nicotine

Summary

Summary: Nicotine is highly toxic alkaloid. It is the prototypical agonist at nicotinic cholinergic receptors where it dramatically stimulates neurons and ultimately blocks synaptic transmission. Nicotine is also important medically because of its presence in tobacco smoke.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha7 subunit is an essential regulator of inflammation
    Hong Wang
    Laboratory of Biomedical Science, North Shore Long Island Jewish Research Institute, 350 Community Drive, Manhasset, New York 11030, USA
    Nature 421:384-8. 2003
  2. ncbi Nicotine levels in electronic cigarettes
    Maciej L Goniewicz
    Department of General and Analytical Chemistry, School of Pharmacy and Laboratory Medicine, Medical University of Silesia, Sosnowiec, Poland
    Nicotine Tob Res 15:158-66. 2013
  3. pmc Electronic nicotine delivery systems: international tobacco control four-country survey
    Sarah E Adkison
    Department of Health Behavior, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY 14263, USA
    Am J Prev Med 44:207-15. 2013
  4. ncbi Electronic nicotine delivery systems: adult use and awareness of the 'e-cigarette' in the USA
    Annette K Regan
    Office on Smoking and Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta 30341, USA
    Tob Control 22:19-23. 2013
  5. pmc Electronic nicotine delivery systems: a research agenda
    Jean Francois Etter
    Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Geneva, CMU, Case Postale, CH 1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland
    Tob Control 20:243-8. 2011
  6. pmc Electronic cigarettes: effective nicotine delivery after acute administration
    Andrea Rae Vansickel
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 15:267-70. 2013
  7. ncbi Stimulation of the vagus nerve attenuates macrophage activation by activating the Jak2-STAT3 signaling pathway
    Wouter J de Jonge
    Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Nat Immunol 6:844-51. 2005
  8. ncbi A randomized trial of nicotine-replacement therapy patches in pregnancy
    Tim Coleman
    Division of Primary Care, U K Centre for Tobacco Control Studies and National Institute for Health Research School for Primary Care Research, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom
    N Engl J Med 366:808-18. 2012
  9. pmc Habenular α5 nicotinic receptor subunit signalling controls nicotine intake
    Christie D Fowler
    Laboratory for Behavioral and Molecular Neuroscience, Department of Molecular Therapeutics, The Scripps Research Institute Scripps Florida, Jupiter, Florida 33458, USA
    Nature 471:597-601. 2011
  10. pmc Effect of an electronic nicotine delivery device (e-Cigarette) on smoking reduction and cessation: a prospective 6-month pilot study
    Riccardo Polosa
    Centro per la Prevenzione e Cura del Tabagismo CPCT, Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria Policlinico Vittorio Emanuele, Universita di Catania, Catania, Italy
    BMC Public Health 11:786. 2011

Detail Information

Publications374 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha7 subunit is an essential regulator of inflammation
    Hong Wang
    Laboratory of Biomedical Science, North Shore Long Island Jewish Research Institute, 350 Community Drive, Manhasset, New York 11030, USA
    Nature 421:384-8. 2003
    ..Thus, the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha7 subunit is essential for inhibiting cytokine synthesis by the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway...
  2. ncbi Nicotine levels in electronic cigarettes
    Maciej L Goniewicz
    Department of General and Analytical Chemistry, School of Pharmacy and Laboratory Medicine, Medical University of Silesia, Sosnowiec, Poland
    Nicotine Tob Res 15:158-66. 2013
    ..electronic cigarette (EC) is a plastic device that imitates conventional cigarettes and was developed to deliver nicotine in a toxin-free vapor...
  3. pmc Electronic nicotine delivery systems: international tobacco control four-country survey
    Sarah E Adkison
    Department of Health Behavior, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY 14263, USA
    Am J Prev Med 44:207-15. 2013
    Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) initially emerged in 2003 and have since become widely available globally, particularly over the Internet.
  4. ncbi Electronic nicotine delivery systems: adult use and awareness of the 'e-cigarette' in the USA
    Annette K Regan
    Office on Smoking and Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta 30341, USA
    Tob Control 22:19-23. 2013
    Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), also referred to as electronic cigarettes or e-cigarettes, were introduced into the US market in 2007...
  5. pmc Electronic nicotine delivery systems: a research agenda
    Jean Francois Etter
    Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Geneva, CMU, Case Postale, CH 1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland
    Tob Control 20:243-8. 2011
    Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS, also called electronic cigarettes or e-cigarettes) are marketed to deliver nicotine and sometimes other substances by inhalation...
  6. pmc Electronic cigarettes: effective nicotine delivery after acute administration
    Andrea Rae Vansickel
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 15:267-70. 2013
    Electronic cigarettes (ECs) are marketed as nicotine delivery devices. Two studies with EC-naïve participants suggest that ECs deliver little or no nicotine...
  7. ncbi Stimulation of the vagus nerve attenuates macrophage activation by activating the Jak2-STAT3 signaling pathway
    Wouter J de Jonge
    Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Nat Immunol 6:844-51. 2005
    ..The anti-inflammatory effect of nicotine required the ability of phosphorylated STAT3 to bind and transactivate its DNA response elements...
  8. ncbi A randomized trial of nicotine-replacement therapy patches in pregnancy
    Tim Coleman
    Division of Primary Care, U K Centre for Tobacco Control Studies and National Institute for Health Research School for Primary Care Research, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom
    N Engl J Med 366:808-18. 2012
    b>Nicotine-replacement therapy is effective for smoking cessation outside pregnancy and its use is widely recommended during pregnancy. We investigated the efficacy and safety of nicotine patches during pregnancy.
  9. pmc Habenular α5 nicotinic receptor subunit signalling controls nicotine intake
    Christie D Fowler
    Laboratory for Behavioral and Molecular Neuroscience, Department of Molecular Therapeutics, The Scripps Research Institute Scripps Florida, Jupiter, Florida 33458, USA
    Nature 471:597-601. 2011
    ..Here we report markedly increased nicotine intake in mice with a null mutation in Chrna5...
  10. pmc Effect of an electronic nicotine delivery device (e-Cigarette) on smoking reduction and cessation: a prospective 6-month pilot study
    Riccardo Polosa
    Centro per la Prevenzione e Cura del Tabagismo CPCT, Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria Policlinico Vittorio Emanuele, Universita di Catania, Catania, Italy
    BMC Public Health 11:786. 2011
    ..The electronic-cigarette (e-Cigarette), a battery-powered electronic nicotine delivery device (ENDD) resembling a cigarette, may help smokers to remain abstinent during their quit attempt or ..
  11. ncbi Effect of an electronic nicotine delivery device (e cigarette) on desire to smoke and withdrawal, user preferences and nicotine delivery: randomised cross-over trial
    C Bullen
    Clinical Trials Research Unit, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand
    Tob Control 19:98-103. 2010
    To measure the short-term effects of an electronic nicotine delivery device ("e cigarette", ENDD) on desire to smoke, withdrawal symptoms, acceptability, pharmacokinetic properties and adverse effects.
  12. ncbi Effects of cigarette smoke on the immune system
    Mohan Sopori
    Immunology Program, Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87108, USA
    Nat Rev Immunol 2:372-7. 2002
    ..b>Nicotine, which is one of the main constituents of cigarette smoke, suppresses the immune system but might have ..
  13. ncbi Electronic cigarettes as a harm reduction strategy for tobacco control: a step forward or a repeat of past mistakes?
    Zachary Cahn
    Department of Political Science, University of California at Berkeley, UC Berkeley Department of Political Science, 210 Barrows Hall 1950, Berkeley, CA 94720 1950, USA
    J Public Health Policy 32:16-31. 2011
    ..companies independent of the tobacco industry introduced electronic cigarettes, devices that deliver vaporized nicotine without combusting tobacco. We review the existing evidence on the safety and efficacy of electronic cigarettes...
  14. ncbi Metabolism and disposition kinetics of nicotine
    Janne Hukkanen
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Medical Service, San Francisco Genreral Hospital Medical Center, and the Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, Box 1220, San Francisco, CA 94143 1220, USA
    Pharmacol Rev 57:79-115. 2005
    b>Nicotine is of importance as the addictive chemical in tobacco, pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation, a potential medication for several diseases, and a useful probe drug for phenotyping cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6)...
  15. ncbi Tracking the rise in popularity of electronic nicotine delivery systems (electronic cigarettes) using search query surveillance
    John W Ayers
    Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    Am J Prev Med 40:448-53. 2011
    Public interest in electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) is undocumented.
  16. pmc Gain modulation by nicotine in macaque v1
    Anita A Disney
    Center for Neural Science, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003, USA
    Neuron 56:701-13. 2007
    ..Furthermore, consistent with the release enhancement suggested by this localization, we discovered that nicotine increases responsiveness and lowers contrast threshold in layer 4c neurons...
  17. ncbi Electronic nicotine delivery systems: is there a need for regulation?
    Anna Trtchounian
    Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, USA
    Tob Control 20:47-52. 2011
    Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) purport to deliver nicotine to the lungs of smokers...
  18. ncbi Aversion to nicotine is regulated by the balanced activity of β4 and α5 nicotinic receptor subunits in the medial habenula
    Silke Frahm
    Molecular Neurobiology Group, Max Delbrück Centrum, Berlin, Germany
    Neuron 70:522-35. 2011
    b>Nicotine dependence is linked to single nucleotide polymorphisms in the CHRNB4-CHRNA3-CHRNA5 gene cluster encoding the α3β4α5 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR)...
  19. ncbi Downregulation of miR-133 and miR-590 contributes to nicotine-induced atrial remodelling in canines
    Hongli Shan
    Department of Pharmacology, State Province Key Laboratories of Biomedicine and Pharmaceutics, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150081, PR China
    Cardiovasc Res 83:465-72. 2009
    The present study was designed to decipher molecular mechanisms underlying nicotine's promoting atrial fibrillation (AF) by inducing atrial structural remodelling.
  20. pmc A clinical laboratory model for evaluating the acute effects of electronic "cigarettes": nicotine delivery profile and cardiovascular and subjective effects
    Andrea R Vansickel
    Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298, USA
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 19:1945-53. 2010
    ..This information may be obtained by adapting clinical laboratory methods used to evaluate other PREPs for smokers...
  21. pmc Nicotine decreases food intake through activation of POMC neurons
    Yann S Mineur
    Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, 34 Park Street, Third Floor Research, New Haven, CT 06508, USA
    Science 332:1330-2. 2011
    ..This study demonstrates that nicotine decreases food intake and body weight by influencing the hypothalamic melanocortin system and identifies critical ..
  22. pmc Cytokine-induced alterations of α7 nicotinic receptor in colonic CD4 T cells mediate dichotomous response to nicotine in murine models of Th1/Th17- versus Th2-mediated colitis
    Valentin Galitovskiy
    Institute for Immunology, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697, USA
    J Immunol 187:2677-87. 2011
    ..outcomes of treating BALB/c mice with oxazolone- and trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitides by nicotine. Nicotine attenuated oxazolone colitis, which was associated with an increased percentage of colonic regulatory T ..
  23. ncbi Nicotine replacement therapy for smoking cessation
    Lindsay F Stead
    Department of Primary Care Health Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev 11:CD000146. 2012
    The aim of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) is to temporarily replace much of the nicotine from cigarettes to reduce motivation to smoke and nicotine withdrawal symptoms, thus easing the transition from cigarette smoking to complete ..
  24. ncbi Nicotine receptor partial agonists for smoking cessation
    Kate Cahill
    Department of Primary Care Health Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev 4:CD006103. 2012
    b>Nicotine receptor partial agonists may help people to stop smoking by a combination of maintaining moderate levels of dopamine to counteract withdrawal symptoms (acting as an agonist) and reducing smoking satisfaction (acting as an ..
  25. ncbi Beneficial effects of tocotrienol and tocopherol on bone histomorphometric parameters in sprague-dawley male rats after nicotine cessation
    Hapidin Hermizi
    Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
    Calcif Tissue Int 84:65-74. 2009
    This study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of three forms of vitamin E supplements following nicotine treatment on bone histomorphometric parameters in an adult male rat model...
  26. pmc Reward, addiction, withdrawal to nicotine
    Mariella De Biasi
    Department of Neuroscience, Center on Addiction, Learning, Memory, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    Annu Rev Neurosci 34:105-30. 2011
    b>Nicotine is the principal addictive component that drives continued tobacco use despite users' knowledge of the harmful consequences...
  27. ncbi Nicotine reinforcement and cognition restored by targeted expression of nicotinic receptors
    U Maskos
    Unité Récepteurs et Cognition, CNRS URA 2182, Institut Pasteur, 25 rue du Dr Roux, 75724 Paris Cedex 15, France
    Nature 436:103-7. 2005
    Worldwide, 100 million people are expected to die this century from the consequences of nicotine addiction, but nicotine is also known to enhance cognitive performance...
  28. pmc Cholinergic stimulation blocks endothelial cell activation and leukocyte recruitment during inflammation
    Rubina W Saeed
    Laboratory of Medicinal Biochemistry, Institute for Medical Research at North Shore LIJ, Manhasset, NY 11030, USA
    J Exp Med 201:1113-23. 2005
    ..Using the Shwartzman reaction, we observed that nicotine (2 mg/kg) and the novel cholinergic agent CAP55 (12 mg/kg) inhibit endothelial cell adhesion molecule expression...
  29. ncbi Nicotine activation of alpha4* receptors: sufficient for reward, tolerance, and sensitization
    Andrew R Tapper
    Division of Biology, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA
    Science 306:1029-32. 2004
    The identity of nicotinic receptor subtypes sufficient to elicit both the acute and chronic effects of nicotine dependence is unknown...
  30. ncbi Immunomodulatory effects of cigarette smoke
    M L Sopori
    Pathophysiology Division, Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM 87108, USA
    J Neuroimmunol 83:148-56. 1998
    ..the acute effects of cigarette smoke on the immune system are less clear, chronic exposure to cigarette smoke or nicotine causes T cell unresponsiveness...
  31. pmc Crucial role of alpha4 and alpha6 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits from ventral tegmental area in systemic nicotine self-administration
    S Pons
    Unité Neurobiologie Intégrative des Systèmes Cholinergiques, Institut Pasteur, 75724 Paris Cedex 15, France
    J Neurosci 28:12318-27. 2008
    The identification of the molecular mechanisms involved in nicotine addiction and its cognitive consequences is a worldwide priority for public health. Novel in vivo paradigms were developed to match this aim...
  32. pmc Rapid Akt activation by nicotine and a tobacco carcinogen modulates the phenotype of normal human airway epithelial cells
    Kip A West
    Cancer Therapeutics Branch, Cell and Cancer Biology Branch, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland 20889, USA
    J Clin Invest 111:81-90. 2003
    ..kinase Akt in nonimmortalized human airway epithelial cells in vitro by two components of cigarette smoke, nicotine and the tobacco-specific carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK)...
  33. pmc Nicotine enhances visuospatial attention by deactivating areas of the resting brain default network
    Britta Hahn
    Neuroimaging Research Branch, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA
    J Neurosci 27:3477-89. 2007
    b>Nicotine-induced attentional enhancement is of potential therapeutic value...
  34. ncbi Unpredictability of nectar nicotine promotes outcrossing by hummingbirds in Nicotiana attenuata
    Danny Kessler
    Department of Molecular Ecology, Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology, Hans Knöll Straße 8, D 07745 Jena, Germany
    Plant J 71:529-38. 2012
    ..Nicotiana attenuata flowers produce nectar with nicotine at concentrations that are repellent to hummingbirds, increasing the number of flowers visited per plant...
  35. pmc Nicotine-induced survival signaling in lung cancer cells is dependent on their p53 status while its down-regulation by curcumin is independent
    Vineshkumar T Puliyappadamba
    Integrated Cancer Research Program, Division of Cancer Research, Rajiv Gandhi Centre for Biotechnology, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India
    Mol Cancer 9:220. 2010
    Lung cancer is the most lethal cancer and almost 90% of lung cancer is due to cigarette smoking. Even though nicotine, one of the major ingredients of cigarette smoke and the causative agent for addiction, is not a carcinogen by itself, ..
  36. pmc Complete genome sequence of the nicotine-degrading Pseudomonas putida strain S16
    Hao Yu
    State Key Laboratory of Microbial Metabolism, School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, People s Republic of China
    J Bacteriol 193:5541-2. 2011
    Pseudomonas putida S16 is an efficient degrader of nicotine. The complete genome of strain S16 (5,984,790 bp in length) includes genes related to catabolism of aromatic and heterocyclic compounds...
  37. ncbi Microbiology and biochemistry of nicotine degradation
    Roderich Brandsch
    Institut fur Biochemie und Molekularbiologie, Hermann Herder Str 7, 79104, Freiburg, Germany
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 69:493-8. 2006
    Several bacterial species are adapted to nicotine, the main alkaloid produced by the tobacco plant, as growth substrate...
  38. ncbi Activation of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway by nicotine attenuates hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury via heme oxygenase-1 induction
    Juhyun Park
    School of Pharmacy, Sungkyunkwan University, Gyeonggi Do, Suwon 440 746, Republic of Korea
    Eur J Pharmacol 707:61-70. 2013
    ..Here, we investigate the cytoprotective mechanisms of nicotine, a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist, against liver injury caused by I/R...
  39. ncbi Reduced nicotine content cigarettes: effects on toxicant exposure, dependence and cessation
    Dorothy K Hatsukami
    University of Minnesota Transdisciplinary Tobacco Use Research Center, Minneapolis, MN 55414, USA
    Addiction 105:343-55. 2010
    To examine the effects of reduced nicotine cigarettes on smoking behavior, toxicant exposure, dependence and abstinence.
  40. ncbi A comparative study of the mutagenicity of various types of tobacco products
    W S Rickert
    Labstat International ULC, 262 Manitou Drive, Kitchener, Ont, Canada N2C 1L3
    Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 48:320-30. 2007
    ..All extracts were analyzed for humectants, water and nicotine. Mutagenic activity was assessed per OECD guideline 471 using Salmonella typhimurium TA98+S9 and TA100+S9...
  41. ncbi Smoking cessation and weight gain
    C Filozof
    Unidad de Tabaquismo, Area de Prevención y Rehabilitación Cardiaca, Instituto Cardiovascular, Hospital Clinico San Carlos, Universidad Complutense, Madrid, Spain
    Obes Rev 5:95-103. 2004
    ..This review summarizes current information of the effects of nicotine on peptides involved in feeding behaviour...
  42. pmc Endogenous fatty acid ethanolamides suppress nicotine-induced activation of mesolimbic dopamine neurons through nuclear receptors
    Miriam Melis
    B B Brodie Department of Neuroscience, University of Cagliari, 09042 Monserrato, Italy
    J Neurosci 28:13985-94. 2008
    b>Nicotine stimulates the activity of mesolimbic dopamine neurons, which is believed to mediate the rewarding and addictive properties of tobacco use...
  43. ncbi Female sex and oral contraceptive use accelerate nicotine metabolism
    Neal L Benowitz
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Medical Service, San Francisco General Hospital Medical Center, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco 94143 1220, USA
    Clin Pharmacol Ther 79:480-8. 2006
    ..This could be related to sex differences in nicotine metabolism and related smoking behavior...
  44. pmc Characterization of a nicotine-sensitive neuronal population in rat entorhinal cortex
    Bin Tu
    Laboratory of Neurobiology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    J Neurosci 29:10436-48. 2009
    The entorhinal cortex (EC) is a part of the hippocampal complex that is essential to learning and memory, and nicotine affects memory by activating nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the hippocampal complex...
  45. ncbi Synaptic mechanisms underlie nicotine-induced excitability of brain reward areas
    Huibert D Mansvelder
    Department of Anesthesia, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
    Neuron 33:905-19. 2002
    A single nicotine exposure increases dopamine levels in the mesolimbic reward system for hours, but nicotine concentrations experienced by smokers desensitize nAChRs on dopamine neurons in seconds to minutes...
  46. pmc Nicotine effects on default mode network during resting state
    Jody Tanabe
    Department of Radiology, University of Colorado Denver School of Medicine, Denver, CO, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 216:287-95. 2011
    ..b>Nicotine improves cognitive performance, in part by improving attention...
  47. ncbi The effect of menthol containing cigarettes on adult smokers' exposure to nicotine and carbon monoxide
    Jingzhu Wang
    Altria Client Services Inc, Center for Research and Technology, 601 E Jackson Street, Richmond, VA 23219, USA
    Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 57:24-30. 2010
    ..There is limited information comparing biomarkers of exposure (BOE) to cigarette smoke in menthol (MS) and non-menthol cigarette smokers (NMS)...
  48. pmc Menthol's potential effects on nicotine dependence: a tobacco industry perspective
    Valerie B Yerger
    Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Box 0612, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143 0612, USA
    Tob Control 20:ii29-36. 2011
    To examine what the tobacco industry knows about the potential effects menthol may have on nicotine dependence.
  49. ncbi Indoor concentrations of nicotine in low-income, multi-unit housing: associations with smoking behaviours and housing characteristics
    T A Kraev
    Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Tob Control 18:438-44. 2009
    An analysis of airborne nicotine measurements collected in 49 low-income, multi-unit residences across the Greater Boston Area.
  50. ncbi Expression of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit genes in non-small-cell lung cancer reveals differences between smokers and nonsmokers
    David Chi Leung Lam
    Department of Medicine, University of Hong Kong, HKSAR, China
    Cancer Res 67:4638-47. 2007
    b>Nicotine and its derivatives, by binding to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) on bronchial epithelial cells, can regulate cellular proliferation and apoptosis via activating the Akt pathway...
  51. ncbi Beta3 subunits promote expression and nicotine-induced up-regulation of human nicotinic alpha6* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors expressed in transfected cell lines
    Prem Tumkosit
    Department of Neuroscience, University of Pennsylvania Medical School, 217 Stemmler Hall, 36th and Hamilton Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Mol Pharmacol 70:1358-68. 2006
    ..containing alpha6 subunits are typically found at aminergic nerve endings where they play important roles in nicotine addiction and Parkinson's disease. alpha6* AChRs usually contain beta3 subunits...
  52. ncbi Regulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor numbers and function by chronic nicotine exposure
    C L Gentry
    Division of Neurobiology, Barrow Neurological Institute, Phoenix, Arizona 85013, USA
    Curr Drug Targets CNS Neurol Disord 1:359-85. 2002
    Recent advances concerning effects of chronic nicotine exposure on nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) expression are reviewed...
  53. ncbi Behavioral and neural consequences of prenatal exposure to nicotine
    M Ernst
    Brain Imaging Center in the Neuroimaging Branch of the Intramural Research Program of the National Institute on Drug Abuse, Bethesda, MD 20892 0135, USA
    J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 40:630-41. 2001
    To review evidence for the neurodevelopmental effects of in utero exposure to nicotine. Concerns about long-term cognitive and behavioral effects of prenatal exposure to nicotine arise from reports of increased rates of disruptive ..
  54. ncbi Tobacco components stimulate Akt-dependent proliferation and NFkappaB-dependent survival in lung cancer cells
    Junji Tsurutani
    Cancer Therapeutics Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20889, USA
    Carcinogenesis 26:1182-95. 2005
    ..insight into the biologic basis for these clinical observations, we tested whether two tobacco components, nicotine or the tobacco-specific carcinogen, 4-(methylnitrosoamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), could activate the Akt ..
  55. ncbi Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in cancer: multiple roles in proliferation and inhibition of apoptosis
    Richard D Egleton
    Department of Pharmacology, Physiology and Toxicology, Joan C Edwards School of Medicine, 1 John Marshall Drive, Huntington, WV 25755, USA
    Trends Pharmacol Sci 29:151-8. 2008
    ..Components of cigarette smoke, including nicotine and NNK [4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone], are agonists of nAChRs...
  56. ncbi Cholinergic modulation of microglial activation by alpha 7 nicotinic receptors
    R Douglas Shytle
    Child Development Center, Neuroimmunology Laboratory, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Medicine, University of South Florida College of Medciine, Tampa, Florida, USA
    J Neurochem 89:337-43. 2004
    ..Acetylcholine and nicotine pre-treatment inhibit lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced TNF-alpha release in murine-derived microglial cells, an ..
  57. ncbi Nicotine-mediated cell proliferation and angiogenesis: new twists to an old story
    Piyali Dasgupta
    Drug Discovery Program, Department of Interdisciplinary Oncology, H Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida 33612, USA
    Cell Cycle 5:2324-8. 2006
    ..While there are many carcinogenic compounds present in tobacco smoke, its main addictive component, nicotine, is not carcinogenic by itself...
  58. ncbi Role of dopamine in the behavioural actions of nicotine related to addiction
    G Di Chiara
    Department of Toxicology and CNR Center of Neuropharmacology, University of Cagliari, Viale Diaz 182, 09100 Cagliari, Italy
    Eur J Pharmacol 393:295-314. 2000
    ..function by 6-hydroxydopamine lesions or by dopamine receptor antagonists shows that dopamine is involved in nicotine's discriminative stimulus properties, nicotine-induced facilitation of intracranial self-stimulation, intravenous ..
  59. pmc The dynamic effects of nicotine on the developing brain
    Jennifer B Dwyer
    Department of Pharmacology, Med Surge II, School of Medicine, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697, USA
    Pharmacol Ther 122:125-39. 2009
    ..b>Nicotine exposure, most often via tobacco smoke, but increasingly via nicotine replacement therapy, has been shown to have ..
  60. ncbi Beta-amyloid regulation of presynaptic nicotinic receptors in rat hippocampus and neocortex
    John J Dougherty
    Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19102, USA
    J Neurosci 23:6740-7. 2003
    ..To explore this possibility, we assessed the effect of Abeta peptides on nicotine-evoked changes in presynaptic Ca2+ level via confocal imaging of isolated presynaptic nerve endings from rat ..
  61. pmc Genomic analysis of Pseudomonas putida: genes in a genome island are crucial for nicotine degradation
    Hongzhi Tang
    State Key Laboratory of Microbial Metabolism and School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, PR China
    Sci Rep 2:377. 2012
    b>Nicotine is an important chemical compound in nature that has been regarded as an environmental toxicant causing various preventable diseases...
  62. pmc Nicotine induces negative energy balance through hypothalamic AMP-activated protein kinase
    Pablo B Martínez de Morentin
    Department of Physiology, School of Medicine CIMUS, University of Santiago de Compostela Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria, Santiago de Compostela, A Coruna, Spain
    Diabetes 61:807-17. 2012
    ..Numerous controlled studies in both humans and rodents have reported that nicotine exerts a marked anorectic action...
  63. ncbi Surveillance of moist snuff: total nicotine, moisture, pH, un-ionized nicotine, and tobacco-specific nitrosamines
    Patricia Richter
    Office on Smoking and Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 10:1645-52. 2008
    ..The U.S. Surgeon General has concluded that smokeless tobacco use can lead to nicotine addiction...
  64. ncbi Smoking, nicotine and neuropsychiatric disorders
    Peter Dome
    Department of Clinical and Theoretical Mental Health, Kutvolgyi Clinical Center, Semmelweis University, Faculty of Medicine, Kutvolgyi ut 4, 1125 Budapest, Hungary
    Neurosci Biobehav Rev 34:295-342. 2010
    Tobacco smoking is an extremely addictive and harmful form of nicotine (NIC) consumption, but unfortunately also the most prevalent...
  65. pmc Life-long programming implications of exposure to tobacco smoking and nicotine before and soon after birth: evidence for altered lung development
    Gert S Maritz
    Department of Medical Biosciences, University of the Western Cape, Bellville 7535, South Africa
    Int J Environ Res Public Health 8:875-98. 2011
    ..It is now well established that components of tobacco smoke, notably nicotine, can affect multiple organs in the fetus and newborn, potentially with life-long consequences...
  66. ncbi Tobacco transcription factors NtMYC2a and NtMYC2b form nuclear complexes with the NtJAZ1 repressor and regulate multiple jasmonate-inducible steps in nicotine biosynthesis
    Hong Bo Zhang
    Department of Biology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904, USA
    Mol Plant 5:73-84. 2012
    ..stress lead to elevated levels of jasmonic acid (JA) and its derivatives and activation of the biosynthesis of nicotine and related pyridine alkaloids in cultivated tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.)...
  67. ncbi Nicotine up-regulates IL-8 expression in human gingival epithelial cells following stimulation with IL-1β or P. gingivalis lipopolysaccharide via nicotinic acetylcholine receptor signalling
    Yoichiro Kashiwagi
    Department of Periodontology, Division of Oral Biology and Disease Control, Osaka University Graduate School of Dentistry, 1 8 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565 0871, Japan
    Arch Oral Biol 57:483-90. 2012
    ..The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of nicotine, a major component of cigarette smoke, on interleukin-8 (IL-8) production and cellular signalling via nicotinic ..
  68. ncbi Enhancement of cancer stem-like and epithelial-mesenchymal transdifferentiation property in oral epithelial cells with long-term nicotine exposure: reversal by targeting SNAIL
    Cheng Chia Yu
    Institute of Oral Science, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 266:459-69. 2013
    ..The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of long-term exposure with nicotine, a major component in cigarette, on CSCs and EMT characteristics...
  69. ncbi Nicotine delivery and subjective effects of Swedish portion snus compared with 4 mg nicotine polacrilex chewing gum
    Erik Lunell
    CROel AB, Helsingborg, Sweden
    Nicotine Tob Res 13:573-8. 2011
    Snus availability has been claimed to have contributed to the low rates of smoking among Swedish men and made possible the transfer to a less harmful form of nicotine dependence.
  70. ncbi Genes and pathways co-associated with the exposure to multiple drugs of abuse, including alcohol, amphetamine/methamphetamine, cocaine, marijuana, morphine, and/or nicotine: a review of proteomics analyses
    Ju Wang
    Department of Psychiatry and Neurobehavioral Sciences, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22911, USA
    Mol Neurobiol 44:269-86. 2011
    ..the administration of alcohol, amphetamine/methamphetamine, cocaine, marijuana, morphine/heroin/butorphanol, or nicotine. From available reports, we compiled a list of 497 proteins associated with exposure to one or more addictive ..
  71. pmc Nicotine replacement and behavioral therapy for smoking cessation in pregnancy
    Kathryn I Pollak
    Cancer Prevention, Detection and Control Research Program, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Duke University Medical Center, 2424 Erwin Road, Durham, NC 27705, USA
    Am J Prev Med 33:297-305. 2007
    This study examines whether adding nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) to cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for pregnant smokers increases rates of smoking cessation.
  72. pmc Nicotine enhances murine airway contractile responses to kinin receptor agonists via activation of JNK- and PDE4-related intracellular pathways
    Yuan Xu
    Division of Ear, Nose and Throat Diseases, CLINTEC, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, Sweden
    Respir Res 11:13. 2010
    b>Nicotine plays an important role in cigarette-smoke-associated airway disease...
  73. ncbi Impulsive choice and impulsive action predict vulnerability to distinct stages of nicotine seeking in rats
    Leontien Diergaarde
    Center for Neurogenomics and Cognitive Research, Department of Anatomy and Neurosciences, VU Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Biol Psychiatry 63:301-8. 2008
    Although heavy smoking has been associated with impulsivity in humans, it is not clear whether poor impulse control represents a risk factor in the etiology of nicotine dependence.
  74. pmc Is nicotine replacement therapy for smoking cessation effective in the "real world"? Findings from a prospective multinational cohort study
    Robert West
    University College London, 2 6 Torrington Place, London WC1E 6BT, UK
    Thorax 62:998-1002. 2007
    ..b>Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) has been found in clinical trials to improve the chances of success at stopping, but ..
  75. pmc A novel gene, encoding 6-hydroxy-3-succinoylpyridine hydroxylase, involved in nicotine degradation by Pseudomonas putida strain S16
    Hongzhi Tang
    State Key Laboratory of Microbial Technology, Shandong University, Jinan 250100, People s Republic of China
    Appl Environ Microbiol 74:1567-74. 2008
    Previous research suggested that Pseudomonas spp. may attack the pyrrolidine ring of nicotine in a way similar to mammalian metabolism, resulting in the formation of pseudooxynicotine, the direct precursor of a potent tobacco-specific ..
  76. ncbi Ghrelin receptor antagonism attenuates nicotine-induced locomotor stimulation, accumbal dopamine release and conditioned place preference in mice
    Elisabet Jerlhag
    Section for Pharmacology, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, SE 405 30 Gothenburg, Sweden
    Drug Alcohol Depend 117:126-31. 2011
    ..As the target circuits for other drugs of abuse, including nicotine, in the brain includes this reward link, we sought to determine whether the central ghrelin signalling system is ..
  77. pmc Zebrafish for the study of the biological effects of nicotine
    Eric W Klee
    Department of Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 13:301-12. 2011
    Zebrafish are emerging as a powerful animal model for studying the molecular and physiological effects of nicotine exposure...
  78. ncbi APETALA2/ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR and basic helix-loop-helix tobacco transcription factors cooperatively mediate jasmonate-elicited nicotine biosynthesis
    Kathleen De Boer
    School of Biological Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC 3800, Australia
    Plant J 66:1053-65. 2011
    ..tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) AP2/ERF factor ORC1, one of the members of the NIC2-locus ERFs that control nicotine biosynthesis and a close homologue of ORCA3, a transcriptional activator of alkaloid biosynthesis in Catharanthus ..
  79. pmc A novel NADH-dependent and FAD-containing hydroxylase is crucial for nicotine degradation by Pseudomonas putida
    Hongzhi Tang
    State Key Laboratory of Microbial Metabolism and School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China
    J Biol Chem 286:39179-87. 2011
    b>Nicotine, the main alkaloid produced by Nicotiana tabacum and other Solanaceae, is very toxic and may be a leading toxicant causing preventable disease and death, with the rise in global tobacco consumption...
  80. pmc Nucleus accumbens CREB activity is necessary for nicotine conditioned place preference
    Darlene H Brunzell
    Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 34:1993-2001. 2009
    The ability of nicotine to alter firing of dopamine neurons is the first step leading to nicotine reward, but activation of intracellular signaling pathways downstream of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors is likely to be critical for ..
  81. ncbi Nicotinic receptors in the rat prefrontal cortex: increase in glutamate release and facilitation of mediodorsal thalamo-cortical transmission
    Y Gioanni
    INSERM U114, College de France, Paris, France
    Eur J Neurosci 11:18-30. 1999
    ..The lesion resulted in a 40% reduction of 3H-nicotine autoradiographic labelling in the ipsilateral prefrontal cortex, particularly in areas that are innervated by the ..
  82. ncbi If nicotine is a developmental neurotoxicant in animal studies, dare we recommend nicotine replacement therapy in pregnant women and adolescents?
    Theodore A Slotkin
    Box 3813 DUMC, Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Neurotoxicol Teratol 30:1-19. 2008
    ..Over the past two decades, animal models of prenatal nicotine exposure have demonstrated that nicotine is a neurobehavioral teratogen that disrupts brain development by ..
  83. pmc Distinct contributions of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha4 and subunit alpha6 to the reinforcing effects of nicotine
    Richard Exley
    Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PT, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:7577-82. 2011
    b>Nicotine is the primary psychoactive component of tobacco. Its reinforcing and addictive properties depend on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) located within the mesolimbic axis originating in the ventral tegmental area (VTA)...
  84. pmc Personalized smoking cessation: interactions between nicotine dose, dependence and quit-success genotype score
    Jed E Rose
    Department of Psychiatry and Center for Nicotine and Smoking Cessation Research, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705, USA
    Mol Med 16:247-53. 2010
    Improving and targeting nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) are cost-effective strategies for reducing adverse health consequences for smokers...
  85. pmc The effects of smoking on the developing lung: insights from a biologic model for lung development, homeostasis, and repair
    Virender K Rehan
    Department of Pediatrics, Harbor UCLA Medical Center, Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor UCLA, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, 1124 West Carson Street, Torrance, CA 90502, USA
    Lung 187:281-9. 2009
    ..Using a biologic model of lung development, homeostasis, and repair, we have determined that in utero nicotine exposure disrupts specific molecular paracrine communications between epithelium and interstitium that are driven ..
  86. ncbi Associative learning, the hippocampus, and nicotine addiction
    Jennifer A Davis
    Department of Psychology, Center for Substance Abuse Research, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA 19122, USA
    Curr Drug Abuse Rev 1:9-19. 2008
    The abuse liability of nicotine is comparable to or greater than that of a variety of addictive substances...
  87. pmc Nicotine and inflammatory neurological disorders
    Wen Hua Piao
    Barrow Neurological Institute, St Joseph s Hospital and Medical Center, Phoenix, AZ 85013, USA
    Acta Pharmacol Sin 30:715-22. 2009
    ..b>Nicotine is the main immunosuppressive constituent of cigarette smoke, which inhibits both the innate and adaptive immune ..
  88. ncbi Sex differences in long-term smoking cessation rates due to nicotine patch
    Kenneth A Perkins
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 10:1245-50. 2008
    ..We conducted a meta-analysis of the 14 placebo-controlled nicotine patch trials (N = 6,250) for which long-term (6 months) clinical outcome results could be determined separately ..
  89. pmc Positive modulation of GABA(B) receptors decreased nicotine self-administration and counteracted nicotine-induced enhancement of brain reward function in rats
    Neil E Paterson
    Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr, La Jolla, CA 92093 0603, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 326:306-14. 2008
    Acute administration of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-B receptor agonists decreases nicotine, cocaine, ethanol, and heroin self-administration and also decreases food-maintained responding and suppresses locomotor activity at high doses...
  90. pmc Nicotine inhibits apoptosis induced by chemotherapeutic drugs by up-regulating XIAP and survivin
    Piyali Dasgupta
    Department of Interdisciplinary Oncology, H Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, University of South Florida, 12902 Magnolia Drive, Tampa, FL 33647, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:6332-7. 2006
    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) demonstrates a strong etiologic association with smoking. Although nicotine is not carcinogenic, it can induce cell proliferation and angiogenesis and suppress apoptosis induced by certain agents...
  91. ncbi Higher nicotine and carbon monoxide levels in menthol cigarette smokers with and without schizophrenia
    Jill M Williams
    UMDNJ Robert Wood Johnson Medical School and UMDNJ School of Public Health Tobacco Dependence Program, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 9:873-81. 2007
    ..Expired carbon monoxide (CO) and serum nicotine and cotinine were measured in 89 smokers with schizophrenia and 53 control smokers immediately after smoking an ..
  92. ncbi Cigarette smoking and lung cancer: chemical mechanisms and approaches to prevention
    Stephen S Hecht
    University of Minnesota Cancer Center, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    Lancet Oncol 3:461-9. 2002
    ..These new approaches are necessary as adjuncts to education and cessation efforts, which despite some success have not eliminated tobacco smoking...
  93. pmc FOXM1 upregulation is an early event in human squamous cell carcinoma and it is enhanced by nicotine during malignant transformation
    Emilios Gemenetzidis
    Centre for Clinical and Diagnostic Oral Sciences, Institute of Dentistry, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK
    PLoS ONE 4:e4849. 2009
    ..The survival of patients is very poor due to the lack of effective early biomarkers. FOXM1 overexpression is linked to the majority of human cancers but its mechanism remains unclear in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC)...
  94. ncbi Nicotine and fibronectin expression in lung fibroblasts: implications for tobacco-related lung tissue remodeling
    Jesse Roman
    Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Whitehead Biomedical Research Building, 615 Michael St, Suite 205 M, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    FASEB J 18:1436-8. 2004
    ..We hypothesize that nicotine, a component of tobacco, stimulates the expression of fibronectin in lung fibroblasts via the activation of ..
  95. pmc Meta-analysis of the acute effects of nicotine and smoking on human performance
    Stephen J Heishman
    Nicotine Psychopharmacology Section, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH Intramural Research Program, 251 Bayview Blvd, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 210:453-69. 2010
    Empirical studies indicate that nicotine enhances some aspects of attention and cognition, suggesting a role in the maintenance of tobacco dependence...
  96. ncbi Effects of nicotine in the dopaminergic system of mice lacking the alpha4 subunit of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors
    L M Marubio
    Dept Biotechnologies, Institut Pasteur, 75724 Paris Cedex 15, France
    Eur J Neurosci 17:1329-37. 2003
    ..dopaminergic system influences locomotor activity and the reinforcing properties of many drugs of abuse including nicotine. Here we investigate the role of the alpha4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunit in mediating the ..
  97. ncbi Neurobiology of nicotine addiction: implications for smoking cessation treatment
    Neal L Benowitz
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Medical Service, San Francisco General Hospital Medical Center, San Francisco, California, USA
    Am J Med 121:S3-10. 2008
    b>Nicotine sustains addictive tobacco use, which in turn causes much premature disability and death. The essence of drug addiction is loss of control of drug use...
  98. pmc A digital smoking cessation program delivered through internet and cell phone without nicotine replacement (happy ending): randomized controlled trial
    Håvar Brendryen
    Department of Psychology, Postboks 1094 Blindern, 0317 Oslo, Norway
    J Med Internet Res 10:e51. 2008
    ..HE includes a craving helpline and a relapse prevention system, providing just-in-time therapy. All the components of the program are fully automated...
  99. ncbi Effects of cocaine, nicotine, dizocipline and alcohol on mice locomotor activity: cocaine-alcohol cross-sensitization involves upregulation of striatal dopamine transporter binding sites
    Y Itzhak
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology R 629, University of Miami School of Medicine, P O Box 016129, Miami, FL 33101, USA
    Brain Res 818:204-11. 1999
    We investigated if repeated administration of cocaine, nicotine, dizocipline (MK-801) and alcohol yields behavioral cross-sensitization between these agents...
  100. ncbi Chronic nicotine inhibits inflammation and promotes influenza infection
    Seddigheh Razani-Boroujerdi
    Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, 2425 Ridgecrest Dr SE, Albuquerque, NM 87108, USA
    Cell Immunol 230:1-9. 2004
    ..Inflammation is critical in the body's defense against pathogens and in the wound-healing process. Although nicotine is used to treat some inflammatory conditions, the mechanism of this action is largely unknown...
  101. ncbi Mentholated cigarette smoking inhibits nicotine metabolism
    Neal L Benowitz
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, University of California, San Francisco, Box 1220, San Francisco, CA 94143 1220, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 310:1208-15. 2004
    ..increase risk are by increasing systemic exposure to tobacco smoke toxins and by affecting the metabolism of nicotine or tobacco smoke carcinogens...

Research Grants83

  1. The Habenulo-Interpeduncular Pathway and Nicotine
    Christie D Fowler; Fiscal Year: 2013
    7. Project Summary/Abstract Nicotine contained in tobacco is considered to be the primary reinforcing component responsible for tobacco addiction in human smokers[1]...
  2. Chronic nicotine and synaptic transmission in brainstem respiratory neurons
    RALPH FRANK FREGOSI; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Importantly, recent studies document that the main respiratory phenotype in nicotine-exposed human neonates is a higher incidence of obstructive sleep apnea...
  3. VitC to Decrease Effects of Smoking in Pregnancy on Infant Lung Function-CCC-Lead
    CYNTHIA T MCEVOY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Given nicotine's addictive nature, the underserved socio-economic nature of the patient population, and the constant ..
  4. Tobacco Control Research Branch Scientific and Technical Services Support
    KOURTNEY MARSHALL; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..indoor air policies, advertising and marketing restrictions, youth access restrictions and tobacco product and nicotine regulation; 5) Basic biological research to include biomarkers of tobacco exposure and tobacco-induced cellular ..
  5. Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Density and Veteran Cigarette Smokers
    Arthur Brody; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..usage of menthol cigarettes, studies of biological markers of smoking demonstrate that menthol itself inhibits nicotine metabolism, and that menthol cigarette smoking leads to elevated serum levels of nicotine and cotinine, and ..
  6. VitC to Decrease Effects of Smoking in Pregnancy on Infant Lung Function-DCC
    Cynthia D Morris; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Given nicotine's addictive nature, the underserved socio-economic nature of the patient population, and the constant ..
  7. KINETICS OF DRUG MACROMOLECULE COMPLEX FORMATION
    PALMER WILLIAM TAYLOR; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..endeavors directed novel nicotinic receptor ligands for depression, schizophrenia, pain alleviation and nicotine addiction and AChE inhibitor antidotes...
  8. Modulation of cancer prevention by social stress
    Hildegard M Schuller; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..addition, we have shown in mouse xenografts from PDAC and PAC that GABA reverses the cancer promoting effects of nicotine, which include a nicotinic receptor-induced systemic increase in noradrenaline and adrenaline...
  9. High Throughput Methods to Measure Disparities in Childhood Exposure to Tobacco
    Sharon E Murphy; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..employs a multidisciplinary team with expertise in tobacco research (including the analytical methods to quantify nicotine metabolites), pediatric epidemiology, and health disparities research...
  10. Role of Id1 in NSCLC Progression and Metastasis
    Srikumar P Chellappan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In addition, many of these tobacco carcinogens as well as nicotine itself can promote cell proliferation and angiogenesis through the activation of nicotinic acetylcholine ..
  11. Resolving the role of nicotine-mediated phosphorylation on pancreatic fibrosis
    Joao A Paulo; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Smoking is an independent risk factor for pancreatic disease. In addition, nicotine, the major toxic component of cigarette smoke is implicated in fibrosis in various cell types...
  12. Developing Immunotherapeutics for Methamphetamine Abuse
    THOMAS RICHARD KOSTEN; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Vaccines against both nicotine and cocaine have been promising in both animal and human studies...
  13. Preclinical studies of a heroin/morphine vaccine for opiate addiction
    Paul R Pentel; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Vaccines for nicotine and cocaine addictions are in clinical trials and preliminary data suggest efficacy...
  14. EFFECT OF DRUGS OF ABUSE ON NEURONAL REDOX AND METHYLATION STATUS
    Richard C Deth; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..studies show that EAAT3- mediated cysteine uptake is also sensitive to opiates and ethanol, as well as nicotine and cannabinoids, suggesting that it may serve as a nexus for the epigenetic effects of abused drugs...
  15. Multivalent Vaccine for Opiate Addiction
    Paul R Pentel; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..alter drug pharmacokinetics have shown substantial preclinical and preliminary clinical evidence of efficacy for nicotine and cocaine addiction, and several heroin vaccines have shown promise in animal models...
  16. Brain Nicotine Receptor Density &Response to Nicotine Patch
    Arthur Brody; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Current first-line medications for Tobacco Dependence include nicotine replacement therapies (such as the patch, gum, lozenge, nasal spray, and inhaler), varenicline HCl (Chantix), and ..
  17. Diesel, Allergens and Gene Interaction and Child Atopy
    Grace LeMasters; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..This revision also serves to create new research objectives to explore the associations of nicotine metabolism and oxidative stress genetics outside of the scope of the parent grant, and will be completed in less ..
  18. Development and Regulation of Cholinergic Synapses
    Andres Villu Maricq; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The various receptors exhibit differential sensitivity to drugs (such as the addictive drug nicotine), and the diversity of receptors contributes to neuronal function and drug dependence...
  19. Integrated PTSD and Smoking Treatment
    Mark B Powers; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Features of PTSD that may contribute to smokers'progression to nicotine dependence and cessation relapse include negative affect, fear, increased arousal, irritability, anger, distress ..
  20. Developing Novel Dual CRF-R1/Orexin-1 Receptor Antagonists for Tobacco Dependence
    Belew Mekonnen; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Although significant progress has been made towards the understanding and treatment of nicotine dependence, still approximately 21% of the adult population in the United States continues to smoke, and the ..
  21. FASEB SRC on Yeast Chromosome Structure, Replication and Segregation
    Scott Keeney; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Environmental agents - including manmade air- and water-borne pollutants, electromagnetic radiation, and nicotine and other natural products - can have profound effects on the replication, segregation, and repair of chromosomes...
  22. Integrated Treatment for Smoking Cessation &Anxiety in People with HIV
    Michael J Zvolensky; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..in the smoking cessation literature: a general lack of innovation in efficacious psychosocial treatments for nicotine dependence, particularly among persons living with HIV...
  23. Induction of Nerve Growth Factor by Nicotine Leads to Airway Dysfunction
    CHERRY P WONGTRAKOOL; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..However, nicotine, a lipophilic chemical that is the major addictive component of tobacco smoke, may play an important role ..
  24. microRNA analysis of neurons generated from patient-specific iPSCs
    Herbert M Lachman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..SZ), there are numerous confounding factors that could affect data interpretation including co- morbid nicotine, alcohol and drug abuse, and chronic use of psychotropic medications...
  25. A+ Head Start Intervention for Smoke Free Homes
    Cynthia S Rand; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The primary study outcome measure will be household ETS levels, as measured by home air nicotine levels at six month follow-up...
  26. Neurobiological mechanisms of nicotine reinforcement: Role of the nucleus tractus
    LUIS MIGUEL TUESTA; Fiscal Year: 2012
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Neurobiological mechanisms of nicotine reinforcement: Role of the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) Cigarette smoking is a principal cause of preventable death and disease in developed nations, with ..
  27. Growth and Cardiometabolic Risk Among In Utero Drug Exposed Children
    SARAH ELIZABETH MESSIAH; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..postnatal exposures of cocaine in a repeated measures multivariate analysis, controlling for effect modifiers (nicotine, alcohol and marijuana exposure, stress, anxiety and depression in children and mothers) on: (a) Overweight and ..
  28. Determinants of developing efferent synapses in the mammalian cochlea
    ISABELLE CATHERINA ROUX; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..is based on our finding that in addition to the response mediated by a9/a10nAChRs, in developing mouse IHCs a nicotine-mediated response exists that is inhibited by a blocker specific for the a1 nAChR...
  29. Motivational Incentives to Reduce Secondhand Smoke in NICU Infants'Homes
    Angela L Stotts; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Primary efficacy variables will include objective and valid measures of SHSe (infant cotinine, household air nicotine monitors, Timeline Followback for SHSe)...
  30. Nicotine Modulation of Parasympathetic Cardiac Neurons
    David Mendelowitz; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..for SIDS is cigarette smoking and while tobacco smoke contains a number of deleterious agents in addition to nicotine, nicotine is of particular concern in relation to SIDS due to its ability to cross the placenta and concentrate ..
  31. Adolescent brains, nicotine and endogenous prototoxins
    Rae Nishi; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Adolescents display a greater sensitivity to the addictive effects of nicotine, becoming dependent upon smoking more rapidly than adults...
  32. Effect of Baclofen on Alcohol Cue-Elicited Urges to Drink and Smoke
    GEORGE ANTHONY KENNA; Fiscal Year: 2011
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): There is a high co-morbidity between alcohol and nicotine dependence...
  33. Exercise Intervention for Smoking
    Michael J Zvolensky; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..in the smoking cessation literature: a general lack of innovation in efficacious psychosocial treatments for nicotine dependence...
  34. Effect of Smoking on Adult Stem Cell Differentiation
    Herman S Cheung; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Significant tissue hypoxia mainly attributed to carbon monoxide (CO) and nicotine. CO raises carboxyl- hemoglobin levels, whilst nicotine induces vasoconstriction, which further decreases tissue ..
  35. Biomarkers of NNK in prediction of lung cancer development in smokers
    Jian Min Yuan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We will measure the concentrations of NNAL and NNAL-Glucs (NNK metabolites), total nicotine equivalents (i.e...
  36. Genetic Determinants of Drug Effects
    Tamara J Phillips; Fiscal Year: 2012
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Project Summary / Abstract Problematic alcohol and nicotine use may arise in response to stress and negative life events, but may also be influenced by genetic factors...
  37. CIGARETTE SMOKE IMPACTS FETAL LUNG DNA METHYLATION AND GENE EXPRESSION
    Kelan G Tantisira; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Environmental exposures including nicotine have been demonstrated to cross the placental barrier and impact placental gene expression...
  38. The Biosynthesis of Anandamide
    Dale G Deutsch; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..thermoregulation, sensory perception, cognitive functions, mood, and addictive behavior for opiates, alcohol and nicotine. PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: Maintenance of the levels of anandamide, an endocannabinoid neurotransmitter, is ..
  39. Nicotinic receptor stimulation and epigenetic regulation of GABAergic function.
    Alessandro Guidotti; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In this regard, nicotine receptor agonists are some of the most promising treatment options currently under investigation (Freedman et al, ..
  40. New Inactivators of GABA Aminotransferase for Addiction
    Richard B Silverman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Increasing GABA levels blocks cocaine, nicotine, methamphetamine, alcohol, and heroin addiction in rats and cocaine addiction in humans without affecting the ..
  41. Targeting of alpha7 nAChR for therapeutic effects
    Roger L Papke; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: There are many types of nicotine receptors in the brain, and only some of them are related to why people become addicted to nicotine...
  42. Development of a Next Generation Vaccine for Smoking Cessation and Relapse Preven
    Grayson B Lipford; Fiscal Year: 2010
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The goal of this project is to develop a superior anti-nicotine vaccine for smoking cessation...
  43. Waterpipe tobacco smoke: toxicant exposure and effects
    THOMAS EVAN EISSENBERG; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Another smoke toxicant, nicotine, produces dependence with prolonged use...
  44. Novel lead molecule optimization targeting nicotinic receptor subtypes
    DENNIS BRIAN contact MCKAY; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..In addition nicotine is one of the most heavily used addictive drugs in the United States...
  45. Hybrid atomic force-optical imaging system to investigate prenatal nicotine
    Jeffrey Potts; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..receptors (nAchR) are targets for the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and exogenous cholinergic ligands such as nicotine from cigarette smoke...
  46. Developmental Genetic Epidemiology of Smoking
    Hermine H Maes; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The second set of hypotheses concerns the relationship between SI and SP/ nicotine dependence (ND)...
  47. Mechanisms of regulation of ethanol intake by lateral habenula
    Jiang Hong Ye; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Much work has shown that the habenula plays a key role in nicotine addiction and withdrawal and in the regulation of morphine self-administration, as well as cocaine seeking ..
  48. INFIDELITY OF CYTOSINE METHYLATION AND HUMAN CANCER
    Lawrence C Sowers; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..might facilitate the delivery of reactive molecules to the nucleus, and that some tertiary amines, including nicotine, might catalyze halogen transfer from the haloamines to cytosine...
  49. Models for?functional evaluation of?CHRN polymorphisms
    Beverly H Koller; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The genetic contribution to addictions, including nicotine dependence, alcoholism and addiction to drugs such as cocaine, has been well established in studies of cohorts of ..
  50. Repurposing cholinesterase inhibitors for smoking cessation
    REBECCA ASHARE; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..research (POR), which focuses on the development and evaluation of more efficacious treatments for nicotine dependence, specifically treatments that reduce withdrawal-related cognitive deficits (referred to as pro-..
  51. Tobacco Products and Atherosclerotic Disease
    Sanjay Srivastava; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..to atherogenesis, we will examine atherogenesis in mice exposed to individual constituents of exposure - nicotine, acrolein and crotonaldehyde, and determine how removal of these constituents affects atherosclerosis due to ..
  52. Improving the efficacy of anti-nicotine immunotherapy
    Alexey G Mukhin; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..provided by applicant): The long-term goal of this research project is to improve the efficacy of anti-nicotine vaccination/immunotherapy for smoking cessation...
  53. Effects on Caffeine on Adolescent Behavior and Physiology
    Jennifer L Temple; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..In addition, caffeine usage increases sensitivity and potentiates addiction to cocaine, amphetamine, and nicotine. Because sugar is a known "natural reward" that activates similar neuronal pathways as drugs of abuse, we ..
  54. Comparative Effectiveness of Post-Discharge Strategies for Hospitalized Smokers
    Nancy A Rigotti; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of a 3-month program with 2 components: (1) Free Medication: A 30- day supply of FDA-approved medication (nicotine replacement, bupropion, or varenicline) given at hospital discharge and refillable free for a total of 90 days to ..
  55. Designing an Integrated Nanoscale System for Ion Channel Structure-Function Study
    Ratneshwar Lal; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..examining role of defined gating agents and drug addiction-related perturbations, including smoking condensate, nicotine and ROS on the channel permeability, and 2b...
  56. Sex/Gender Factors in Nicotine Addiction
    Nancy K Mello; Fiscal Year: 2012
    This is a revised application entitled "Sex/Gender Factors in Nicotine Addiction" submitted in response to PA-07-329...
  57. Biomarkers of Exposure to and Health Effects from SHS in Outdoor Smoking Areas
    Luke P Naeher; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Exposures will be characterized using real-time area PM2.5 and CO monitors, time-integrated passive area nicotine monitors, as well as biological markers, salivary cotinine and urinary NNAL...
  58. Development of a5* nAChR positive allosteric modulators for tobacco dependence
    JON MARTIN LINDSTROM; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..classes of potent and selective a5* nAChR PAMs with favorable DMPK and brain penetration in the mouse intravenous nicotine self-administration procedure, using wildtype mice and mice with null mutations in a5 nAChR subunits...
  59. Enhancing cancer outreach for low-income adults with innovative smoking cessation
    Damon J Vidrine; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The interventions will include a Standard Care (SC) approach, consisting of brief advice to quit smoking, nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), and self-help written materials;an Enhanced Care (EC) approach, consisting of the ..
  60. Role of Dopamine Transporter: HIV-1 Tat Protein and Nicotine Sensitization
    Jun Zhu; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..b>Nicotine (NIC), the primary reinforcing agent in tobacco, stimulates the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system through ..
  61. VICTORY-Virtual Video Game Therapy for Substance Cessation and Recovery
    B Eugene Parker; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Nicotine addiction poses a serious public health problem in the United States. Cigarette smoking alone has been identified as the cause of numerous diseases, including cancers (e.g...
  62. Role of nAChR stoichiometry in nicotine-induced upregulation
    CHRISTOPHER I RICHARDS; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..provided by applicant): Upregulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) plays an integral role in nicotine addiction...
  63. Development of Pharmacotherapies for Nicotine Addiction
    Frank Carroll; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Other than nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), bupropion is the only FDA-approved treatment for smoking cessation...
  64. Developing Medications for Nicotine Cessation
    Selena E Bartlett; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..It is essential that an innovative approach is taken to develop more effective medications for the treatment of nicotine cessation...
  65. Neuropharmacology of Cue-Induced Nicotine Relapse
    Xiu Liu; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Recurrent resumption of tobacco use after abstinence is one of the principal characteristics of nicotine addiction. Only approximately 3% of smokers successfully remain abstinent each year...
  66. Variants in nicotine receptors and pharmacogenetics
    Xiangning Chen; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..and data from epidemiological studies have suggested that genetic factors play an important role in smoking and nicotine addiction...
  67. Predictive Smoking Cessation Preclinical Battery
    Daniela Brunner; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..and effective dissemination and use of the results of the proposed research to significantly improve treatment of nicotine abuse and addiction...
  68. N-Acetyl Cysteine plus Behavioral Therapy for Nicotine Dependent Pathological Gam
    Jon E Grant; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Among US adults, 12.8% report nicotine dependence, and nicotine dependence is highly associated with a variety of DSM-IV Axis I and II disorders...
  69. SEX DIFFERENCES IN NICOTINE REINFORCEMENT: HUMAN/ANIMAL
    Kenneth Perkins; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Abstract) Men and women may differ in factors that reinforce smoking behavior: self-administration of nicotine per se is often less robust in women, women are less sensitive to many effects of nicotine, and nicotine ..
  70. Chronic Nicotine's Activation of the HPA Axis
    Theodore Friedman; Fiscal Year: 2005
    Many smokers use cigarettes as a means to combat stress. Removal of nicotine, without addressing the underlying physiological changes associated with nicotine use, results in an unbalanced system that compels a return to smoking to ..
  71. PHARMACOKINETICS AND PHARMACODYNAMICS OF NICOTINE
    Neal Benowitz; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..chemistry and clinical investigation, focusing on the metabolism, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of nicotine. Chemistry studies will include (a) developing methodology for quantitative analysis of tobacco alkaloids and ..
  72. Individual differences in relapse to nicotine
    Ceylan Isgor; Fiscal Year: 2009
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Adolescence marks a critical period for the onset of nicotine dependence in humans...
  73. In vivo and in vitro tools to target CHRNA5 for smoking cessation.
    Andreas Walz; Fiscal Year: 2011
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Nicotine is one of the most heavily used addictive drugs and accounts for 90% of lung cancer cases in the U.S...
  74. Attentional Bias & Affect in Stress-Vulnerable Smokers
    David Gilbert; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..suggests that stress-prone individuals focus their attention on cues associated with potential stressors and that nicotine may alter attentional processes in such a manner as to reduce subjective stress (negative affect)...
  75. Bitter taste phenotype as a risk factor of oral nicotine replacement nonadherence
    Karen L Ahijevych; Fiscal Year: 2010
    Bitter taste phenotype as a risk factor of oral nicotine replacement nonadherence The broad objective of this exploratory experiment is to generate data on the interaction of bitter taste phenotype and use of oral nicotine replacement ..
  76. Nicotine Addiction: ACh Receptors and Secretion
    Aaron Fox; Fiscal Year: 2002
    The addiction to nicotine results in a significantly shortened life span in millions of people and in billions of health care dollars spent every year in tobacco related illnesses...
  77. Neurobiology of Nicotine: Hormones and Behavior
    NANCY MELLO; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..This is a revision of a new application in response to PA-00-045 Neurobiological and Behavioral Research on Nicotine and Tobacco Components...
  78. HPA Axis Activation and Nicotine Use
    Theodore Friedman; Fiscal Year: 2005
    Many smokers use cigarettes as a means to combat stress. Removal of nicotine without addressing the underlying physiological changes associated with nicotine use results in an unbalanced system that compels a return to smoking to ..
  79. FUNCTIONAL ACTIVITY OF MESOLIMBIC NICOTINIC RECEPTORS
    PETER ROWELL; Fiscal Year: 2001
    Cigarette smoking is a major public health problem in the United States, and nicotine is the principal pharmacological component of tobacco which reinforces smoking behavior...
  80. Fetal Nicotine Exposure and Chemosensory Plasticity
    Steven L Youngentob; Fiscal Year: 2010
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Clinical studies point to a causal relationship between fetal nicotine exposure via maternal smoking and the risk for becoming a smoker...
  81. Novel Genes Involved in Drug Response
    Ruthann Nichols; Fiscal Year: 2002
    DESCRIPTION: (provided by the applicant) Nicotine is the most addictive drug abused worldwide. On average over 430,000 Americans die each year from nicotine-related illnesses...
  82. A Peptide-Based Vaccine to Nicotine
    Sam Sanderson; Fiscal Year: 2004
    The primary objective of this Phase I STTR project is to develop an effective, peptide-based nicotine vaccine for use in humans capable of inducing a robust, nicotine-specific antibody (Ab) response with little or no inflammatory side ..
  83. Nicotine, Neurotrophins and Depression
    Yousef Tizabi; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..among depressed individuals, it has been postulated that smoking may reflect an attempt at self-medication with nicotine by these individuals. However, other studies suggest that smoking may precede depression...