heroin

Summary

Summary: A narcotic analgesic that may be habit-forming. It is a controlled substance (opium derivative) listed in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 21 Parts 329.1, 1308.11 (1987). Sale is forbidden in the United States by Federal statute. (Merck Index, 11th ed)

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Gray matter density negatively correlates with duration of heroin use in young lifetime heroin-dependent individuals
    Yi Yuan
    Laboratory for Higher Brain Function, Institute of Psychology, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
    Brain Cogn 71:223-8. 2009
  2. pmc Mining Affymetrix microarray data for long non-coding RNAs: altered expression in the nucleus accumbens of heroin abusers
    Sharon K Michelhaugh
    Department of Pharmacology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan, USA
    J Neurochem 116:459-66. 2011
  3. pmc Interaction between dysfunctional connectivity at rest and heroin cues-induced brain responses in male abstinent heroin-dependent individuals
    Jixin Liu
    Life Sciences Research Center, School of Life Sciences and Technology, Xidian University, Xi an, Shaanxi, China
    PLoS ONE 6:e23098. 2011
  4. pmc Molecular epidemiologic investigation of an anthrax outbreak among heroin users, Europe
    Erin P Price
    Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, Arizona, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 18:1307-13. 2012
  5. ncbi Overland heroin trafficking routes and HIV-1 spread in south and south-east Asia
    C Beyrer
    Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    AIDS 14:75-83. 2000
  6. pmc Deficits in dopamine D(2) receptors and presynaptic dopamine in heroin dependence: commonalities and differences with other types of addiction
    Diana Martinez
    Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York 10032, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 71:192-8. 2012
  7. ncbi Glutamate release in the nucleus accumbens core is necessary for heroin seeking
    Ryan T Lalumiere
    Neurobiology of Addiction Research Center, Department of Neurosciences, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina 29425, USA
    J Neurosci 28:3170-7. 2008
  8. ncbi Understanding polydrug use: review of heroin and cocaine co-use
    Francesco Leri
    Center for Studies in Behavioural Neurobiology, Concordia University, Montreal, Montreal, Canada
    Addiction 98:7-22. 2003
  9. ncbi Criminal convictions among dependent heroin users during a 3-year period prior to opioid maintenance treatment: a longitudinal national cohort study
    Anne Bukten
    SERAF Norwegian Centre for Addiction Research, University of Oslo, Kirkveien 166, Oslo, Norway
    J Subst Abuse Treat 41:407-14. 2011
  10. ncbi Common transcriptional effects in the mouse striatum following chronic treatment with heroin and methamphetamine
    M Piechota
    Department of Molecular Neuropharmacology, Institute of Pharmacology PAS, Smetna 12, Krakow, Poland
    Genes Brain Behav 11:404-14. 2012

Detail Information

Publications343 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Gray matter density negatively correlates with duration of heroin use in young lifetime heroin-dependent individuals
    Yi Yuan
    Laboratory for Higher Brain Function, Institute of Psychology, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
    Brain Cogn 71:223-8. 2009
    ..However, the relationships between opiate dependence and brain structure changes in heroin users are largely unknown...
  2. pmc Mining Affymetrix microarray data for long non-coding RNAs: altered expression in the nucleus accumbens of heroin abusers
    Sharon K Michelhaugh
    Department of Pharmacology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan, USA
    J Neurochem 116:459-66. 2011
    ..Strikingly, the abundance of these lncRNAs was up-regulated in human heroin abusers compared to matched drug-free control subjects, a finding confirmed by quantitative PCR...
  3. pmc Interaction between dysfunctional connectivity at rest and heroin cues-induced brain responses in male abstinent heroin-dependent individuals
    Jixin Liu
    Life Sciences Research Center, School of Life Sciences and Technology, Xidian University, Xi an, Shaanxi, China
    PLoS ONE 6:e23098. 2011
    The majority of previous heroin cue-reactivity functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies focused on local function impairments, such as inhibitory control, decision-making and stress regulation...
  4. pmc Molecular epidemiologic investigation of an anthrax outbreak among heroin users, Europe
    Erin P Price
    Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, Arizona, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 18:1307-13. 2012
    In December 2009, two unusual cases of anthrax were diagnosed in heroin users in Scotland...
  5. ncbi Overland heroin trafficking routes and HIV-1 spread in south and south-east Asia
    C Beyrer
    Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    AIDS 14:75-83. 2000
    Burma produces approximately 60% of the world's heroin, Laos is the third leading producer...
  6. pmc Deficits in dopamine D(2) receptors and presynaptic dopamine in heroin dependence: commonalities and differences with other types of addiction
    Diana Martinez
    Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York 10032, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 71:192-8. 2012
    ..The goal of the present study was to investigate these parameters of striatal dopamine transmission in heroin dependence and their association with drug seeking behavior.
  7. ncbi Glutamate release in the nucleus accumbens core is necessary for heroin seeking
    Ryan T Lalumiere
    Neurobiology of Addiction Research Center, Department of Neurosciences, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina 29425, USA
    J Neurosci 28:3170-7. 2008
    ..Whether similar adaptations in glutamate transmission occur during heroin and cue-induced reinstatement of heroin seeking is unknown...
  8. ncbi Understanding polydrug use: review of heroin and cocaine co-use
    Francesco Leri
    Center for Studies in Behavioural Neurobiology, Concordia University, Montreal, Montreal, Canada
    Addiction 98:7-22. 2003
    The use of cocaine by heroin-dependent individuals, or by patients in methadone or buprenorphine maintenance treatment, is substantial and has negative consequences on health, social adjustment and outcome of opioid-addiction treatment...
  9. ncbi Criminal convictions among dependent heroin users during a 3-year period prior to opioid maintenance treatment: a longitudinal national cohort study
    Anne Bukten
    SERAF Norwegian Centre for Addiction Research, University of Oslo, Kirkveien 166, Oslo, Norway
    J Subst Abuse Treat 41:407-14. 2011
    This study investigates frequency and types of criminal convictions among a national sample of heroin users during a 3-year period prior to opioid maintenance treatment (OMT)...
  10. ncbi Common transcriptional effects in the mouse striatum following chronic treatment with heroin and methamphetamine
    M Piechota
    Department of Molecular Neuropharmacology, Institute of Pharmacology PAS, Smetna 12, Krakow, Poland
    Genes Brain Behav 11:404-14. 2012
    ..the detailed time-course of transcriptional alterations in the mouse striatum during chronic treatment with heroin (HER) and methamphetamine (METH) and after period of spontaneous withdrawal...
  11. ncbi The effect of heroin on verbal memory
    Sladjana Martinović Mitrović
    Clinic for Drug Addiction, Institute of Psychiatry, Clinical Centre Vojvodina Hajduk Veljkova 1, 21 000 Novi Sad, Serbia
    Psychiatr Danub 23:53-9. 2011
    As a result of long-term heroin abuse we can see impairment of cerebral structures, that leads to specific psychopathological and neuro - physiological deficits in the cognitive and connative areas...
  12. ncbi White matter impairment in heroin addicts undergoing methadone maintenance treatment and prolonged abstinence: a preliminary DTI study
    Yarong Wang
    Department of Radiology, Tangdu Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, 1 Xinsi Road, Baqiao District, Xi an 710038, China
    Neurosci Lett 494:49-53. 2011
    ..Whether long-term MMT could lead to the impairment of white matter (WM) in heroin addiction brain is unclear...
  13. ncbi Bidirectional regulation of mu-opioid and CB1-cannabinoid receptor in rats self-administering heroin or WIN 55,212-2
    Liana Fattore
    Institute of Neuroscience, National Research Council CNR, Section of Cagliari, Italy
    Eur J Neurosci 25:2191-200. 2007
    This study examines the effect of intravenous self-administration (SA) of either heroin or the cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN 55,212-2 on levels and functionality of mu-opioid (MOR) and CB1-cannabinoid receptors (CB1R) in reward-related ..
  14. pmc Mortality among young injection drug users in San Francisco: a 10-year follow-up of the UFO study
    Jennifer L Evans
    Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California, San Francisco, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 175:302-8. 2012
    ..1%). Mortality incidence was significantly higher among those who reported injecting heroin most days in the past month (adjusted hazard ratio = 5.8, 95% confidence interval: 1.4, 24.3)...
  15. ncbi Heroin-assisted treatment in Switzerland: a case study in policy change
    Ambros Uchtenhagen
    Research Institute on Public Health and Addiction at Zurich University, Zurich, Switzerland
    Addiction 105:29-37. 2010
    ..The high visibility of 'needle parks' and the size of the acquired immune deficiency disorder (AIDS) epidemic called for a new approach and for national leadership...
  16. pmc Initiation into prescription opioid misuse amongst young injection drug users
    Stephen E Lankenau
    Drexel University, School of Public Health, Department of Community Health and Prevention, 1505 Race Street, 11th Floor, Philadelphia, PA 19102, United States
    Int J Drug Policy 23:37-44. 2012
    ..Descriptive data about initiation into prescription opioid misuse amongst young injection drug users (IDUs) are scarce...
  17. ncbi Oral health status of heroin users in a rehabilitation centre in Hubei province, China
    M Du
    Department of Preventive Dentistry, College and Hospital of Stomatology, Hubei Medical University, Wuhan City, PR China
    Community Dent Health 18:94-8. 2001
    OBJECTIVE: To report on the oral health of heroin users and to determine risk factors for oral health status...
  18. ncbi Distinct resting-state brain activities in heroin-dependent individuals
    Yi Zhang
    Life Sciences Research Center, School of Life Sciences and Technology, Xidian University, Xi an, Shaanxi 710071, China
    Brain Res 1402:46-53. 2011
    Previous functional imaging studies on heroin addicts have focused on abnormal brain functions based on specific tasks, while few fMRI studies concentrated on the resting-state abnormalities of heroin-dependent individuals...
  19. ncbi Sex differences in the acquisition of intravenously self-administered cocaine and heroin in rats
    W J Lynch
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis 55455, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 144:77-82. 1999
    ..Despite numerous reports that male and female animals differ in behavioral responses to drugs, few studies have investigated sex differences in drug-reinforced behavior...
  20. ncbi Trait-like impulsivity does not predict escalation of heroin self-administration in the rat
    Ruth McNamara
    Behavioural and Clinical Neuroscience Institute, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge, CB2 3EB, UK
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 212:453-64. 2010
    ..stimulant addiction, few have considered how vulnerability traits such as impulsivity predict hallmark features of heroin addiction including the escalation of drug intake and increased propensity for relapse following protracted ..
  21. ncbi Time-dependent changes in extinction behavior and stress-induced reinstatement of drug seeking following withdrawal from heroin in rats
    U Shalev
    Behavioral Neuroscience Branch, IRP/NIDA/NIH, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 156:98-107. 2001
    RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Footshock stress reliably reinstates heroin seeking in rats, but the time course of the development of this effect following drug withdrawal is not known...
  22. ncbi Scientific and political challenges in North America's first randomized controlled trial of heroin-assisted treatment for severe heroin addiction: rationale and design of the NAOMI study
    Eugenia Oviedo-Joekes
    School of Population and Public Health, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Clin Trials 6:261-71. 2009
    b>Heroin addiction is a chronic relapsing disease, best treated with opioid-agonist substitution therapy such as methadone maintenance...
  23. ncbi Refined sewer epidemiology mass balances and their application to heroin, cocaine and ecstasy
    Usman Khan
    Department of Civil Engineering and Applied Mechanics, McGill University, 817 Sherbrooke St West, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    Environ Int 37:1236-52. 2011
    ..After conducting such a study with a multi-national scope on illicit drugs including cocaine, heroin and ecstasy, the results obtained clearly indicate that extrapolation factors currently being used in literature ..
  24. ncbi The cannabinoid CB1 antagonist N-piperidinyl-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl) -4-methylpyrazole-3-carboxamide (SR-141716A) differentially alters the reinforcing effects of heroin under continuous reinforcement, fixed ratio, and progressive ratio
    M Solinas
    Preclinical Pharmacology Section, Neuroscience Research Branch, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Division of Intramural Research, National Institutes of Health, 5500 Nathan Shock Dr, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 306:93-102. 2003
    ..SR-141716A) could alter the reinforcing effects of heroin in rats...
  25. ncbi Low-threshold methadone treatment, heroin price, police activity and incidence of heroin use: the Zurich experience
    Carlos Nordt
    Psychiatric University Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland
    Int J Drug Policy 20:497-501. 2009
    ..still are concerns about unwanted effects of harm-reduction measures that may lead to an increasing number of new heroin users...
  26. ncbi The comparative toxicology and major organ pathology of fatal methadone and heroin toxicity cases
    Shane Darke
    National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
    Drug Alcohol Depend 106:1-6. 2010
    In order to determine the comparative toxicology and systemic disease of cases of death due to methadone and heroin toxicity, 1193 coronial cases of opioid overdose that occurred in New South Wales, Australia between 1 January 1998 and 31 ..
  27. ncbi A morphine/heroin vaccine with new hapten design attenuates behavioral effects in rats
    Qian Qian Li
    National Institute on Drug Dependence, Peking University, Beijing, China
    J Neurochem 119:1271-81. 2011
    b>Heroin use has seriously threatened public heath in many countries, but the existing therapies continue to have many limitations...
  28. pmc A case of septicaemic anthrax in an intravenous drug user
    Arfon G M T Powell
    Department of Surgical Gastroenterology, Gartnavel General Hospital, Glasgow, UK
    BMC Infect Dis 11:21. 2011
    In 2000, Ringertz et al described the first case of systemic anthrax caused by injecting heroin contaminated with anthrax. In 2008, there were 574 drug related deaths in Scotland, of which 336 were associated with heroin and or morphine...
  29. pmc Investigating the effects of a hydrolytically stable hapten and a Th1 adjuvant on heroin vaccine performance
    Paul T Bremer
    Department of Chemistry, The Skaggs Institute for Chemical Biology, Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, California 92037, United States
    J Med Chem 55:10776-80. 2012
    We challenged the performance of our previous heroin vaccine with a similar vaccine containing a more hydrolytically stable hapten analogue and a Th1 adjuvant (CpG ODN)...
  30. ncbi A novel bivalent morphine/heroin vaccine that prevents relapse to heroin addiction in rodents
    Benito Anton
    Laboratory of Molecular Neurobiology and Addictive Neurochemistry, National Institute of Psychiatry, Ramón de la Fuente Muñiz, Calz, México Xochimilco 101, Mexico D F C P 14370, Mexico
    Vaccine 24:3232-40. 2006
    ..we report on the initial development of a novel structural formulation of a bi-valent vaccine against morphine/heroin. This vaccine was able to trigger and establish a high titer antibody response to haptenized drug with antibodies ..
  31. ncbi Hypoxic/ischaemic brain damage, especially pallidal lesions, in heroin addicts
    S N Andersen
    Institute of Pathology, National Hospital, University of Oslo, Norway
    Forensic Sci Int 102:51-9. 1999
    ..v.) heroin addicts...
  32. pmc Unique gene alterations are induced in FACS-purified Fos-positive neurons activated during cue-induced relapse to heroin seeking
    Sanya Fanous
    Behavioral Neuroscience Branch, IRP NIDA NIH DHHS, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    J Neurochem 124:100-8. 2013
    Cue-induced heroin seeking after prolonged withdrawal is associated with neuronal activation and altered gene expression in prefrontal cortex (PFC)...
  33. pmc Neural correlates of the severity of cocaine, heroin, alcohol, MDMA and cannabis use in polysubstance abusers: a resting-PET brain metabolism study
    Laura Moreno-López
    Department of Personality, Evaluation and Psychological Treatment, University of Granada, Granada, Spain
    PLoS ONE 7:e39830. 2012
    ..measured with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography (FDG-PET) and the severity of use of cocaine, heroin, alcohol, MDMA and cannabis in a sample of polysubstance users with prolonged abstinence from all drugs used.
  34. pmc Selective effects of a morphine conjugate vaccine on heroin and metabolite distribution and heroin-induced behaviors in rats
    M D Raleigh
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 344:397-406. 2013
    Morphine conjugate vaccines have effectively reduced behavioral effects of heroin in rodents and primates...
  35. pmc White matter abnormalities correlating with memory and depression in heroin users under methadone maintenance treatment
    Wei Che Lin
    Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
    PLoS ONE 7:e33809. 2012
    ..changes in WM integrity of MMT subjects using diffusion tensor image (DTI), and their relationship with history of heroin and methadone use in treated opiate-dependent individuals...
  36. pmc Liposomes containing monophosphoryl lipid A: a potent adjuvant system for inducing antibodies to heroin hapten analogs
    Gary R Matyas
    Laboratory of Adjuvant and Antigen Research, U S Military HIV Research Program, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, 503 Robert Grant Avenue, Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA
    Vaccine 31:2804-10. 2013
    In order to create an effective immunization approach for a potential vaccine to heroin, liposomes containing monophosphoryl lipid A [L(MPLA)] were tested as an adjuvant system to induce antibodies to heroin hapten analogs...
  37. ncbi Cost-effectiveness of distributing naloxone to heroin users for lay overdose reversal
    Phillip O Coffin
    San Francisco Department of Public Health, San Francisco, CA 94102, USA
    Ann Intern Med 158:1-9. 2013
    ..Opioid overdose is a leading cause of accidental death in the United States...
  38. pmc Orexin / hypocretin 1 receptor antagonist reduces heroin self-administration and cue-induced heroin seeking
    Rachel J Smith
    Department of Neurosciences, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA
    Eur J Neurosci 35:798-804. 2012
    ..In the present experiments, we examined the involvement of orexin in heroin reinforcement and relapse by administering the orexin 1 receptor antagonist SB-334867 prior to heroin self-..
  39. ncbi High anxiety is a predisposing endophenotype for loss of control over cocaine, but not heroin, self-administration in rats
    Ruth Dilleen
    Behavioural and Clinical Neuroscience Institute, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EB, UK
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 222:89-97. 2012
    ..Although high anxiety is commonly associated with drug addiction, its causal role in this disorder is unclear...
  40. ncbi Heroin maintenance for chronic heroin-dependent individuals
    Marica Ferri
    Interventions, Best Practice and Scientific Partners, European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, Cais do Sodre 1249 289 Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev 12:CD003410. 2011
    Several types of medications have been used for stabilizing heroin users: Methadone, Buprenorphine and levo-alpha-acetyl-methadol (LAAM.) The present review focuses on the prescription of heroin to heroin-dependent individuals.
  41. ncbi Modulation of heroin and cocaine self-administration by dopamine D1- and D2-like receptor agonists in rhesus monkeys
    James K Rowlett
    New England Primate Research Center, Harvard Medical School, Box 9102, One Pine Hill Dr, Southborough, MA 01772 9102, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 321:1135-43. 2007
    Cocaine-heroin combinations ("speedballs") are commonly self-administered by polydrug abusers...
  42. ncbi Acute effect of methadone maintenance dose on brain FMRI response to heroin-related cues
    Daniel D Langleben
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, Treatment Research Center, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 165:390-4. 2008
    Environmental drug-related cues have been implicated as a cause of illicit heroin use during methadone maintenance treatment of heroin dependence...
  43. ncbi Effects of prenatal cocaine and heroin exposure on neuronal dendrite morphogenesis and spatial recognition memory in mice
    Ruhui Lu
    The State Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology and Pharmacology Research Center, Shanghai Medical College and Institutes of Brain Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China
    Neurosci Lett 522:128-33. 2012
    Cocaine and heroin are psychoactive substances frequently used by woman abusers of childbearing age...
  44. pmc Unidirectional relationship between heroin self-administration and impulsive decision-making in rats
    Maria C Schippers
    Department of Anatomy and Neurosciences, Neuroscience Campus Amsterdam, Vrije Universiteit University Medical Center, Van der Boechorststraat 7, 1081 BT, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 219:443-52. 2012
    ..Recent observations in the animal models show that pre-existing levels of impulsivity predict cocaine and nicotine seeking. Whether such relationships also exist with respect to non-stimulant drugs is largely unknown...
  45. ncbi Cannabinoid CB(1) antagonist SR 141716A attenuates reinstatement of heroin self-administration in heroin-abstinent rats
    Liana Fattore
    Department of Neuroscience and Centre of Excellence on Neurobiology of Dependence, University of Cagliari, Cittadella Universitaria, S S 554, 09042 Monserrato, Italy
    Neuropharmacology 48:1097-104. 2005
    Rats with a previous history of heroin self-administration were studied to assess interactions occurring between cannabinoids and opioids in an animal model of reinstatement of heroin-seeking behaviour...
  46. pmc Upregulation of SOCS-3 and PIAS-3 impairs IL-12-mediated interferon-gamma response in CD56 T cells in HCV-infected heroin users
    Li Ye
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
    PLoS ONE 5:e9602. 2010
    ..innate immunity against viral infections, including hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, a common infection among heroin abusers...
  47. ncbi Impulsive choice, as measured in a delay discounting paradigm, remains stable after chronic heroin administration
    Seth C Harty
    CUNY Graduate Center, Neuropsychology Doctoral Program, USA
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 98:337-40. 2011
    b>Heroin addicts display poorer impulse control than non-addicts, however it is not known if high impulsivity is a function of chronic heroin intake or a pre-disposing vulnerability for heroin addiction...
  48. pmc Male sex work and HIV risk among young heroin users in Hanoi, Vietnam
    Michael C Clatts
    Center for Research on Global Health and Youth at Risk, School of Public Health, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, Puerto Rico
    Sex Health 4:261-7. 2007
    ..sexual risk in a group of male sex workers (n = 79) who were recruited in the context of a larger study of young heroin users in Hanoi, Vietnam (n = 1270)...
  49. ncbi The contribution of MOR-1 exons 1-4 to morphine and heroin analgesia and dependence
    Gad Klein
    Neuropsychology Doctoral Subprogram, Queens College, City University of New York, Flushing, NY 11367, United States
    Neurosci Lett 457:115-9. 2009
    Although morphine and heroin analgesia is mediated by mu-opioid receptors encoded by the MOR-1 gene, distinct isoforms are involved...
  50. ncbi Benzodiazepine use among patients in heroin-assisted vs. methadone maintenance treatment: findings of the German randomized controlled trial
    Francisco José Eiroa-Orosa
    Centre for Interdisciplinary Addiction Research, University Medical Centre Eppendorf Hamburg, Martinistr 52, 20246 Hamburg, Germany
    Drug Alcohol Depend 112:226-33. 2010
    ..the correlation between BZD use, BZD prescription and treatment outcome among participants in the German trial on heroin-assisted treatment...
  51. ncbi Conditioned reinforcing properties of stimuli paired with self-administered cocaine, heroin or sucrose: implications for the persistence of addictive behaviour
    Patricia Di Ciano
    Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EB, UK
    Neuropharmacology 47:202-13. 2004
    ..It was found that CSs paired with either cocaine, heroin or sucrose supported the rapid acquisition of lever pressing for the CS that persisted over months of repeated, ..
  52. pmc Punishment induces risky decision-making in methadone-maintained opiate users but not in heroin users or healthy volunteers
    Karen D Ersche
    Department of Psychiatry, School of Clinical Medicine, Addenbrooke s Hospital, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
    Neuropsychopharmacology 30:2115-24. 2005
    ..users, (ii) chronic opiate users in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT), (iii) chronic users of illicit heroin, (iv) ex-drug users who had been long-term amphetamine / opiate users but were abstinent from all drugs of abuse ..
  53. pmc Extracellular matrix plasticity and GABAergic inhibition of prefrontal cortex pyramidal cells facilitates relapse to heroin seeking
    Michel C van den Oever
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Neurobiology, Center for Neurogenomics and Cognitive Research, VU University Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Neuropsychopharmacology 35:2120-33. 2010
    ..synaptic membrane fractions from the mPFC of rats that underwent 21 days of forced abstinence following heroin self-administration...
  54. ncbi Neuroimaging features of heroin inhalation toxicity: "chasing the dragon"
    Ciaran F Keogh
    Department of Radiology, Vancouver Hospital and Health Sciences Centre UBC Site, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 180:847-50. 2003
    ..OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to illustrate the dramatic neuroimaging findings of toxic leukoencephalopathy caused by heroin vapor inhalation...
  55. ncbi Neurobiology of relapse to heroin and cocaine seeking: a review
    Uri Shalev
    Behavioral Neuroscience Branch, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA
    Pharmacol Rev 54:1-42. 2002
    ..data from studies that used a reinstatement model in rats to elucidate the neural mechanisms underlying relapse to heroin and cocaine seeking induced by exposure to the self-administered drug (drug priming), conditioned drug cues, and ..
  56. pmc Primary care office-based buprenorphine treatment: comparison of heroin and prescription opioid dependent patients
    Brent A Moore
    Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06519, USA
    J Gen Intern Med 22:527-30. 2007
    ..Prescription opioid dependence is increasing, but treatment outcomes with office-based buprenorphine/naloxone among these patients have not been described...
  57. ncbi Intravenous cocaine and heroin self-administration in rats selectively bred for differential saccharin intake: phenotype and sex differences
    Marilyn E Carroll
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Minnesota, Medical School, Box 392 Mayo, Minneapolis 55455, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 161:304-13. 2002
    ..The HiS phenotype may be a predictor of abuse of other drugs via other routes of administration...
  58. ncbi Lethal outbreak of infection with Clostridium novyi type A and other spore-forming organisms in Scottish injecting drug users
    Christopher C McGuigan
    Greater Glasgow NHS Board, Scotland
    J Med Microbiol 51:971-7. 2002
    ..Median age was 30 years; 31 were female. The majority, especially definite cases, injected heroin/citric acid extravascularly...
  59. ncbi The GABAB receptor agonist baclofen prevents heroin-induced reinstatement of heroin-seeking behavior in rats
    Maria Sabrina Spano
    Department of Neuroscience, University of Cagliari, Cittadella Universitaria di Monserrato, Monserrato, Cagliari, Italy
    Neuropharmacology 52:1555-62. 2007
    ..GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen is known to affect the reinforcing effects of several drugs of abuse, including heroin, as well as to decrease cue-maintained responding for heroin, cocaine and nicotine and suppress alcohol ..
  60. ncbi Neurophysiological evidence for abnormal cognitive processing of drug cues in heroin dependence
    Ingmar H A Franken
    Institute of Psychology, Erasmus University, Woudestein J5 43, PO Box 1738, 3000 DR, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 170:205-12. 2003
    ..Recent studies provide evidence for specific aspects of cue processing in addictive disorders...
  61. ncbi Cognitive impairment in methadone maintenance patients
    Miriam Z Mintzer
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Behavioral Biology Research Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 5510 Nathan Shock Drive, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Drug Alcohol Depend 67:41-51. 2002
    ..To avoid testing under conditions of acute heroin or cocaine intoxication, but without testing under conditions of acute withdrawal, participants with current use ..
  62. ncbi Dopaminergic mechanisms mediating the incentive to seek cocaine and heroin following long-term withdrawal of IV drug self-administration
    T J de Vries
    Research Institute Neurosciences Vrije Universiteit, Department of Pharmacology, Medical Faculty, Free University, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 143:254-60. 1999
    ..The neurobiological mechanisms underlying the persistence of drug craving in detoxified addicts are still poorly understood...
  63. ncbi Long-term effects of heroin-assisted treatment in Germany
    Uwe Verthein
    Centre for Interdisciplinary Addiction Research of Hamburg University, CIAR, Hamburg, Germany
    Addiction 103:960-6; discussion 967-8. 2008
    Trials in Switzerland, the Netherlands and Spain have found that heroin-assisted treatment (HAT) as maintenance treatment for opioid-dependent patients reduces illicit drug use...
  64. pmc A vaccine strategy that induces protective immunity against heroin
    G Neil Stowe
    Department of Chemistry, The Skaggs Institute for Chemical Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    J Med Chem 54:5195-204. 2011
    b>Heroin addiction is a wide-reaching problem with a spectrum of damaging social consequences. A vaccine capable of blocking heroin's effects could provide a long-lasting and sustainable adjunct to heroin addiction therapy...
  65. ncbi Heroin self-administration: II. CNS gene expression following withdrawal and cue-induced drug-seeking behavior
    KARA L KUNTZ
    Department of Pharmacology, Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, R130, 500 University Drive, Hershey, PA 17033, USA
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 90:349-56. 2008
    In the accompanying paper, we described incubation of heroin-seeking behavior in rats following 14 days of abstinence...
  66. ncbi Assessing the relationship between maternal opiate use and neonatal mortality
    G K Hulse
    Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Western Australia, Australia
    Addiction 93:1033-42. 1998
    ..First, women who continued to use illicit heroin throughout pregnancy; secondly, women stabilized on methadone at the time of conception or shortly after and ..
  67. pmc Opioid neuropeptide genotypes in relation to heroin abuse: dopamine tone contributes to reversed mesolimbic proenkephalin expression
    Andrej Nikoshkov
    Section of Psychiatry, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, S 171 76 Stockholm, Sweden
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:786-91. 2008
    ..We examined polymorphisms of proenkephalin (PENK) and prodynorphin (PDYN) genes in relation to heroin abuse and gene expression in the human striatum and the relevance of genetic dopaminergic tone, critical for drug ..
  68. pmc Ventral medial prefrontal cortex neuronal ensembles mediate context-induced relapse to heroin
    Jennifer M Bossert
    Behavioral Neuroscience Branch, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, US National Institutes of Health Department of Health and Human Services, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    Nat Neurosci 14:420-2. 2011
    In a rat model of context-induced relapse to heroin, we identified sparsely distributed ventral medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) neurons that were activated by the heroin-associated context...
  69. ncbi Delayed spongiform leukoencephalopathy after heroin abuse
    N Rizzuto
    Department of Neurological and Visual Sciences, Policlinico Borgo Roma, University of Verona, Italy
    Acta Neuropathol 94:87-90. 1997
    ..we report the clinical and pathological findings in a 30-year-old drug addict in whom an intravenous injection of heroin led to reversible coma with respiratory depression and heart failure...
  70. ncbi Involvement of arginine vasopressin and V1b receptor in heroin withdrawal and heroin seeking precipitated by stress and by heroin
    Yan Zhou
    Laboratory of the Biology of Addictive Diseases, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 33:226-36. 2008
    ..as well as hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity, would be altered during chronic intermittent escalating heroin administration (10 days; 7...
  71. ncbi Comparison of the reinforcing effects of cocaine and cocaine/heroin combinations under progressive ratio and choice schedules in rats
    Sara Jane Ward
    Neuroscience Program, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 30:286-95. 2005
    The co-use of cocaine and heroin is relatively common, with a growing clinical and preclinical literature dedicated to investigating the factors underlying the phenomenon...
  72. ncbi Diacetylmorphine versus methadone for the treatment of opioid addiction
    Eugenia Oviedo-Joekes
    School of Population and Public Health, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    N Engl J Med 361:777-86. 2009
    Studies in Europe have suggested that injectable diacetylmorphine, the active ingredient in heroin, can be an effective adjunctive treatment for chronic, relapsing opioid dependence.
  73. ncbi Prenatal exposure to heroin in mice elicits memory deficits that can be attributed to neuronal apoptosis
    Y Wang
    Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Key Laboratory of Environment and Genes Related to Diseases, Ministry of Education, School of Medicine, Xi an Jiaotong University, Zhuque Dalie, 205, Xi an, Shannxi 710061, PR China
    Neuroscience 160:330-8. 2009
    Maternal heroin abuse has been shown to result in teratogenic neurobehavioral defects in the offspring, but the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown...
  74. ncbi Retention of heroin and morphine-6 beta-glucuronide analgesia in a new line of mice lacking exon 1 of MOR-1
    A G Schuller
    Dept of Neuroscience and Cell Biology, UMDNJ Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway 08854, USA
    Nat Neurosci 2:151-6. 1999
    ..Although morphine-6 beta-glucuronide (M6G), heroin and 6-acetylmorphine also are considered mu opioids, recent evidence suggests that they act through a distinct ..
  75. ncbi Differences in impulsivity and risk-taking propensity between primary users of crack cocaine and primary users of heroin in a residential substance-use program
    Marina A Bornovalova
    Department of Psychology, University of Maryland, College Park, 20742, USA
    Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 13:311-8. 2005
    Crack cocaine use is more associated with impulsivity and a propensity to take risks than heroin use, yet no studies have examined this relationship in the absence of acute drug effects...
  76. ncbi Unintentional drug overdose death trends in New Mexico, USA, 1990-2005: combinations of heroin, cocaine, prescription opioids and alcohol
    Nina G Shah
    Epidemiology and Response Division, New Mexico Department of Health, Santa Fe, NM 87502 6110, USA
    Addiction 103:126-36. 2008
    To determine the contribution of heroin, prescription opioids, cocaine and alcohol/drug combinations to the total overdose death rate and identify changes in drug overdose patterns among New Mexico subpopulations.
  77. ncbi Identification of scFv antibody fragments that specifically recognise the heroin metabolite 6-monoacetylmorphine but not morphine
    Amir Moghaddam
    GeNova AS, Oslo Research Park, Guastadalléen 21, N 0349 Oslo, Norway
    J Immunol Methods 280:139-55. 2003
    ..from a naïve antibody library, to screen for antibodies that specifically recognise the major metabolite of heroin, 6-monoacetylmorphine (6MAM)...
  78. ncbi Pattern of regional cerebral blood-flow changes induced by acute heroin administration--a perfusion MRI study
    S Guyer
    Psychiatric Neuroimaging Group, Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital, Bern, Switzerland
    J Neuroradiol 34:322-9. 2007
    ..We examined the actions of intravenous diacetylmorphine (heroin), the most widely abused opioid, on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), as assessed by perfusion-weighted MR ..
  79. ncbi Nicotine and heroin augment cocaine-induced dopamine overflow in nucleus accumbens
    G Zernig
    Department of Psychiatry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada
    Eur J Pharmacol 337:1-10. 1997
    ..e., heroin + cocaine ('speedball')...
  80. ncbi Bilateral symmetrical basal ganglia infarction after intravenous use of cocaine and heroin
    M D Daras
    Department of Neurology, New York Medical College, Metropolitan Hospital 1901 First Avenue, New York, NY 10029, USA
    Clin Imaging 25:12-4. 2001
    ..of a young man who developed bilateral symmetrical basal ganglia infarcts after intravenous use of cocaine and heroin. Ischemic infarcts of the brain are a known complication of to cocaine use, alone or in combination with heroin (..
  81. ncbi Attenuation of brain response to heroin correlates with the reinstatement of heroin-seeking in rats by fMRI
    Feng Luo
    Department of Biophysics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA
    Neuroimage 22:1328-35. 2004
    ..male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups and trained to self-administer either saline (n = 14) or heroin (0.1 mg/kg per injection, n = 16) for 10-12 days until a stable self-administration (SA) behavior was achieved...
  82. ncbi Comparison of the Microgenics CEDIA heroin metabolite (6-AM) and the Roche Abuscreen ONLINE opiate immunoassays for the detection of heroin use in forensic urine samples
    Justin M Holler
    Office of the Armed Forces Medical Examiner, Division of Forensic Toxicology, AFIP, 1413 Research Blvd, Bldg 102, Rockville, Maryland 20850, USA
    J Anal Toxicol 28:489-93. 2004
    ..Department of Defense (DoD) and Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) procedures for the detection of heroin abuse by testing urine utilize an initial opiate (codeine/morphine) immunoassay (IA) screen followed by gas ..
  83. ncbi Time series modeling of heroin and morphine drug action
    Wolfgang Tschacher
    Psychiatric Services, University of Bern, Laupenstrasse 49, 3010 Bern, Switzerland
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 165:188-93. 2003
    Clinical observations and recent findings suggested different acceptance of morphine and heroin by intravenous drug users in opiate maintenance programs...
  84. ncbi Effects of verbascoside and luteolin on oxidative damage in brain of heroin treated mice
    Zheng Qiusheng
    The State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Peking University, Beijing, China
    Pharmazie 60:539-43. 2005
    Extensive but fragmentary studies have shown: (i) heroin, morphine and opiates are able to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation in several cells, (ii) they decrease the antioxidant defense system including enzymes, superoxide ..
  85. ncbi Overdose deaths following previous non-fatal heroin overdose: record linkage of ambulance attendance and death registry data
    Mark A Stoove
    Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health Research, Macfarlane Burnet Institute for Medical Research and Public Health, Melbourne, Australia
    Drug Alcohol Rev 28:347-52. 2009
    ..We examined overdose mortality among injecting drug users who had previously been attended by an ambulance for a non-fatal heroin overdose.
  86. pmc Mu opioid receptor knockdown in the substantia nigra/ventral tegmental area by synthetic small interfering RNA blocks the rewarding and locomotor effects of heroin
    Y Zhang
    The Laboratory of the Biology of Addictive Diseases, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, Box 171, New York, NY 10065, USA
    Neuroscience 158:474-83. 2009
    Mu opioid receptors (MOP-r) play an important role in the rewarding and locomotor stimulatory effects of heroin. The aim of the current study was to determine whether infusion of small interfering RNAs (siRNA) targeting MOP-r into the ..
  87. ncbi The effects of chronic food restriction on cue-induced heroin seeking in abstinent male rats
    Tracey M D'Cunha
    Department of Psychology, Center for Studies in Behavioral Neurobiology Groupe de Recherche en Neurobiologie Comportementale, Concordia University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 225:241-50. 2013
    ..Here we studied the effects of chronic food restriction during a period of abstinence on heroin seeking in rats.
  88. ncbi Micro-opioid receptor alkylation in the ventral pallidum and ventral tegmental area, but not in the nucleus accumbens, attenuates the effects of heroin on cocaine self-administration in rats
    Thomas J Martin
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Center for the Neurobiological Investigation of Drug Abuse, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC 27157 1083, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 33:1171-8. 2008
    The concurrent use of cocaine and heroin, often referred to as speedball, is a powerful reinforcer that has been reported in humans to sometimes result in heightened euphoria compared with either drug alone...
  89. pmc Social defeat stress in rats: escalation of cocaine and "speedball" binge self-administration, but not heroin
    Fabio C Cruz
    Department of Psychology, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 215:165-75. 2011
    ..Exposure to intermittent episodes of social defeat stress can increase drug seeking and leads to intense drug taking in rats...
  90. pmc Impact of supply-side policies for control of illicit drugs in the face of the AIDS and overdose epidemics: investigation of a massive heroin seizure
    Evan Wood
    British Columbia Centre for Excellence in HIV AIDS, St Paul s Hospital, Vancouver, BC
    CMAJ 168:165-9. 2003
    ..On Sept. 2, 2000, Canadian police seized approximately 100 kg of heroin in one of the nation's largest-ever seizures of this drug...
  91. ncbi Time-dependent neuroendocrine alterations and drug craving during the first month of abstinence in heroin addicts
    Jie Shi
    National Institute on Drug Dependence, Peking University, Beijing, China
    Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse 35:267-72. 2009
    b>Heroin use and withdrawal cause abnormality in the endocrine system. However, the time course of neuroendocrine alterations in heroin addicts during pharmacologically unassisted withdrawal is still unclear.
  92. pmc The effect of intermittent alcohol vapor or pulsatile heroin on somatic and negative affective indices during spontaneous withdrawal in Wistar rats
    Angela M Williams
    Laboratory of Alcoholism and Addictions Neuroscience, Department of Psychology, Washington State University, 100 Dairy Road, 644820, Pullman, WA 99164 4820, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 223:75-88. 2012
    ..Once dependent on alcohol or opioids, negative affect may accompany withdrawal. Dependent individuals are hypothesized to "self-medicate" in order to cope with withdrawal, which promotes escalated alcohol and drug use...
  93. ncbi Heroin and cocaine craving and use during treatment: measurement validation and potential relationships
    Adrienne J Heinz
    Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics Branch, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    J Subst Abuse Treat 31:355-64. 2006
    ..need," and "craving" and multidimensional 14- and 45-item versions of the Cocaine Craving Questionnaire (CCQ) or Heroin Craving Questionnaire (HCQ)...
  94. pmc Impact of South American heroin on the US heroin market 1993-2004
    Daniel Ciccarone
    University of California San Francisco, Department of Family and Community Medicine, San Francisco, CA 94143 0900, USA
    Int J Drug Policy 20:392-401. 2009
    The past two decades have seen an increase in heroin-related morbidity and mortality in the United States...
  95. ncbi Prefrontal cortex AMPA receptor plasticity is crucial for cue-induced relapse to heroin-seeking
    Michel C van den Oever
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Neurobiology, Center for Neurogenomics and Cognitive Research, VU University Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Nat Neurosci 11:1053-8. 2008
    Associative learning processes have an important role in the initiation and persistence of heroin-seeking...
  96. pmc Rooming-in compared with standard care for newborns of mothers using methadone or heroin
    Ronald R Abrahams
    UBC Department of Health Care and Epidemiology, 5804 Fairview Ave, Vancouver, BC
    Can Fam Physician 53:1722-30. 2007
    ....
  97. ncbi Acamprosate suppresses the expression of morphine-induced sensitization in rats but does not affect heroin self-administration or relapse induced by heroin or stress
    R Spanagel
    Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry, Munich, Germany
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 139:391-401. 1998
    ..v.) heroin self-administration and relapse to heroin seeking in drug-free rats...
  98. ncbi Methadone does not alter key parameters of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in the heroin-naïve rat
    Aparna Sankararaman
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 5323 Harry Hines Boulevard, Dallas, TX 75390 9070, USA
    Neurosci Lett 516:99-104. 2012
    ..is a synthetic opiate that is useful in a variety of clinical settings, including in maintenance therapy of heroin dependence and as an analgesic. However, methadone can have negative effects on cognition in humans and in rodents...
  99. ncbi Repeated heroin in rats produces locomotor sensitization and enhances appetitive Pavlovian and instrumental learning involving food reward
    Robert Ranaldi
    Department of Psychology, Queens College City University of New York, Flushing, NY 11367, USA
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 91:351-7. 2009
    We tested the hypothesis that sensitization to heroin enhances appetitive motivational processes involving food reward...
  100. pmc Mechanisms of withdrawal-associated increases in heroin self-administration: pharmacologic modulation of heroin vs food choice in heroin-dependent rhesus monkeys
    S Stevens Negus
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 34:899-911. 2009
    ..Five rhesus monkeys were rendered heroin dependent via daily 21-h heroin self-administration sessions...
  101. ncbi Modulatory effect of environmental context and drug history on heroin-induced psychomotor activity and fos protein expression in the rat brain
    Giovanna Paolone
    Department of Human Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Rome Sapienza, Rome, Italy
    Neuropsychopharmacology 32:2611-23. 2007
    ..present study was to investigate the role of environmental context and drug history in modulating the effects of heroin on locomotor activity and Fos protein expression in the neocortex and striatal complex of the rat...

Research Grants76

  1. Therapeutic Approaches for Extinction of Conditioned Drug Reward
    Gary B Kaplan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Non-medical use and abuse of prescription opiates is rising so that its prevalence is greater than that of heroin or cocaine abuse...
  2. Preclinical studies of a heroin/morphine vaccine for opiate addiction
    Paul R Pentel; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..A heroin/morphine addiction treatment vaccine candidate has been developed which appears in preliminary studies to be ..
  3. Multivalent Vaccine for Opiate Addiction
    Paul R Pentel; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..preclinical and preliminary clinical evidence of efficacy for nicotine and cocaine addiction, and several heroin vaccines have shown promise in animal models...
  4. Vaccines for Sustainable Therapy of Opiate Addiction
    Frank M Orson; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Any effective vaccine for heroin will have to elicit high levels of antibodies that bind heroin, morphine, and other active metabolites, since ..
  5. Does the extreme variability of methadone metabolism have an epigenetic cause?
    Gavin R Schnitzler; Fiscal Year: 2010
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Heroin is one of the most addictive and dangerous drugs of abuse...
  6. 18F-beta-Endorphin Imaging: Translational Study of an Opioid Peptide Radiotracer
    BRIAN contact REED; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..b-endorphin is a major endogenous agonist at 5-opioid receptors (MOP-r), the target of addictive opioids such as heroin and prescription opioid analgesics such as oxycodone and morphine...
  7. Anabolic-androgenic steroids enhance motivation
    Ruth I Wood; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Indeed, the incidence of steroid use among high school seniors is comparable to that for cocaine or heroin. Although users defend performance enhancing substances as a "healthy lifestyle choice", clinical studies and ..
  8. Multigenerational Epigenetic Effects of Cannabis Exposure
    Yasmin L Hurd; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..phenotype, as well as anxiety-related behaviors that develop in response to their tendency for increased heroin intake...
  9. Naltrexone and AIDS progression
    GREGORY MICHAEL MILLER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..provided by applicant): Naltrexone, an opioid receptor antagonist, is an FDA-approved drug used for treating heroin overdose and decreasing alcohol intake in alcoholics...
  10. Inhibition of Carboxylesterase Metabolism by Ethanol
    Robert B Parker; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..inhibitors, anticancer agents, statins, central nervous system stimulants, and drugs of abuse such as cocaine and heroin. The major human carboxylesterases, hCE1 and hCE2, are highly expressed in the liver and intestine, respectively, ..
  11. New Inactivators of GABA Aminotransferase for Addiction
    Richard B Silverman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Increasing GABA levels blocks cocaine, nicotine, methamphetamine, alcohol, and heroin addiction in rats and cocaine addiction in humans without affecting the craving for food...
  12. Prenatal Cannabis Exposure and Epigenetic Mechanisms Underlying Vulnerability to
    CLAUDIA VARGAS MORRIS; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..be conducted in the NAc of rats with prenatal THC exposure and the behavioral consequences evaluated in relation to heroin self- administration to gain insight into the relationship between THC-induced molecular changes and phenotype.
  13. PA-06-555 Senior Scientist Research and Mentorship Award (K05)
    GEORGE EDWARD WOODY; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..psychotherapy, a HIV vaccine, a rapid HIV test, HIV and drug use in Brazil and Russia, naltrexone for treating heroin addiction and reducing HIV risk in Russia and the U.S...
  14. Targeted Plasma Peptidomics: Endogenous Mu-Opioid Receptor Peptides
    Brian Reed; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..methodology for the detection of endogenous mu-opioid receptor peptide ligands as candidate biomarkers in heroin addiction...
  15. mGluR5 antagonists for methamphetamine addiction
    M Foster Olive; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..mGluR5 antagonists (also known as negative allosteric modulators) reduce the reinforcing effects of cocaine, heroin, nicotine, and alcohol in rodents and/or non-human primates...
  16. Development of novel vaccines against drug abuse - Proof of concept study for vac
    CHENMING M ZHANG; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Among all drugs, tobacco, cocaine, and heroin are the most addictive ones...
  17. Vaccines for the Treatment of Opiate Addiction
    Kim D Janda; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Global estimates suggest that there are over 14 million heroin users and that approximately 10% of all new HIV infections can be attributed to injection drug users (IDUs)...
  18. Polysubstance Use and Chronic Smoking: Neuroimaging and Cognition
    Dieter J Meyerhoff; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Chronic and excessive use of alcohol, methamphetamines, cocaine, cannabinoids, heroin, and tobacco products individually and in various combinations (i.e...
  19. Beta-lactam chemical probes for GLT-1 transporter-related pathologies
    Scott M Rawls; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..enhanced brain penetrability and GLT-1 activity will block morphine tolerance and physical dependence and heroin and cocaine self-administration in rats through GLT-1 transporter activation...
  20. Drug tourism to Mexico: Impact of Mexicos new drug law on HIV-HCV-TB in US IDUs
    Richard S Garfein; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Mexico enacted a controversial law decriminalizing possession of personal-sized quantities of drugs including heroin, cocaine, methamphetamine and cannabis...
  21. HIV/Cocaine mediated human pulmonary vascular remodeling: Role of BMPR signaling.
    Navneet Kaur Dhillon; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Furthermore, our recent study showing enhanced pulmonary vascular remodeling in HIV-infected lung tissues from IV heroin and/or cocaine abusers indicate that IVDU and HIV-1 potentially act in concert to cause pulmonary arteriopathy...
  22. Adolescence, Impulsivity, and Drug Abuse: Sex/Hormones
    Marilyn E Carroll; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..g., cocaine, heroin) and nondrug (e.g., wheel-running, and sucrose intake) rewards...
  23. The role of CCR5 in HIV-1 Tat and morphine-mediated neurodegeneration.
    Elizabeth M Podhaizer; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..is interested in identifying convergent mechanisms between HIV-1 proteins and morphine, the active metabolite of heroin in the CNS, that contribute to the pathology of HIV-1 infection...
  24. Nicotine delivery to rodent with lung alveolar region-targeted aerosol technology
    Xinmin Simon Xie; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Furthermore, the significant potential for these toolkits to be used for other drugs of abuse such as marijuana, cocaine, and heroin will expand the market size for our products.
  25. Monoacylglycerol Lipase Inhibitors for Treating Opioid Use Disorders
    Aron H Lichtman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..dependent rodents;2) MAGL inhibitors will reduce opioid withdrawal symptoms and withdrawal-related increases in heroin self-administration in opioid-dependent rhesus monkeys;and 3) inhibition of MAGL will produce minimal side effects ..
  26. Re-engineering Methadone Treatment: A Randomized Clinical Trial
    Robert P Schwartz; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The study's aims are: (1) to compare the impact of PC-MTP to TAU on: a) days in treatment;b) heroin and cocaine use;c) HIV risk behavior;d) criminal behavior and arrest;e) quality of life;and f) likelihood of ..
  27. The Opioid mesolimbic system in heroin abuse
    Yasmin L Hurd; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Heroin is a highly addictive drug and its abuse continues to be a major public health problem...
  28. The Logics for HIV Risk among Street-Based Heroin Injectors
    Philippe Bourgois; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..ethnographic fieldwork in the shooting encampments of ethnically and generationally bounded social networks of heroin injectors and crack smokers in San Francisco as well as pilot research in Philadelphia at open-air drug markets ..
  29. Heroin Price, Purity and Outcomes Study
    Daniel H Ciccarone; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..One important aspect of the risk environment is drug supply. Specifically, the supply of heroin into the United States is changing dramatically: Over the past twenty years, heroin prices have decreased ..
  30. Mechanism of Action of L THP as an Alternative Therapy for Cocaine Addiction
    Lee Yuan Liu-Chen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..clinically in China for more than 30 years as an analgesic with sedative/hypnotic properties and recently to treat heroin addiction...
  31. Local health impacts of Prescription Monitoring Program use
    Traci C Green; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..prescription opioid), and harm among nonmedical prescription opioid users (route of administration, initiation of heroin use, nonfatal overdose);and 3) Assess state PMPs'(n=40) current prescription opioid overdose prevention ..
  32. Genetic Epidemiology of Opioid Dependence in Bulgaria
    Alexandre A Todorov; Fiscal Year: 2010
    Building upon successful previous work (N=104 heroin-dependent cases), the goal of this 5-year project is to quantify the effect on the liability to opiate dependence of specific candidate genes (including opioid, cannabinoid, dopamine ..
  33. Neurodevelopmental Effects of Cannabis and its Epigenetic Regulation
    Yasmin L Hurd; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..persisted into adulthood following either prenatal or adolescent THC exposure and the animals exhibited increased heroin self-administration and inhibitory control deficit, phenotypes predictive of drug addiction vulnerability...
  34. Transdermal Naltrexone for Opiate Addiction and Alcoholism
    Audra L Stinchcomb; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..for Substance-Related Disorders (SRDs), and a large proportion of those need treatment for opiate pain reliever, heroin, and alcohol addiction...
  35. Intensive Outpatient v. Outpatient Treatment with Buprenorphine among African Ame
    Shannon Gwin Mitchell; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..ameliorate the access problem for African Americans, who in Baltimore make up about 80 percent of the city's heroin-using population...
  36. Glial versus Neuronal Caspase-3 in Opioid-HIV gp120 Neurotoxicity
    KIMBERLY LYNNE SAMANO; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..is a global epidemic spread predominantly through sexual contact and through the use of injectable drugs, such as heroin. Since the implementation of cART (Combined Active Antiretroviral Therapy) in the mid 1990's, infected ..
  37. Effects of morphine on the morphology of the hypocretin and MCH systems
    Jerome M Siegel; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Further investigation revealed that this individual wa a former heroin addict, who had not taken addictive drugs for >10 years before his death...
  38. Nicotine delivery to rodents with lung alveolar region-targeted aerosol tech
    Xinmin Simon Xie; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..commercial product series for rats and mice, with a potential for other drugs of abuse such as marijuana, cocaine, heroin and beyond...
  39. Faculty Recruitment into Neurobiology of Addiction Research Center (NARC)
    Peter W Kalivas; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..be derived largely from the animal core maintained by the NARC that trains animals to self-administer cocaine and heroin. The department of Neurosciences guarantees that if appointed, Dr...
  40. HIV drug abusers, polymorphisms and brain plasticity
    Italo Mocchetti; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..It is believed that heroin, morphine and other intravenous opiate drugs may exacerbate the neurotoxic effect of HIV...
  41. Naloxone prescription for Opioid Safety Evaluation (NOSE)
    Phillip O Coffin; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..to opioid analgesic overdose;deaths from opioid analgesics have exceeded the combined overdose deaths from heroin and cocaine since 2003...
  42. Licit &Illicit Opioids: Comparative Studies in Humans
    Sharon L Walsh; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): While rates of heroin dependence have been fairly stable over the last several years, rates of prescription opioid abuse, dependence and diversion have risen significantly...
  43. Role of microRNAs in opioid drug abuse induced persistent Inflammation and HIV di
    Sabita Roy; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Interestingly, studies show that HIV patients that use intravenous heroin display higher serum levels of LPS when compared to non-drug using HIV infected patients...
  44. Impact of Drug Policy Reform on the HIV Risk Environment among IDUs in Tijuana
    Steffanie A Strathdee; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In Aug/2009, Mexico approved a law that partially deregulates possession of small, specified amounts of cocaine, heroin, methamphetamine and marijuana for personal use...
  45. EM-TRANSMITTER INTERACTIONS OF STRIATAL OPIOID NEURONS
    Virginia M Pickel; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..plasticity at glutamatergic synapses is critical for adaptive learning and conditioned responding to opiates, heroin and morphine, and other positive reinforcers...
  46. Drug Abuse Vulnerability: Role of Development and Gender
    Lisa M Schrott; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..therapy throughout pregnancy to minimize the health risks to the mother and fetus that are associated with heroin use...
  47. Buprenorphine as a Bridge to HCV Treatment for HIV/HCV Coinfected Opioid Users
    LYNN ERICA TAYLOR; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..In Phase II, the intervention will be developed based on existing models utilizing BPN to stabilize HIV(-) street heroin injectors for HCV care, observed therapy and secondary prevention programs...
  48. Buprenorphine for Prisoners
    Timothy W Kinlock; Fiscal Year: 2011
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Prisoners with pre-incarceration heroin addiction histories rarely receive drug abuse treatment while incarcerated, or upon release...
  49. Opioids, LPS and HIV
    Wenzhe Ho; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Therefore, we hypothesize that drugs of use such as heroin is associated with elevated plasma levels of LPS and that opioids (heroin or morphine) suppress intracellular anti-..
  50. Community Vulnerability and Responses to Drug-User-Related HIV/AIDS
    Samuel R Friedman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Further, as others have shown, HIV has spread widely among NIDUs (non-injecting users of heroin, cocaine, crack, amphetamines or methamphetamine) in some metropolitan areas...
  51. Neuropharmacology of Tramadol: Clinical Efficacy and Abuse Potential
    WILLIAM WALTON STOOPS; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..National rates of illicit prescription opioid use are higher than those for heroin, cocaine or methamphetamine and are exceeded only by marijuana...
  52. New Neural Targets for Opioid Use Disorders: Human Studies
    Sharon L Walsh; Fiscal Year: 2010
    Opioid abuse and dependence are growing public health problems in the United States. While rates of heroin use have remained fairly stable over the past several years, abuse and dependence on prescription opioids have shown sharp ..
  53. Development of Novel Medication Strategies for Opiate Abuse
    Yasmin L Hurd; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Pharmacotherapeutic approaches have traditionally targeted 5 opioid receptors since heroin and its metabolites bind with highest affinity to this receptor subtype...
  54. HealthCall: Brief Intervention to Reduce Drug Use in HIV Primary Care
    Efrat Aharonovich; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Main outcomes are reduction in use of primary drug (non-injection cocaine, heroin or methamphetamine), improved HAART adherence, and reduced sexual risk behavior...
  55. Contribution of Various Genetic Polymorphisms to Oxycodone's Abuse Liability
    Jermaine D Jones; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..the second goal of this proposal is to identify the extent to which each of these single participants (150 Heroin Abusers + 150 Prescription Opioid Abusers + 150 Non-Drug Abusers) and collect blood samples for genetic analyses...
  56. Naltrexone and Behavioral Drug and HIV Risk Reduction Counseling in Russia
    Marek C Chawarski; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..evidence-based behavioral and pharmacological treatments to reduce HIV transmission, injection drug use (IDU), and heroin use in Russia...
  57. Structural Basis of Opioid Receptor Function
    Brian K Kobilka; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Both beneficial and adverse effects of illicit opioid drugs (opium, heroin) as well as approved therapeutics (morphine and codeine) are mediated by the activation of mu opioid receptor ([..
  58. AMINOBENZOMORPHAN: POTENTIAL COCAINE ABUSE MEDICATIONS
    Mark Wentland; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Cyclazocine is a promising candidate for treating cocaine and heroin abuse because it may decrease dopamine (DA) release in the nucleus accumbens...
  59. Neighborhood Effects on Drug Use Among African American Adults
    Claire E Sterk; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Drug use is defined as the use of cocaine, heroin and/or methamphetamine...
  60. Drug Counseling and Abstinent-Contingent Take Home Buprenorphine in Malaysia
    Richard S Schottenfeld; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Heroin and injection drug use (IDU) are highly prevalent and driving the HIV epidemic in Malaysia and other countries in the region...
  61. Opiates and Adult Neurogenesis
    Amelia J Eisch; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Drugs of abuse, including heroin, lead to a decrease in the number of new neurons in the hippocampus, a brain region important for learning and ..
  62. Role of opioid receptor trafficking in tolerance and dependence
    Jennifer L Whistler; Fiscal Year: 2011
    Project Summary A fundamental question in addiction biology is why opiate alkaloid drugs such as morphine and heroin have a high liability for inducing tolerance and addiction while endorphins and enkephalins, the native peptide ligands ..
  63. Online Training for Methadone Maintenance Treatment Providers
    HILARY LIBERTY; Fiscal Year: 2009
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): This application seeks to address heroin and other opioid addiction by providing inexpensive, effective online training to Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT) staff to improve treatment outcomes...
  64. Neuro-Cognitive Aspects of Opiate Abuse & Antisocial Behavior
    Jasmin Vassileva; Fiscal Year: 2004
    Rates of heroin addiction are increasing worldwide with concomitant legal and health costs, including increased risk of HIV and hepatitis C viral transmission...
  65. Improving Methadone Maintenance Treatment Compliance and Outcomes in China
    Yih Ing Hser; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..In responding to concerns of high rates of HIV/AIDS and other medical consequences among heroin users, China has recently implemented methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) programs nationwide...
  66. HEROIN AIDS ENCEPHALOPATHY--NEUROPATHOGENESIS MECHANISMS
    Madhavan Nair; Fiscal Year: 2005
    Intravenous heroin users comprise the second largest risk group of patients with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). In Western New York and Buffalo, heroin use has been recently increased to all time high...
  67. Online Buprenorphine Training for Outreach Workers and Case Managers
    JANIE ELIZABETH SIMMONS; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..include locating, motivating, educating, and/or referring to drug treatment youth and adults dependent upon heroin and other opiates. Increasing enrollment in treatment for heroin and other opioid dependency is critically needed...
  68. HIV TRANSMISSION IN CRACK INJECTION PRACTICES
    Michael Clatts; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..In previous research, the investigators developed a methodology for characterizing heroin injection practices...
  69. Reducing Cocaine/Heroin Abuse with SR-Amphetamine and Buprenorphine
    Mark Greenwald; Fiscal Year: 2009
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Cocaine and heroin dependence pose disproportionate public health, social, and economic problems via increased risk of medical and psychiatric morbidities, crime, and poor treatment outcome...
  70. DRUG SELF ADMINISTRATION IN MOUSE MODELS OF NEUROAIDS
    Lisa Gold; Fiscal Year: 1999
    There are presently over 18 million people abusing cocaine in the US and more than 2 million heroin abusers...
  71. Buprenorphine Maintenance for Opioid Addicted Persons in Jail and Post-Release
    Stephen Magura; Fiscal Year: 2007
    unreadable] DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): [unreadable] [unreadable] Heroin and other opioid abuse continue as a significant problem among the criminal justice population...
  72. LPS and Monocyte Activation in HIV Neuropathogenesis
    Dana Gabuzda; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..LPS levels were higher in AIDS patients using IV heroin (p<0.0001), but not IV cocaine, compared to AIDS patients with no substance abuse...
  73. Autonomous Treatment of Opioid Abuse
    Roger J Narayan; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..It is estimated that 2.4 million people in this country use heroin at some time in their lives...
  74. EFFECTS OF PRICE ON ILLEGAL DRUG USE
    Michael Grossman; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..The primary aims revolve around the sensitivity of cocaine, heroin, and marijuana consumption to differences in the prices of these illegal substances...
  75. RANDOMIZED TRIAL OF THE BRIEF NEGOTIATED INTERVIEW
    Edward Bernstein; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..to change are effective with alcohol abusers, but have not been adequately tested among crack/cocaine and heroin drug users...
  76. Evaluation of Overdose Prevention Programs for Injection Drug Users
    Stephen E Lankenau; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..S. Fatal heroin overdoses cause more than half of all deaths among IDUs, which far exceeds the proportion of deaths due to AIDS or ..