patulin

Summary

Summary: 4-Hydroxy-4H-furo(3,2-c)pyran-2(6H)-one. A mycotoxin produced by several species of Aspergillus and Penicillium. It is found in unfermented apple and grape juice and field crops. It has antibiotic properties and has been shown to be carcinogenic and mutagenic and causes chromosome damage in biological systems.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Effect of thiamine hydrochloride, pyridoxine hydrochloride and calcium-d-pantothenate on the patulin content of apple juice concentrate
    Serafettin Yazici
    Nahrung 46:256-7. 2002
  2. ncbi Development of liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry for the determination of patulin in apple juice: investigation of its contamination levels in Japan
    Rie Ito
    Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hoshi University, 2 4 41 Ebara, Shinagawa ku, Tokyo 142 8501, Japan
    J Agric Food Chem 52:7464-8. 2004
  3. ncbi Detection of patulin in apple juices marketed in the Tohoku district, Japan
    Mitsuru Watanabe
    National Agricultural Research Center for Tohoku Region, Akahira, Shimokuriyagawa, Morioka, Iwate 020 0198, Japan
    J Food Prot 68:610-2. 2005
  4. pmc Patulin induces colorectal cancer cells apoptosis through EGR-1 dependent ATF3 up-regulation
    Osong Kwon
    Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology KRIBB, 685 2 Ochang eup, Cheongwon Gun 363 883, Republic of Korea
    Cell Signal 24:943-50. 2012
  5. ncbi Patulin-induced suicidal erythrocyte death
    Adrian Lupescu
    Department of Physiology, University of Tuebingen, Tuebingen, Germany
    Cell Physiol Biochem 32:291-9. 2013
  6. ncbi Evaluation of nephrotoxic effects of mycotoxins, citrinin and patulin, on zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos
    Ting Shuan Wu
    Institute of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan
    Food Chem Toxicol 50:4398-404. 2012
  7. pmc Biosynthesis and toxicological effects of patulin
    Olivier Puel
    INRA, UR66 Pharmacologie Toxicologie, F 31027 Toulouse, France
    Toxins (Basel) 2:613-31. 2010
  8. ncbi Patulin: Mechanism of genotoxicity
    Nina Glaser
    Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Wuerzburg, Versbacherstrasse 9, 97078 Wuerzburg, Germany
    Food Chem Toxicol 50:1796-801. 2012
  9. ncbi Gene expression profiles of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae sod1 caused by patulin toxicity and evaluation of recovery potential of ascorbic acid
    Tadahiro Suzuki
    Applied Microbiology Division, National Food Research Institute, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305 8642, Japan
    J Agric Food Chem 59:7145-54. 2011
  10. ncbi Reactive oxygen species induced by beauvericin, patulin and zearalenone in CHO-K1 cells
    E Ferrer
    Laboratori de Toxicologia, Facultat de Farmacia, Universitat de Valencia, Av Vicent Andres Estelles, 46100 Burjassot, Valencia, Spain
    Toxicol In Vitro 23:1504-9. 2009

Research Grants

Detail Information

Publications174 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Effect of thiamine hydrochloride, pyridoxine hydrochloride and calcium-d-pantothenate on the patulin content of apple juice concentrate
    Serafettin Yazici
    Nahrung 46:256-7. 2002
    ..and calcium-d-pantothenate were applied apple juice concentrates (AJC) at various doses in order to reduce the patulin content...
  2. ncbi Development of liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry for the determination of patulin in apple juice: investigation of its contamination levels in Japan
    Rie Ito
    Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hoshi University, 2 4 41 Ebara, Shinagawa ku, Tokyo 142 8501, Japan
    J Agric Food Chem 52:7464-8. 2004
    b>Patulin is a mycotoxin produced by mainly Penicillium species, for example, P. expansum, and Aspergillus species. There are several reports of patulin contamination in apple juice...
  3. ncbi Detection of patulin in apple juices marketed in the Tohoku district, Japan
    Mitsuru Watanabe
    National Agricultural Research Center for Tohoku Region, Akahira, Shimokuriyagawa, Morioka, Iwate 020 0198, Japan
    J Food Prot 68:610-2. 2005
    b>Patulin is a mycotoxin mainly produced by Penicillium and Aspergillus...
  4. pmc Patulin induces colorectal cancer cells apoptosis through EGR-1 dependent ATF3 up-regulation
    Osong Kwon
    Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology KRIBB, 685 2 Ochang eup, Cheongwon Gun 363 883, Republic of Korea
    Cell Signal 24:943-50. 2012
    b>Patulin is a fungal mycotoxin of Aspergilus and Penicillium that is commonly found in rotting fruits and exerts its potential toxic effect mainly by reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation...
  5. ncbi Patulin-induced suicidal erythrocyte death
    Adrian Lupescu
    Department of Physiology, University of Tuebingen, Tuebingen, Germany
    Cell Physiol Biochem 32:291-9. 2013
    b>Patulin, the most common mycotoxin in apples and apple-derived products, triggers apoptosis and has thus been considered for the treatment of cancer...
  6. ncbi Evaluation of nephrotoxic effects of mycotoxins, citrinin and patulin, on zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos
    Ting Shuan Wu
    Institute of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan
    Food Chem Toxicol 50:4398-404. 2012
    Citrinin (CTN) and patulin (PAT) are fungal secondary metabolites which are found in food and feed and showed organotoxicity in mature animals...
  7. pmc Biosynthesis and toxicological effects of patulin
    Olivier Puel
    INRA, UR66 Pharmacologie Toxicologie, F 31027 Toulouse, France
    Toxins (Basel) 2:613-31. 2010
    b>Patulin is a toxic chemical contaminant produced by several species of mold, especially within Aspergillus, Penicillium and Byssochlamys...
  8. ncbi Patulin: Mechanism of genotoxicity
    Nina Glaser
    Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Wuerzburg, Versbacherstrasse 9, 97078 Wuerzburg, Germany
    Food Chem Toxicol 50:1796-801. 2012
    b>Patulin is a frequently found food contaminant mainly produced by the fungi Aspergillus and Penicillium. Patulin is suspected to be clastogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic and in higher concentrations cytotoxic...
  9. ncbi Gene expression profiles of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae sod1 caused by patulin toxicity and evaluation of recovery potential of ascorbic acid
    Tadahiro Suzuki
    Applied Microbiology Division, National Food Research Institute, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305 8642, Japan
    J Agric Food Chem 59:7145-54. 2011
    b>Patulin (PAT) is a fungal secondary metabolite and exhibits various toxicities including DNA damage and oxidative stress. These toxicities are eased by ascorbic acid (AsA)...
  10. ncbi Reactive oxygen species induced by beauvericin, patulin and zearalenone in CHO-K1 cells
    E Ferrer
    Laboratori de Toxicologia, Facultat de Farmacia, Universitat de Valencia, Av Vicent Andres Estelles, 46100 Burjassot, Valencia, Spain
    Toxicol In Vitro 23:1504-9. 2009
    ..CHO-K1 cells were determined as function of increasing time of exposure and concentrations of beauvericin (BEA), patulin (PAT) and zearalenone (ZEA)...
  11. ncbi Evaluation of genotoxic risk and oxidative DNA damage in mammalian cells exposed to mycotoxins, patulin and citrinin
    Biing Hui Liu
    Department of Life Sciences, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 191:255-63. 2003
    ..In the present study, patulin (PAT) and citrinin (CTN), two prevalent mycotoxins, were evaluated for their genotoxic effects and oxidative ..
  12. ncbi Low occurrence of patulin- and citrinin-producing species isolated from grapes
    M R Bragulat
    Veterinary Mycology Group, Department of Animal Health and Anatomy, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Spain
    Lett Appl Microbiol 47:286-9. 2008
    To assess the ability of fungi isolated from grapes to produce patulin and citrinin.
  13. ncbi Both direct and indirect effects account for the pro-inflammatory activity of enteropathogenic mycotoxins on the human intestinal epithelium: stimulation of interleukin-8 secretion, potentiation of interleukin-1beta effect and increase in the transepithel
    Marc Maresca
    Laboratoire des Interactions Moléculaires et Systèmes Membranaires IMSM, Universite Paul Cezanne, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques de Saint Jerome, Avenue Escadrille Normandie Niemen, 13397, Marseille Cedex 20, France
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 228:84-92. 2008
    ..Deoxynivalenol, ochratoxin A and patulin are the best known enteropathogenic mycotoxins able to alter intestinal functions resulting in malnutrition, ..
  14. ncbi Cold and ambient deck storage prior to processing as a critical control point for patulin accumulation
    Hector Morales
    Food Technology Department, University of Lleida, CeRTA UTPV, Rovira Roure 191, Lleida, Spain
    Int J Food Microbiol 116:260-5. 2007
    b>Patulin, a mycotoxin produced primarily by Penicillium expansum, is currently of great concern because of its undesirable effects in human health...
  15. ncbi Apple quality, storage, and washing treatments affect patulin levels in apple cider
    Lauren S Jackson
    National Center for Food Safety and Technology, Food and Drug Administration, 6502 South Archer Road, Summit Argo, Illinois 60501, USA
    J Food Prot 66:618-24. 2003
    b>Patulin is a mycotoxin produced primarily by Penicillium expansum, a mold responsible for rot in apples and other fruits. The growth of this fungus and the production of patulin are common in fruit that has been damaged...
  16. ncbi Reduction of patulin in aqueous solution by lactic acid bacteria
    Shaimaa Hatab
    Northwest A and F University, College of Food Science and Engineering, Yangling 712100, China
    J Food Sci 77:M238-41. 2012
    This study aims to investigate the ability of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) to remove patulin (PAT) from aqueous solution with respect to the bacterial viability, initial PAT concentration, incubation time, temperature, and pH...
  17. ncbi DNA damage in organs of mice treated acutely with patulin, a known mycotoxin
    Flávia Terezinha de Melo
    Programa de Pós Graduação em Toxicologia Aplicada, Universidade Luterana do Brasil ULBRA, Canoas, RS, Brazil
    Food Chem Toxicol 50:3548-55. 2012
    b>Patulin, a known mycotoxin, is considered a significant contaminant in apples, apple-derived products and feeds...
  18. ncbi Role of mitogen activated protein kinases in skin tumorigenicity of patulin
    Neha Saxena
    Food, Drug and Chemical Toxicology Group, CSIR Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow, India
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 257:264-71. 2011
    WHO has highlighted the need to evaluate dermal toxicity of mycotoxins including Patulin (PAT), detected in several fruits. In this study the skin carcinogenic potential of topically applied PAT was investigated...
  19. ncbi Influence of storage conditions of apples on growth and patulin production by Penicillium expansum
    Katleen Baert
    Department of Food Safety and Food Quality, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, B 9000, Ghent, Belgium
    Int J Food Microbiol 119:170-81. 2007
    ..causes blue mould rot, a serious post-harvest disease of apples, and is the main producer of the mycotoxin patulin. The present study aimed to determine the influence of storage conditions (i.e...
  20. ncbi Patulin causes DNA damage leading to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis through modulation of Bax, p(53) and p(21/WAF1) proteins in skin of mice
    Neha Saxena
    Food Toxicology Division, Indian Institute of Toxicology Research formerly Industrial Toxicology Research Centre, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, P O Box 80, Lucknow 226001, India
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 234:192-201. 2009
    b>Patulin (PAT), a mycotoxin found in apples, grapes, oranges, pear and peaches, is a potent genotoxic compound...
  21. ncbi Influence of package, type of apple juice and temperature on the production of patulin by Byssochlamys nivea and Byssochlamys fulva
    Anderson S Sant'ana
    Department of Food Science, Faculty of Food Engineering, State University of Campinas, Campinas, SP, Brazil
    Int J Food Microbiol 142:156-63. 2010
    Although the production of patulin in apple fruits is mainly by Penicillium expansum, there is no information on the ability of heat resistant moulds that may survive pasteurization to produce this mycotoxin in juice packages during ..
  22. ncbi Efficacy of Pichia caribbica in controlling blue mold rot and patulin degradation in apples
    Jing Cao
    School of Food and Biological Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, Jiangsu, People s Republic of China
    Int J Food Microbiol 162:167-73. 2013
    ..Pichia caribbica in controlling postharvest blue mold and natural decay development of apples and degrading the patulin produced by Penicillium expansum was investigated. The decay incidence of the blue mold of apples treated by P...
  23. ncbi Patulin and secondary metabolite production by marine-derived Penicillium strains
    Marieke Vansteelandt
    LUNAM Université, Universite de Nantes, MMS, Nantes, France
    Fungal Biol 116:954-61. 2012
    ..b>Patulin, a major mycotoxin, was classically detected in extracts of Penicillium expansum, and was also isolated from ..
  24. ncbi The mycotoxin patulin, modulates tight junctions in caco-2 cells
    John McLaughlin
    University of Manchester, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Section of Gastrointestinal Sciences, Stopford Building, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PT, UK
    Toxicol In Vitro 23:83-9. 2009
    The mycotoxin patulin is a common contaminant of fruit. Here, we demonstrate that patulin reduces the barrier properties of the intestinal cell line, caco-2 by specific effects on tight junction components...
  25. ncbi Development of a multiplex real-time PCR to quantify aflatoxin, ochratoxin A and patulin producing molds in foods
    Alicia Rodriguez
    Food Hygiene and Safety, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Extremadura, Avda de la Universidad s n, Caceres, Spain
    Int J Food Microbiol 155:10-8. 2012
    A multiplex real-time PCR (qPCR) method to quantify aflatoxin, ochratoxin A (OTA) and patulin producing molds in foods was developed...
  26. ncbi Correlation between the destruction of tight junction by patulin treatment and increase of phosphorylation of ZO-1 in Caco-2 human colon cancer cells
    Tomoko Kawauchiya
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Agriculture and Life Science, Hirosaki University, Hirosaki 036 8561, Japan
    Toxicol Lett 205:196-202. 2011
    b>Patulin is a mycotoxin and its contamination of food has been reported to cause gastrointestinal inflammation, ulcers, and bleeding...
  27. ncbi Reduction of patulin during apple juice clarification
    J Bissessur
    Department of Biological Sciences, M. L. Sultan Technikon, Durban, South Africa
    J Food Prot 64:1216-9. 2001
    b>Patulin is a mycotoxin produced by a number of molds involved in fruit spoilage. This compound is carcinogenic and teratogenic...
  28. ncbi Analysis of glutathione adducts of patulin by means of liquid chromatography (HPLC) with biochemical detection (BCD) and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS)
    Nils Helge Schebb
    Institut fur Anorganische und Analytische Chemie, Westfalische Wilhelms Universitat Munster, Corrensstrasse 30, 48149 Munster, Germany
    Anal Bioanal Chem 394:1361-73. 2009
    ..inhibiting glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity was developed and applied for the analysis of the mycotoxin patulin. The method is based on high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to a continuous-flow enzyme reactor ..
  29. ncbi Effects of mycotoxins on cytokine production and proliferation in EL-4 thymoma cells
    M L Marin
    Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Michigan State University, East Lansing 48824 1224, USA
    J Toxicol Environ Health 48:379-96. 1996
    ..IL-2 and Il-5 production was almost totally suppressed by patulin at concentrations > or = 500 ng/ml and by T-2 toxin at > or = 5 ng/ml...
  30. ncbi Prevention of patulin toxicity on rumen microbial fermentation by SH-containing reducing agents
    Diego P Morgavi
    Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Clermont Fd Theix Research Centre, Herbivore Research Unit, 63122 Saint Genes Champanelle, France
    J Agric Food Chem 51:6906-10. 2003
    b>Patulin, a toxic fungal metabolite, negatively affects rumen fermentation. This mycotoxin has also been associated with intoxication cases in cattle...
  31. ncbi Induction of oxidative stress response by the mycotoxin patulin in mammalian cells
    Biing Hui Liu
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan, ROC
    Toxicol Sci 95:340-7. 2007
    b>Patulin (PAT), a mycotoxin mainly produced by Penicillium and Aspergillus, is found in various foods and feeds. In the present study, its effects on oxidative stress in various mammalian cell lines were investigated...
  32. ncbi Prediction of Penicillium expansum spoilage and patulin concentration in apples used for apple juice production by electronic nose analysis
    Kristian Karlshøj
    Center for Microbial Biotechnology, BioCentrum DTU, Building 221, Technical University of Denmark, DK 2800 Kgs Lyngby, Denmark
    J Agric Food Chem 55:4289-98. 2007
    Classification models for Penicillium expansum spoilage of apples and prediction models for patulin concentration in apples usable for apple juice production were made on the basis of electronic nose (e-nose) analysis correlated to HPLC ..
  33. pmc Molecular cloning and functional characterization of two CYP619 cytochrome P450s involved in biosynthesis of patulin in Aspergillus clavatus
    Marie Pierre Artigot
    INRA, UR66 Pharmacologie Toxicologie, F 31931 Toulouse, France
    Microbiology 155:1738-47. 2009
    b>Patulin is an acetate-derived tetraketide mycotoxin produced by several fungal species, especially Aspergillus, Penicillium and Byssochlamys species...
  34. ncbi Patulin reduces glutathione level and enzyme activities in rat liver slices
    Erika Pfeiffer
    Institute of Food Chemistry and Toxicology, Department of Chemistry and Biosciences, University of Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe, Germany
    Mol Nutr Food Res 49:329-36. 2005
    In the present study, an attempt was made to identify glutathione (GSH) adducts of patulin in precision-cut rat liver slices, which were used as a model system to study the metabolism and biological effects of this mycotoxin...
  35. ncbi Factors affecting patulin production by Penicillium expansum
    J L McCallum
    University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2L 3G1
    J Food Prot 65:1937-42. 2002
    b>Patulin, a mycotoxin produced by Penicillium spp...
  36. ncbi Effect of biocontrol agents Candida sake and Pantoea agglomerans on Penicillium expansum growth and patulin accumulation in apples
    Hector Morales
    Food Technology Department, University of Lleida, XaRTA UTPV, Rovira Roure 191, 25198, Lleida, Spain
    Int J Food Microbiol 122:61-7. 2008
    ..Apples spoiled by P. expansum are expected to contain patulin, a mycotoxin which is proven to affect human health...
  37. ncbi Simultaneous determination of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and patulin in apple juice by reversed-phase liquid chromatography
    V Gokmen
    Department of Food Engineering, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey
    J Chromatogr A 847:69-74. 1999
    ..and economical method was described for the simultaneous determination of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and patulin in apple juice...
  38. ncbi Penicillium expansum: consistent production of patulin, chaetoglobosins, and other secondary metabolites in culture and their natural occurrence in fruit products
    Birgitte Andersen
    Mycology Group, Center for Microbial Biotechnology, BioCentrum DTU, Søltofts Plads, Building 221, Technical University of Denmark, DK 2800 Kgs Lyngby, Denmark
    J Agric Food Chem 52:2421-8. 2004
    Penicillium expansum is known for its destructive rot and patulin production in apple juice. According to the literature, P. expansum can, among other compounds, produce citrinin, ochratoxin A, patulin, penitrem A, and rubratoxin B...
  39. ncbi Inhibition of patulin production by Penicillium expansum cultured with neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf extracts
    Simone Aparecida Galerani Mossini
    Department of Biochemistry, Universidade Estadual de Maringa, Maringá PR Brazil
    J Basic Microbiol 44:106-13. 2004
    ..JUSS (Meliaceae)] was tested in vitro for antifungal activity against Penicillium expansum. Patulin production was inhibited during cultivation, when concentrations higher than 50 mg/ml of neem leaf extract was ..
  40. ncbi Commentary: unbiased divination, unbiased evidence, and the patulin clinical trial
    Ted J Kaptchuk
    Department of Social Medicine, Harvard Medical School, 401 Park Drive, Landmark Building, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Int J Epidemiol 33:247-51. 2004
  41. ncbi The effects of the Penicillium mycotoxins citrinin, cyclopiazonic acid, ochratoxin A, patulin, penicillic acid, and roquefortine C on in vitro proliferation of porcine lymphocytes
    Modestas Keblys
    National Veterinary Institute, P O Box 8156 Dep, N 0033, Oslo, Norway
    Mycopathologia 158:317-24. 2004
    ..vitro effect of each of the Penicillium mycotoxins citrinin (CIT), cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), ochratoxin A (OTA), patulin (PAT), penicillic acid (PIA) and roquefortine C (RQC) on mitogen induced lymphocyte proliferation was determined ..
  42. ncbi The sequence of the isoepoxydon dehydrogenase gene of the patulin biosynthetic pathway in Penicillium species
    Mary Ann Dombrink-Kurtzman
    Mycotoxin Research Unit, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Peoria, IL 61604 3902, USA
    Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 91:179-89. 2007
    Interest in species of the genus Penicillium is related to their ability to produce the mycotoxin patulin and to cause spoilage of fruit products worldwide...
  43. ncbi A new competitive fluorescence assay for the detection of patulin toxin
    Marcella de Champdoré
    Institutes of Protein Biochemistry and of Genetics and Biophysics, CNR, and Department of Organic Chemistry, University of Naples, Naples, Italy
    Anal Chem 79:751-7. 2007
    b>Patulin is a toxic secondary metabolite of a number of fungal species belonging to the genera Penicillum and Aspergillus...
  44. ncbi Mutagenicity of the mycotoxin patulin in cultured Chinese hamster V79 cells, and its modulation by intracellular glutathione
    David M Schumacher
    Institute of Food Chemistry and Toxicology, University of Karlsruhe, P O Box 6980, 76128 Karlsruhe, Germany
    Arch Toxicol 79:110-21. 2005
    Because the ability of the mycotoxin patulin (PAT) to cause gene mutations in mammalian cells is still ambiguous, we have studied the mutagenicity of PAT at the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) gene locus in cultured ..
  45. ncbi Detoxification of patulin and ochratoxin A, two abundant mycotoxins, by lactic acid bacteria
    S Fuchs
    Department of Analytical and Food Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
    Food Chem Toxicol 46:1398-407. 2008
    ..the present study was to investigate the detoxification of two abundant mycotoxins, namely ochratoxin A (OTA) and patulin (PAT) which are frequently found in human foods, by lactic acid bacteria...
  46. ncbi Cloning and molecular characterization of Penicillium expansum genes upregulated under conditions permissive for patulin biosynthesis
    Sandra White
    Department of Microbiology, and Environmental Research Institute, University College Cork, National University of Ireland Cork, Cork, Ireland
    FEMS Microbiol Lett 255:17-26. 2006
    Penicillium expansum is commonly associated with patulin production in pomaceous fruits...
  47. ncbi The mycotoxins citrinin, gliotoxin, and patulin affect interferon-gamma rather than interleukin-4 production in human blood cells
    G Wichmann
    UFZ Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig Halle, Department of Human Exposure Research and Epidemiology, Permoser Strasse 15, Germany
    Environ Toxicol 17:211-8. 2002
    ..mycotoxins are responsible for this effect and therefore investigated the influence of citrinin, gliotoxin, and patulin on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC)...
  48. ncbi Development and validation of a microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography method for patulin quantification in commercial apple juice
    M Murillo-Arbizu
    Organic and Pharmaceutical Chemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Navarra, C Irunlarrea 1, 31008 Pamplona, Navarra, Spain
    Food Chem Toxicol 46:2251-7. 2008
    A microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography (MEECK) method for patulin (PAT) quantification in apple juice samples has been developed...
  49. ncbi Chromatographic determination of the mycotoxin patulin in fruit and fruit juices
    G S Shephard
    Programme on Mycotoxins and Experimental Carcinogenesis, Medical Research Council, Tygerberg, South Africa
    J Chromatogr A 882:17-22. 2000
    b>Patulin is a mycotoxin produced by several fungal species of the genera Penicillium and Aspergillus, but principally by Penicillium expansum on fruit such as apples...
  50. ncbi The isoepoxydon dehydrogenase gene of the patulin metabolic pathway differs for Penicillium griseofulvum and Penicillium expansum
    Mary Ann Dombrink-Kurtzman
    Mycotoxin Research Unit, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, 1815 North University Street, Peoria, Illinois 61604 3902, USA
    Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 89:1-8. 2006
    ..expansum was used as a template to amplify a 600-bp fragment of the isoepoxydon dehydrogenase (idh) gene of the patulin biosynthetic pathway. Primer pairs designed from the P...
  51. ncbi Investigation of the effects of patulin on thyroid and testis, and hormone levels in growing male rats
    Güldeniz Selmanoğlu
    Hacettepe University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, 06532, Beytepe Campus, Ankara, Turkey
    Food Chem Toxicol 42:721-7. 2004
    b>Patulin is a mycotoxin produced by several species of Penicillium, Aspergillus and Byssachlamys...
  52. ncbi Determination of patulin in commercial apple juice by micellar electrokinetic chromatography
    M Murillo
    Organic and Pharmaceutical Chemistry Department, University of Navarra, C Irunlarrea 1, C P 31008 Pamplona, Navarra, Spain
    Food Chem Toxicol 46:57-64. 2008
    ..chromatography (MEKC) method using ultraviolet detection (UV) has been applied to the quantitative analysis of patulin (PAT) in commercial apple juice. Patulin was extracted from samples with an ethylacetate solution...
  53. ncbi Evaluation of the reproductive toxicity of patulin in growing male rats
    Güldeniz Selmanoğlu
    Hacettepe University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, 06800 Beytepe Campus, Ankara, Turkey
    Food Chem Toxicol 44:2019-24. 2006
    b>Patulin is a mycotoxin produced by several Penicillium, Aspergillus and Byssachlamys species...
  54. ncbi Byssochlamys nivea with patulin-producing capability has an isoepoxydon dehydrogenase gene (idh) with sequence homology to Penicillium expansum and P. griseofulvum
    Mary Ann Dombrink-Kurtzman
    Mycotoxin Research Unit, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, Agricultural Research Service, US Department of Agriculture, 1815 N University Street, Peoria, IL 61604, USA
    Mycol Res 110:1111-8. 2006
    ..Four B. nivea strains were analysed for production of patulin, a mycotoxin found primarily in apple juice and other fruit products. The B...
  55. ncbi 6-gingerol prevents patulin-induced genotoxicity in HepG2 cells
    Guang Yang
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Dalian Medical University, Dalian, China
    Phytother Res 25:1480-5. 2011
    b>Patulin (PAT) is a mycotoxin produced by several Penicillium, Aspergillus and Byssochlamys species...
  56. pmc Biotransformation of patulin by Gluconobacter oxydans
    A Ricelli
    Institute of Sciences of Food Production, CNR, via Amendola 122 O, 70126 Bari, Italy
    Appl Environ Microbiol 73:785-92. 2007
    A bacterium isolated from patulin-contaminated apples was capable of degrading patulin to a less-toxic compound, ascladiol...
  57. ncbi The inability of Byssochlamys fulva to produce patulin is related to absence of 6-methylsalicylic acid synthase and isoepoxydon dehydrogenase genes
    Olivier Puel
    Laboratoire de Pharmacologie Toxicologie, Institut National de Recherche Agronomique, 180 chemin de Tournefeuille, BP 3, 31931 Toulouse, France
    Int J Food Microbiol 115:131-9. 2007
    ..was to evaluate the potential of 19 different strains of Byssochlamys nivea and Byssochlamys fulva to produce patulin in relation with the presence of two genes involved in the patulin biosynthesis pathways in the genome of these ..
  58. ncbi Mechanisms of patulin toxicity under conditions that inhibit yeast growth
    Yumiko Iwahashi
    National Food Research Institute NFRI, 2 1 12 Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305 8642, Japan
    J Agric Food Chem 54:1936-42. 2006
    b>Patulin, 4-hydroxy-4H-furo[3,2c]pyran-2(6H)-one, is one of the best characterized and most widely disseminated mycotoxins found in agricultural products...
  59. ncbi Commentary: the 1944 patulin trial: the first properly controlled multicentre trial conducted under the aegis of the British Medical Research Council
    Iain Chalmers
    James Lind Library, James Lind Initiative, Summertown Pavilion, Middle Way, Oxford OX2 7LG, UK
    Int J Epidemiol 33:253-60. 2004
    ..under the aegis of the Medical Research Council was reported, which assessed the effects of the antibiotic patulin on the course of common colds...
  60. ncbi The mycotoxin patulin alters the barrier function of the intestinal epithelium: mechanism of action of the toxin and protective effects of glutathione
    Radhia Mahfoud
    Institut Méditerranéen de Recherche en Nutrition, UMR INRA 1111, Faculté des Sciences de St Jérôme, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20, France
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 181:209-18. 2002
    b>Patulin is a mycotoxin mainly found in apple and apple products...
  61. ncbi A gene having sequence homology to isoamyl alcohol oxidase is transcribed during patulin production in Penicillium griseofulvum
    Mary Ann Dombrink-Kurtzman
    Mycotoxin Research Unit, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, 1815 North University Street, Peoria, IL 61604, USA
    Curr Microbiol 56:224-8. 2008
    The genes for the patulin biosynthetic pathway are most likely arranged in a cluster, as is often the case for other mycotoxins...
  62. ncbi Patulin produced by an Aspergillus clavatus isolated from feed containing malting residues associated with a lethal neurotoxicosis in cattle
    Monica Sabater-Vilar
    Department of Veterinary Pharmacology, Pharmacy and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Yalelaan 16 3508 TD, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Mycopathologia 158:419-26. 2004
    ..The isolated fungus appeared to produce patulin in culture medium. Traces of patulin were also detected in the fodder...
  63. ncbi Patulin influences the expression of Th1/Th2 cytokines by activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells and T cells through depletion of intracellular glutathione
    Petra Luft
    Department of Molecular Biology, University of Salzburg, Austria
    Environ Toxicol 23:84-95. 2008
    b>Patulin is a mold toxin secreted mainly by fungi of the Penicillium species. Exposure generally results from consumption of moldy fruits and fruit products...
  64. ncbi Fate of patulin in the presence of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    M O Moss
    School of Biomedical and Life Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, UK
    Food Addit Contam 19:387-99. 2002
    b>Patulin is known to become analytically non-detectable during the production of cider from contaminated apple juice. The fate of [14C]-labelled patulin during the alcoholic fermentation of apple juice was studied...
  65. ncbi Clavatol and patulin formation as the antagonistic principle of Aspergillus clavatonanicus, an endophytic fungus of Taxus mairei
    Chu Long Zhang
    Institute of Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029, China
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 78:833-40. 2008
    ..When grown in surface culture, the fungus produced clavatol (2',4'-dihydroxy-3',5'-dimethylacetophenone) and patulin (2-hydroxy-3,7-dioxabicyclo [4.3.0]nona-5,9-dien-8-one), as shown by shown by NMR, MS, X-ray, and EI-MS analysis...
  66. ncbi Investigating the effect of patulin, penicillic acid and EDTA on biofilm formation of isolates from dental unit water lines
    Iram Liaqat
    Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of the Punjab, Quaid e Azam Campus, Lahore, 54590, Pakistan
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 81:349-58. 2008
    This study investigated the effect of patulin and penicillic acid, two known quorum-sensing inhibitors, and the common biocide ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) on the biofilm formation and auto-inducer (AI)-2 production of three ..
  67. ncbi Inoculum size and intraspecific interactions affects Penicillium expansum growth and patulin accumulation in apples
    Hector Morales
    Food Technology Department, University of Lleida, CeRTA UTPV, Rovira Roure 191, 25198 Lleida, Spain
    Food Microbiol 25:378-85. 2008
    ..P. expansum produces patulin, a toxic secondary metabolite...
  68. ncbi Production of mycotoxins by Penicillium expansum inoculated into apples
    Mitsuru Watanabe
    National Agricultural Research Center for Tohoku Region, Akahira, Shimokuriyagawa, Morioka, Iwate 020 0198, Japan
    J Food Prot 71:1714-9. 2008
    ..b>Patulin and citrinin contents in the extracts from apples stored at 25 degrees C for 12 days after inoculation were ..
  69. ncbi Determination of patulin in apple juice: comparative evaluation of four analytical methods
    David R Katerere
    Programme on Mycotoxins and Experimental Carcinogenesis PROMEC, Medical Research Council, PO Box 19070, Tygerberg 7505, South Africa
    J AOAC Int 90:162-6. 2007
    The performance of 4 purification methods for the analysis of patulin in apple juice was evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)...
  70. ncbi Exposure to patulin from consumption of apple-based products
    L González-Osnaya
    Faculty of Pharmacy, Laboratory of Food Chemistry and Toxicology, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain
    Food Addit Contam 24:1268-74. 2007
    b>Patulin is a mycotoxin produced by species of Penicillium, Aspergillus and Byssochylamys. Several Scientific Committees classify patulin as mutagenic, embryotoxic and immunotoxic...
  71. ncbi [Nutritional health aspects of mycotoxins]
    Melinda Kovacs
    Kaposvári Egyetem, Allattudományi Kar
    Orv Hetil 145:1739-46. 2004
    ..The most frequently observed human health effects are carcinogen effects (aflatoxin, ochratoxin A, fumonisins, patulin); effects causing developmental abnormalities (zearalenon, ochratoxin); effects harmful to the reproduction (..
  72. ncbi Occurrence of mycotoxin patulin in apple-based products marketed in Tunisia
    Houcine Mhadhbi
    National Institute for Research and Physicochemical Analysis, Technopark of Sidi Thabet, 2020 Sidi Thabet, Tunisia
    J Food Prot 70:2642-5. 2007
    An investigation on the presence of mycotoxin patulin was performed on 71 apple juices and concentrates and 21 infant fruit purees purchased from retail outlets or producers in Tunisia, by reversed-phase high-performance liquid ..
  73. ncbi Probabilistic exposure assessment of patulin in apple juice for preschool children in flanders
    Katleen Baert
    Department of Food Safety and Food Quality, Ghent University Coupure Links 653, BE 9000 Gent, Belgium
    Commun Agric Appl Biol Sci 71:11-4. 2006
  74. ncbi A practical approach for identifications based on mycotoxin characters of Penicillium
    R Russell M Paterson
    Centro de Engenharia Biólogica, and Micoteca da Universidade do Minho, Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710 057 Braga, Portugal
    Rev Iberoam Micol 23:155-9. 2006
    ..Also, the validity of dual nomenclature for pleomorphic fungi is under discussion increasingly. Patulin is an important mycotoxin produced by various fungi and has strict limits in the European Union...
  75. ncbi Rapid gas chromatography/mass spectrometry determination and confirmation of patulin in apple juice
    Heidi S Marks
    U S Food and Drug Administration, Pacific Regional Laboratory Northwest, Bothell, WA 98021, USA
    J AOAC Int 90:879-83. 2007
    ..spectrometry (GC/MS) method was developed for the quantitative determination and confirmation of patulin extracted from apple juice...
  76. ncbi Species-specific identification of penicillium linked to patulin contamination
    Mary Ann Dombrink-Kurtzman
    Mycotoxin Research Unit, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, Agricultural Research Service, U S Department of Agriculture, Peoria, Illinois 61604 3902, USA
    J Food Prot 70:2646-50. 2007
    Certain species of Penicillium have been reported to produce the mycotoxin patulin, and research was undertaken to identify these with the use of oligonucleotide primer pairs...
  77. ncbi Investigation of patulin contamination in apple juice sold in retail outlets in Italy and South Africa
    D R Katerere
    Medical Research Council PROMEC Unit, Francie van Zijl Drive, Cape Town 7505, South Africa
    Food Addit Contam 24:630-4. 2007
    ..The samples were bought at random and analysed for patulin contamination...
  78. ncbi Variability and uncertainty assessment of patulin exposure for preschool children in Flanders
    Katleen Baert
    Department of Food Safety and Food Quality, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, B 9000 Ghent, Belgium
    Food Chem Toxicol 45:1745-51. 2007
    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the patulin exposure of children consuming organic, handcrafted or conventional apple juice through a probabilistic approach and to evaluate the effectiveness of several risk management ..
  79. ncbi Monitoring the mycotoxins in food and their biomarkers in the Czech Republic
    Frantisek Malir
    Department of Xenobiochemistry, Institute of Public Health Hradec Kralove, National Reference Laboratory for Biomarkers of Mycotoxins and Mycotoxins in Food, The Czech Republic
    Mol Nutr Food Res 50:513-8. 2006
    ....
  80. ncbi Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometric determination of patulin in apple juice using atmospheric pressure photoionization
    Masahiko Takino
    Yokogawa Analytical Systems Inc 2 11 13, Nakacho, Musashino shi, Tokyo 180 0006, Japan
    Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 17:1965-72. 2003
    ..photoionization (APPI) technique for the liquid chromatography/mass spectrometric (LC/MS) determination of patulin in clear apple juice. A column switching technique for on-line extraction of clear apple juice was developed...
  81. ncbi Evaluation of several culture media for production of patulin by Penicillium species
    Mary Ann Dombrink-Kurtzman
    Mycotoxin Research Unit, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, Agricultural Research Service, US Department of Agriculture, 1815 North University Street, Peoria, IL 61604 3902, USA
    Int J Food Microbiol 98:241-8. 2005
    ..of Penicillium to identify those which have the potential to produce the greatest amount of the mycotoxin, patulin. Additionally, six different culture media were compared to determine maximum patulin production...
  82. ncbi Influence of intrinsic factors of apples on the growth and patulin production of Penicillium expansum
    Katleen Baert
    Ghent University, Department of Food Technology and Nutrition, Coupure Links 653, B 9000 Ghent, Belgium
    Commun Agric Appl Biol Sci 69:45-8. 2004
  83. ncbi [Are mycotoxins in food a health hazard?]
    J Bauer
    Technische Universitat Munchen, Freising, Germany
    Dtsch Tierarztl Wochenschr 111:307-12. 2004
    ..A participation of the aflatoxins in the pathogenesis of primary liver cancer is considered as certain. Other coherence between the dietary intake of mycotoxins and specific clinical symptoms of man are not convincingly shown till now...
  84. ncbi The effect of modified atmospheres and packaging on patulin production in apples
    R S Moodley
    Department of Biological Sciences, M L Sultan Technikon, Durban, South Africa
    J Food Prot 65:867-71. 2002
    ..the effectiveness of modified atmospheres and packaging materials on the growth of Penicillium expansum and patulin production in apples. Granny Smith apples were surface sterilized with 76% ethanol and inoculated with 0...
  85. ncbi Penicillium implicatum causes a destructive rot of pomegranate fruits
    R Labuda
    Microbiology Department, Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Sciences, Slovak Agricultural University, Nitra, Slovak Republic
    Mycopathologia 157:217-23. 2004
    ..The fungus was also found on mouldy stamens of pomegranates...
  86. ncbi [European Union legislation related to patulin]
    Jacek Postupolski
    Zakład Badania Zywności i Przedmiotów Uzytku, Państwowy Zakład Higieny, 00 791 Warszawa, ul Chocimska 24
    Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig 54:355-61. 2003
    In the following review, European Union legislation concerning maximum level of patulin in foodstuffs was reported...
  87. ncbi Patulin distribution in Fuji and Golden apples contaminated with Penicillium expansum
    S Marin
    Department of Food Technology, Lleida University, CeRTA UTPV Rovira Roure 191, Lleida 25198, Spain
    Food Addit Contam 23:1316-22. 2006
    This work assesses the extent of patulin contamination in Penicillium expansum-infected apples stored at room temperature for short periods of time and its relationship with apple variety (Golden or Fuji), degree of ripeness and size of ..
  88. ncbi Mycotoxin-forming ability of two Penicillium roqueforti strains in blue moldy tulum cheese ripened at various temperatures
    Ahmet Erdogan
    Vocational School of Hinis, Food Engineering Department, Ataturk University, Erzurum, Turkey
    J Food Prot 67:533-5. 2004
    ..Mycotoxin (patulin, penicillic acid, PR toxin, and roquefortine) formation in the control and mold-inoculated cheeses were detected ..
  89. ncbi Syringe-cartridge solid-phase extraction method for patulin in apple juice
    Thomas A Eisele
    Tree Top Inc, PO Box 248, 111 S Railroad Ave, Selah, WA 98942, USA
    J AOAC Int 86:1160-3. 2003
    A syringe-cartridge solid-phase extraction (SPE) method was developed for determination of patulin in apple juice. A 2...
  90. ncbi The effect of culture preservation techniques on patulin and citrinin production by Penicillium expansum Link
    I M Santos
    Micoteca da Universidade do Minho and Centro de Engenharia Biológica da Universidade do Minho, Braga, Portugal
    Lett Appl Microbiol 35:272-5. 2002
    To study the influence of culture preservation methods and culture conditions on the production of the mycotoxins patulin and citrinin by Penicillium expansum.
  91. ncbi Patulin in Italian commercial apple products
    Alberto Ritieni
    Dipartimento di Scienza degli Alimenti, Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, 80055 Portici, Italy
    J Agric Food Chem 51:6086-90. 2003
    b>Patulin is a mycotoxin produced by microscopic fungi belonging to the Penicillium and Aspergillus genera...
  92. ncbi Patulin in domestic and imported apple-based drinks in Belgium: occurrence and exposure assessment
    E K Tangni
    Unite de Biochimie de la Nutrition, Faculte d Ingenierie Biologique, agronomique et environmentale, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Louvain la Neuve, Belgium
    Food Addit Contam 20:482-9. 2003
    ..The current study was undertaken to investigate whether patulin (PAT) is present in the industrial or handicraft-made apple juices and ciders consumed by the Belgian population ..
  93. ncbi Incidence of patulin in apple juices marketed in Turkey
    T Yurdun
    Marmara University, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Toxicology, , Istanbul, Turkey
    J Food Prot 64:1851-3. 2001
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the patulin contamination of apple juices consumed by the Turkish population...
  94. ncbi Production and stability of patulin, ochratoxin A, citrinin, and cyclopiazonic acid on dry cured ham
    J D Bailly
    Mycotoxicology Research Unit, National Veterinary School, 23 Chemin des Capelles, 31076 Toulouse Cedex, France
    J Food Prot 68:1516-20. 2005
    ..This study focused on patulin, ochratoxin A, citrinin, and cyclopiazonic acid that can be produced by fungal species previously isolated from ..
  95. ncbi Occurrence of patulin in conventional and organic fruit products in Italy and subsequent exposure assessment
    L Piemontese
    Institute of Sciences of Food Production, National Research Council, Bari, Italy
    Food Addit Contam 22:437-42. 2005
    The occurrence of patulin was investigated in 100 conventional and 69 organic fruity foodstuffs samples commercially available in Italy by using an HPLC method with a limit of quantification of 0.5 microg kg(-1)...
  96. ncbi The reduction of patulin in apple juice by three different types of activated carbon
    N L Leggott
    Programme on Mycotoxins and Experimental Carcinogenesis, Medical Research Council, Tygerberg, South Africa
    Food Addit Contam 18:825-9. 2001
    ..types of activated carbon (NORIT SA 4, NORIT SX 4 and NORIT CA 1) were investigated for their ability to reduce patulin levels in apple juice at various Brix levels and temperatures...
  97. ncbi Liquid chromatographic method for quantitation of patulin at 10 ng/mL in apple-based products intended for infants: interlaboratory study
    Isabel Arranz
    Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, Food Safety and Quality Unit, European Commission Joint Research Centre, Retieseweg 111, B 2440 Geel, Belgium
    J AOAC Int 88:518-25. 2005
    An interlaboratory trial for the determination of patulin in apple juice and fruit puree was conducted, involving 17 participants representing a cross section of industry, official food control, and research facilities...
  98. ncbi Estimated dietary exposure to principal food mycotoxins from the first French Total Diet Study
    J C LeBlanc
    Institut National de Recherche Agronomique, Unité de méthodologie d analyse du risque alimentaire, INA PG, 16 rue Claude Bernard, F 75005 Paris, France
    Food Addit Contam 22:652-72. 2005
    ..2280 individual samples and analysed for aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, trichothecenes, zearalenone, fumonisins and patulin. Average and high percentile intakes were calculated taking account of different eating patterns for adults, ..
  99. ncbi Mycotoxin production from fungi isolated from grapes
    L Abrunhosa
    , Universidade do Minho, Braga, Portugal
    Lett Appl Microbiol 32:240-2. 2001
    ..Many of the strains produced patulin and/or citrinin, often depending on whether they were grown on a grape or yeast extract sucrose media...
  100. ncbi Absorption of the mycotoxin patulin from the rat stomach
    Michael Rychlik
    Institute for Food Chemistry, Technical University Munich, Lichtenbergstr 4, 85748 Garching, Germany
    Food Chem Toxicol 42:729-35. 2004
    The mycotoxin patulin (PAT), which frequently occurs in apple juices, has previously been shown to be toxic and teratogenic. However, there is almost no data about its absorption and metabolism...
  101. ncbi Detection of Penicillium expansum by polymerase chain reaction
    Patrick Marek
    Department of Animal Science, University of Connecticut, Unit 40, Storrs, CT 06269, USA
    Int J Food Microbiol 89:139-44. 2003
    ..economic losses to the fruit industry and is also of potential public health significance, since it produces patulin, a mycotoxin known to cause harmful effects in animals. Rapid and specific detection of P...

Research Grants1

  1. Fungal Polyketide Synthases and Environmental Toxin Biosynthesis
    CRAIG ARTHUR TOWNSEND; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..carcinogen aflatoxin B1 can be added polyketide metabolites like T-2 toxin, zearalenone, fumonisin B, ochratoxin, patulin, citrinin and cercosporin...