Genomes and Genes
Summary: 4-Hydroxy-4H-furo(3,2-c)pyran-2(6H)-one. A mycotoxin produced by several species of Aspergillus and Penicillium. It is found in unfermented apple and grape juice and field crops. It has antibiotic properties and has been shown to be carcinogenic and mutagenic and causes chromosome damage in biological systems.
Publications174 found, 100 shown here
- Effect of thiamine hydrochloride, pyridoxine hydrochloride and calcium-d-pantothenate on the patulin content of apple juice concentrateSerafettin Yazici
Nahrung 46:256-7. 2002..and calcium-d-pantothenate were applied apple juice concentrates (AJC) at various doses in order to reduce the patulin content...
- Development of liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry for the determination of patulin in apple juice: investigation of its contamination levels in JapanRie Ito
Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hoshi University, 2 4 41 Ebara, Shinagawa ku, Tokyo 142 8501, Japan
J Agric Food Chem 52:7464-8. 2004b>Patulin is a mycotoxin produced by mainly Penicillium species, for example, P. expansum, and Aspergillus species. There are several reports of patulin contamination in apple juice...
- Detection of patulin in apple juices marketed in the Tohoku district, JapanMitsuru Watanabe
National Agricultural Research Center for Tohoku Region, Akahira, Shimokuriyagawa, Morioka, Iwate 020 0198, Japan
J Food Prot 68:610-2. 2005b>Patulin is a mycotoxin mainly produced by Penicillium and Aspergillus...
- Patulin induces colorectal cancer cells apoptosis through EGR-1 dependent ATF3 up-regulationOsong Kwon
Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology KRIBB, 685 2 Ochang eup, Cheongwon Gun 363 883, Republic of Korea
Cell Signal 24:943-50. 2012b>Patulin is a fungal mycotoxin of Aspergilus and Penicillium that is commonly found in rotting fruits and exerts its potential toxic effect mainly by reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation...
- Patulin-induced suicidal erythrocyte deathAdrian Lupescu
Department of Physiology, University of Tuebingen, Tuebingen, Germany
Cell Physiol Biochem 32:291-9. 2013b>Patulin, the most common mycotoxin in apples and apple-derived products, triggers apoptosis and has thus been considered for the treatment of cancer...
- Evaluation of nephrotoxic effects of mycotoxins, citrinin and patulin, on zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryosTing Shuan Wu
Institute of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan
Food Chem Toxicol 50:4398-404. 2012Citrinin (CTN) and patulin (PAT) are fungal secondary metabolites which are found in food and feed and showed organotoxicity in mature animals...
- Biosynthesis and toxicological effects of patulinOlivier Puel
INRA, UR66 Pharmacologie Toxicologie, F 31027 Toulouse, France
Toxins (Basel) 2:613-31. 2010b>Patulin is a toxic chemical contaminant produced by several species of mold, especially within Aspergillus, Penicillium and Byssochlamys...
- Patulin: Mechanism of genotoxicityNina Glaser
Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Wuerzburg, Versbacherstrasse 9, 97078 Wuerzburg, Germany
Food Chem Toxicol 50:1796-801. 2012b>Patulin is a frequently found food contaminant mainly produced by the fungi Aspergillus and Penicillium. Patulin is suspected to be clastogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic and in higher concentrations cytotoxic...
- Gene expression profiles of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae sod1 caused by patulin toxicity and evaluation of recovery potential of ascorbic acidTadahiro Suzuki
Applied Microbiology Division, National Food Research Institute, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305 8642, Japan
J Agric Food Chem 59:7145-54. 2011b>Patulin (PAT) is a fungal secondary metabolite and exhibits various toxicities including DNA damage and oxidative stress. These toxicities are eased by ascorbic acid (AsA)...
- Reactive oxygen species induced by beauvericin, patulin and zearalenone in CHO-K1 cellsE Ferrer
Laboratori de Toxicologia, Facultat de Farmacia, Universitat de Valencia, Av Vicent Andres Estelles, 46100 Burjassot, Valencia, Spain
Toxicol In Vitro 23:1504-9. 2009..CHO-K1 cells were determined as function of increasing time of exposure and concentrations of beauvericin (BEA), patulin (PAT) and zearalenone (ZEA)...
- Evaluation of genotoxic risk and oxidative DNA damage in mammalian cells exposed to mycotoxins, patulin and citrininBiing Hui Liu
Department of Life Sciences, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 191:255-63. 2003..In the present study, patulin (PAT) and citrinin (CTN), two prevalent mycotoxins, were evaluated for their genotoxic effects and oxidative ..
- Low occurrence of patulin- and citrinin-producing species isolated from grapesM R Bragulat
Veterinary Mycology Group, Department of Animal Health and Anatomy, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Spain
Lett Appl Microbiol 47:286-9. 2008To assess the ability of fungi isolated from grapes to produce patulin and citrinin.
- Both direct and indirect effects account for the pro-inflammatory activity of enteropathogenic mycotoxins on the human intestinal epithelium: stimulation of interleukin-8 secretion, potentiation of interleukin-1beta effect and increase in the transepithelMarc Maresca
Laboratoire des Interactions Moléculaires et Systèmes Membranaires IMSM, Universite Paul Cezanne, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques de Saint Jerome, Avenue Escadrille Normandie Niemen, 13397, Marseille Cedex 20, France
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 228:84-92. 2008..Deoxynivalenol, ochratoxin A and patulin are the best known enteropathogenic mycotoxins able to alter intestinal functions resulting in malnutrition, ..
- Cold and ambient deck storage prior to processing as a critical control point for patulin accumulationHector Morales
Food Technology Department, University of Lleida, CeRTA UTPV, Rovira Roure 191, Lleida, Spain
Int J Food Microbiol 116:260-5. 2007b>Patulin, a mycotoxin produced primarily by Penicillium expansum, is currently of great concern because of its undesirable effects in human health...
- Apple quality, storage, and washing treatments affect patulin levels in apple ciderLauren S Jackson
National Center for Food Safety and Technology, Food and Drug Administration, 6502 South Archer Road, Summit Argo, Illinois 60501, USA
J Food Prot 66:618-24. 2003b>Patulin is a mycotoxin produced primarily by Penicillium expansum, a mold responsible for rot in apples and other fruits. The growth of this fungus and the production of patulin are common in fruit that has been damaged...
- Reduction of patulin in aqueous solution by lactic acid bacteriaShaimaa Hatab
Northwest A and F University, College of Food Science and Engineering, Yangling 712100, China
J Food Sci 77:M238-41. 2012This study aims to investigate the ability of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) to remove patulin (PAT) from aqueous solution with respect to the bacterial viability, initial PAT concentration, incubation time, temperature, and pH...
- DNA damage in organs of mice treated acutely with patulin, a known mycotoxinFlávia Terezinha de Melo
Programa de Pós Graduação em Toxicologia Aplicada, Universidade Luterana do Brasil ULBRA, Canoas, RS, Brazil
Food Chem Toxicol 50:3548-55. 2012b>Patulin, a known mycotoxin, is considered a significant contaminant in apples, apple-derived products and feeds...
- Role of mitogen activated protein kinases in skin tumorigenicity of patulinNeha Saxena
Food, Drug and Chemical Toxicology Group, CSIR Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow, India
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 257:264-71. 2011WHO has highlighted the need to evaluate dermal toxicity of mycotoxins including Patulin (PAT), detected in several fruits. In this study the skin carcinogenic potential of topically applied PAT was investigated...
- Influence of storage conditions of apples on growth and patulin production by Penicillium expansumKatleen Baert
Department of Food Safety and Food Quality, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, B 9000, Ghent, Belgium
Int J Food Microbiol 119:170-81. 2007..causes blue mould rot, a serious post-harvest disease of apples, and is the main producer of the mycotoxin patulin. The present study aimed to determine the influence of storage conditions (i.e...
- Patulin causes DNA damage leading to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis through modulation of Bax, p(53) and p(21/WAF1) proteins in skin of miceNeha Saxena
Food Toxicology Division, Indian Institute of Toxicology Research formerly Industrial Toxicology Research Centre, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, P O Box 80, Lucknow 226001, India
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 234:192-201. 2009b>Patulin (PAT), a mycotoxin found in apples, grapes, oranges, pear and peaches, is a potent genotoxic compound...
- Influence of package, type of apple juice and temperature on the production of patulin by Byssochlamys nivea and Byssochlamys fulvaAnderson S Sant'ana
Department of Food Science, Faculty of Food Engineering, State University of Campinas, Campinas, SP, Brazil
Int J Food Microbiol 142:156-63. 2010Although the production of patulin in apple fruits is mainly by Penicillium expansum, there is no information on the ability of heat resistant moulds that may survive pasteurization to produce this mycotoxin in juice packages during ..
- Efficacy of Pichia caribbica in controlling blue mold rot and patulin degradation in applesJing Cao
School of Food and Biological Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, Jiangsu, People s Republic of China
Int J Food Microbiol 162:167-73. 2013..Pichia caribbica in controlling postharvest blue mold and natural decay development of apples and degrading the patulin produced by Penicillium expansum was investigated. The decay incidence of the blue mold of apples treated by P...
- Patulin and secondary metabolite production by marine-derived Penicillium strainsMarieke Vansteelandt
LUNAM Université, Universite de Nantes, MMS, Nantes, France
Fungal Biol 116:954-61. 2012..b>Patulin, a major mycotoxin, was classically detected in extracts of Penicillium expansum, and was also isolated from ..
- The mycotoxin patulin, modulates tight junctions in caco-2 cellsJohn McLaughlin
University of Manchester, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Section of Gastrointestinal Sciences, Stopford Building, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PT, UK
Toxicol In Vitro 23:83-9. 2009The mycotoxin patulin is a common contaminant of fruit. Here, we demonstrate that patulin reduces the barrier properties of the intestinal cell line, caco-2 by specific effects on tight junction components...
- Development of a multiplex real-time PCR to quantify aflatoxin, ochratoxin A and patulin producing molds in foodsAlicia Rodriguez
Food Hygiene and Safety, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Extremadura, Avda de la Universidad s n, Caceres, Spain
Int J Food Microbiol 155:10-8. 2012A multiplex real-time PCR (qPCR) method to quantify aflatoxin, ochratoxin A (OTA) and patulin producing molds in foods was developed...
- Correlation between the destruction of tight junction by patulin treatment and increase of phosphorylation of ZO-1 in Caco-2 human colon cancer cellsTomoko Kawauchiya
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Agriculture and Life Science, Hirosaki University, Hirosaki 036 8561, Japan
Toxicol Lett 205:196-202. 2011b>Patulin is a mycotoxin and its contamination of food has been reported to cause gastrointestinal inflammation, ulcers, and bleeding...
- Reduction of patulin during apple juice clarificationJ Bissessur
Department of Biological Sciences, M. L. Sultan Technikon, Durban, South Africa
J Food Prot 64:1216-9. 2001b>Patulin is a mycotoxin produced by a number of molds involved in fruit spoilage. This compound is carcinogenic and teratogenic...
- Analysis of glutathione adducts of patulin by means of liquid chromatography (HPLC) with biochemical detection (BCD) and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS)Nils Helge Schebb
Institut fur Anorganische und Analytische Chemie, Westfalische Wilhelms Universitat Munster, Corrensstrasse 30, 48149 Munster, Germany
Anal Bioanal Chem 394:1361-73. 2009..inhibiting glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity was developed and applied for the analysis of the mycotoxin patulin. The method is based on high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to a continuous-flow enzyme reactor ..
- Effects of mycotoxins on cytokine production and proliferation in EL-4 thymoma cellsM L Marin
Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Michigan State University, East Lansing 48824 1224, USA
J Toxicol Environ Health 48:379-96. 1996..IL-2 and Il-5 production was almost totally suppressed by patulin at concentrations > or = 500 ng/ml and by T-2 toxin at > or = 5 ng/ml...
- Prevention of patulin toxicity on rumen microbial fermentation by SH-containing reducing agentsDiego P Morgavi
Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Clermont Fd Theix Research Centre, Herbivore Research Unit, 63122 Saint Genes Champanelle, France
J Agric Food Chem 51:6906-10. 2003b>Patulin, a toxic fungal metabolite, negatively affects rumen fermentation. This mycotoxin has also been associated with intoxication cases in cattle...
- Induction of oxidative stress response by the mycotoxin patulin in mammalian cellsBiing Hui Liu
Department of Biomedical Sciences, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan, ROC
Toxicol Sci 95:340-7. 2007b>Patulin (PAT), a mycotoxin mainly produced by Penicillium and Aspergillus, is found in various foods and feeds. In the present study, its effects on oxidative stress in various mammalian cell lines were investigated...
- Prediction of Penicillium expansum spoilage and patulin concentration in apples used for apple juice production by electronic nose analysisKristian Karlshøj
Center for Microbial Biotechnology, BioCentrum DTU, Building 221, Technical University of Denmark, DK 2800 Kgs Lyngby, Denmark
J Agric Food Chem 55:4289-98. 2007Classification models for Penicillium expansum spoilage of apples and prediction models for patulin concentration in apples usable for apple juice production were made on the basis of electronic nose (e-nose) analysis correlated to HPLC ..
- Molecular cloning and functional characterization of two CYP619 cytochrome P450s involved in biosynthesis of patulin in Aspergillus clavatusMarie Pierre Artigot
INRA, UR66 Pharmacologie Toxicologie, F 31931 Toulouse, France
Microbiology 155:1738-47. 2009b>Patulin is an acetate-derived tetraketide mycotoxin produced by several fungal species, especially Aspergillus, Penicillium and Byssochlamys species...
- Patulin reduces glutathione level and enzyme activities in rat liver slicesErika Pfeiffer
Institute of Food Chemistry and Toxicology, Department of Chemistry and Biosciences, University of Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe, Germany
Mol Nutr Food Res 49:329-36. 2005In the present study, an attempt was made to identify glutathione (GSH) adducts of patulin in precision-cut rat liver slices, which were used as a model system to study the metabolism and biological effects of this mycotoxin...
- Factors affecting patulin production by Penicillium expansumJ L McCallum
University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2L 3G1
J Food Prot 65:1937-42. 2002b>Patulin, a mycotoxin produced by Penicillium spp...
- Effect of biocontrol agents Candida sake and Pantoea agglomerans on Penicillium expansum growth and patulin accumulation in applesHector Morales
Food Technology Department, University of Lleida, XaRTA UTPV, Rovira Roure 191, 25198, Lleida, Spain
Int J Food Microbiol 122:61-7. 2008..Apples spoiled by P. expansum are expected to contain patulin, a mycotoxin which is proven to affect human health...
- Simultaneous determination of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and patulin in apple juice by reversed-phase liquid chromatographyV Gokmen
Department of Food Engineering, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey
J Chromatogr A 847:69-74. 1999..and economical method was described for the simultaneous determination of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and patulin in apple juice...
- Penicillium expansum: consistent production of patulin, chaetoglobosins, and other secondary metabolites in culture and their natural occurrence in fruit productsBirgitte Andersen
Mycology Group, Center for Microbial Biotechnology, BioCentrum DTU, Søltofts Plads, Building 221, Technical University of Denmark, DK 2800 Kgs Lyngby, Denmark
J Agric Food Chem 52:2421-8. 2004Penicillium expansum is known for its destructive rot and patulin production in apple juice. According to the literature, P. expansum can, among other compounds, produce citrinin, ochratoxin A, patulin, penitrem A, and rubratoxin B...
- Inhibition of patulin production by Penicillium expansum cultured with neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf extractsSimone Aparecida Galerani Mossini
Department of Biochemistry, Universidade Estadual de Maringa, Maringá PR Brazil
J Basic Microbiol 44:106-13. 2004..JUSS (Meliaceae)] was tested in vitro for antifungal activity against Penicillium expansum. Patulin production was inhibited during cultivation, when concentrations higher than 50 mg/ml of neem leaf extract was ..
- Commentary: unbiased divination, unbiased evidence, and the patulin clinical trialTed J Kaptchuk
Department of Social Medicine, Harvard Medical School, 401 Park Drive, Landmark Building, Boston, MA 02215, USA
Int J Epidemiol 33:247-51. 2004
- The effects of the Penicillium mycotoxins citrinin, cyclopiazonic acid, ochratoxin A, patulin, penicillic acid, and roquefortine C on in vitro proliferation of porcine lymphocytesModestas Keblys
National Veterinary Institute, P O Box 8156 Dep, N 0033, Oslo, Norway
Mycopathologia 158:317-24. 2004..vitro effect of each of the Penicillium mycotoxins citrinin (CIT), cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), ochratoxin A (OTA), patulin (PAT), penicillic acid (PIA) and roquefortine C (RQC) on mitogen induced lymphocyte proliferation was determined ..
- The sequence of the isoepoxydon dehydrogenase gene of the patulin biosynthetic pathway in Penicillium speciesMary Ann Dombrink-Kurtzman
Mycotoxin Research Unit, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Peoria, IL 61604 3902, USA
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 91:179-89. 2007Interest in species of the genus Penicillium is related to their ability to produce the mycotoxin patulin and to cause spoilage of fruit products worldwide...
- A new competitive fluorescence assay for the detection of patulin toxinMarcella de Champdoré
Institutes of Protein Biochemistry and of Genetics and Biophysics, CNR, and Department of Organic Chemistry, University of Naples, Naples, Italy
Anal Chem 79:751-7. 2007b>Patulin is a toxic secondary metabolite of a number of fungal species belonging to the genera Penicillum and Aspergillus...
- Mutagenicity of the mycotoxin patulin in cultured Chinese hamster V79 cells, and its modulation by intracellular glutathioneDavid M Schumacher
Institute of Food Chemistry and Toxicology, University of Karlsruhe, P O Box 6980, 76128 Karlsruhe, Germany
Arch Toxicol 79:110-21. 2005Because the ability of the mycotoxin patulin (PAT) to cause gene mutations in mammalian cells is still ambiguous, we have studied the mutagenicity of PAT at the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) gene locus in cultured ..
- Detoxification of patulin and ochratoxin A, two abundant mycotoxins, by lactic acid bacteriaS Fuchs
Department of Analytical and Food Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
Food Chem Toxicol 46:1398-407. 2008..the present study was to investigate the detoxification of two abundant mycotoxins, namely ochratoxin A (OTA) and patulin (PAT) which are frequently found in human foods, by lactic acid bacteria...
- Cloning and molecular characterization of Penicillium expansum genes upregulated under conditions permissive for patulin biosynthesisSandra White
Department of Microbiology, and Environmental Research Institute, University College Cork, National University of Ireland Cork, Cork, Ireland
FEMS Microbiol Lett 255:17-26. 2006Penicillium expansum is commonly associated with patulin production in pomaceous fruits...
- The mycotoxins citrinin, gliotoxin, and patulin affect interferon-gamma rather than interleukin-4 production in human blood cellsG Wichmann
UFZ Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig Halle, Department of Human Exposure Research and Epidemiology, Permoser Strasse 15, Germany
Environ Toxicol 17:211-8. 2002..mycotoxins are responsible for this effect and therefore investigated the influence of citrinin, gliotoxin, and patulin on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC)...
- Development and validation of a microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography method for patulin quantification in commercial apple juiceM Murillo-Arbizu
Organic and Pharmaceutical Chemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Navarra, C Irunlarrea 1, 31008 Pamplona, Navarra, Spain
Food Chem Toxicol 46:2251-7. 2008A microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography (MEECK) method for patulin (PAT) quantification in apple juice samples has been developed...
- Chromatographic determination of the mycotoxin patulin in fruit and fruit juicesG S Shephard
Programme on Mycotoxins and Experimental Carcinogenesis, Medical Research Council, Tygerberg, South Africa
J Chromatogr A 882:17-22. 2000b>Patulin is a mycotoxin produced by several fungal species of the genera Penicillium and Aspergillus, but principally by Penicillium expansum on fruit such as apples...
- The isoepoxydon dehydrogenase gene of the patulin metabolic pathway differs for Penicillium griseofulvum and Penicillium expansumMary Ann Dombrink-Kurtzman
Mycotoxin Research Unit, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, 1815 North University Street, Peoria, Illinois 61604 3902, USA
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 89:1-8. 2006..expansum was used as a template to amplify a 600-bp fragment of the isoepoxydon dehydrogenase (idh) gene of the patulin biosynthetic pathway. Primer pairs designed from the P...
- Investigation of the effects of patulin on thyroid and testis, and hormone levels in growing male ratsGüldeniz Selmanoğlu
Hacettepe University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, 06532, Beytepe Campus, Ankara, Turkey
Food Chem Toxicol 42:721-7. 2004b>Patulin is a mycotoxin produced by several species of Penicillium, Aspergillus and Byssachlamys...
- Determination of patulin in commercial apple juice by micellar electrokinetic chromatographyM Murillo
Organic and Pharmaceutical Chemistry Department, University of Navarra, C Irunlarrea 1, C P 31008 Pamplona, Navarra, Spain
Food Chem Toxicol 46:57-64. 2008..chromatography (MEKC) method using ultraviolet detection (UV) has been applied to the quantitative analysis of patulin (PAT) in commercial apple juice. Patulin was extracted from samples with an ethylacetate solution...
- Evaluation of the reproductive toxicity of patulin in growing male ratsGüldeniz Selmanoğlu
Hacettepe University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, 06800 Beytepe Campus, Ankara, Turkey
Food Chem Toxicol 44:2019-24. 2006b>Patulin is a mycotoxin produced by several Penicillium, Aspergillus and Byssachlamys species...
- Byssochlamys nivea with patulin-producing capability has an isoepoxydon dehydrogenase gene (idh) with sequence homology to Penicillium expansum and P. griseofulvumMary Ann Dombrink-Kurtzman
Mycotoxin Research Unit, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, Agricultural Research Service, US Department of Agriculture, 1815 N University Street, Peoria, IL 61604, USA
Mycol Res 110:1111-8. 2006..Four B. nivea strains were analysed for production of patulin, a mycotoxin found primarily in apple juice and other fruit products. The B...
- 6-gingerol prevents patulin-induced genotoxicity in HepG2 cellsGuang Yang
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Dalian Medical University, Dalian, China
Phytother Res 25:1480-5. 2011b>Patulin (PAT) is a mycotoxin produced by several Penicillium, Aspergillus and Byssochlamys species...
- Biotransformation of patulin by Gluconobacter oxydansA Ricelli
Institute of Sciences of Food Production, CNR, via Amendola 122 O, 70126 Bari, Italy
Appl Environ Microbiol 73:785-92. 2007A bacterium isolated from patulin-contaminated apples was capable of degrading patulin to a less-toxic compound, ascladiol...
- The inability of Byssochlamys fulva to produce patulin is related to absence of 6-methylsalicylic acid synthase and isoepoxydon dehydrogenase genesOlivier Puel
Laboratoire de Pharmacologie Toxicologie, Institut National de Recherche Agronomique, 180 chemin de Tournefeuille, BP 3, 31931 Toulouse, France
Int J Food Microbiol 115:131-9. 2007..was to evaluate the potential of 19 different strains of Byssochlamys nivea and Byssochlamys fulva to produce patulin in relation with the presence of two genes involved in the patulin biosynthesis pathways in the genome of these ..
- Mechanisms of patulin toxicity under conditions that inhibit yeast growthYumiko Iwahashi
National Food Research Institute NFRI, 2 1 12 Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305 8642, Japan
J Agric Food Chem 54:1936-42. 2006b>Patulin, 4-hydroxy-4H-furo[3,2c]pyran-2(6H)-one, is one of the best characterized and most widely disseminated mycotoxins found in agricultural products...
- Commentary: the 1944 patulin trial: the first properly controlled multicentre trial conducted under the aegis of the British Medical Research CouncilIain Chalmers
James Lind Library, James Lind Initiative, Summertown Pavilion, Middle Way, Oxford OX2 7LG, UK
Int J Epidemiol 33:253-60. 2004..under the aegis of the Medical Research Council was reported, which assessed the effects of the antibiotic patulin on the course of common colds...
- The mycotoxin patulin alters the barrier function of the intestinal epithelium: mechanism of action of the toxin and protective effects of glutathioneRadhia Mahfoud
Institut Méditerranéen de Recherche en Nutrition, UMR INRA 1111, Faculté des Sciences de St Jérôme, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20, France
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 181:209-18. 2002b>Patulin is a mycotoxin mainly found in apple and apple products...
- A gene having sequence homology to isoamyl alcohol oxidase is transcribed during patulin production in Penicillium griseofulvumMary Ann Dombrink-Kurtzman
Mycotoxin Research Unit, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, 1815 North University Street, Peoria, IL 61604, USA
Curr Microbiol 56:224-8. 2008The genes for the patulin biosynthetic pathway are most likely arranged in a cluster, as is often the case for other mycotoxins...
- Patulin produced by an Aspergillus clavatus isolated from feed containing malting residues associated with a lethal neurotoxicosis in cattleMonica Sabater-Vilar
Department of Veterinary Pharmacology, Pharmacy and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Yalelaan 16 3508 TD, Utrecht, The Netherlands
Mycopathologia 158:419-26. 2004..The isolated fungus appeared to produce patulin in culture medium. Traces of patulin were also detected in the fodder...
- Patulin influences the expression of Th1/Th2 cytokines by activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells and T cells through depletion of intracellular glutathionePetra Luft
Department of Molecular Biology, University of Salzburg, Austria
Environ Toxicol 23:84-95. 2008b>Patulin is a mold toxin secreted mainly by fungi of the Penicillium species. Exposure generally results from consumption of moldy fruits and fruit products...
- Fate of patulin in the presence of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiaeM O Moss
School of Biomedical and Life Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, UK
Food Addit Contam 19:387-99. 2002b>Patulin is known to become analytically non-detectable during the production of cider from contaminated apple juice. The fate of [14C]-labelled patulin during the alcoholic fermentation of apple juice was studied...
- Clavatol and patulin formation as the antagonistic principle of Aspergillus clavatonanicus, an endophytic fungus of Taxus maireiChu Long Zhang
Institute of Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029, China
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 78:833-40. 2008..When grown in surface culture, the fungus produced clavatol (2',4'-dihydroxy-3',5'-dimethylacetophenone) and patulin (2-hydroxy-3,7-dioxabicyclo [4.3.0]nona-5,9-dien-8-one), as shown by shown by NMR, MS, X-ray, and EI-MS analysis...
- Investigating the effect of patulin, penicillic acid and EDTA on biofilm formation of isolates from dental unit water linesIram Liaqat
Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of the Punjab, Quaid e Azam Campus, Lahore, 54590, Pakistan
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 81:349-58. 2008This study investigated the effect of patulin and penicillic acid, two known quorum-sensing inhibitors, and the common biocide ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) on the biofilm formation and auto-inducer (AI)-2 production of three ..
- Inoculum size and intraspecific interactions affects Penicillium expansum growth and patulin accumulation in applesHector Morales
Food Technology Department, University of Lleida, CeRTA UTPV, Rovira Roure 191, 25198 Lleida, Spain
Food Microbiol 25:378-85. 2008..P. expansum produces patulin, a toxic secondary metabolite...
- Production of mycotoxins by Penicillium expansum inoculated into applesMitsuru Watanabe
National Agricultural Research Center for Tohoku Region, Akahira, Shimokuriyagawa, Morioka, Iwate 020 0198, Japan
J Food Prot 71:1714-9. 2008..b>Patulin and citrinin contents in the extracts from apples stored at 25 degrees C for 12 days after inoculation were ..
- Determination of patulin in apple juice: comparative evaluation of four analytical methodsDavid R Katerere
Programme on Mycotoxins and Experimental Carcinogenesis PROMEC, Medical Research Council, PO Box 19070, Tygerberg 7505, South Africa
J AOAC Int 90:162-6. 2007The performance of 4 purification methods for the analysis of patulin in apple juice was evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)...
- Exposure to patulin from consumption of apple-based productsL González-Osnaya
Faculty of Pharmacy, Laboratory of Food Chemistry and Toxicology, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain
Food Addit Contam 24:1268-74. 2007b>Patulin is a mycotoxin produced by species of Penicillium, Aspergillus and Byssochylamys. Several Scientific Committees classify patulin as mutagenic, embryotoxic and immunotoxic...
- [Nutritional health aspects of mycotoxins]Melinda Kovacs
Kaposvári Egyetem, Allattudományi Kar
Orv Hetil 145:1739-46. 2004..The most frequently observed human health effects are carcinogen effects (aflatoxin, ochratoxin A, fumonisins, patulin); effects causing developmental abnormalities (zearalenon, ochratoxin); effects harmful to the reproduction (..
- Occurrence of mycotoxin patulin in apple-based products marketed in TunisiaHoucine Mhadhbi
National Institute for Research and Physicochemical Analysis, Technopark of Sidi Thabet, 2020 Sidi Thabet, Tunisia
J Food Prot 70:2642-5. 2007An investigation on the presence of mycotoxin patulin was performed on 71 apple juices and concentrates and 21 infant fruit purees purchased from retail outlets or producers in Tunisia, by reversed-phase high-performance liquid ..
- Probabilistic exposure assessment of patulin in apple juice for preschool children in flandersKatleen Baert
Department of Food Safety and Food Quality, Ghent University Coupure Links 653, BE 9000 Gent, Belgium
Commun Agric Appl Biol Sci 71:11-4. 2006
- A practical approach for identifications based on mycotoxin characters of PenicilliumR Russell M Paterson
Centro de Engenharia Biólogica, and Micoteca da Universidade do Minho, Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710 057 Braga, Portugal
Rev Iberoam Micol 23:155-9. 2006..Also, the validity of dual nomenclature for pleomorphic fungi is under discussion increasingly. Patulin is an important mycotoxin produced by various fungi and has strict limits in the European Union...
- Rapid gas chromatography/mass spectrometry determination and confirmation of patulin in apple juiceHeidi S Marks
U S Food and Drug Administration, Pacific Regional Laboratory Northwest, Bothell, WA 98021, USA
J AOAC Int 90:879-83. 2007..spectrometry (GC/MS) method was developed for the quantitative determination and confirmation of patulin extracted from apple juice...
- Species-specific identification of penicillium linked to patulin contaminationMary Ann Dombrink-Kurtzman
Mycotoxin Research Unit, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, Agricultural Research Service, U S Department of Agriculture, Peoria, Illinois 61604 3902, USA
J Food Prot 70:2646-50. 2007Certain species of Penicillium have been reported to produce the mycotoxin patulin, and research was undertaken to identify these with the use of oligonucleotide primer pairs...
- Investigation of patulin contamination in apple juice sold in retail outlets in Italy and South AfricaD R Katerere
Medical Research Council PROMEC Unit, Francie van Zijl Drive, Cape Town 7505, South Africa
Food Addit Contam 24:630-4. 2007..The samples were bought at random and analysed for patulin contamination...
- Variability and uncertainty assessment of patulin exposure for preschool children in FlandersKatleen Baert
Department of Food Safety and Food Quality, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, B 9000 Ghent, Belgium
Food Chem Toxicol 45:1745-51. 2007The objective of the present study was to evaluate the patulin exposure of children consuming organic, handcrafted or conventional apple juice through a probabilistic approach and to evaluate the effectiveness of several risk management ..
- Monitoring the mycotoxins in food and their biomarkers in the Czech RepublicFrantisek Malir
Department of Xenobiochemistry, Institute of Public Health Hradec Kralove, National Reference Laboratory for Biomarkers of Mycotoxins and Mycotoxins in Food, The Czech Republic
Mol Nutr Food Res 50:513-8. 2006....
- Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometric determination of patulin in apple juice using atmospheric pressure photoionizationMasahiko Takino
Yokogawa Analytical Systems Inc 2 11 13, Nakacho, Musashino shi, Tokyo 180 0006, Japan
Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 17:1965-72. 2003..photoionization (APPI) technique for the liquid chromatography/mass spectrometric (LC/MS) determination of patulin in clear apple juice. A column switching technique for on-line extraction of clear apple juice was developed...
- Evaluation of several culture media for production of patulin by Penicillium speciesMary Ann Dombrink-Kurtzman
Mycotoxin Research Unit, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, Agricultural Research Service, US Department of Agriculture, 1815 North University Street, Peoria, IL 61604 3902, USA
Int J Food Microbiol 98:241-8. 2005..of Penicillium to identify those which have the potential to produce the greatest amount of the mycotoxin, patulin. Additionally, six different culture media were compared to determine maximum patulin production...
- Influence of intrinsic factors of apples on the growth and patulin production of Penicillium expansumKatleen Baert
Ghent University, Department of Food Technology and Nutrition, Coupure Links 653, B 9000 Ghent, Belgium
Commun Agric Appl Biol Sci 69:45-8. 2004
- [Are mycotoxins in food a health hazard?]J Bauer
Technische Universitat Munchen, Freising, Germany
Dtsch Tierarztl Wochenschr 111:307-12. 2004..A participation of the aflatoxins in the pathogenesis of primary liver cancer is considered as certain. Other coherence between the dietary intake of mycotoxins and specific clinical symptoms of man are not convincingly shown till now...
- The effect of modified atmospheres and packaging on patulin production in applesR S Moodley
Department of Biological Sciences, M L Sultan Technikon, Durban, South Africa
J Food Prot 65:867-71. 2002..the effectiveness of modified atmospheres and packaging materials on the growth of Penicillium expansum and patulin production in apples. Granny Smith apples were surface sterilized with 76% ethanol and inoculated with 0...
- Penicillium implicatum causes a destructive rot of pomegranate fruitsR Labuda
Microbiology Department, Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Sciences, Slovak Agricultural University, Nitra, Slovak Republic
Mycopathologia 157:217-23. 2004..The fungus was also found on mouldy stamens of pomegranates...
- [European Union legislation related to patulin]Jacek Postupolski
Zakład Badania Zywności i Przedmiotów Uzytku, Państwowy Zakład Higieny, 00 791 Warszawa, ul Chocimska 24
Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig 54:355-61. 2003In the following review, European Union legislation concerning maximum level of patulin in foodstuffs was reported...
- Patulin distribution in Fuji and Golden apples contaminated with Penicillium expansumS Marin
Department of Food Technology, Lleida University, CeRTA UTPV Rovira Roure 191, Lleida 25198, Spain
Food Addit Contam 23:1316-22. 2006This work assesses the extent of patulin contamination in Penicillium expansum-infected apples stored at room temperature for short periods of time and its relationship with apple variety (Golden or Fuji), degree of ripeness and size of ..
- Mycotoxin-forming ability of two Penicillium roqueforti strains in blue moldy tulum cheese ripened at various temperaturesAhmet Erdogan
Vocational School of Hinis, Food Engineering Department, Ataturk University, Erzurum, Turkey
J Food Prot 67:533-5. 2004..Mycotoxin (patulin, penicillic acid, PR toxin, and roquefortine) formation in the control and mold-inoculated cheeses were detected ..
- Syringe-cartridge solid-phase extraction method for patulin in apple juiceThomas A Eisele
Tree Top Inc, PO Box 248, 111 S Railroad Ave, Selah, WA 98942, USA
J AOAC Int 86:1160-3. 2003A syringe-cartridge solid-phase extraction (SPE) method was developed for determination of patulin in apple juice. A 2...
- The effect of culture preservation techniques on patulin and citrinin production by Penicillium expansum LinkI M Santos
Micoteca da Universidade do Minho and Centro de Engenharia Biológica da Universidade do Minho, Braga, Portugal
Lett Appl Microbiol 35:272-5. 2002To study the influence of culture preservation methods and culture conditions on the production of the mycotoxins patulin and citrinin by Penicillium expansum.
- Patulin in Italian commercial apple productsAlberto Ritieni
Dipartimento di Scienza degli Alimenti, Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, 80055 Portici, Italy
J Agric Food Chem 51:6086-90. 2003b>Patulin is a mycotoxin produced by microscopic fungi belonging to the Penicillium and Aspergillus genera...
- Patulin in domestic and imported apple-based drinks in Belgium: occurrence and exposure assessmentE K Tangni
Unite de Biochimie de la Nutrition, Faculte d Ingenierie Biologique, agronomique et environmentale, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Louvain la Neuve, Belgium
Food Addit Contam 20:482-9. 2003..The current study was undertaken to investigate whether patulin (PAT) is present in the industrial or handicraft-made apple juices and ciders consumed by the Belgian population ..
- Incidence of patulin in apple juices marketed in TurkeyT Yurdun
Marmara University, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Toxicology, , Istanbul, Turkey
J Food Prot 64:1851-3. 2001The purpose of this study was to investigate the patulin contamination of apple juices consumed by the Turkish population...
- Production and stability of patulin, ochratoxin A, citrinin, and cyclopiazonic acid on dry cured hamJ D Bailly
Mycotoxicology Research Unit, National Veterinary School, 23 Chemin des Capelles, 31076 Toulouse Cedex, France
J Food Prot 68:1516-20. 2005..This study focused on patulin, ochratoxin A, citrinin, and cyclopiazonic acid that can be produced by fungal species previously isolated from ..
- Occurrence of patulin in conventional and organic fruit products in Italy and subsequent exposure assessmentL Piemontese
Institute of Sciences of Food Production, National Research Council, Bari, Italy
Food Addit Contam 22:437-42. 2005The occurrence of patulin was investigated in 100 conventional and 69 organic fruity foodstuffs samples commercially available in Italy by using an HPLC method with a limit of quantification of 0.5 microg kg(-1)...
- The reduction of patulin in apple juice by three different types of activated carbonN L Leggott
Programme on Mycotoxins and Experimental Carcinogenesis, Medical Research Council, Tygerberg, South Africa
Food Addit Contam 18:825-9. 2001..types of activated carbon (NORIT SA 4, NORIT SX 4 and NORIT CA 1) were investigated for their ability to reduce patulin levels in apple juice at various Brix levels and temperatures...
- Liquid chromatographic method for quantitation of patulin at 10 ng/mL in apple-based products intended for infants: interlaboratory studyIsabel Arranz
Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, Food Safety and Quality Unit, European Commission Joint Research Centre, Retieseweg 111, B 2440 Geel, Belgium
J AOAC Int 88:518-25. 2005An interlaboratory trial for the determination of patulin in apple juice and fruit puree was conducted, involving 17 participants representing a cross section of industry, official food control, and research facilities...
- Estimated dietary exposure to principal food mycotoxins from the first French Total Diet StudyJ C LeBlanc
Institut National de Recherche Agronomique, Unité de méthodologie d analyse du risque alimentaire, INA PG, 16 rue Claude Bernard, F 75005 Paris, France
Food Addit Contam 22:652-72. 2005..2280 individual samples and analysed for aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, trichothecenes, zearalenone, fumonisins and patulin. Average and high percentile intakes were calculated taking account of different eating patterns for adults, ..
- Mycotoxin production from fungi isolated from grapesL Abrunhosa
, Universidade do Minho, Braga, Portugal
Lett Appl Microbiol 32:240-2. 2001..Many of the strains produced patulin and/or citrinin, often depending on whether they were grown on a grape or yeast extract sucrose media...
- Absorption of the mycotoxin patulin from the rat stomachMichael Rychlik
Institute for Food Chemistry, Technical University Munich, Lichtenbergstr 4, 85748 Garching, Germany
Food Chem Toxicol 42:729-35. 2004The mycotoxin patulin (PAT), which frequently occurs in apple juices, has previously been shown to be toxic and teratogenic. However, there is almost no data about its absorption and metabolism...
- Detection of Penicillium expansum by polymerase chain reactionPatrick Marek
Department of Animal Science, University of Connecticut, Unit 40, Storrs, CT 06269, USA
Int J Food Microbiol 89:139-44. 2003..economic losses to the fruit industry and is also of potential public health significance, since it produces patulin, a mycotoxin known to cause harmful effects in animals. Rapid and specific detection of P...
- Fungal Polyketide Synthases and Environmental Toxin BiosynthesisCRAIG ARTHUR TOWNSEND; Fiscal Year: 2013..carcinogen aflatoxin B1 can be added polyketide metabolites like T-2 toxin, zearalenone, fumonisin B, ochratoxin, patulin, citrinin and cercosporin...