidney disease
    Ernst Malle
    Karl Franzens University Graz, Institute of Medical Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Graz, Austria
    Kidney Int 64:1956-67. 2003
    ..The ability of MPO to generate hypochlorous acid/hypochlorite (HOCl/OCl-) from hydrogen peroxide in the presence of chloride ions is a unique and defining ..
  12. ncbi Biological reactivity and biomarkers of the neutrophil oxidant, hypochlorous acid
    Christine C Winterbourn
    Department of Pathology, Christchurch School of Medicine, P O Box 4345, Christchurch, New Zealand
    Toxicology 181:223-7. 2002
    ..b>Hypochlorous acid (HOCl), produced by myeloperoxidase-catalysed oxidation of chloride by hydrogen peroxide, is the major ..
  13. ncbi Modification of low-density lipoprotein by myeloperoxidase-derived oxidants and reagent hypochlorous acid
    Ernst Malle
    Medical University Graz, Center of Molecular Medicine, Institute of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Harrachgasse 21, A 8010 Graz, Austria
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1761:392-415. 2006
    ....
  14. ncbi Hydrogen sulphide: a novel inhibitor of hypochlorous acid-mediated oxidative damage in the brain?
    Matthew Whiteman
    Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, National University of Singapore, 8 Medical Drive, Singapore 117597, Singapore
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 326:794-8. 2005
    ..Levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO), an enzyme that catalyses the formation of the oxidant hypochlorous acid (HOCl), are elevated in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampal microglia, and neurons of AD patients where MPO ..
  15. ncbi Nordihydroguaiaretic acid is a potent in vitro scavenger of peroxynitrite, singlet oxygen, hydroxyl radical, superoxide anion and hypochlorous acid and prevents in vivo ozone-induced tyrosine nitration in lungs
    Esaú Floriano-Sánchez
    Escuela Superior de Medicina del Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Plan de San Luis y Salvador Díaz Mirón S N, Col Casco de Santo Tomas, Mexico, Mexico
    Free Radic Res 40:523-33. 2006
    ..singlet oxygen ((1)O(2)), hydroxyl radical (OH(v)), hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), superoxide anion and hypochlorous acid (HOCl) scavenging capacity of NDGA. It was found that NDGA scavenges: (a) ONOO(-) (IC(50) = 4 +/- 0...
  16. pmc Methionine oxidation contributes to bacterial killing by the myeloperoxidase system of neutrophils
    Henry Rosen
    Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:18686-91. 2009
    ..The findings further suggest that protein translocation to the cell envelope is one important pathway targeted for damage...
  17. ncbi Absolute rate constants for the reaction of hypochlorous acid with protein side chains and peptide bonds
    D I Pattison
    The Heart Research Institute, 145 Missenden Road, Camperdown, Sydney, NSW 2050, Australia
    Chem Res Toxicol 14:1453-64. 2001
    b>Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) is a potent oxidant, which is produced in vivo by activated phagocytes...
  18. ncbi Chlorinative stress: an under appreciated mediator of neurodegeneration?
    Yann Wan Yap
    Department of Biochemistry, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, 8 Medical Drive, Singapore 117597, Singapore
    Cell Signal 19:219-28. 2007
    ..In addition, HOCl also causes tissue destruction and cellular damage leading cell death...
  19. ncbi Rapid reaction of hydrogen sulfide with the neutrophil oxidant hypochlorous acid to generate polysulfides
    Peter Nagy
    Department of Pathology, University of Otago Christchurch, P O Box 4345, Christchurch, New Zealand
    Chem Res Toxicol 23:1541-3. 2010
    ..Here, we report the kinetics and mechanism of its reaction with the neutrophil oxidant hypochlorous acid. Stopped flow studies, carried out at high pH, showed this reaction to be extremely fast, with a second-..
  20. ncbi Sensitivity of antioxidant-deficient yeast to hypochlorite and chlorite
    Magdalena Kwolek-Mirek
    Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, University of Rzeszow, Poland
    Yeast 28:595-609. 2011
    ..The results demonstrated that the action of hypochlorite and chlorite involves the formation of superoxide and peroxide and that SOD1 is protective, probably by limiting the formation of hydroxyl radicals and damage to proteins...
  21. ncbi Galloylated catechins as potent inhibitors of hypochlorous acid-induced DNA damage
    Yoshichika Kawai
    Laboratory of Food Biodynamics, Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464 8601, Japan
    Chem Res Toxicol 21:1407-14. 2008
    b>Hypochlorous acid (HOCl), a strong oxidant derived from myeloperoxidase in neutrophils and macrophages, can chlorinate DNA bases at the site of inflammation...
  22. pmc Oxazine conjugated nanoparticle detects in vivo hypochlorous acid and peroxynitrite generation
    Peter Panizzi
    Center for Systems Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Simches Research Building, 185 Cambridge St, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA
    J Am Chem Soc 131:15739-44. 2009
    ..of a fluorogenic sensor for monitoring peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) mediated hypochlorous acid (HOCl/OCl(-)) production...
  23. pmc The myeloperoxidase product hypochlorous acid oxidizes HDL in the human artery wall and impairs ABCA1-dependent cholesterol transport
    Constanze Bergt
    Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:13032-7. 2004
    ..One potential pathway involves hypochlorous acid (HOCl) produced by myeloperoxidase (MPO), a heme protein secreted by phagocytes...
  24. ncbi Lysophosphatidylethanolamine is - in contrast to - choline - generated under in vivo conditions exclusively by phospholipase A2 but not by hypochlorous acid
    Celestina Schober
    University of Leipzig, Medical Faculty, Institute of Medical Physics and Biophysics, Leipzig, Germany
    Bioorg Chem 37:202-10. 2009
    ..At inflammatory loci, hypochlorous acid (HOCl) is generated by myeloperoxidase...
  25. pmc Methionine oxidation activates a transcription factor in response to oxidative stress
    Adrian Drazic
    Center for Integrated Protein Science Munich, Department Chemie, Technische Universitat Munchen, 85747 Garching, Germany
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110:9493-8. 2013
    ..Inactivation of HypT depends on the methionine sulfoxide reductases A/B. Thus, microbial protection mechanisms have evolved along the evolution of antimicrobial control systems, allowing bacteria to survive within the host environment...
  26. ncbi Genotoxic effects of neutrophils and hypochlorous acid
    Nejla Güngör
    Department of Health Risk Analysis and Toxicology, Nutrition and Toxicology Research Institute Maastricht NUTRIM, Maastricht University, PO Box 616, 6200 MD, Maastricht, The Netherlands
    Mutagenesis 25:149-54. 2010
    ..The aim of the present study was to investigate the capacity of the major neutrophilic oxidant hypochlorous acid (HOCl), which is formed by myeloperoxidase (MPO), to induce DNA damage and mutagenicity in lung cells...
  27. pmc Increased atherosclerosis in myeloperoxidase-deficient mice
    M L Brennan
    Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Molecular Genetics, University of California Los Angeles UCLA, Los Angeles, California, USA
    J Clin Invest 107:419-30. 2001
    ..They also identify an important distinction between murine and human atherosclerosis with regard to the potential involvement of MPO in protein oxidation...
  28. ncbi HOCl causes necrotic cell death in human monocyte derived macrophages through calcium dependent calpain activation
    Ya Ting Tina Yang
    Free Radical Biochemistry Laboratory, School of Biological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch, New Zealand
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1823:420-9. 2012
    ..HOCl appears to cause HMDM cell death through destabilization of cytosolic calcium control resulting in the failure of both the mitochondria and lysosomes...
  29. ncbi Disinfection performances of stored acidic and neutral electrolyzed waters generated from brine solution
    Grace M Nisola
    Energy and Environment Fusion Technology Center, Department of Environmental Engineering and Biotechnology, Myongji University, South Korea
    J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 46:263-70. 2011
    ..Two FC loss mechanisms were identified: chlorine (Cl(2)) volatilization and hypochlorous acid (HOCl) decomposition, wherein Cl(2) volatilization occurred at a faster rate...
  30. ncbi A sensitive and selective assay for chloramine production by myeloperoxidase
    Jeannette M Dypbukt
    AstraZeneca Research Laboratories, Sodertalje, Sweden
    Free Radic Biol Med 39:1468-77. 2005
    ..The chlorination activity of myeloperoxidase was measured by trapping hypochlorous acid with taurine and subsequently using iodide to promote the oxidation reactions of the accumulated taurine ..
  31. ncbi What are the plasma targets of the oxidant hypochlorous acid? A kinetic modeling approach
    David I Pattison
    The Heart Research Institute, 114 Pyrmont Bridge Road, Camperdown, Sydney, NSW 2050, Australia
    Chem Res Toxicol 22:807-17. 2009
    ..by activated leukocytes at sites of inflammation, which catalyzes the formation of the potent oxidant, hypochlorous acid (HOCl), from H2O2...
  32. ncbi Chlorination of guanosine and other nucleosides by hypochlorous acid and myeloperoxidase of activated human neutrophils. Catalysis by nicotine and trimethylamine
    M Masuda
    Unit of Endogenous Cancer Risk Factors, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150 cours Albert Thomas, F 69372 Lyon Cedex 8, France
    J Biol Chem 276:40486-96. 2001
    ....
  33. ncbi Hypochlorite-modified low density lipoprotein inhibits nitric oxide synthesis in endothelial cells via an intracellular dislocalization of endothelial nitric-oxide synthase
    A Nuszkowski
    Center of Vascular Biology and Medicine, Friedrich-Schiller-University of Jena, 99089 Erfurt, Germany
    J Biol Chem 276:14212-21. 2001
    b>Hypochlorous acid/hypochlorite, generated by the myeloperoxidase/H(2)O(2)/halide system of activated phagocytes, has been shown to oxidize/modify low density lipoprotein (LDL) in vitro and may be involved in the formation of atherogenic ..
  34. ncbi Kinetics of the reactions of hypochlorous acid and amino acid chloramines with thiols, methionine, and ascorbate
    A V Peskin
    Free Radical Research Group, Department of Pathology, Christchurch School of Medicine, Christchurch, New Zealand
    Free Radic Biol Med 30:572-9. 2001
    Thiol oxidation by hypochlorous acid and chloramines is a favorable reaction and may be responsible for alterations in regulatory or signaling pathways in cells exposed to neutrophil oxidants...
  35. ncbi Indole ring oxidation by activated leukocytes prevents the production of hypochlorous acid
    V F Ximenes
    Departamento de Analises Clinicas, Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP, Brazil
    Braz J Med Biol Res 38:1575-83. 2005
    b>Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) released by activated leukocytes has been implicated in the tissue damage that characterizes chronic inflammatory diseases...
  36. ncbi Living with a killer: the effects of hypochlorous acid on mammalian cells
    J M Pullar
    Pathology Department, Christchurch School of Medicine, New Zealand
    IUBMB Life 50:259-66. 2000
    The production of hypochlorous acid (HOCl) by the myeloperoxidase-H2O2-Cl- system of phagocytes plays a vital role in the ability of these cells to kill a wide range of pathogens...
  37. pmc Reactive oxygen species and oocyte aging: role of superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, and hypochlorous acid
    Anuradha P Goud
    Division of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The C S Mott Center for Human Growth and Development, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI, USA
    Free Radic Biol Med 44:1295-304. 2008
    ..We hypothesize that reactive oxygen species such as superoxide (O2-), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and hypochlorous acid (HOCl) are likely candidates that may initiate these changes in the oocyte...
  38. ncbi Uncoupling of endothelial nitric oxidase synthase by hypochlorous acid: role of NAD(P)H oxidase-derived superoxide and peroxynitrite
    Jian Xu
    Section of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Department of Medicine, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, 941 Stanton L Young Blvd, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, USA
    Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 26:2688-95. 2006
    The aim of the present study is to determine whether hypochlorous acid (HOCl), the major oxidant of leukocyte-derived myeloperoxidase (MPO), oxidizes the zinc-thiolate center of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and uncouples the ..
  39. pmc Mouse brain plasmalogens are targets for hypochlorous acid-mediated modification in vitro and in vivo
    Andreas Ullen
    Institute of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Center for Molecular Medicine, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria
    Free Radic Biol Med 49:1655-65. 2010
    ..Plasmalogens, which contain a vinyl ether bond at the sn-1 position, are preferential targets for hypochlorous acid (HOCl), generated by myeloperoxidase (MPO) from H(2)O(2) and chloride ions...
  40. ncbi Hypochlorous acid oxygenates the cysteine switch domain of pro-matrilysin (MMP-7). A mechanism for matrix metalloproteinase activation and atherosclerotic plaque rupture by myeloperoxidase
    X Fu
    Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    J Biol Chem 276:41279-87. 2001
    Myeloperoxidase uses hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to generate hypochlorous acid (HOCl), a potent cytotoxic oxidant...
  41. ncbi Immunohistochemical detection of hypochlorite-modified proteins in glomeruli of human membranous glomerulonephritis
    Hermann Josef Grone
    Department of Cellular and Molecular Pathology, German Cancer Research Center DKFZ, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, D 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
    Lab Invest 82:5-14. 2002
    ..by activated phagocytes, may generate modified/oxidized proteins in vivo via intermediate formation of hypochlorous acid (HOCl)/hypochlorite...
  42. ncbi S-allylcysteine scavenges singlet oxygen and hypochlorous acid and protects LLC-PK(1) cells of potassium dichromate-induced toxicity
    Omar Noel Medina-Campos
    Facultad de Quimica, Departamento de Biologia, Edificio F, Sequndo Piso, Laboratorio 209, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico UNAM, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510, D F, Mexico
    Food Chem Toxicol 45:2030-9. 2007
    ..species has not been calculated and the potential ability of SAC to scavenge singlet oxygen ((1)O(2)) and hypochlorous acid (HOCl) has not been explored...
  43. ncbi Potential role of methionine sulfoxide in the inactivation of the chaperone GroEL by hypochlorous acid (HOCl) and peroxynitrite (ONOO-)
    Hui Koon Khor
    Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, The University of Kansas, 2095 Constant Avenue, Lawrence, KS 66047 3729, USA
    J Biol Chem 279:19486-93. 2004
    ..and inactivated by efficiently reactive species generated by phagocytes, such as peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) and hypochlorous acid (HOCl). For the exposure of 17...
  44. ncbi Hypochlorous acid-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis in human hepatoma HepG2 and human fetal liver cells: role of mitochondrial permeability transition
    Matthew Whiteman
    Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, National University of Singapore, 8 Medical Drive, Republic of Singapore 117597
    Free Radic Biol Med 38:1571-84. 2005
    ..Activated PMNs release both reactive oxygen species and reactive halogen species, including hypochlorous acid (HOCl), which are known to be significantly cytotoxic due to their oxidizing potential...
  45. ncbi Beta-carotene cleavage products after oxidation mediated by hypochlorous acid--a model for neutrophil-derived degradation
    Olaf Sommerburg
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Ulm, Ulm, Germany
    Free Radic Biol Med 35:1480-90. 2003
    ..This gives the pathophysiological meaning to our further experiments in which beta-carotene degradation by hypochlorous acid and consecutive CP formation were investigated...
  46. pmc Vitamin C protects against and reverses specific hypochlorous acid- and chloramine-dependent modifications of low-density lipoprotein
    A C Carr
    Linus Pauling Institute, 571 Weniger Hall, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA
    Biochem J 346:491-9. 2000
    Activated phagocytes produce the highly reactive oxidant hypochlorous acid (HOCl) via the myeloperoxidase-catalysed reaction of hydrogen peroxide with chloride ions...
  47. ncbi Oxidation of ovarian epithelial cancer cells by hypochlorous acid enhances immunogenicity and stimulates T cells that recognize autologous primary tumor
    Cheryl L L Chiang
    Division of Infection and Immunity, University College London, London, United Kingdom
    Clin Cancer Res 14:4898-907. 2008
    b>Hypochlorous acid, a product of neutrophil myeloperoxidase, is a powerful enhancer of antigen processing and presentation...
  48. ncbi Activation of Nrf2-mediated oxidative stress response in macrophages by hypochlorous acid
    Jingbo Pi
    Division of Translational Biology, The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 226:236-43. 2008
    b>Hypochlorous acid (HOCl), a potent oxidant generated when chlorine gas reacts with water, is important in the pathogenesis of many disorders...
  49. pmc Neutrophil bleaching of GFP-expressing staphylococci: probing the intraphagosomal fate of individual bacteria
    Jamie Schwartz
    Department of Medicine, Roy J and Lucille A Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, and Veterans Administration Medical Center, Iowa City, IA 52240, USA
    J Immunol 183:2632-41. 2009
    ..NADPH oxidase at the phagosomal membrane generates reactive oxygen species within the phagosome, including hypochlorous acid (HOCl), formed by the oxidation of chloride by the granule protein myeloperoxidase in the presence of H(2)O(..
  50. ncbi Hypochlorous acid: a natural adjuvant that facilitates antigen processing, cross-priming, and the induction of adaptive immunity
    Zofia M Prokopowicz
    Division of Infection and Immunity, University College London, London, United Kingdom
    J Immunol 184:824-35. 2010
    The production of hypochlorous acid (HOCl) is a characteristic of granulocyte activation, a hallmark of the early phase of innate immune responses...
  51. ncbi Hypochlorous acid-induced base modifications in isolated calf thymus DNA
    M Whiteman
    International Antioxidant Research Centre, University of London, Kings College, England
    Chem Res Toxicol 10:1240-6. 1997
    Exposure of calf thymus DNA to hypochlorous acid/hypochlorite leads to extensive DNA base modification...
  52. ncbi Reaction of lactoperoxidase compound I with halides and thiocyanate
    Paul Georg Furtmüller
    Institute of Chemistry, University of Agricultural Sciences, Muthgasse 18, A 1190 Vienna, Austria
    Biochemistry 41:11895-900. 2002
    ..Compound I was produced with either H(2)O(2) [(1.1 +/- 0.1) x 10(7) M(-1) s(-1)] or hypochlorous acid [(3.2 +/- 0.1) x 10(7) M(-1) (s-1)]...
  53. ncbi Hypothiocyanous acid is a more potent inducer of apoptosis and protein thiol depletion in murine macrophage cells than hypochlorous acid or hypobromous acid
    Mitchell M Lloyd
    The Heart Research Institute, 114 Pyrmont Bridge Road, Camperdown, Sydney, NSW 2050, Australia
    Biochem J 414:271-80. 2008
    ..These species are important bactericidal agents, but HOCl (hypochlorous acid) and HOBr (hypobromous acid) have also been implicated in tissue damage in a number of inflammatory diseases...
  54. pmc Influence of native and hypochlorite-modified low-density lipoprotein on gene expression in human proximal tubular epithelium
    Stefan Porubsky
    Department of Cellular and Molecular Pathology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg, Germany
    Am J Pathol 164:2175-87. 2004
    Inflammatory infiltrates can modify (lipo)proteins via hypochlorous acid/hypochlorite (HOCl/OCl(-)) an oxidant formed by the myeloperoxidase-H(2)O(2)-halide system...
  55. ncbi Hypochlorous acid scavenging properties of local Mediterranean plant foods
    Sebastian Schaffer
    Institute of Pharmacology ZAFES, Biocenter Niederursel, University of Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main, Germany
    Lipids 39:1239-47. 2004
    ..The extracts' potential to scavenge the DPPH radical (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical) and hypochlorous acid (HOCl), as well as their antioxidant capacity, was comparable to the those obtained for standard ..
  56. ncbi Distinct modes of cell death induced by different reactive oxygen species: amino acyl chloramines mediate hypochlorous acid-induced apoptosis
    Robert P Englert
    Department of Pediatrics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland 20815, USA
    J Biol Chem 277:20518-26. 2002
    ....
  57. ncbi Mechanism of interaction of betanin and indicaxanthin with human myeloperoxidase and hypochlorous acid
    Mario Allegra
    Department of Pharmaceutical, Toxicological and Biological Chemistry, University of Palermo, Via Carlo Forlanini, 90123 Palermo, Italy
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 332:837-44. 2005
    b>Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) is the most powerful oxidant produced by human neutrophils and contributes to the damage caused by these inflammatory cells. It is produced from H2O2 and chloride by the heme enzyme myeloperoxidase (MPO)...
  58. ncbi Nitration and chlorination of folic acid by peroxynitrite and hypochlorous acid, and the selective binding of 10-nitro-folate to folate receptor beta
    Motoyuki Nakamura
    Department of Immunology and Medical Zoology, School of Medicine, Kagoshima University, 8 35 1 Sakuragaoka, 890 8520, Kagoshima, Japan
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 297:1238-44. 2002
    ..Nitrated folate species were identified as 10-nitro-folate and 12-nitro-folate, and chlorinated folate was identified as 12-chloro-folate. The 10-nitro-folate showed the selective binding to FR-beta, compared to folic acid...
  59. ncbi Role of reactive oxygen species and Bax in oxidized low density lipoprotein-induced apoptosis of human monocytes
    Natalia Ermak
    Laboratory of Biochemistry A, Necker Hospital, Paris, France
    Atherosclerosis 200:247-56. 2008
    ..OxLDL were generated by hypochlorous acid (HOCl) treatment of native LDL...
  60. pmc Hypochlorous acid-induced heme degradation from lactoperoxidase as a novel mechanism of free iron release and tissue injury in inflammatory diseases
    Carlos Eduardo A Souza
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The C S Mott Center for Human Growth and Development, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 6:e27641. 2011
    ..The aim of this study was to assess the interaction of LPO and hypochlorous acid (HOCl), the final product of MPO...
  61. ncbi Myeloperoxidase-derived oxidants modify apolipoprotein A-I and generate dysfunctional high-density lipoproteins: comparison of hypothiocyanous acid (HOSCN) with hypochlorous acid (HOCl)
    Katrina A Hadfield
    The Heart Research Institute, 7 Eliza St, Newtown, NSW 2042, Australia
    Biochem J 449:531-42. 2013
    ..Although it has been established that HOCl (hypochlorous acid) produced by MPO targets apoA-I (apolipoprotein A-I), the major apolipoprotein of HDLs, the role of the ..
  62. ncbi Synthetic fluorescent probes for imaging of peroxynitrite and hypochlorous acid in living cells
    Dan Yang
    Department of Chemistry, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
    Methods Mol Biol 591:93-103. 2010
    Peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) and hypochlorous acid (HOCl) are two highly reactive oxygen species generated in biological systems...
  63. ncbi Ginsenoside Rb1 directly scavenges hydroxyl radical and hypochlorous acid
    Jian ming Lu
    Molecular Surgeon Research Center, Division of Vascular Surgery and Endovascular Therapy, Michael E DeBakey Department of Surgery, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA
    Curr Pharm Des 18:6339-47. 2012
    ..We found that Rb1 can significantly and selectively reduce hydroxyl radical (●OH) and hypochlorous acid (HOCl), two of the strongest ROS, with unique molecular mechanisms in a cell-free system...
  64. pmc The myeloperoxidase product hypochlorous acid generates irreversible high-density lipoprotein receptor inhibitors
    Veronika Binder
    Institute of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology, Medical University of Graz, Universitätsplatz 4 8010 Graz, Austria
    Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 33:1020-7. 2013
    ..Here, we investigated which oxidation-induced structural alterations convert plasma albumin into a high-density lipoprotein-receptor inhibitor...
  65. ncbi N-Chloroamino acids mediate the action of hypochlorite on A549 lung cancer cells in culture
    Agnieszka Robaszkiewicz
    Department of Molecular Biophysics, University of Łódź, Banacha 12 16, 90 237 Łódź, Poland
    Toxicology 270:112-20. 2010
    b>Hypochlorous acid, a chlorinating and oxidative agent, has been reported to be implicated in many pathologies. Its markers were found under inflammatory conditions and, at least some of it reveals biological activity...
  66. ncbi Oxidative injury induced by hypochlorous acid to Ca-ATPase from sarcoplasmic reticulum of skeletal muscle and protective effect of trolox
    Miriam Strosova
    Institute of Experimental Pharmacology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, Slovakia
    Gen Physiol Biophys 28:195-209. 2009
    b>Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) concentration-dependently decreased ATPase activity and SH groups of pure Ca-ATPase from sarcoplasmic reticulum (SERCA) of rabbit skeletal muscle with IC(50) of 150 micromol/l and 6.6 micromol/l, respectively...
  67. pmc Identification of a hypochlorite-specific transcription factor from Escherichia coli
    Katharina M Gebendorfer
    Section of Biotechnology, Department of Chemistry, Center for Integrated Protein Science Munich, Technische Universitat Munchen, 85747 Garching, Germany
    J Biol Chem 287:6892-903. 2012
    ..As a result, YjiE specifically confers hypochlorite resistance to E. coli cells. Thus, to our knowledge, YjiE is the first described hypochlorite-specific transcription factor...
  68. pmc NemR is a bleach-sensing transcription factor
    Michael J Gray
    Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
    J Biol Chem 288:13789-98. 2013
    ..Little is known about how bacteria sense or respond to reactive chlorine species, such as bleach...
  69. ncbi Endothelial dysfunction is induced by proinflammatory oxidant hypochlorous acid
    C Zhang
    Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294, USA
    Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 281:H1469-75. 2001
    The myeloperoxidase (MPO)-derived oxidant hypochlorous acid (HOCl) plays a role in tissue injury under inflammatory conditions...
  70. ncbi Role of lysine during protein modification by HOCl and HOBr: halogen-transfer agent or sacrificial antioxidant?
    John D Sivey
    Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 8286, USA
    Biochemistry 52:1260-71. 2013
    Although protein degradation by neutrophil-derived hypochlorous acid (HOCl) and eosinophil-derived hypobromous acid (HOBr) can contribute to the inactivation of pathogens, collateral damage to host proteins can also occur and has been ..
  71. ncbi Hypochlorous acid-induced DNA base modification: potentiation by nitrite: biomarkers of DNA damage by reactive oxygen species
    M Whiteman
    International Antioxidant Research Centre, Pharmacology Group, University of London, Kings College, Manresa Road, London, SW3 6LX, England
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 257:572-6. 1999
    ..Activated phagocytes release myeloperoxidase generating the cytotoxic agent hypochlorous acid (HOCl)...
  72. ncbi Evaluation of hypochlorous acid washes in the treatment of chronic venous leg ulcers
    J B Selkon
    Oxford University, Department of Clinical Medicine, UK
    J Wound Care 15:33-7. 2006
    b>Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) is a highly microbiocidal agent active against bacteria, viruses and fungi...
  73. ncbi Oxidation of 2-cys peroxiredoxins in human endothelial cells by hydrogen peroxide, hypochlorous acid, and chloramines
    Melissa M Stacey
    Department of Pathology, University of Otago, Christchurch, Christchurch, New Zealand
    Antioxid Redox Signal 17:411-21. 2012
    ..Activated neutrophils generate hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and hypochlorous acid (HOCl), as well as chloramines that are formed when HOCl reacts with amino compounds...
  74. ncbi Melatonin prevents hypochlorous acid-induced alterations in microtubule and chromosomal structure in metaphase-II mouse oocytes
    Jashoman Banerjee
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The C S Mott Center for Human Growth and Development, Detroit, MI 48201, USA
    J Pineal Res 53:122-8. 2012
    b>Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) is generated by myeloperoxidase, using chloride and hydrogen peroxide as substrates...
  75. ncbi The effect of hypochlorous acid on the expression of adhesion molecules and activation of NF-kappaB in cultured human endothelial cells
    Juliet M Pullar
    Free Radical Research Group, Department of Pathology, Christchurch School of Medicine and Health Sciences, P O Box 4345, Christchurch, New Zealand
    Antioxid Redox Signal 4:5-15. 2002
    ..We have investigated whether hypochlorous acid (HOCl), the major strong oxidant produced by neutrophils, can affect the expression of adhesion molecules on ..
  76. ncbi Transmission electron microscopic analysis showing structural changes to bacterial cells treated with electrolyzed water and an acidic sanitizer
    Lizanel Feliciano
    Department of Food Science and Technology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
    J Food Sci 77:M182-7. 2012
    ..The organic acid formulation and AEW were the most effective sanitizers against bacterial cells, indicating that penetration of acidic substances effectively caused the cell inactivation...
  77. ncbi Identification of proteins susceptible to thiol oxidation in endothelial cells exposed to hypochlorous acid and N-chloramines
    Fiona A Summers
    Inflammation Group, The Heart Research Institute, 7 Eliza Street, Newtown, Sydney, NSW 2042, Australia
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 425:157-61. 2012
    b>Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) is a potent oxidant produced by the enzyme myeloperoxidase, which is released by neutrophils under inflammatory conditions...
  78. pmc Fragmentation of extracellular matrix by hypochlorous acid
    Alan A Woods
    The Heart Research Institute, 145 Missenden Road, Camperdown, Sydney, New South Wales 2050, Australia
    Biochem J 376:219-27. 2003
    ..In this study the reaction of the MPO-derived oxidant hypochlorous acid (HOCl) with extracellular matrix from vascular smooth muscle cells and healthy pig arteries has been ..
  79. ncbi Antioxidant properties of neohesperidin dihydrochalcone: inhibition of hypochlorous acid-induced DNA strand breakage, protein degradation, and cell death
    Je Min Choi
    Department of Biotechnology, College of Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul, Republic of Korea
    Biol Pharm Bull 30:324-30. 2007
    ..These results suggest that NHDC is a potent antioxidant, especially it is evaluated as a novel HOCl scavenger. This study implies the possibility of therapeutic effect of NHDC on ROS-related inflammatory diseases...
  80. ncbi The pro-inflammatory oxidant hypochlorous acid induces Bax-dependent mitochondrial permeabilisation and cell death through AIF-/EndoG-dependent pathways
    Matthew Whiteman
    Department of Biochemistry, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Republic of Singapore
    Cell Signal 19:705-14. 2007
    ..neutrophils release hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and the enzyme myeloperoxidase to catalyse the formation of hypochlorous acid (HOCl)...
  81. ncbi Higher hypochlorous acid scavenging activity of ethyl pyruvate compared to its sodium salt
    Robert Antoni Olek
    Department of Biochemistry, Academy of Physical Education and Sport, Gdansk, Poland
    Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 75:500-4. 2011
    ..The potential effect of ethanol was also evaluated, and hypochlorous acid was used as an oxidant...
  82. ncbi Hypochlorous acid damages histone proteins forming 3-chlorotyrosine and 3,5-dichlorotyrosine
    Joseph I Kang
    Department of Basic Sciences, Biochemistry Division, Loma Linda University, School of Medicine, Loma Linda, California 92350, USA
    Chem Res Toxicol 21:1028-38. 2008
    ..b>Hypochlorous acid (HOCl), the primary product of activated neutrophils, is known to damage both DNA and proteins...
  83. ncbi Hypochlorous acid-modified low-density lipoprotein inactivates the lysosomal protease cathepsin B: protection by ascorbic and lipoic acids
    A C Carr
    Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, Corvallis 97331 6512, USA
    Redox Rep 6:343-9. 2001
    ..Furthermore, small molecule antioxidants, such as ascorbic and lipoic acids, may be able to inhibit this potentially pro-atherogenic process by scavenging LDL-associated chloramines...
  84. ncbi Identification of Nrf2-dependent airway epithelial adaptive response to proinflammatory oxidant-hypochlorous acid challenge by transcription profiling
    Lingxiang Zhu
    Division of Translational Biology, The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, 6 Davis Dr, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 294:L469-77. 2008
    ..By both methods, we conclude that Nrf2 directly protects airway epithelial cells from HOCl-induced toxicity...
  85. pmc Small molecular, macromolecular, and cellular chloramines react with thiocyanate to give the human defense factor hypothiocyanite
    Bheki A Xulu
    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019, USA
    Biochemistry 49:2068-74. 2010
    ..Our observations are further evidence for the importance of secondary reactions during the redox cascades that are associated with oxidative stress by hypohalous acids...
  86. ncbi Neutrophil microbicides induce a pathogen survival response in community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
    Amy M Palazzolo-Ballance
    Laboratory of Human Bacterial Pathogenesis, Research Technologies Section, Genomics Unit, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, MT 59840, USA
    J Immunol 180:500-9. 2008
    ..Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), hypochlorous acid, and azurophilic granule proteins had significant bacteriostatic but limited staphylocidal activity toward ..
  87. ncbi Hypochlorous acid produced by the myeloperoxidase system of human phagocytes induces covalent cross-links between DNA and protein
    P A Kulcharyk
    Departments of Medicine, Biochemistry and Biophysics, and Molecular Biology and Pharmacology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    Biochemistry 40:3648-56. 2001
    ..In the current studies, we show that hypochlorous acid (HOCl), generated by the myeloperoxidase-hydrogen peroxide-chloride system of phagocytes, cross-links single-..
  88. ncbi Interaction of hypochlorous acid and myeloperoxidase with phosphatidylserine in the presence of ammonium ions
    Joerg Flemmig
    Institute for Medical Physics and Biophysics, Medical Faculty, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany
    J Inorg Biochem 104:759-64. 2010
    ..time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry, ammonium ions inhibit in a concentration-dependent manner the hypochlorous acid-mediated formation of aldehyde and nitrile products from 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoserine (DPPS)...
  89. ncbi Lysine residues direct the chlorination of tyrosines in YXXK motifs of apolipoprotein A-I when hypochlorous acid oxidizes high density lipoprotein
    Constanze Bergt
    Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA
    J Biol Chem 279:7856-66. 2004
    ..Elevated levels of 3-chlorotyrosine, a specific end product of the reaction between hypochlorous acid (HOCl) and tyrosine residues of proteins, have been detected in atherosclerotic tissue...
  90. ncbi Hypochlorous acid stimulation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway enhances cell survival
    R G Midwinter
    Free Radical Research Group, Pathology Department, Christchurch School of Medicine, Christchurch, New Zealand
    Arch Biochem Biophys 394:13-20. 2001
    ..Exposure to HOCl caused a loss of viability in HUVEC that was markedly enhanced when ERK1/2 activation was inhibited by U0126. This suggests that the activation of ERK promotes cell survival in response to the oxidative challenge...
  91. pmc Reaction of hemoglobin with HOCl: mechanism of heme destruction and free iron release
    Dhiman Maitra
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The C S Mott Center for Human Growth and Development, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201, USA
    Free Radic Biol Med 51:374-86. 2011
    b>Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) is generated by myeloperoxidase using chloride and hydrogen peroxide as substrates...
  92. ncbi Inactivation of mitochondrial NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase by hypochlorous acid
    Sin Young Park
    School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, College of Natural Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Taegu, South Korea
    Free Radic Res 42:467-73. 2008
    Myeoloperoxidase catalyses the formation of hypochlorous acid (HOCl) via reaction of H(2)O(2) with Cl(-) ion...
  93. ncbi Human neutrophils use the myeloperoxidase-hydrogen peroxide-chloride system to chlorinate but not nitrate bacterial proteins during phagocytosis
    Henry Rosen
    Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
    J Biol Chem 277:30463-8. 2002
    ..One important pathway may involve the production of potent halogenating agents such as hypochlorous acid (HOCl) by the myeloperoxidase-hydrogen peroxide-halide system...
  94. ncbi Scavenger effect of flavonols on HOCl-induced luminol chemiluminescence
    Laid Selloum
    Laboratory of Applied Biochemistry, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Ferhat ABBAS, 19000 Setif, Algeria
    Luminescence 19:199-204. 2004
    b>Hypochlorous acid (HOCl), the main product of the myeloperoxidase system, is a strong oxidant and a potent chlorinating agent, which can damage host tissues...
  95. ncbi Hypochlorous acid and low serum paraoxonase activity in haemodialysis patients: an in vitro study
    Wayne H F Sutherland
    Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Otago Medical School, PO Box 913, Dunedin, New Zealand
    Nephrol Dial Transplant 19:75-82. 2004
    ..In haemodialysis patients, production of reactive oxygen species, such as hypochlorous acid (HOCl) and hydrogen peroxide, is increased and serum PON1 arylesterase is abnormally low...
  96. ncbi The effects of hypochlorite-induced oxidative stress on presynaptic M2-receptors at sympathetic nerve endings in the rat tail artery
    C Sand
    Department of Pharmacotherapy, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 15, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Auton Autacoid Pharmacol 22:127-32. 2002
    ..The different responsiveness between neuronal and cardiac M2-receptors to hypochlorite may be explained by the different G-protein subunits involved in the activation of the underlying signalling cascade...
  97. pmc Inhibition of hypochlorous acid-induced cellular toxicity by nitrite
    Matthew Whiteman
    Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, National University of Singapore, 10 Kent Ridge Crescent, Republic of Singapore 119260
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:12061-6. 2002
    ..stimulated by various inflammatory mediators release myeloperoxidase to produce the cytotoxic agent hypochlorous acid (HOCl)...
  98. ncbi Site-specific hypochlorous acid-induced oxidation of recombinant human myoglobin affects specific amino acid residues and the rate of cytochrome b5-mediated heme reduction
    Andrea J Szuchman-Sapir
    Vascular Biology Group, ANZAC Research Institute, Concord Repatriation General Hospital, Concord, NSW 2139, Australia
    Free Radic Biol Med 48:35-46. 2010
    Myeloperoxidase catalyzes the reaction of chloride ions with H(2)O(2) to yield hypochlorous acid (HOCl), which can damage proteins...
  99. ncbi Hypochlorous acid impairs endothelium-derived nitric oxide bioactivity through a superoxide-dependent mechanism
    Roland Stocker
    Evans Memorial Department of Medicine and Whitaker Cardiovascular Institute, Boston University School of Medicine, Mass 02118, USA
    Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 24:2028-33. 2004
    To determine how hypochlorous acid (HOCl), the principal product of myeloperoxidase, modulates vascular function.
  100. ncbi Inactivation of protease inhibitors and lysozyme by hypochlorous acid: role of side-chain oxidation and protein unfolding in loss of biological function
    Clare L Hawkins
    The Heart Research Institute, 114 Pyrmont Bridge Road, Camperdown, Sydney, NSW 2050, Australia
    Chem Res Toxicol 18:1600-10. 2005
    ..This may arise via either the generation of oxidants such as hypochlorous acid (HOCl) by the heme enzyme myeloperoxidase, the action of released enzymes including lysozyme and proteases, ..
  101. pmc Mechanism of hypochlorous acid-mediated heme destruction and free iron release
    Dhiman Maitra
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The C S Mott Center for Human Growth and Development, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201, USA
    Free Radic Biol Med 51:364-73. 2011
    Here, we show that hypochlorous acid (HOCl), a potent neutrophil-generated oxidant, can mediate destruction of free heme (Ht) and the heme precursor, protoporphyrin IX (PPIX)...

Research Grants62

  1. Novel Peptide MPO Inhibitors for Treating Atherosclerosis
    Kirkwood A Pritchard; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..For example, activated MPO reacts with chloride (Cl-) to generate hypochlorous acid (HOCl). MPO catalytically consumes nitric oxide ([unreadable]NO) and converts it to nitrite (NO2-)...
  2. Plasmalogen-derived bioactive lipids in atherosclerosis
    David A Ford; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..hydrogen peroxide, resulting in MPO-catalyzed production of the reactive chlorinating species (RCS), hypochlorous acid. We have discovered that RCS target the vinyl ether bond of the plasmalogen phospholipids resulting in 1-..
  3. Bioluminescence Imaging of Atherosclerosis Associated Reactive Oxygen Species
    REECE JOSEPH GOIFFON; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..serum myeloperoxidase, a soluble enzyme marker for CVD and that creates the most potent physiological ROS, hypochlorous acid. Next, luminol derivative L-012 will be used to image atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice...
  4. PEROXYNITRITE DAMAGE TO MICROTUBULE PROTEINS
    LISA MARIE LANDINO; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Furthermore, it is very likely that the reactive species peroxynitrite anion and hypochlorous acid are formed in neurons that contain neurofibrillary tangles because markers of oxidative damage including ..
  5. CFTR Expression and Function in Human Neutrophils
    Guoshun Wang; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This special oxidase converts hydrogen peroxide and chloride anion to hypochlorous acid (HOCI), one of the most potent oxidants for bacterial killing...
  6. Carbon Nanotube Biodegradation by Neutrophil Myeloperoxidase
    Valerian E Kagan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Our Preliminary results demonstrate that strong oxidants such as hypochlorous acid and oxoferryl species generated as reactive products of the myeloperoxidase reaction may be effective in ..
  7. MPO oxidants in synucleinopathies
    Wanda F Reynolds; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..system, released by neutrophils and monocytes at sites of infection where it produces the potent oxidant, hypochlorous acid (HOCl) while reacting with nitric oxide to generate reactive nitrating species...
  8. Characterization of bleach-specific transcriptional regulators in bacteria
    URSULA H JAKOB; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The active ingredient of bleach, hypochlorous acid (HOCl) is also made by cells of the innate immune response, where it plays an important antimicrobial role ..
  9. OXYGEN RADICALS, OXIDANTS AND MEMBRANE DYSFUNCTION
    RAKESH KUKREJA; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..The primary hypothesis is if hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radicals and neutrophil derived oxidants such as hypochlorous acid, monochloramine and taurine monochloramine cause dysfunctions of isolated sarcolemma and sarcoplasmic ..
  10. Functional Analysis of the Intrinsically Disordered Chaperone Hsp33
    URSULA H JAKOB; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..follow up on our recent discovery that Hsp33 not only protects bacteria against the potent antimicrobial hypochlorous acid (i.e...
  11. ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF DAPSONE
    PAULA BOZEMAN; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..in the granules of neutrophils and monocytes, catalyzes the oxidation of chloride (Cl-) by H202 to yield hypochlorous acid, which in turn reacts with amines, forming chloramines...
  12. Cellular stress response to the oxidizing effects of bleach
    MICHAEL JEFFREY GRAY; Fiscal Year: 2012
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Hypochlorous acid (HOCl), the active component of household bleach, functions as a powerful antimicrobial during the innate immune response...
  13. Atherogenic Effects of Tyrosine Oxidation in HDL
    John Oram; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..3-Chlorotyrosine and 3-nitrotyrosine, stable products of protein oxidation generated by phagocyte-derived hypochlorous acid (HOCI) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS), have been detected in human atherosclerotic lesions...
  14. MECHANICAL VENTILATION AND RESPIRATORY MUSCLES
    Scott Powers; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..that MV-induced protein oxidation in the diaphragm is caused by several reactive chemical species including hypochlorous acid, tyrosyl radicals and hydroxyl radicals...
  15. BIOCHEMICAL RELATIONSHIPS OF BASOPHILS AND EOSINOPHILS
    Steven Ackerman; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..the intracellular activation of eosinophil peroxidase to facilitate its own proteolytic degradation via a hypochlorous acid-, chloramine-dependent mechanism, to generate some of the low Mr cationic proteins present in and secreted ..
  16. MYLEOPEROXIDASE AND LEUKOCYTE GRANULE COMPONENTS
    EDWIN THOMAS; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..MPO catalyzed the oxidation of Cl- by H202 to yield hypochlorous acid (HOC1), which reacts with NH4+ to yield the bactericidal agent monochloramine (NH2C1)...
  17. MECHANISM UNDERLYING PREMATURE RUPTURE OF FETAL MEMBRANE
    MARK PLESSINGER; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..investigator has demonstrated, using an in vitro model system for human fetal membranes, that an ROS, hypochlorous acid, damages the amniochorion in a dose-dependent manner...
  18. DIRECT TEST FOR CHOLORAMINES IN HEMODIALYSIS WATER
    JAMES CHRISTNER; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..In the first step, a specific, solid-phase reagent will be used to scavenge free chlorine (hypochlorous acid) from the sample. In the second step, chloramines will be detected by reaction with chromogenic reagents...
  19. N-acetylcysteine pharmacokinetics--hemodialysis patients
    Richard Ward; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..In addition to glutathione formation, NAC directly scavenges reactive oxygen species and hypochlorous acid. NAC has been used as a source of thiols in patients with normal renal function; however, there is little ..
  20. Reactive Oxygen Species American Society of Nephrology Fall 2007
    THOMAS PALLONE; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..This area of research is particularly difficult because various ROS such as superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, hypochlorous acid, hydroxyl radical and nitric oxide are short lived molecules that react with proteins, lipids, nucleic acids ..
  21. MYELOPEROXIDASE-MEDIATED VASCULAR INJURY
    Jay Heinecke; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..One possible agent is hypochlorous acid (HOCI), a potent microbicidal agent that is generated by phagocytes from hydrogen peroxide...
  22. MYELOPEROXIDASE INVOLVEMENT IN ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE
    Wanda Reynolds; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..MPO catalyzes a reaction between H2O2 and chloride to generate hypochlorous acid (HOCl), a potent oxidant with cytotoxic effects...
  23. Development of myeloperoxidase inhibitors to treat atherosclerosis
    RICHARD MAKI; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..MPO catalyzes a reaction between chloride and hydrogen peroxide to generate hypochlorous acid, a strong oxidizing agent...
  24. HUMAN PHAGOCYTES, OXYGEN METABOLITES, AND INFLAMMATION
    Stephen Weiss; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..the bromide oxidation product, hypobromous acid, in the human eosinophil and contrasting its role to that of hypochlorous acid in the neutrophil...
  25. Microbial Response to Neutrophil Phagocytosis
    Henry Rosen; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Expression profiling of phagocytosed bacteria appears to provide useful information about conditions in the phagocytic vacuole and about important bacterial defenses mounted in response to this hostile environment. ..
  26. EFFECT OF DIABETES AND HYPERTENSION ON ISCHEMIC INJURY
    Stephen Schaffer; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Cell culture studies will be complimented by studies using an isolated heart model to test the hypothesis that hypertensive diabetic hearts will be more susceptible to an ischemic insole because of elevated levels of angiotensin. ..
  27. Regulation of Myeloperoxidase Catalysis by Nitric Oxide
    HUSAM ABU SOUD; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Studies of MPO catalytic mechanisms and function are essential to a more fundamental understanding of the factors which govern MPO-dependent processes in human health and disease. ..
  28. Antioxidant supplements, genetics, and chemotherapy outcomes
    Christine Ambrosone; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ....
  29. Myeloperoxidase and NO signaling in the vasculature
    C White; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..the addition of chloride to hydrogen peroxide, resulting in the formation of the chlorinating species hypochlorous acid (HOCI) Hypochlorous acid reacts avidly with numerous cellular targets including thiols, amines, nucleotides ..
  30. Macrophage-Derived Oxidants in Atherogenesis
    Jay Heinecke; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Collectively, the proposed experiments will address the role of macrophage-derived oxidants in regulating MMP activity during atherogenesis. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  31. Ape1, oxidative stress and glioma alkylator resistance
    JOHN SILBER; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Evidence for a contribution of Ap endo to resistance would identify a new target for anti-resistance strategies directed against Ape1/Ref-1 (the major human Ap endo), either alone or together with MGMT. ..
  32. Pathways for oxidative damage of DNA by phagocytes
    Jay Heinecke; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..These studies should provide insights into the molecular mechanisms of oxidative damage to DNA during inflammation. ..
  33. NEUTROPHILS AND HEPATOTOXICITY
    ROBERT ANDREW ROTH; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Understanding how neutrophils interact with oxygen deficiency to promote liver injury could lead to better ways to prevent or treat adverse drug reactions and other types of inflammatory liver injury. ..
  34. Atherogenic Effects of Oxidized High Density Lipoproteins
    Jay W Heinecke; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  35. PLATELET INTERACTIONS WITH ENDOTHELIUM AND LEUKOCYTES
    Jose Lopez; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The experiments proposed in this application will test these hypotheses in model systems and in vivo and will characterize in detail the interactions between gpIb and P-selectin, L-selectin, and Mac-1. ..
  36. OXIDATIVE DAMAGE AND PREMATURE RUPTURE OF THE MEMBRANES
    James Woods; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..In-vitro data from our laboratory demonstrate that, in physiologic concentrations, the ROS, hypochlorous acid and superoxide, do damage amnion epithelium and collagen I, the strongest component of chorioamnion...
  37. Ap endo as a predictor of response to glioma therapy
    JOHN SILBER; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..unreadable] [unreadable]..
  38. OXIDATIVE MECHANISMS OF AAA FORMATION (COLLABORATIVE R01
    Jay Heinecke; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Knowledge gained through these three closely-linked studies will help advance our understanding of the molecular pathophysiology of aortic aneurysms, potentially leading to new treatment strategies. ..
  39. REACTIVE ALDEHYDES AND CARDIOVASCULAR AGING
    Jay Heinecke; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..The enzyme uses hydrogen peroxide generated by phagocytes to make hypochlorous acid (HOCI), which converts free amino acids to their respective aldehydes...
  40. MUCOSAL PROTECTIVE FACTORS IN HUMAN MILK
    Radhakrishna Rao; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..protective factors in breast milk, and provide the basis for further characterization of the mechanisms involved in mucosal protection by breast milk, and their role in preventing neonatal gastrointestinal diseases ..
  41. COMBATING ALKYLATING AGENT RESISTANCE IN HUMAN GLIOMAS
    JOHN SILBER; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..In an effort to define the role of 3-MAG in clinical drug resistance, enzyme levels will be correlated with response to alkylator adjuvant therapy and clinical course. ..
  42. Race & Risk Factors for Early/Aggressive Breast Cancer
    Christine Ambrosone; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Results from this study will provide much-needed answers as to why African-American women are more likely than Caucasians to be diagnosed with more aggressive disease at an earlier age. ..
  43. 2008 NOX Family NADPH Oxidases Gordon Conference
    WILLIAM NAUSEEF; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..End of Abstract) [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  44. Biosynthesis, structural organization, and function of NOX proteins
    WILLIAM NAUSEEF; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  45. Pharmacogenetics: Breast Cancer Treatment and Prognosis
    Christine Ambrosone; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Individualized dosing according to genotype could contribute to increased efficacy and decreased toxicity among patients being treated for cancer. ..
  46. CHAPERONES AND PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS IN MYELOID CELLS
    WILLIAM NAUSEEF; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The applicants believe that these will define principles that apply not only to these specific myeloid proteins but to proteins in general that acquire heme in the ER. ..
  47. Antibiotic Susceptibility of Bacteria in Biofilms
    Philip Stewart; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..This project will afford a rich interdisciplinary training experience for the three participating graduate students. ..
  48. Protective Mechanism of an Anti-Inflammatory Herbal Mix
    Ali Banan; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  49. P. Aeruginosa Biofilms and Burn Wound Infections
    Karin Sauer; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..aeruginosa pathogenesis and by identifying virulence factors that may be targeted for therapeutic intervention. ..
  50. Detection and Role of C-Mannosylation in Mucins
    JUAN PEREZ VILAR; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  51. EGF, Oxidants & Intestinal Barrier Integrity
    Ali Banan; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  52. ADHESION RECEPTOR POLYMORPHISMS: FUNCTIONAL STUDIES
    Jose Lopez; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Finally, we will attempt to develop mouse models of arterial thrombotic disease and study the role of the GP Ibalpha VNTR polymorphism is modulating the propensity for atherosclerosis and thrombosis in this model. ..
  53. Pathways for the Inflammatory Damage of Biomolecules
    Jay Heinecke; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  54. STRUCTURE/FUNCTION OF SURFACTANT PROTEIN D
    Erika Crouch; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..As in the past, secreted recombinant proteins with novel structural attributes will be characterized and utilized for collaborative studies of SP-D function. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  55. 2006 NOX Family NADPH Oxidases Gordon Conference
    WILLIAM NAUSEEF; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  56. Involvement of Myeloperoxidase in Atherosclerosis
    Wanda Reynolds; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..MPO is expressed in macrophages at atherosclerotic lesions, and generates hypochlorous acid (HOC1), a toxic chlorinating and oxidizing agent...
  57. P. aeruginosa biofilm specific proteins and regulators
    Karin Sauer; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Findings from this research are intended to lead to novel and more effective approaches for the treatment of such biofilm infections. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  58. Continuation of Dialysis Access Consortium Clinical Trials
    Jonathan Himmelfarb; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The health care cost o maintaining adequate vascular access should also decrease from its current rate of over one billion dollars per year. ..
  59. HDL and Vascular Injury in Type 2 Diabetes
    C White; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ....
  60. Inorganic Antimicrobials in Exocrine Fluids
    Michael Ashby; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..a facile non-enzymic pathway that produces hypothiocyanite by oxidation of thiocyanate (SCN-) with hypochlorous acid (HOCI), a reaction that preserves the oxidizing equivalents of hypochlorite by transferring them to ..
  61. Lung cancer molecular markers by sex: intergroup study
    Christine Ambrosone; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Results from this study, the largest to date to evaluate biomarkers of susceptibility and effect, will likely elucidate reasons for the rise in lung cancer, particularly adenocarcinomas, in smoking and non-smoking women. ..
  62. The Submembranous Cytoskeleton in Neutrophil Activation
    WILLIAM NAUSEEF; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Fundamental principles elucidated already have been applied to studies of specific host-pathogen interactions. ..