codeine

Summary

Summary: An opioid analgesic related to MORPHINE but with less potent analgesic properties and mild sedative effects. It also acts centrally to suppress cough.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi GC-MS quantitation of codeine, morphine, 6-acetylmorphine, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, oxycodone, and oxymorphone in blood
    Robert Meatherall
    Department of Biochemistry, St Boniface General Hospital, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
    J Anal Toxicol 29:301-8. 2005
  2. pmc Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) guidelines for codeine therapy in the context of cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) genotype
    K R Crews
    Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, St Jude Children s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee, USA
    Clin Pharmacol Ther 91:321-6. 2012
  3. ncbi The efficacy comparison of ibuprofen, acetaminophen-codeine, and placebo premedication therapy on the depth of anesthesia during treatment of inflamed teeth
    Jalil Modaresi
    Department of Endodontics, Dental School, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd and Isfahan, Iran
    Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 102:399-403. 2006
  4. ncbi Can extremely low or high morphine formation from codeine be predicted prior to therapy initiation?
    Jorn Lotsch
    Pharmazentrum frankfurt ZAFES, Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Theodor Stern Kai 7, D 60590 Frankfurt am Main, Germany
    Pain 144:119-24. 2009
  5. ncbi Risk to the breast-fed neonate from codeine treatment to the mother: a quantitative mechanistic modeling study
    S Willmann
    Competence Center Systems Biology, Bayer Technology Services GmbH, Leverkusen, Germany
    Clin Pharmacol Ther 86:634-43. 2009
  6. ncbi Pharmacogenetics of morphine poisoning in a breastfed neonate of a codeine-prescribed mother
    Gideon Koren
    Motherisk Program, Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X8, Canada
    Lancet 368:704. 2006
  7. ncbi Codeine-acetaminophen versus nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in the treatment of post-abdominal surgery pain: a systematic review of randomized trials
    Marieke Nauta
    University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Am J Surg 198:256-61. 2009
  8. ncbi Prediction of codeine toxicity in infants and their mothers using a novel combination of maternal genetic markers
    J Sistonen
    Centre for Molecular Medicine and Therapeutics, Department of Medical Genetics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    Clin Pharmacol Ther 91:692-9. 2012
  9. ncbi Establishing causality of CNS depression in breastfed infants following maternal codeine use
    Parvaz Madadi
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada
    Paediatr Drugs 10:399-404. 2008
  10. ncbi Codeine intoxication associated with ultrarapid CYP2D6 metabolism
    Yvan Gasche
    Divisions of Surgical and Medical Intensive Care, Geneva University Hospital, Switzerland
    N Engl J Med 351:2827-31. 2004

Detail Information

Publications239 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi GC-MS quantitation of codeine, morphine, 6-acetylmorphine, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, oxycodone, and oxymorphone in blood
    Robert Meatherall
    Department of Biochemistry, St Boniface General Hospital, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
    J Anal Toxicol 29:301-8. 2005
    A method is described for the simultaneous analysis of seven opiates, codeine, morphine, 6-acetylmorphine, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, oxycodone, and oxymorphone, in blood samples by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)...
  2. pmc Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) guidelines for codeine therapy in the context of cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) genotype
    K R Crews
    Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, St Jude Children s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee, USA
    Clin Pharmacol Ther 91:321-6. 2012
    b>Codeine is bioactivated to morphine, a strong opioid agonist, by the hepatic cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6); hence, the efficacy and safety of codeine as an analgesic are governed by CYP2D6 polymorphisms...
  3. ncbi The efficacy comparison of ibuprofen, acetaminophen-codeine, and placebo premedication therapy on the depth of anesthesia during treatment of inflamed teeth
    Jalil Modaresi
    Department of Endodontics, Dental School, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd and Isfahan, Iran
    Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 102:399-403. 2006
    The purpose of this study was to elucidate whether premedication therapy with acetaminophen-codeine or ibuprofen is able to increase the depth of anesthesia in inflamed teeth...
  4. ncbi Can extremely low or high morphine formation from codeine be predicted prior to therapy initiation?
    Jorn Lotsch
    Pharmazentrum frankfurt ZAFES, Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Theodor Stern Kai 7, D 60590 Frankfurt am Main, Germany
    Pain 144:119-24. 2009
    Activation of codeine by O-demethylation into morphine is a prerequisite for its analgesic effects and severe toxicity...
  5. ncbi Risk to the breast-fed neonate from codeine treatment to the mother: a quantitative mechanistic modeling study
    S Willmann
    Competence Center Systems Biology, Bayer Technology Services GmbH, Leverkusen, Germany
    Clin Pharmacol Ther 86:634-43. 2009
    Administering codeine to breast-feeding mothers had been considered safe until the recent death of a breast-fed neonate whose mother had been prescribed codeine...
  6. ncbi Pharmacogenetics of morphine poisoning in a breastfed neonate of a codeine-prescribed mother
    Gideon Koren
    Motherisk Program, Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X8, Canada
    Lancet 368:704. 2006
  7. ncbi Codeine-acetaminophen versus nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in the treatment of post-abdominal surgery pain: a systematic review of randomized trials
    Marieke Nauta
    University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Am J Surg 198:256-61. 2009
    ..The current standard in North America is to prescribe oral acetaminophen/codeine (A + C) for postpartum pain...
  8. ncbi Prediction of codeine toxicity in infants and their mothers using a novel combination of maternal genetic markers
    J Sistonen
    Centre for Molecular Medicine and Therapeutics, Department of Medical Genetics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    Clin Pharmacol Ther 91:692-9. 2012
    Substantial variation exists in response to standard doses of codeine ranging from poor analgesia to life-threatening central nervous system (CNS) depression...
  9. ncbi Establishing causality of CNS depression in breastfed infants following maternal codeine use
    Parvaz Madadi
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada
    Paediatr Drugs 10:399-404. 2008
    ..on a breastfed infant who succumbed to opioid toxicity following exposure to morphine, the active metabolite of codeine, which was prescribed to his mother who was a cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) ultrarapid metabolizer...
  10. ncbi Codeine intoxication associated with ultrarapid CYP2D6 metabolism
    Yvan Gasche
    Divisions of Surgical and Medical Intensive Care, Geneva University Hospital, Switzerland
    N Engl J Med 351:2827-31. 2004
    Life-threatening opioid intoxication developed in a patient after he was given small doses of codeine for the treatment of a cough associated with bilateral pneumonia...
  11. ncbi The pupillary effects of intravenous morphine, codeine, and tramadol in volunteers
    Roger D Knaggs
    University Department of Anaesthesia, Queen s Medical Centre, University Hospital, Nottingham, UK
    Anesth Analg 99:108-12. 2004
    ..Because the metabolites of morphine and codeine contribute to their overall pharmacological effect pupil diameter measurements were made over a 6-h period...
  12. ncbi Evaluation of 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine, morphine, and codeine as probe substrates for UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7 (UGT2B7) in human liver microsomes: specificity and influence of the UGT2B7*2 polymorphism
    Michael H Court
    Comparative and Molecular Pharmacogenetics Laboratory, Tufts University, Boston, MA 02111, USA
    Drug Metab Dispos 31:1125-33. 2003
    ..Three potential probe substrates [3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT), morphine, and codeine], were evaluated using recombinant UGTs and human liver microsomes (HLMs; n = 54)...
  13. pmc The effect of codeine on the Urge-to-Cough response to inhaled capsaicin
    P W Davenport
    Department of Physiological Sciences, University of Florida, P O Box 100144, HSC, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA
    Pulm Pharmacol Ther 20:338-46. 2007
    ..The influence of codeine on cough perceptual sensitivity and the relationship to cough intensity with capsaicin-induced cough in normal ..
  14. ncbi Serious morbidity associated with misuse of over-the-counter codeine-ibuprofen analgesics: a series of 27 cases
    Matthew Y Frei
    Turning Point Alcohol and Drug Centre, Eastern Health, Melbourne, Vic, Australia
    Med J Aust 193:294-6. 2010
    To investigate morbidity related to misuse of over-the-counter (OTC) codeine-ibuprofen analgesics.
  15. ncbi Reduced ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) volume and impaired vmPFC-default mode network integration in codeine-containing cough syrups users
    Ying Wei Qiu
    Department of Medical Imaging, Guangdong No 2 Provincial People s Hospital, Guangzhou 510317, PR China Electronic address
    Drug Alcohol Depend 134:314-21. 2014
    To characterize the association between clinical symptoms and anatomical and functional cerebral deficits in codeine-containing cough syrups (CCS) users using voxel-based morphometry and resting state functional connectivity analysis.
  16. ncbi Prescription of codeine in young infants
    D K Ng
    Hong Kong Med J 10:439-40. 2004
  17. ncbi Codeine-associated pediatric deaths despite using recommended dosing guidelines: three case reports
    Stefan J Friedrichsdorf
    Department of Pain Medicine, Children s Hospitals and Clinics of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA
    J Opioid Manag 9:151-5. 2013
    This report describes the deaths of three children ages 4-10 years due to codeine toxicity at home. All three children were overweight or obese; however, the codeine doses were within recommended dose ranges for adjusted lean weight...
  18. ncbi Direct and fast determination of paclitaxel, morphine and codeine in urine by micellar electrokinetic chromatography
    J Rodriguez
    Department of Analytical Chemistry and Food Technology, University of Castilla La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real, Spain
    J Chromatogr A 1231:66-72. 2012
    ..electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) method was developed for the determination of paclitaxel, morphine and codeine in human urine from patients under cancer treatment...
  19. ncbi Efficacy of oxycodone/acetaminophen and codeine/acetaminophen vs. conventional therapy in elderly women with persistent, moderate to severe osteoarthritis-related pain
    Laura Corsinovi
    Section of Geriatrics, Department of Medical and Surgical Disciplines, University of Turin, Ospedale San Giovanni Battista Molinette, Corso Bramante 88, I 10126 Torino, Italy
    Arch Gerontol Geriatr 49:378-82. 2009
    We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of oxycodone/acetaminophen (O/A) and codeine/acetaminophen (C/A) vs...
  20. pmc Using evidence from different sources: an example using paracetamol 1000 mg plus codeine 60 mg
    L A Smith
    Pain Research and Nuffield Department of Anaesthetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
    BMC Med Res Methodol 1:1. 2001
    ..This neglects other types of high quality information. This review explores using different information for the combination of paracetamol 1000 mg and codeine 60 mg in acute postoperative pain.
  21. ncbi Response to hydrocodone, codeine and oxycodone in a CYP2D6 poor metabolizer
    Margaret T Susce
    University of Kentucky, Mental Health Research Center at Eastern State Hospital, Lexington, KY 40508, USA
    Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 30:1356-8. 2006
    b>Codeine is metabolized by the cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) to morphine. Codeine is a much weaker agonist at mu opioid receptors than morphine. Therefore, codeine analgesia is highly dependent on CYP2D6 activity...
  22. ncbi Laboratory validation study of drug evaluation and classification program: alprazolam, d-amphetamine, codeine, and marijuana
    S J Heishman
    National Institute on Drug Abuse, Division of Intramural Research, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    J Anal Toxicol 22:503-14. 1998
    ..of the DEC evaluation in predicting whether research volunteers were administered alprazolam, d-amphetamine, codeine, or marijuana...
  23. ncbi Driving under the influence of opiates: concentration relationships between morphine, codeine, 6-acetyl morphine, and ethyl morphine in blood
    A Wayne Jones
    Department of Forensic Genetics and Forensic Toxicology, National Board of Forensic Medicine, Artillerigatan 12, SE 581 33 Linköping, Sweden
    J Anal Toxicol 32:265-72. 2008
    Morphine and codeine are frequently identified in blood samples from impaired drivers. But whether these opiates reflect the use of prescription analgesics or abuse of the illicit drug heroin (diacetyl morphine) is not always obvious...
  24. ncbi Prescription pattern of codeine for non-malignant pain: a pharmacoepidemiological study from the Norwegian Prescription Database
    O M S Fredheim
    Department of Circulation and Medical Imaging, Pain and Palliation Research Group, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway
    Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 53:627-33. 2009
    Opioid prescription for pain relief is increasing. Codeine is the dominating opioid in several European countries, with Norway being among the highest codeine users.
  25. ncbi The effects of methylnaltrexone alone and in combination with acutely administered codeine on gastrointestinal and colonic transit in health
    B S Wong
    Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
    Aliment Pharmacol Ther 32:884-93. 2010
    ..The short-term effects of methylnaltrexone (MNTX), a peripherally acting mu-opioid receptor antagonist, on gastrointestinal and colonic transit remain unclear...
  26. ncbi Codeine concentration in hair after oral administration is dependent on melanin content
    R Kronstrand
    National Board of Forensic Medicine, Department of Forensic Chemistry, University Hospital, 581 85 Linkoping, Sweden
    Clin Chem 45:1485-94. 1999
    ..Several human studies have shown differences in drug accumulation between pigmented and nonpigmented hair. However, the melanin concentration in hair was not determined and correlated to the amount of drug incorporated...
  27. pmc Codeine for acute cough in children
    Ran D Goldman
    BC Children s Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Room K4 226, Ambulatory Care Bldg, 4480 Oak St, Vancouver, BC V6H 3V4
    Can Fam Physician 56:1293-4. 2010
    ..b>Codeine was recommended in the past for this indication. What is the evidence for its use and how effective and safe is it?..
  28. ncbi Mechanistic studies on norcoclaurine synthase of benzylisoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis: an enzymatic Pictet-Spengler reaction
    Louis Y P Luk
    Department of Chemistry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada V6T 1Z1
    Biochemistry 46:10153-61. 2007
    ..is the first committed step in the biosynthesis of the benzylisoquinoline alkaloids that include morphine and codeine. In this work, the gene encoding for the Thalictrum flavum norcoclaurine synthase is highly overexpressed in ..
  29. pmc Misuse and dependence on non-prescription codeine analgesics or sedative H1 antihistamines by adults: a cross-sectional investigation in France
    Anne Roussin
    Equipe de Pharmacoépidémiologie, UMR1027 INSERM Université de Toulouse III, Toulouse, France Centre d Evaluation et d Information sur la Pharmacodépendance Addictovigilance Centre, Service de Pharmacologie Clinique, Hopitaux de Toulouse, Toulouse, France
    PLoS ONE 8:e76499. 2013
    ..The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of misuse, abuse, and dependence on non-prescription psychoactive drugs...
  30. ncbi Current practices regarding codeine administration among pediatricians and pediatric subspecialists
    Richard S Cartabuke
    1Nationwide Children s Hospital, Columbus, OH, USA
    Clin Pediatr (Phila) 53:26-30. 2014
    Pharmacogenomic studies have revealed a wide variation in the metabolism of codeine to its active metabolite, morphine...
  31. ncbi Systemic synergism between codeine and morphine in three pain models in mice
    Hugo F Miranda
    Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology Program, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Medical School, University of Chile, and Cardiovascular Department, Clinical Hospital, Santiago, Chile
    Pharmacol Rep 65:80-8. 2013
    The combination of two analgesic agents offers advantages in pain treatment. Codeine and morphine analgesia is due to activation of opioid receptor subtypes.
  32. ncbi Disappearance of 6-acetylmorphine, morphine and codeine from human scalp hair after discontinuation of opiate abuse
    Min Shen
    Department of Forensic Toxicology, Institute of Forensic Sciences, Ministry of Justice, Shanghai Key laboratory of Forensic Medicine, PR China
    Forensic Sci Int 227:64-8. 2013
    ..This study is the first to investigate the disappearance of 6-acetylmorphine (6-AM), MOR and codeine (COD) from human scalp hair after the discontinuation of drug use...
  33. ncbi A randomized, controlled trial comparing acetaminophen plus ibuprofen versus acetaminophen plus codeine plus caffeine (Tylenol 3) after outpatient breast surgery
    Alex Mitchell
    Department of Surgery, Dalhousie University and Capital District Health Authority, Halifax, NS, Canada
    Ann Surg Oncol 19:3792-800. 2012
    The combination of acetaminophen, codeine, and caffeine (Tylenol 3, T3) is a standard postoperative analgesia after breast surgery despite the adverse effects and variable efficacy of narcotics...
  34. ncbi Activation of G-proteins by morphine and codeine congeners: insights to the relevance of O- and N-demethylated metabolites at mu- and delta-opioid receptors
    Chad M Thompson
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology and Institute for Drug and Alcohol Studies, Virginia Commonwealth University, Medical College of Virginia, Richmond, VA 23298 0524, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 308:547-54. 2004
    Phenotypic differences in analgesic sensitivity to codeine (3-methoxymorphine) results from polymorphisms in cytochrome P450-2D6, which catalyzes O-demethylation of codeine to morphine...
  35. pmc Codeine and cough: an ineffective gold standard
    Donald C Bolser
    Department of Physiological Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32610, USA
    Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 7:32-6. 2007
    Cough is one of the most common reasons why patients visit physicians. The opioid codeine has been a mainstay in the treatment of cough for decades and this drug is widely regarded as the 'gold standard' cough suppressant.
  36. ncbi More codeine fatalities after tonsillectomy in North American children
    Lauren E Kelly
    Schulich School of Medicine, University of Western Ontario, London, Canada
    Pediatrics 129:e1343-7. 2012
    In 2009 we reported the fatal case of a toddler who had received codeine after adenotonsillectomy for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. The child was an ultra-rapid metabolizer of cytochrome P4502D6 (CYP2D6)...
  37. ncbi Apnea in a child after oral codeine: a genetic variant - an ultra-rapid metabolizer
    Polina Voronov
    Department of Anesthesiology, Children s Memorial Hospital, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA
    Paediatr Anaesth 17:684-7. 2007
    ..previously healthy child who experienced apnea resulting in brain injury following a dose of acetaminophen and codeine 2 days after an uneventful anesthetic for tonsillectomy...
  38. ncbi Elucidation of the transformation pathway of the opium alkaloid codeine in biological wastewater treatment
    Arne Wick
    Federal Institute of Hydrology BfG, Koblenz, Germany
    Environ Sci Technol 45:3374-85. 2011
    b>Codeine, an opium alkaloid, was transformed in aerobic batch experiments with activated sludge into several transformation products (TPs)...
  39. pmc Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium guidelines for cytochrome P450 2D6 genotype and codeine therapy: 2014 update
    K R Crews
    Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, St Jude Children s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee, USA
    Clin Pharmacol Ther 95:376-82. 2014
    b>Codeine is bioactivated to morphine, a strong opioid agonist, by the hepatic cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6); hence, the efficacy and safety of codeine are governed by CYP2D6 activity. Polymorphisms are a major cause of CYP2D6 variability...
  40. ncbi Comparison of oral versus rectal administration of acetaminophen with codeine in postoperative pediatric adenotonsillectomy patients
    Vicki Owczarzak
    Department of OTO HNS at Columbia, New York Presbyterian Hospital, 180 Fort Washington Avenue, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Laryngoscope 116:1485-8. 2006
    To examine whether acetaminophen with codeine administered per rectum is an effective alternative for pain control compared with oral administration after an adenotonsillectomy.
  41. ncbi Evaluation of a method for simultaneous quantification of codeine, ethylmorphine and morphine in blood
    H Gjerde
    National Institute of Forensic Toxicology, Oslo, Norway
    Forensic Sci Int 51:105-10. 1991
    b>Codeine, ethylmorphine and morphine are the most commonly detected opiates in forensic blood samples in Norway...
  42. ncbi Comparison of the antinociceptive effect of morphine, methadone, buprenorphine and codeine in two substrains of Sprague-Dawley rats
    Aleksandra Bulka
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, Division of Clinical Neurophysiology, Karolinska Institute, Huddinge University Hospital, S 141 86, Stockholm, Sweden
    Eur J Pharmacol 492:27-34. 2004
    ..Universal, Sweden, have been tested for the antinociceptive effect of morphine, methadone, buprenorphine and codeine on the hot plate...
  43. pmc Microinjection of codeine into the region of the caudal ventral respiratory column suppresses cough in anesthetized cats
    Ivan Poliacek
    Department of Physiological Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA
    J Appl Physiol (1985) 108:858-65. 2010
    We investigated the influence of microinjection of codeine into the caudal ventral respiratory column (cVRC) on the cough reflex. Experiments were performed on 36 anesthetized spontaneously breathing cats...
  44. ncbi Comparative trial of tramadol/paracetamol and codeine/paracetamol combination tablets on the vigilance of healthy volunteers
    Gisele Pickering
    Clinical Pharmacology Department, University Hospital, Medical Faculty, 63009 Clermont Ferrand, France
    Fundam Clin Pharmacol 19:707-11. 2005
    Combination of tramadol 37.5 mg/paracetamol 325 mg (a), or codeine 30 mg/paracetamol 500 mg (b) or 300 mg have similar pain efficacy but a difference has been suggested concerning their adverse events on vigilance...
  45. ncbi Synergistic effects between codeine and diclofenac after local, spinal and systemic administration
    Juan M Jimenez-Andrade
    Seccion Externa de Farmacologia, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Av IPN 2508, San Pedro Zacatenco, 07360 Mexico, D F, Mexico
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 76:463-71. 2003
    This study was designed to evaluate the extent of the antinociceptive interaction between codeine and diclofenac at the local, spinal and systemic level...
  46. ncbi A randomized controlled trial comparing acetaminophen, acetaminophen and ibuprofen, and acetaminophen and codeine for postoperative pain relief after Mohs surgery and cutaneous reconstruction
    Patrick J Sniezek
    Mohs Surgery and Skin Cancer Center, Colorado Springs Dermatology Clinic, Colorado Springs, Colorado 80910, USA
    Dermatol Surg 37:1007-13. 2011
    ..There are no population-based data comparing analgesics after Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) and reconstruction. OBJECTIVE To compare the efficacy in pain management of three analgesic combinations...
  47. ncbi A frameshift mutation and alternate splicing in human brain generate a functional form of the pseudogene cytochrome P4502D7 that demethylates codeine to morphine
    Harish V Pai
    National Brain Research Centre, Nainwal Mode, Manesar, Haryana 122050, India
    J Biol Chem 279:27383-9. 2004
    ..In liver, the major organ involved in drug metabolism, a minor metabolic pathway mediated by CYP2D6 metabolizes codeine (pro-drug) to morphine (active drug), whereas norcodeine is the major metabolite...
  48. ncbi Pharmacogenetics of neonatal opioid toxicity following maternal use of codeine during breastfeeding: a case-control study
    P Madadi
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada
    Clin Pharmacol Ther 85:31-5. 2009
    A large number of women receive codeine for obstetric pain while breastfeeding...
  49. ncbi Pharmacogenetic insights into codeine analgesia: implications to pediatric codeine use
    Parvaz Madadi
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology and The Ivey Chair in Molecular Toxicology, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, The University of Western Ontario, London, Canada
    Pharmacogenomics 9:1267-84. 2008
    b>Codeine has been used medicinally since the 1800s as an analgesic and antitussive agent...
  50. ncbi Differential effect of codeine on thermal nociceptive sensitivity in sleepy versus nonsleepy healthy subjects
    Caren L Steinmiller
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neurosciences, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48207, USA
    Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 18:277-83. 2010
    ..This study compared thermal nociceptive sensitivity in sleepy versus nonsleepy participants after codeine or placebo...
  51. ncbi Increased urinary morphine, codeine and tetrahydropapaveroline in parkinsonian patient undergoing L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine therapy: a possible biosynthetic pathway of morphine from L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine in humans
    K Matsubara
    Department of Legal Medicine, Shimane Medical University, Izumo, Japan
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 260:974-8. 1992
    We have identified morphine and codeine in human urine by means of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry...
  52. ncbi In vitro-in vivo extrapolation predicts drug-drug interactions arising from inhibition of codeine glucuronidation by dextropropoxyphene, fluconazole, ketoconazole, and methadone in humans
    Pritsana Raungrut
    Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Flinders University School of Medicine, Adelaide, Australia
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 334:609-18. 2010
    Because codeine (COD) is eliminated primarily via glucuronidation, factors that alter COD glucuronide formation potentially affect the proportion of the dose converted to the pharmacologically active metabolite morphine...
  53. ncbi Decreased striatal dopamine transporters in codeine-containing cough syrup abusers
    Haifeng Hou
    Department of Nuclear Medicine, Peking University Shenzhen Hospital, Shenzhen, China
    Drug Alcohol Depend 118:148-51. 2011
    In recent years, codeine-containing cough syrups (CCS) have been reported as substances of abuse, especially in adolescents. Chronic CCS abuse can induce physical and psychological dependence...
  54. ncbi CYP2D6 polymorphisms and codeine analgesia in postpartum pain management: a pilot study
    Sondra vanderVaart
    Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Ther Drug Monit 33:425-32. 2011
    b>Codeine, a common opiate prescribed for pain postcesarean section (c-section), is biotransformed by the highly polymorphic Cytochrome P450 enzyme 2D6 (CYP2D6)...
  55. ncbi The analgesic effect of codeine as compared to imipramine in different human experimental pain models
    T P Enggaard
    Clinical Pharmacology, Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, Odense University, Odense, Denmark
    Pain 92:277-82. 2001
    The hypoalgesic effect of single oral doses of 100 mg imipramine and 125 mg codeine was evaluated in a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, 3-way cross-over experiment including 18 healthy volunteers...
  56. pmc Single dose oral codeine, as a single agent, for acute postoperative pain in adults
    Sheena Derry
    Pain Research and Nuffield Department of Anaesthetics, University of Oxford, West Wing Level 6, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, Oxfordshire, UK, OX3 9DU
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev 4:CD008099. 2010
    BACKGROUND: Codeine is an opioid metabolised to active analgesic compounds, including morphine. It is widely available by prescription, and combination drugs including low doses of codeine are commonly available without prescription...
  57. ncbi Regiospecific and stereoselective syntheses of (+/-) morphine, codeine, and thebaine via a highly stereocontrolled intramolecular 4 + 2 cycloaddition leading to a phenanthrofuran system
    Gilbert Stork
    Department of Chemistry, Columbia University, New York, New York, USA
    J Am Chem Soc 131:11402-6. 2009
    ....
  58. ncbi Postpartum maternal codeine therapy and the risk of adverse neonatal outcomes: a retrospective cohort study
    David N Juurlink
    Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, Toronto, ON, Canada
    Clin Toxicol (Phila) 50:390-5. 2012
    To examine whether postpartum maternal prescription of codeine was associated with an increased risk of harm to newborns.
  59. ncbi Pharmacogenomics of codeine, morphine, and morphine-6-glucuronide: model-based analysis of the influence of CYP2D6 activity, UGT2B7 activity, renal impairment, and CYP3A4 inhibition
    Thomas Eissing
    Competence Center Systems Biology and Computational Solutions, Bayer Technology Services GmbH, Leverkusen, Germany
    Mol Diagn Ther 16:43-53. 2012
    The analgesic effect of codeine depends on the formation of the opioid metabolites morphine and morphine-6-glucuronide. Different factors have been shown or suspected to affect the safety and efficacy of codeine treatment...
  60. pmc Ibuprofen versus acetaminophen with codeine for the relief of perineal pain after childbirth: a randomized controlled trial
    E A Peter
    Department of Anaesthesia, University of British Columbia and the Children's and Women's Health Centre of British Columbia, Vancouver
    CMAJ 165:1203-9. 2001
    ..in Vancouver were randomly assigned to receive either ibuprofen (400 mg) (n = 127) or acetaminophen (600 mg) with codeine (60 mg) and caffeine (15 mg) (Tylenol No. 3) (n = 110), both given orally every 4 hours as necessary...
  61. pmc Safety of codeine during breastfeeding: fatal morphine poisoning in the breastfed neonate of a mother prescribed codeine
    Parvaz Madadi
    Can Fam Physician 53:33-5. 2007
    QUESTION: Recently a newborn died from morphine poisoning when his mother used codeine while breastfeeding. Many patients receive codeine for postlabour pain...
  62. ncbi Combination hydrocodone and ibuprofen versus combination codeine and acetaminophen for the treatment of chronic pain
    M Palangio
    Medical Affairs Department, Knoll Pharmaceutical Company, Mount Olive, New Jersey 07828 1234, USA
    Clin Ther 22:879-92. 2000
    The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of combination hydrocodone 7.5 mg and ibuprofen 200 mg with that of combination codeine 30 mg and acetaminophen 300 mg for the treatment of chronic pain.
  63. ncbi Transdermal buprenorphine plus oral paracetamol vs an oral codeine-paracetamol combination for osteoarthritis of hip and/or knee: a randomised trial
    P G Conaghan
    Section of Musculoskeletal Disease, University of Leeds and NIHR Leeds Musculoskeletal Biomedical Research Unit, Leeds, UK
    Osteoarthritis Cartilage 19:930-8. 2011
    ..This study compared symptom relief obtained with buprenorphine patches plus oral paracetamol with that obtained with an oral codeine-paracetamol combination tablet (co-codamol) in older adults with OA.
  64. ncbi Comparative analysis of apoptosis-inducing activity of codeine and codeinone
    Naoko Hitosugi
    Department of Anesthesiology, Saitama Medical School, Japan
    Anesthesiology 98:643-50. 2003
    There are relatively few studies about the antiproliferative effects of codeine-related compounds on human cancer cell lines, compared with those of morphine-related compounds...
  65. ncbi Endogenous morphine and codeine. Possible role as endogenous anticonvulsants
    S Spector
    Department of Psychiatry, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232, USA
    Brain Res 915:155-60. 2001
    ..The levels of the endogenous opiate alkaloids morphine and codeine were significantly elevated in specific rat brain regions by the convulsive drug, pentylenetetrazole, as well as ..
  66. ncbi Comparative actions of the opioid analgesics morphine, methadone and codeine in rat models of peripheral and central neuropathic pain
    Helle Kirsten Erichsen
    Department of Pharmacology, Neurosearch A S, 93 Pederstrupvej, DK 2750 Ballerup, Denmark
    Pain 116:347-58. 2005
    ..the effects of acute, subcutaneous administration of the mu-opioid receptor agonists morphine, methadone and codeine were examined in rat models of peripheral and central neuropathic pain...
  67. ncbi Tramadol/acetaminophen combination tablets and codeine/acetaminophen combination capsules for the management of chronic pain: a comparative trial
    W S Mullican
    Indiana University School of Medicine, Evansville Center for Medical Education, USA
    Clin Ther 23:1429-45. 2001
    ..OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy and tolerability of tramadol/APAP tablets with codeine/APAP capsules...
  68. ncbi Toxicokinetics of drugs of abuse: current knowledge of the isoenzymes involved in the human metabolism of tetrahydrocannabinol, cocaine, heroin, morphine, and codeine
    Hans H Maurer
    Department of Experimental and Clinical Toxicology, Institute of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Saarland, D 66421 Homburg Saar, Germany
    Ther Drug Monit 28:447-53. 2006
    ..the major metabolic pathways of the drugs of abuse, tetrahydrocannabinol, cocaine, heroin, morphine, and codeine, in humans including the involvement of isoenzymes...
  69. ncbi Method for quantification of morphine and its 3- and 6- glucuronides, codeine, codeine glucuronide and 6-monoacetylmorphine in human blood by liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry for routine analysis in forensic toxicology
    A Dienes-Nagy
    , Lausanne, Switzerland
    J Chromatogr A 854:109-18. 1999
    ..A selective and sensitive method for quantification of morphine and its 3- and 6-glucuronides, codeine, codeine glucuronide and 6-monoacetylmorphine (6-MAM) based on liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation mass ..
  70. ncbi Analysis of cocaine, benzoylecgonine, codeine, and morphine in hair by supercritical fluid extraction with carbon dioxide modified with methanol
    W E Brewer
    Toxicology Department, South Carolina Law Enforcement Division, Columbia 29210, USA
    Anal Chem 73:2371-6. 2001
    ..Amounts of cocaine, benzoylecgonine (cocaine metabolite), codeine, and morphine in a hair standard reference material were determined by SFE-gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry (..
  71. ncbi Codeine accumulation and elimination in larvae, pupae, and imago of the blowfly Lucilia sericata and effects on its development
    Hicham Kharbouche
    Institut Universitaire de Medecine Legale, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois and University of Lausanne, Rue du Bugnon 21, CH 1005 Lausanne, Switzerland
    Int J Legal Med 122:205-11. 2008
    ..larvae of Lucilia sericata were reared on samples of minced pig liver treated with different concentrations of codeine: therapeutic, toxic, and potentially lethal doses...
  72. ncbi Onset of analgesia and analgesic efficacy of tramadol/acetaminophen and codeine/acetaminophen/ibuprofen in acute postoperative pain: a single-center, single-dose, randomized, active-controlled, parallel-group study in a dental surgery pain model
    Young Soo Jung
    Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Oral Science Research Center, College of Dentistry, Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea
    Clin Ther 26:1037-45. 2004
    ..However, there is a need for comparisons of the onset of analgesia and other measures of analgesic efficacy with this combination and other strong combination analgesics for the management of acute pain...
  73. ncbi A double-blind randomised controlled clinical trial of the effect of preoperative ibuprofen, diclofenac, paracetamol with codeine and placebo tablets for relief of postoperative pain after removal of impacted third molars
    Ameeta Joshi
    Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Sciences, University Dental Hospital of Manchester, Higher Cambridge Street, Manchester M15 6FH, UK
    Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg 42:299-306. 2004
    ..study to compare the effect of preoperative ibuprofen 600 mg, diclofenac 100 mg, paracetamol 1 g with codeine 60 mg or placebo (Vitamin C 50 mg) tablets for relief of postoperative pain in 119 patients who had day case ..
  74. ncbi Maternal medication use and neuroblastoma in offspring
    Michael N Cook
    Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 159:721-31. 2004
    ..4, 95% confidence interval: 1.3, 4.3). Specifically, more mothers of cases reported using medications containing codeine while pregnant or nursing than did mothers of controls (odds ratio=3.4, 95% confidence interval: 1.4, 8.4)...
  75. ncbi Evidence for morphine-independent central nervous opioid effects after administration of codeine: contribution of other codeine metabolites
    Jorn Lotsch
    Pharmazentrum frankfurt ZAFES, Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Frankfurt, Germany
    Clin Pharmacol Ther 79:35-48. 2006
    Our objective was to investigate whether codeine or one of its metabolites contributes substantially to central nervous effects independent from the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6-mediated O-demethylation to morphine.
  76. pmc Transformation of thebaine to oripavine, codeine, and morphine by rat liver, kidney, and brain microsomes
    H Kodaira
    Roche Institute of Molecular Biology, Roche Research Center, Nutley, NJ 07110
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 85:1267-71. 1988
    ..an intermediate of morphine biosynthesis in the poppy plant, Papaver somniferum, was transformed to oripavine, codeine, and morphine by rat liver, kidney, and brain microsomes in the presence of an NADPH-generating system...
  77. ncbi TLC-UV densitometric and GC-MSD methods for simultaneous quantification of morphine and codeine in poppy capsules
    D S Popa
    Faculty of Pharmacy, U M F Iuliu Hatieganu, Cluj Napoca, Romania
    J Pharm Biomed Anal 18:645-50. 1998
    ..spectrometric detection (GC-MSD) methods were developed for simultaneous quantification of morphine and codeine in poppy capsules (Papaver somniferum)...
  78. ncbi Comparison of the analgesic efficacy and respiratory effects of morphine, tramadol and codeine after craniotomy
    P S Sudheer
    University of Wales College of Medicine, Heath Park, Cardiff, UK
    Anaesthesia 62:555-60. 2007
    ..Sixty craniotomy patients were randomly allocated to receive morphine PCA, tramadol PCA or codeine phosphate 60 mg intramuscularly...
  79. ncbi Evaluation of dosing guidelines for use of controlled-release codeine in chronic noncancer pain
    Alan Russell
    William Osler Health Centre, Brampton, Ontario, Canada
    Pain Res Manag 8:143-8. 2003
    ..clinical utility of guidelines for conversion of patients from a combination analgesic preparation of acetaminophen 300 mg plus codeine 30 mg every 4h to 6h as needed to scheduled controlled-release (CR) codeine every 12h was evaluated.
  80. pmc Codeine-binding RNA aptamers and rapid determination of their binding constants using a direct coupling surface plasmon resonance assay
    Maung Nyan Win
    Division of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, 1200 E California Boulevard, MC 210 41 California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 34:5670-82. 2006
    RNA aptamers that bind the opium alkaloid codeine were generated using an iterative in vitro selection process...
  81. ncbi A randomized, controlled trial of acetaminophen, ibuprofen, and codeine for acute pain relief in children with musculoskeletal trauma
    Eric Clark
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
    Pediatrics 119:460-7. 2007
    Our goal was to determine which of 3 analgesics, acetaminophen, ibuprofen, or codeine, given as a single dose, provides the most efficacious analgesia for children presenting to the emergency department with pain from acute ..
  82. ncbi Probable activation of the opioid receptor-nitric oxide-cyclic GMP-K+ channels pathway by codeine
    Mario I Ortiz
    Laboratorio de Farmacología Area Académica de Medicina del Instituto de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Hidalgo ExHacienda la Concepción Carr, Mexico
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 82:695-703. 2005
    ..Therefore we evaluated the possible participation of this pathway in the antinociceptive action produced by codeine in the rat 5% formalin test...
  83. ncbi LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis for the quantification of morphine, codeine, morphine-3-beta-D-glucuronide, morphine-6-beta-D-glucuronide, and codeine-6-beta-D-glucuronide in human urine
    Constance M Murphy
    Chemistry and Drug Metabolism, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, 5500 Nathan Shock Drive, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA
    J Mass Spectrom 40:1412-6. 2005
    ..ionization-tandem mass spectrometric method for the quantification of the opiates morphine, codeine, and their metabolites morphine-3-beta-D-glucuronide (M-3-G), morphine-6-beta-D-glucuronide (M-6-G) and codeine-6-..
  84. ncbi Radiotherapy plus either transdermal fentanyl or paracetamol and codeine for painful bone metastases: a randomised study of pain relief and quality of life
    Kyriaki Pistevou-Gompaki
    Department of Radiation Oncology, AHEPA Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece
    Curr Med Res Opin 20:159-63. 2004
    To compare the effects of providing analgesia with either transdermal fentanyl (TTS-fentanyl) or paracetamol and codeine (P/C) in addition to radiotherapy in patients with metastatic bone pain.
  85. ncbi Pharmacokinetics of codeine and its metabolite morphine in ultra-rapid metabolizers due to CYP2D6 duplication
    J Kirchheiner
    Department of Pharmacology of Natural Products and Clinical Pharmacology, University Ulm, Ulm, Germany
    Pharmacogenomics J 7:257-65. 2007
    b>Codeine is an analgesic drug acting on mu-opiate receptors predominantly via its metabolite morphine, which is formed almost exclusively by the genetically polymorphic enzyme cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6)...
  86. ncbi Controlled-release codeine is equivalent to acetaminophen plus codeine for post-cholecystectomy analgesia
    Frances Chung
    Department of Anesthesia, Toronto Western Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Can J Anaesth 51:216-21. 2004
    ..This study compared controlled-release codeine (CC) and acetaminophen plus codeine (A/C; 300 mg/30 mg) for pain control in the 48-hr period following ..
  87. ncbi Opiate receptor binding properties of morphine-, dihydromorphine-, and codeine 6-O-sulfate ester congeners
    Peter A Crooks
    Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, 40536 0082, USA
    Bioorg Med Chem Lett 16:4291-5. 2006
    A series of 3-O-acyl-6-O-sulfate esters of morphine, dihydromorphine, N-methylmorphinium iodide, codeine, and dihydrocodeine were prepared and evaluated for their ability to bind to mu-, delta-, kappa(1)-, kappa(2)-, and kappa(3)-opiate ..
  88. pmc The prescribing of methadone and other opioids to addicts: national survey of GPs in England and Wales
    John Strang
    National Addiction Centre NAC, Institute of Psychiatry, King s College London and The Maudsley
    Br J Gen Pract 55:444-51. 2005
    ..GPs occupy a pivotal position in relation to providing services to opiate misusers in the UK, and this is now cited to support initiatives in other countries...
  89. ncbi Addressing the efficacy of dihydrocodeine versus methadone as an alternative maintenance treatment for opiate dependence: A randomized controlled trial
    J Roy Robertson
    Division of Community Health Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
    Addiction 101:1752-9. 2006
    ..The aim of this study is to define the efficacy of dihydrocodeine as an alternative to methadone in the maintenance treatment of opiate dependence...
  90. pmc Buprenorphine versus dihydrocodeine for opiate detoxification in primary care: a randomised controlled trial
    Nat M J Wright
    Centre for Research in Primary Care, 71 75 Clarendon Road, Leeds, LS2 9PL, UK
    BMC Fam Pract 8:3. 2007
    ..There are a number of detoxification agents but no recommended drug of choice. The purpose of this study is to compare buprenorphine with dihydrocodeine for detoxification from illicit opiates in primary care...
  91. ncbi Effect of alvimopan and codeine on gastrointestinal transit: a randomized controlled study
    Jonathan Gonenne
    Clinical Enteric Neuroscience Translational and Epidemiological Research Program, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA
    Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 3:784-91. 2005
    ..Our aim was to evaluate the ability of a peripheral mu-opioid antagonist, alvimopan, to reverse the effect of codeine on gastric, small-bowel, and colonic transit time in healthy volunteers.
  92. ncbi [Codeine-induced pancreatitis]
    K Kohlen
    Institut für Klinische Pharmakologie im Zentrum für Pharmakologie und Toxikologie der Universität Rostock
    Dtsch Med Wochenschr 130:878-9. 2005
  93. pmc The Leeds Evaluation of Efficacy of Detoxification Study (LEEDS) project: an open-label pragmatic randomised control trial comparing the efficacy of differing therapeutic agents for primary care detoxification from either street heroin or methadone [ISRCT
    Nicola S Oldham
    NFA Health Centre for Homeless People, Leeds, UK
    BMC Fam Pract 5:9. 2004
    ..This study seeks to address this by randomising drug users presenting in primary care to receive either dihydrocodeine or buprenorphine...
  94. ncbi Pharmacokinetic drug interactions of morphine, codeine, and their derivatives: theory and clinical reality, Part II
    Scott C Armstrong
    Center for Geriatric Psychiatry, Tuality Forest Grove Hospital, Forest Grove, OR 97116, USA
    Psychosomatics 44:515-20. 2003
    Pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions with codeine, dihydrocodeine, hydrocodone, oxycodone, and buprenorphine are reviewed in this column. These compounds have a very similar chemical structure to morphine...
  95. ncbi No pain relief from codeine...? An introduction to pharmacogenomics
    T H Fagerlund
    Institute of Medical Genetics, University of Oslo, Norway
    Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 45:140-9. 2001
    ..Finally, we give an overview of pharmacogenomics in the narrower sense. The rapidly growing field of pharmacogenomics is going to influence our everyday practice of medicine in the immediate future...
  96. ncbi A randomized controlled trial comparing acetaminophen plus ibuprofen versus acetaminophen plus codeine plus caffeine after outpatient general surgery
    Alex Mitchell
    Department of Surgery, Dalhousie University and QEII Health Sciences Centre, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
    J Am Coll Surg 206:472-9. 2008
    ..The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of acetaminophen, codeine, and caffeine (Tylenol No...
  97. ncbi Double blind randomized placebo control trial of controlled release codeine in the treatment of osteoarthritis of the hip or knee
    P M Peloso
    Royal University Hospital, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada
    J Rheumatol 27:764-71. 2000
    ..Pain is the cardinal feature of osteoarthritis (OA), and with advancing disease there is loss of function and increasing pain even at times of joint rest. Few studies have evaluated the role of opioid analgesics in treating the pain of OA...
  98. ncbi GC-MS confirmation of codeine, morphine, 6-acetylmorphine, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, oxycodone, and oxymorphone in urine
    R Meatherall
    Department of Biochemistry, St Boniface General Hospital, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
    J Anal Toxicol 23:177-86. 1999
    A procedure for the simultaneous confirmation of codeine, morphine, 6-acetylmorphine, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, oxycodone, and oxymorphone in urine specimens by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is described...
  99. ncbi Codeine and tramadol analgesic efficacy and respiratory effects are influenced by CYP2D6 genotype
    U M Stamer
    Anaesthesia 62:1294-5; author reply 1295-6. 2007
  100. ncbi Highly sensitive gas chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric method for the determination of morphine and codeine in serum and urine in the femtomolar range
    U Hofmann
    Dr Margarete Fischer Bosch Institut für Klinische Pharmakologie, Stuttgart, Germany
    J Chromatogr B Biomed Sci Appl 727:81-8. 1999
    A sensitive and specific method was developed for the determination of codeine and morphine in human serum and for the determination of trace amounts of endogenous morphine in human urine...
  101. ncbi Automated sample preparation by on-line dialysis and trace enrichment. Analysis of morphine, 6-monoacetylmorphine, codeine, ethylmorphine and pholcodine in plasma and whole blood by capillary gas chromatography and capillary gas chromatography-mass spectr
    M Krogh
    Institute of Pharmacy, University of Oslo, Norway
    J Chromatogr 621:41-8. 1993
    ..The method demonstrates the potential of the automated sequential trace enrichment of dialysate (ASTED) system for automated sample preparation...

Research Grants49

  1. Novel drug combinations for the management of pain
    KENNETH NARDUCY; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Combinations of acetaminophen with opioids (i.e., hydrocodone, codeine) are frequently prescribed for acute and chronic pain management...
  2. Preclinical Development of a Novel and Effective Treatment for Cough
    Blake M Paterson; Fiscal Year: 2011
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The mainstays of symptomatic antitussive therapy, dextromethorphan (DXM) and codeine, are no better than placebo in the majority of controlled clinical trials and have high abuse liability...
  3. Impact CYP2D6 Phenotype on Response to Methamphetamine in Humans
    Alison Oliveto; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..behavioral/pharmacokinetic response to METH by testing the behavioral effects of agents that serve as positive (codeine) and negative (caffeine) controls for CYP2D6 phenotype...
  4. Opioid selection and the risk of serious infections in older adults
    Carlos G Grijalva; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..g. morphine), have the strongest immunosuppressive effects, whereas modification at C3 alone (e.g. codeine) reduces immunosuppression, and substitution of a carbonyl group at C6 (e.g...
  5. Unintentional Poisoning from Prescription Drug Overdoses Among Veterans
    Matthew J Miller; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..c. Duration of action (i.e., short vs. long acting agents) (Aim 1c). d. Dose (in codeine equivalents) (Aim 1d). e. Controlled substance schedule (i.e., II vs. III vs...
  6. Licit &Illicit Opioids: Comparative Studies in Humans
    Sharon L Walsh; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..efficacy of 1) oral tramadol over a range of doses in comparison to oxycodone (a high efficacy agonist), codeine (an intermediate efficacy agonist), and placebo in non-dependent opioid abusers, 2) intranasal buprenorphine and ..
  7. Structural Basis of Opioid Receptor Function
    Brian K Kobilka; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..and adverse effects of illicit opioid drugs (opium, heroin) as well as approved therapeutics (morphine and codeine) are mediated by the activation of mu opioid receptor ([unreadable]-OR), a member of the G protein-coupled ..
  8. The Prescriber Opioid Risk Reduction Strategies (PORRS) Study
    Jeanine K Mount; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Opioids of greatest concern (e.g., oxycodone, hydrocodone, methadone, morphine, codeine) are found in single- entity and combination drug products categorized as Schedule II and Schedule III controlled ..
  9. BLOOD BRAIN BARRIER CHANGES INDUCED BY PAIN
    THOMAS PAUL DAVIS; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..evaluate the effect of TEMPOL administration on occludin/claudin trafficking, on BBB paracellular permeability to codeine and codeine efficacy over a 1-72 hr time course of PIP (one-hit or rechallenge). (Aim 2C)...
  10. Preclinical Development of SCP-123 for Neuropathic Pain
    KENNETH WAYNE NARDUCY; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..resistant to traditional analgesic treatments with NSAIDs, acetaminophen, or opiate medications (eg, morphine, codeine)...
  11. Human Brain CYP P450s and Psychoactive Drug Metabolism
    HENRY STROBEL; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..This CYP2D form, cloned and expressed in Neuro 2A cells, has a unique catalytic activity, converting codeine exclusively to morphine, thereby demonstrating not only unique brain specific localization, but also, a specific ..
  12. Absorption and Metabolism of Oral Codeine in Mechanically Ventilated Neonates
    Jacob Aranda; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Thus, safe and effective analgesia remains an unmet medical need in children. Codeine, the most commonly used opioid analgesic worldwide, undergoes metabolic activation, and can be potentially ..
  13. An in situ Opioid Drug Deactivation Kit for Home Use
    SHANTHASHANTHA SARANGAPANI; Fiscal Year: 2013
    Objective 1: In this objective, the Contractor shall obtain the pure and pharmaceutical forms of codeine, morphine, oxycodone and fentanyl from DEA-certified commercial distributor(s) as well as other materials required for testing of ..
  14. FUSED POLYCYCLIC AMINES VIA DOUBLE ANNULATION
    Robert Grossman; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..used to prepare yohimbine, an alpha2-adrenoceptor antagonist, corynanthine an alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonist, and codeine, a mu-opioid receptor agonist, by unique and efficient routes that are amenable to the preparation of bioactive ..
  15. PERMEABILITY OF MORPHINE ACROSS BBB DURING DEVELOPMENT
    Anil Gulati; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..a) morphine-3-glucuronide (b) morphine-6-glucuronide, (c) morphine-3-ethereal sulfate, (d) normorphine and (e) codeine. The blood/CSF ratios of morphine and its metabolites will be calculated to determine the extent of their ..
  16. MORPHINE METABOLISM IN PRETERM AND TERM NEWBORNS
    Rama Bhat; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..I, and morphine, morphine-3-glucuronide, morphine-6-glucuronide, morphine ethereal sulphate, normorphine, and codeine will be measured in plasma and urine using a HPLC technique in phase II...
  17. FUNCTIONAL EFFECTS OF ALLELIC VARIATION IN HUMAN CYP2D6
    ROBERT HAINING; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..CYP2D6 plays a key role in the metabolism of many important psychoactive drugs, such as the activation of codeine to morphine, and is known to detoxify MPTP, a thermal breakdown product of 'street heroin' which causes ..
  18. PHARMACOGENETIC RISK FACTORS IN DRUG ABUSE--CYP VARIANTS
    Edward Sellers; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..g. codeine, methamphetamine, nicotine, flunitrazepam, diazepam) can be a risk- or protection-factor in drug dependence, ..
  19. Development of SCP-1/opioid combinations for pain
    KENNETH NARDUCY; Fiscal Year: 2003
    Combinations of acetaminophen with opioids (i.e., hydrocodone, codeine) are frequently prescribed for acute and chronic pain management...
  20. Novel Analgesics for the Treatment of Bone Cancer Pain
    ANTHONY VACCARINO; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..g., codeine + acetaminophen) are used...
  21. Novel Drug Combinations for Treating Pain in the Elderly
    ANTHONY VACCARINO; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..This Phase I SBIR project explores the feasibility that combinations of SCP-1 + codeine can have synergistic effects comparable to or better than acetaminophen + codeine combinations, but with reduced ..
  22. ENANTIOSELECTIVE SYNTHESIS OF NATURAL PRODUCTS
    Mark Wentland; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..at positions flanking the 2,2'-dihydroxy-1,1'-biaryl unit will be available by simple modifications of commercial codeine and thebaine...
  23. Regulation of Mu Opioid Receptor Signal Transduction
    LEONARD MURRIN; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..They are the target of clinically important drugs, such as morphine and codeine. Our understanding of how MOR function is regulated is incomplete...
  24. INFLAMMATION & CORTICOSTEROID RESPONSES IN SEVERE ASTHMA
    KIAN CHUNG; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The molecular mechanisms underlying loss of CR will be examined. These studies should lead to more effective therapies for chronic severe asthma. ..
  25. Synthesis of Macrolides, Steroids, Cyclopentanoids, etc.
    BARRY TROST; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..These new synthetic methods apply to many structural types beyond those illustrated and constitutes a significant to gain access to complex molecular targets more easily. ..
  26. VESTIBULOSYMPATHETIC REFLEXES IN HUMANS
    CHESTER RAY; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ....
  27. VESTIBULOSYMPATHETIC REFLEXES IN HUMANS
    CHESTER RAY; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The design of these studies will increase our understanding of how the vestibular system contributes to orthostatic blood pressure regulation in humans. ..
  28. Acetaminophen Pharmacogenetics
    Michael H Court; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  29. HEALTH/SAFETY IMPACT OF ONTARIOS DRINKING HOURS
    Evelyn Vingilis; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..Alcohol-related casualties for both cities will be subjected to time-series analyses. In addition, Detroit data will be disaggregated to analyze the trends of alcohol-related casualties involving Ontario drivers. ..
  30. Molecular Genetics of Inattention in Australia
    THEODORE CICERO; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..This will be at a marked cost savings due to the employment of existing well-characterized samples and the long history of collaborative studies between investigators from Australia and the United States. ..
  31. Biochemical Characterization of Opioid Receptors
    Gavril W Pasternak; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Together, these studies should give a better understanding of the actions of opioids and their pharmacology. ..
  32. Separate and Combined Effects of Progesterone and Triazolam in Healthy Women
    Shanna Babalonis; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..As such, these studies will contribute towards the development of gender-specific intervention and/or prevention strategies and health management approaches. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  33. OPIATE RECEPTOR PHARMACOLOGY
    Gavril Pasternak; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..By examining both the receptors themselves and modulatory systems, we hope to extend our understanding of opioid analgesics and gain insights into how to use them appropriately and minimize their abuse. ..
  34. OPIATE ENDOCRINE INTERACTIONS--DEVELOPMENTAL ASPECTS
    THEODORE CICERO; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The proposed animal studies could establish whether gender differences exist and if these differences are based on inherent, first-order biological differences between the sexes. ..
  35. SYNTHESIS OF DIAZONAMIDES
    Philip Magnus; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Part of the synthetic studies will involve the generation of persistent radical intermediates that should add to pi-deficient heterocycles and form the key central hindered bond present in the diazonamides. ..
  36. PHARMACOLOGY OF COMBINED EPHEDRINE/CAFFEINE SUPPLEMENTS
    Christine Haller; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The long-term objective for the proposed studies is to develop Dr. Haller into an independent career clinical researcher in this field of study. ..
  37. Mechanisms of adverse host responses to antibiotics
    Michael Court; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  38. Joint Action Analysis of Poly-drug Withdrawal
    Robert Raffa; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..g., electrophysiologic or molecular biology techniques. An improved understanding of how withdrawal is influenced by poly-drug abuse could lead to development of enhanced clinical treatment. ..
  39. RVM CCK, Pain, and Opioid Tolerance
    Todd Vanderah; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..These approaches may allow for sustained efficacy of morphine or opioids and their use in the treatment of chronic or prolonged pain states. ..
  40. Treatment of Fear and Pain in Irritable Bowel Syndrome
    Bruce Naliboff; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  41. Alternative Splicing Technologies in Cancer Imaging
    Christina Smolke; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The research design in this phase uses the constructs developed in the previous phase as novel probes for BLI applications and develops their utility for simultaneous detection and treatment strategies. ..
  42. METHODOLOGY FOR THE SYNTHESIS OF NITROGEN HETEROCYCLES
    Philip Magnus; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The synthetic intermediates, particularly as they more closely resemble the natural products, will be screened to assess biological activity. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  43. Coordination of Respiration with Deglutition & Phonation in Ataxia-Telangiectasia
    Maureen Lefton Greif; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Furthermore, developing A- T as a model will form the basis for applying this non-invasive technology to other children with dysphagia. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  44. Allosteric RNA-based regulators of gene expression
    Christina Smolke; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  45. Clinical and Molecular Evaluation of Cancer Therapy Induced Mucositis
    Sharon Gordon; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Demonstration of safety and tolerability will provide a basis to test further this route of administration. Hence, this proposal holds promise for clinical application in a relatively short period. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  46. Molecular sensors for real-time metabolite detection and dynamic network control
    Christina Smolke; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Due to the flexibility of the sensor platform and the ability of these molecules to 'sense' specific concentrations, these sensors will be powerful research tools in a variety of other applications. ..
  47. SYNTHESIS OF BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE NATURAL PRODUCTS
    Gilbert Stork; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ....