Genomes and Genes
Summary: A tricylic dibenzodiazepine, classified as an atypical antipsychotic agent. It binds several types of central nervous system receptors, and displays a unique pharmacological profile. Clozapine is a serotonin antagonist, with strong binding to 5-HT 2A/2C receptor subtype. It also displays strong affinity to several dopaminergic receptors, but shows only weak antagonism at the dopamine D2 receptor, a receptor commonly thought to modulate neuroleptic activity. Agranulocytosis is a major adverse effect associated with administration of this agent.
Publications343 found, 100 shown here
- Remote control of neuronal activity in transgenic mice expressing evolved G protein-coupled receptorsGeorgia M Alexander
Department of Neurobiology, Duke University, Durham, NC 27710, USA
Neuron 63:27-39. 2009..protein-coupled receptor (hM3Dq) selectively activated by the pharmacologically inert, orally bioavailable drug clozapine-N-oxide (CNO). Here, we expressed hM3Dq in forebrain principal neurons...
- Transient neuronal inhibition reveals opposing roles of indirect and direct pathways in sensitizationSusan M Ferguson
Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA
Nat Neurosci 14:22-4. 2011..of an engineered G protein-coupled receptor (hM(4)D), we found that activation of hM(4)D receptors with clozapine-N-oxide (CNO) potently reduced striatal neuron excitability...
- Evolving the lock to fit the key to create a family of G protein-coupled receptors potently activated by an inert ligandBlaine N Armbruster
Department of Biochemistry, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:5163-8. 2007..receptors (GPCRs) that are activated solely by a pharmacologically inert drug-like and bioavailable compound (clozapine-N-oxide)...
- Antipsychotic-induced weight gain: a comprehensive research synthesisD B Allison
Obesity Research Center, St Luke s Roosevelt Hospital, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, NY 10025, UDA
Am J Psychiatry 156:1686-96. 1999..The purpose of this study was to estimate and compare the effects of antipsychotics-both the newer ones and the conventional ones-on body weight...
- Clozapine and the mitogen-activated protein kinase signal transduction pathway: implications for antipsychotic actionsJeff L Browning
Department of Psychiatry, Scott and White Memorial Hospital, Central Texas Veterans Health Care System, and Texas A and M University System Health Science Center College of Medicine, Temple, Texas, USA
Biol Psychiatry 57:617-23. 2005..Here we show that the antipsychotic agent, clozapine, selectively activates the MEK/ERK MAPK pathway, and inhibition of this pathway reverses clozapine's actions in ..
- Clozapine and sulpiride but not haloperidol or olanzapine activate brain DNA demethylationE Dong
Psychiatric Institute, Department of Psychiatry, University of Illinois, 1601 West Taylor Street, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:13614-9. 2008..c. twice a day for 7 days) to hypermethylate promoters, including reelin and GAD67. Clinically relevant doses of clozapine (CLZ) (3.8 to 15 micromol/kg twice a day s.c. for 3 days) and sulpiride (SULP) (12...
- Clozapine and lithium require Caenorhabditis elegans β-arrestin and serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase to affect Daf-16 (FOXO) localizationKathrine R Weeks
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center Shreveport, Shreveport, Louisiana 71130 3932, USA
J Neurosci Res 89:1658-65. 2011..The most clinically effective antipsychotic drug is clozapine. With Caenorhabditis elegans as a model system, this study demonstrates that clozapine is unique among ..
- Prior antipsychotic prescribing in patients currently receiving clozapine: a case note reviewDavid M Taylor
Maudsley Hospital, London, United Kingdom
J Clin Psychiatry 64:30-4. 2003b>Clozapine is indicated for the treatment of resistant schizophrenia, which is usually defined as failure to respond to adequate trials of 2 antipsychotics...
- A systematic review of the evidence of clozapine's anti-aggressive effectsCatherine Frogley
St Andrew s Academic Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, Northampton, UK
Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 15:1351-71. 2012..There is emerging evidence to suggest that the second-generation antipsychotic, clozapine, is effective at reducing this risk in patients with schizophrenia and some evidence to suggest that it may be ..
- Clozapine, diabetes mellitus, weight gain, and lipid abnormalities: A five-year naturalistic studyD C Henderson
Psychotic Disorders Program, Diabetes Clinical Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, USA
Am J Psychiatry 157:975-81. 2000The goal of this 5-year naturalistic study of patients treated with clozapine was to examine the incidence of treatment-emergent diabetes mellitus in relation to other factors, including weight gain, lipid abnormalities, age, clozapine ..
- Serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor and clozapine daily dose in patients with schizophrenia: a positive correlationMariana Pedrini
Bipolar Disorder Program, Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, Brazil
Neurosci Lett 491:207-10. 2011..b>Clozapine (CLZ) has been shown a beneficial effect on cognition in SZ in some studies and a detrimental effect in others...
- Clozapine induction of ERK1/2 cell signalling via the EGF receptor in mouse prefrontal cortex and striatum is distinct from other antipsychotic drugsAvril Pereira
Department of Molecular Psychopharmacology, Mental Health Research Institute, Parkville, Victoria, Australia
Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 15:1149-60. 2012..Poor response to standard therapy leaves the APD clozapine as the only effective treatment for many patients...
- Metabolic syndrome with the atypical antipsychoticsPornpoj Pramyothin
Boston Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts 02118, USA
Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes 17:460-6. 2010..This review aims to provide a summary of recent evidence on metabolic risks associated with SGAs, current recommendations for metabolic monitoring, and efficacy of treatment options currently available...
- Clozapine-induced ERK1 and ERK2 signaling in prefrontal cortex is mediated by the EGF receptorAvril Pereira
Department of Molecular Psychopharmacology, Mental Health Research Institute of Victoria, 155 Oak Street, Parkville, 3052, Victoria, Australia
J Mol Neurosci 39:185-98. 2009The atypical antipsychotic drug clozapine is effective in treatment-refractory schizophrenia. The intracellular signaling pathways that mediate clozapine action remain unknown...
- D4 Dopamine receptor genes of zebrafish and effects of the antipsychotic clozapine on larval swimming behaviourW Boehmler
Department of Pharmacology, Penn State College of Medicine, Hershey, PA 17033, USA
Genes Brain Behav 6:155-66. 2007..of zebrafish D4 dopamine receptors (D4Rs) and the response of larval zebrafish to the atypical antipsychotic clozapine. The D4R is of interest because of its high affinity for clozapine, while interest in clozapine stems from its ..
- Polymorphisms of the LEP- and LEPR genes, metabolic profile after prolonged clozapine administration and response to the antidiabetic metforminErika Fernandez
Institute of Clinical Research Dr Américo Negrette, Zulia University Medical School, Maracaibo, Venezuela
Schizophr Res 121:213-7. 2010..was explored by assessing the anthropometric and metabolic profile and the response to metformin (MET) of clozapine- (CLZ) treated schizophrenia patients according to their single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the leptin ..
- Olanzapine-induced hyperphagia and weight gain associate with orexigenic hypothalamic neuropeptide signaling without concomitant AMPK phosphorylationJohan Fernø
Dr Einar Martens Research Group for Biological Psychiatry, Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway
PLoS ONE 6:e20571. 2011..to induce hyperphagia, weight gain and other metabolic disturbances, particularly evident for olanzapine and clozapine. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in antipsychotic-induced hyperphagia remain unclear...
- Clozapine administration in adolescence prevents postpubertal emergence of brain structural pathology in an animal model of schizophreniaYael Piontkewitz
Department of Psychology, Tel Aviv University, Israel
Biol Psychiatry 66:1038-46. 2009..We used a neurodevelopmental animal model of schizophrenia to assess the efficacy of the atypical antipsychotic clozapine to prevent neuroanatomical deterioration.
- Clozapine impairs insulin action by up-regulating Akt phosphorylation and Ped/Pea-15 protein abundanceFabio Panariello
Dipartimento di Neuroscienze, Sezione di Psichiatria, Laboratorio di Psichiatria Molecolare, University of Napoli Federico II, Napoli, Italy
J Cell Physiol 227:1485-92. 2012..We investigated whether clozapine may directly affect insulin action by analyzing insulin signaling in vitro and in vivo...
- Cloning of the gene for a human dopamine D4 receptor with high affinity for the antipsychotic clozapineH H Van Tol
Department of Pharmacology, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Nature 350:610-4. 1991..In the management of socially withdrawn and treatment-resistant schizophrenics, clozapine is one of the most favoured antipsychotics because it does not cause tardive dyskinesia...
- The effects of clozapine and risperidone on spatial working memory in schizophreniaSusan R McGurk
Department of Psychiatry, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, One Gustave L Levy Pl, New York, NY 10029, USA
Am J Psychiatry 162:1013-6. 2005The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the effects of clozapine and risperidone on spatial working memory in patients with schizophrenia.
- Interaction of mGlu2/3 agonism with clozapine and lurasidone to restore novel object recognition in subchronic phencyclidine-treated ratsMasakuni Horiguchi
Division of Psychopharmacology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37212, USA
Psychopharmacology (Berl) 217:13-24. 2011..Atypical antipsychotic drugs (APDs) reverse the effects of subchronic PCP on NOR. The effect of metabotropic glutamate₂/₃ receptor (mGlu₂/₃) agonists upon NOR is unknown...
- Phospholipase C-beta1 knockout mice exhibit endophenotypes modeling schizophrenia which are rescued by environmental enrichment and clozapine administrationC E McOmish
Howard Florey Institute, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Vic, Australia
Mol Psychiatry 13:661-72. 2008..Furthermore, clozapine but not haloperidol (atypical and typical antipsychotics, respectively) rescues the sensorimotor gating deficit ..
- Decoding the signaling of a GPCR heteromeric complex reveals a unifying mechanism of action of antipsychotic drugsMiguel Fribourg
Department of Structural and Chemical Biology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029, USA
Cell 147:1011-23. 2011Atypical antipsychotic drugs, such as clozapine and risperidone, have a high affinity for the serotonin 5-HT(2A) G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), the 2AR, which signals via a G(q) heterotrimeric G protein...
- Exploring off-targets and off-systems for adverse drug reactions via chemical-protein interactome--clozapine-induced agranulocytosis as a case studyLun Yang
Bio X Center, Key Laboratory for the Genetics of Developmental and Neuropsychiatric Disorders Ministry of Education, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China
PLoS Comput Biol 7:e1002016. 2011..b>Clozapine provides effective treatments for schizophrenia but its usage is limited because of life-threatening ..
- Effects of chronic haloperidol and clozapine treatment on neurogenesis in the adult rat hippocampusNader D Halim
Clinical Brain Disorders Branch, Intramural Research Program, National Institute of Mental Health, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892 1385, USA
Neuropsychopharmacology 29:1063-9. 2004..Haloperidol (0.05 and 2 mg/kg), clozapine (0.5 and 20 mg/kg), or vehicle were administered i.p...
- Clozapine treatment for suicidality in schizophrenia: International Suicide Prevention Trial (InterSePT)Herbert Y Meltzer
Psychiatric Hospital at Vanderbilt, 1601 23rd Ave S, Suite 306, Nashville, TN 37212, USA
Arch Gen Psychiatry 60:82-91. 2003Approximately 50% of patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder attempt suicide, and approximately 10% die of suicide. Study results suggest that clozapine therapy significantly reduces suicidal behavior in these patients.
- Hormonal and metabolic effects of olanzapine and clozapine related to body weight in rodentsVance L Albaugh
Department of Cellular and Molecular Physiology, Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, 500 University Drive, Hershey, PA 17033, USA
Obesity (Silver Spring) 14:36-51. 2006..To characterize a model of atypical antipsychotic drug-induced obesity and evaluate its mechanism...
- Haloperidol and clozapine decrease S100B release from glial cellsJ Steiner
Department of Psychiatry, University of Magdeburg, Germany
Neuroscience 167:1025-31. 2010..In this study, we explored the effects of the typical antipsychotic haloperidol and the atypical prototype drug clozapine on the release of S100B by astrocytic C6 cells and oligodendrocytic OLN-93 cells...
- Treatment pathway and patterns of clozapine prescribing for schizophrenia in New ZealandAmanda J Wheeler
Clinical Research and Resource Centre, Waitemata District Health Board, Auckland, New Zealand
Ann Pharmacother 42:852-60. 2008To describe the treatment pathway and patterns of clozapine use in patients with schizophrenia, including coprescribed psychotropic medications, and compare the extent of coprescribing of clozapine with that of non-clozapine ..
- Clozapine improves deficient inhibitory auditory processing in DBA/2 mice, via a nicotinic cholinergic mechanismJohanna K Simosky
Department of Pharmacology, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Campus Box C268 71, 4200 East 9th Avenue, Denver, CO 80262, USA
Psychopharmacology (Berl) 165:386-96. 2003..The atypical antipsychotic clozapine also normalizes this deficit in schizophrenia patients, but by an unknown mechanism.
- The Texas Medication Algorithm Project antipsychotic algorithm for schizophrenia: 2006 updateTroy A Moore
Department of Psychiatry, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, USA
J Clin Psychiatry 68:1751-62. 2007....
- Clozapine-induced weight gain: a study in monozygotic twins and same-sex sib pairsFrank M Theisen
Clinical Research Group, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, University of Marburg, Hans Sachs Str 6, D 35039 Marburg, Germany
Psychiatr Genet 15:285-9. 2005..in antipsychotic-induced weight gain, we explored the similarity in body mass index (BMI) (kg/m(2)) change under clozapine only (clozapine DeltaBMI) and upon additional inclusion of BMI change under prior antipsychotic medication (..
- Increased cortical inhibition in persons with schizophrenia treated with clozapineZafiris J Daskalakis
Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
J Psychopharmacol 22:203-9. 2008..The purpose of this study, therefore, was to examine the effects of clozapine on TMS measures of CI and to compare these effects to unmedicated persons with schizophrenia and healthy ..
- Haloperidol- and clozapine-induced oxidative stress in the rat brainManuela Polydoro
Centro de Estudos em Estresse Oxidativo, Departamento de Bioquimica, Instituto de Ciencias Basicas da Saude, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, 90035 003 Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil
Pharmacol Biochem Behav 78:751-6. 2004..Adult male Wistar rats received daily injections of HAL (1.5 mg/kg) or clozapine (CLO, 25 mg/kg), an atypical neuroleptic, for 28 days. Control animals were given saline (SAL; NaCl 0.9%)...
- Increased serum S100B in elderly, chronic schizophrenic patients: negative correlation with deficit symptomsAndrea Schmitt
Central Institute of Mental Health, P O Box 12 21 20, D 68072 Mannheim, Germany
Schizophr Res 80:305-13. 2005..assessed detailed psychopathology and neuropsychological performance and determined serum levels of haloperidol, clozapine and its two main metabolites desmethylclozapine and clozapine metabolite N-oxid by HPLC...
- Prolactin levels in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder patients treated with clozapine, olanzapine, risperidone, or haloperidolJan Volavka
Nathan Kline Institute, Orangeburg, NY 10982, USA
J Clin Psychiatry 65:57-61. 2004....
- alpha2C-Adrenoceptor blockade by clozapine and other antipsychotic drugsHans O Kalkman
Novartis Pharma AG, Research Nervous System, Building WSJ 360 405, CH 4002 Basel, Switzerland
Eur J Pharmacol 462:33-40. 2003..Therefore, the antagonistic potencies of the antipsychotics clozapine, chlorpromazine, risperidone, olanzapine, haloperidol, quetiapine, ziprasidone, iloperidone and aripiprazole ..
- Factors affecting interindividual differences in clozapine response: a review and case reportFrancesco Saverio Bersani
Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy
Hum Psychopharmacol 26:177-87. 2011b>Clozapine is the most powerful new‐generation antipsychotic. Although this drug leads to great therapeutic benefits, two types of undesirable conditions frequently occur with its use: side effects and resistance to treatment...
- Current use of clozapine in Parkinson disease and related disordersAlissa A Thomas
Alpert Medical School, Brown University, Providence, RI 02886, USA
Clin Neuropharmacol 33:14-6. 2010b>Clozapine has been shown to be effective in the treatment of Parkinson disease psychosis and tremor; however, use of clozapine has been limited because of potential adverse effects and stringent monitoring criteria.
- Clozapine improves dyskinesias in Parkinson disease: a double-blind, placebo-controlled studyF Durif
Department of Neurology, Hopital Gabriel Montpied, Clermont Ferrand, France
Neurology 62:381-8. 2004To investigate the efficacy and safety of clozapine in the treatment of levodopa-induced dyskinesias (LID) in patients with severe Parkinson disease (PD).
- Effect of dopamine D3 receptor gene polymorphisms and clozapine treatment response: exploratory analysis of nine polymorphisms and meta-analysis of the Ser9Gly variantR Hwang
Neurogenetics Section, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Pharmacogenomics J 10:200-18. 2010..However, treatment refractoriness, in spite of complete D2 blockade, as well as the efficacy of clozapine (CLZ) in a portion of this patient population, indicates the involvement of other factors as well...
- Hepatitis C in schizophrenia: screening experience in a community-dwelling clozapine cohortOliver Freudenreich
Massachusetts General Hospital Schizophrenia Program, Freedom Trail Clinic, the Division of Infectious Diseases and Partners AIDS Research Center, and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA
Psychosomatics 48:405-11. 2007..of hepatitis C in a diagnostically well-defined sample, the authors screened all schizophrenia outpatients in a clozapine clinic (N=98) for HCV antibodies...
- Berberine inhibits SREBP-1-related clozapine and risperidone induced adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cellsYueshan Hu
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007, USA
Phytother Res 24:1831-8. 2010..and potentially serious complication associated with the treatment of second generation antipsychotics such as clozapine and risperidone...
- Clozapine-associated diabetesE Koller
Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Rockville, Maryland 20857, USA
Am J Med 111:716-23. 2001b>Clozapine is a potent antipsychotic agent that has been marketed since 1990. Several published reports of diabetes mellitus occurring with clozapine therapy have appeared during the past 5 years...
- Association study of 27 annotated genes for clozapine pharmacogenetics: validation of preexisting studies and identification of a new candidate gene, ABCB1, for treatment responseSeung Tae Lee
Department of Laboratory Medicine and Genetics, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
J Clin Psychopharmacol 32:441-8. 2012Pharmacogenetic studies on clozapine (CLZ) have provided meaningful insights but have shown redundancies owing to wide interindividual variability and insufficient replication...
- Ziprasidone vs clozapine in schizophrenia patients refractory to multiple antipsychotic treatments: the MOZART studyEmilio Sacchetti
Brescia University School of Medicine, Brescia, Italy
Schizophr Res 110:80-9. 2009..18-week, randomized, flexible-dose, double-blind, double-dummy trial evaluated ziprasidone as an alternative to clozapine in treatment-refractory schizophrenia patients...
- Metabolic effects of adjunctive aripiprazole in clozapine-treated patients with schizophreniaX Fan
Schizophrenia Program, Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA
Acta Psychiatr Scand 127:217-26. 2013This study examined the effects of adjunctive aripiprazole therapy on metabolism in clozapine-treated patients with schizophrenia.
- The relationship of clozapine and haloperidol treatment response to prefrontal, hippocampal, and caudate brain volumesCelso Arango
Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, Department of Psychariatry, University of Maryland, MD 21228, USA
Am J Psychiatry 160:1421-7. 2003The study was designed to assess the predictive relationship between brain structure volume and positive and negative symptom response to clozapine and haloperidol.
- Clozapine serum concentrations are lower in smoking than in non-smoking schizophrenic patientsN H Seppälä
Department of Clinical Psychiatry, Tampere University Hospital, Finland
Pharmacol Toxicol 85:244-6. 1999Serum concentrations of clozapine and its main metabolite demethylclozapine were measured in 44 schizophrenic inpatients, of whom ten were non-smokers and 34 smokers...
- Elevated serum superoxide dismutase and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in schizophrenia: a study of patients treated with haloperidol or clozapineClarissa Severino Gama
Departamento de Psiquiatria, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre HCPA, Laboratório de Psiquiatria Experimental Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul UFRGS, Porto Alegre, Brazil
Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 30:512-5. 2006..SOD and TBARS in two groups of chronic medicated DSM-IV schizophrenic patients, under haloperidol (n = 10) or clozapine (n = 7) and a group of healthy controls (n = 15). Serum SOD and TBARS were significantly higher (p = 0...
- Weight gain with clozapine: 8-year cohort naturalistic study among hospitalized Chinese schizophrenia patientsYa Mei Bai
Department of Psychiatry, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan
Schizophr Res 108:122-6. 2009b>Clozapine is associated with significant weight gain. However, it is still debatable whether the majority of weight gain occurs in the early phase of treatment or if weight gain is a persistent side effect...
- Clozapine: balancing safety with superior antipsychotic efficacyHerbert Y Meltzer
Northwestern Feinberg School of Medicine, Ward Building 12 104, 303 East Chicago Avenue, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
Clin Schizophr Relat Psychoses 6:134-44. 2012b>Clozapine is often referred to as the gold standard for the treatment of schizophrenia and yet has also been described as the most underutilized treatment for schizophrenia supported by solid evidence-based medicine...
- Homocysteine levels in patients with schizophrenia on clozapine monotherapyAdam Wysokiński
Department of Old Age Psychiatry and Psychotic Disorders, Medical University of Lodz, Czechosłowacka 8 10, 92 216, Łódź, Poland
Neurochem Res 38:2056-62. 2013We tested the hypothesis that homocysteine levels are higher in blood of schizophrenic subjects on clozapine monotherapy than in healthy controls and they correlate with anthropometric measurements, laboratory tests and results of ..
- Clozapine resistance: augmentation strategiesStefano Porcelli
Institute of Psychiatry, University of Bologna, Viale Carlo Pepoli 5, 40123 Bologna, Italy
Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 22:165-82. 2012b>Clozapine (CLZ) is not effective in more than 50% of treatment-resistant schizophrenic patients...
- Psychiatrists' attitude towards and knowledge of clozapine treatmentJ Nielsen
Unit for Psychiatric Research, Aalborg Psychiatric Hospital, 9100 Aalborg, Denmark
J Psychopharmacol 24:965-71. 2010b>Clozapine is, in most countries, underutilized and the initiation of clozapine is often delayed. The purpose of this study is to investigate the reasons for the delay and the underutilization of clozapine...
- Homocysteine levels and glucose metabolism in non-obese, non-diabetic chronic schizophreniaD C Henderson
Schizophrenia Program, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA
Acta Psychiatr Scand 113:121-5. 2006..We studied a sample of schizophrenia out-patients to test the hypotheses that serum homocysteine concentrations would correlate positively with measures of glucose metabolism...
- Adjunct divalproex or lithium to clozapine in treatment-resistant schizophreniaDeanna L Kelly
Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, University of Maryland, Box 21247, Baltimore, MD 21228, USA
Psychiatr Q 77:81-95. 2006..examined adjunct divalproex (N = 15) or lithium (N = 9) in treatment-resistant schizophrenia patients added to clozapine and compared to clozapine monotherapy (N = 25)...
- Effect of clozapine, haloperidol, or M100907 on phencyclidine-activated glutamate efflux in the prefrontal cortexB W Adams
Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, Veterans Administration Medical Center, West Haven, Connecticut 06516, USA
Biol Psychiatry 50:750-7. 2001..Here, we examined whether antipsychotic drugs influence this increase. METHODS: The effect of haloperidol, clozapine or the 5-HT(2A) antagonist, M100907, on PCP-induced increase in cortical glutamate efflux was examined by ..
- The effect of smoking and cytochrome P450 CYP1A2 genetic polymorphism on clozapine clearance and dose requirementJan van der Weide
Department of Clinical Chemistry, St Jansdal Hospital, Harderwijk, The Netherlands
Pharmacogenetics 13:169-72. 2003b>Clozapine is an atypical antipsychotic drug that is metabolized to a major extent by the cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP1A2...
- Randomized controlled trial of effect of prescription of clozapine versus other second-generation antipsychotic drugs in resistant schizophreniaShon W Lewis
University of Manchester, London
Schizophr Bull 32:715-23. 2006There is good evidence that clozapine is more efficacious than first-generation antipsychotic drugs in resistant schizophrenia. It is less clear if clozapine is more effective than the other second-generation antipsychotic (SGA) drugs...
- Increased serum S100B levels in chronic schizophrenic patients on long-term clozapine or typical antipsychoticsLing Yan Qi
Center for Biological Psychiatry, Beijing Huilongguan Hospital, Beijing, PR China
Neurosci Lett 462:113-7. 2009..To examine the potentially differential effect of clozapine compared to typical antipsychotics on serum S100B and the relationship between S100B levels and psychopathology ..
- Antipsychotic drugs activate the C. elegans akt pathway via the DAF-2 insulin/IGF-1 receptorKathrine R Weeks
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, 1501 Kings Highway, Shreveport, Louisiana, USA
ACS Chem Neurosci 1:463-73. 2010..Because untreated schizophrenics have been reported to have low levels of Akt signaling, increased Akt signaling might contribute to the therapeutic actions of antipsychotic drugs...
- Effect of aripiprazole augmentation of clozapine in schizophrenia: a double-blind, placebo-controlled studyMaria Rosaria A Muscatello
Section of Psychiatry, Department of Neurosciences, Psychiatric and Anaesthesiological Sciences, University of Messina, Messina, Italy
Schizophr Res 127:93-9. 2011..in combination is a common treatment strategy for those patients who have demonstrated a suboptimal response to clozapine; nevertheless, evidence suggesting potential advantages of combination treatment with clozapine plus one ..
- Nicotine and clozapine selectively reverse a PCP-induced deficit of PPI in BALB/cByJ but not NMRI mice: comparison with risperidoneJ T Andreasen
Neurosearch A S, 93 Pederstrupvej, Ballerup, DK 2750, Denmark
Behav Brain Res 167:118-27. 2006..g. alpha(7) receptors, is plausible. Clozapine, but not risperidone, also only reversed the PCP deficit of PPI in BALB/cByJ...
- Pharmacotherapy for treatment-refractory schizophreniaScott P Van Sant
Medical College of Georgia, Department of Psychiatry and Health Behavior, Augusta, GA 30912, USA
Expert Opin Pharmacother 12:411-34. 2011....
- Effects of adjunctive treatment with aripiprazole on body weight and clinical efficacy in schizophrenia patients treated with clozapine: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trialW Wolfgang Fleischhacker
Biological Psychiatry Division, Medical University Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria
Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 13:1115-25. 2010b>Clozapine is associated with significant weight gain and metabolic disturbances. This multicentre, randomized study comprised a double-blind, placebo-controlled treatment phase of 16 wk, and an open-label extension phase of 12 wk...
- Relationship between levels of insulin or triglycerides and serum concentrations of the atypical antipsychotics clozapine and olanzapine in patients on treatment with therapeutic dosesK I Melkersson
Department of Molecular Medicine, Sollentuna Psychiatric Polyclinic, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden
Psychopharmacology (Berl) 170:157-66. 2003Recent results suggest that treatment with the atypical antipsychotics clozapine and olanzapine is associated with increased insulin and lipid levels.
- Comparison of the efficacy and impact on cognition of glycopyrrolate and biperiden for clozapine-induced sialorrhea in schizophrenic patients: a randomized, double-blind, crossover studyChih Sung Liang
Department of Psychiatry, Beitou Armed Forces Hospital, 60 Shin Ming Road, Beitou, Taipei, Taiwan
Schizophr Res 119:138-44. 2010b>Clozapine-induced sialorrhea (CIS) is a subjective distressing adverse effect and occurs in 31%-57% of schizophrenic patients receiving clozapine therapy...
- A parametric study of the acute effects of antipsychotic drugs on glucose sensitivity in an animal modelHeidi N Boyda
Department of Anesthesiology, Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of British Columbia, 2176 Health Sciences Mall, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 1Z3
Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 34:945-54. 2010..The effects of administration of clozapine (2mg/kg; 20mg/kg), olanzapine (1.5mg/kg; 15 mg/kg), risperidone (0.5mg/kg; 2.5mg/kg) and haloperidol (0...
- Topiramate augmentation of clozapine in schizophrenia: a double-blind, placebo-controlled studyM R A Muscatello
Section of Psychiatry, Department of Neurosciences, Psychiatric and Anaesthesiological Sciences, University of Messina, Italy
J Psychopharmacol 25:667-74. 2011..symptomatology and cognitive functioning in a sample of treatment-resistant schizophrenic patients receiving clozapine. After clinical and cognitive assessments were randomly allocated to receive either up to 200 mg/day of ..
- Effect of antipsychotics on succinate dehydrogenase and cytochrome oxidase activities in rat brainEmilio L Streck
Laboratório de Fisiopatologia Experimental, Programa de Pos Graduacao em Ciencias da Saude, Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense, 88806 000 Criciuma, SC, Brazil
Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 376:127-33. 2007..of mitochondria, in this work, we evaluated the activities of these enzymes in rat brain after haloperidol, clozapine, olanzapine, or aripiprazole chronic administration...
- Selective modulation of fibroblast growth factor-2 expression in the rat brain by the atypical antipsychotic clozapineM A Riva
Center for Neuropharmacology, Institute of Pharmacological Sciences, University of Milan, Italy
Neuropharmacology 38:1075-82. 1999..rat brain, the expression of basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) in response to the atypical antipsychotic clozapine. We found that acute or chronic administration of this compound produced a selective increase of FGF-2 mRNA and ..
- Agonist activity of N-desmethylclozapine at delta-opioid receptors of human frontal cortexMaria C Olianas
Department of Neuroscience, Section of Biochemical Pharmacology, University of Cagliari, 09042 Monserrato, CA, Italy
Eur J Pharmacol 607:96-101. 2009The clozapine metabolite N-desmethylclozapine (NDMC) has been recently shown to act at different neurotransmitter receptors and to display both antagonist and agonist activities...
- Clozapine treatment causes oxidation of proteins involved in energy metabolism in lymphoblastoid cells: a possible mechanism for antipsychotic-induced metabolic alterationsMuhammad R Baig
Department of Psychiatry, The University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, Texas 78229, USA
J Psychiatr Pract 16:325-33. 2010..Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 2008;11:1097-104), using a novel proteomic approach, we showed that clozapine treatment in SKNSH cells induces oxidation of proteins involved in energy metabolism, leading us to hypothesize ..
- Extended release metformin for metabolic control assistance during prolonged clozapine administration: a 14 week, double-blind, parallel group, placebo-controlled studyEdgardo Carrizo
Institute of Clinical Research Dr Américo Negrette, Zulia University Medical School, Maracaibo, Venezuela
Schizophr Res 113:19-26. 2009b>Clozapine is the most effective agent in treatment-resistant schizophrenia. However, it is frequently associated with excessive body weight (BW) gain, type 2 diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidemia...
- Chronic clozapine treatment improves prenatal infection-induced working memory deficits without influencing adult hippocampal neurogenesisUrs Meyer
Laboratory of Behavioural Neurobiology, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETH Zurich, Schorenstrasse 16, 8603 Schwerzenbach, Switzerland
Psychopharmacology (Berl) 208:531-43. 2010..Converging evidence indicates that prenatal exposure to immune challenge can induce long-term cognitive deficits relevant to schizophrenia. Such cognitive impairments may be related to deficient hippocampal neurogenesis at adult age...
- Clozapine-, but not haloperidol-, induced increases in deltaFosB-like immunoreactivity are completely blocked in the striatum of mice lacking D3 dopamine receptorsGeorge S Robertson
Department of Psychiatry, Sir Charles Tupper Medical Building, 5850 College Street, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 1X5, Canada
Eur J Neurosci 20:3189-94. 2004..and pharmacological evidence, we have proposed that D3 receptor antagonism plays a role in the mediation of clozapine-, but not haloperidol-, induced immediate-early gene expression in the striatum...
- Clozapine markedly elevates pregnenolone in rat hippocampus, cerebral cortex, and serum: candidate mechanism for superior efficacy?Christine E Marx
Duke University Medical Center, Durham NC, USA
Pharmacol Biochem Behav 84:598-608. 2006b>Clozapine demonstrates superior efficacy in patients with schizophrenia, but the precise mechanisms contributing to this clinical advantage are not clear...
- Clinical correlates of clozapine prescription for schizophrenia in ChinaYu Tao Xiang
Department of Psychiatry, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China
Hum Psychopharmacol 22:17-25. 2007Few studies have investigated the prescription patterns of clozapine in outpatients with schizophrenia in China. It is an important issue due to clozapine's high efficacy and potentially fatal side effect profile...
- Atypical antipsychotics clozapine and quetiapine attenuate prepulse inhibition deficits in dopamine transporter knockout miceSusan B Powell
aDepartment of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 0804, USA
Behav Pharmacol 19:562-5. 2008..Here we report that treatment with clozapine (3 mg/kg) or quetiapine (2.5 mg/kg) attenuated prepulse inhibition deficits in male DAT knockout mice...
- Clozapine Reverses Phencyclidine-Induced Desynchronization of Prefrontal Cortex through a 5-HT(1A) Receptor-Dependent MechanismLucila Kargieman
Department of Neurochemistry and Neuropharmacology, Institut d Investigacions Biomediques de Barcelona, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas IIBB CSIC, Institut d Investigacions Biomediques August Pi i Sunyer IDIBAPS, Barcelona, Spain
Neuropsychopharmacology 37:723-33. 2012..15-4 Hz) in rat PFC. Both effects were reversed by classical (haloperidol) and atypical (clozapine) antipsychotic drugs...
- Augmentation of clozapine with a second antipsychotic - a meta-analysisD M Taylor
Pharmacy Department, Maudsley Hospital, London, UK
Acta Psychiatr Scand 125:15-24. 2012To examine using meta-analysis the effect of adding a second antipsychotic to established clozapine monotherapy.
- Do clozapine and risperidone affect social competence and problem solving?Alan S Bellack
Mental Health Research, Education and Clinical Center, VA Maryland Health Care System, Baltimore 21201, USA
Am J Psychiatry 161:364-7. 2004The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the effects of clozapine and risperidone on social skill and problem solving in patients with schizophrenia.
- Clozapine reverses schizophrenia-related behaviours in the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 knockout mouse: association with N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor up-regulationLaura Gray
Howard Florey Institute, University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 12:45-60. 2009..Chronic administration of the antipsychotic drug clozapine ameliorated the locomotor disruption and reversed the PPI deficit, but did not improve Y-maze performance...
- N-desmethylclozapine (NDMC) is an antagonist at the human native muscarinic M(1) receptorDavid R Thomas
Neurosciences Centre of Excellence for Drug Discovery, GlaxoSmithKline, New Frontiers Science Park North, Harlow, Essex CM19 5AW UK
Neuropharmacology 58:1206-14. 2010..the human recombinant and rat native M(1) mAChR, a property suggested to contribute to the clinical efficacy of clozapine. However, the profile of action of NDMC at the human native M(1) mAChR has not been reported...
- Optimizing clozapine treatmentJ Nielsen
Unit for Psychiatric Research, Aalborg Psychiatric Hospital, Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark
Acta Psychiatr Scand 123:411-22. 2011b>Clozapine treatment remains the gold standard for treatment-resistant schizophrenia, but treatment with clozapine is associated with several side-effects that complicate the use of the drug...
- Clozapine-induced obsessive-compulsive syndromes improve in combination with aripiprazoleSusanne Englisch
Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Central Institute of Mental Health, Mannheim, Germany
Clin Neuropharmacol 32:227-9. 2009..subgroup developed secondary OCS during treatment with antiserotonergic, atypical antipsychotic agents such as clozapine. Although cognitive behavioral therapy and antiobsessive antidepressants brought up inconsistent results, in ..
- Aripiprazole versus haloperidol in combination with clozapine for treatment-resistant schizophrenia in routine clinical care: a randomized, controlled trialCorrado Barbui
World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Research and Training in Mental Health and Service Organization, Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Section of Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology, Verona, Italy
J Clin Psychopharmacol 31:266-73. 2011This multisite study was conducted to compare the efficacy and tolerability of combination treatment with clozapine plus aripiprazole versus combination treatment with clozapine plus haloperidol in patients with schizophrenia who do not ..
- The combined use of risperidone long-acting injection and clozapine in patients with schizophrenia non-adherent to clozapine: a case series- Se Hyun Kim
Institute of Human Behavioral Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110 744, Republic of Korea
J Psychopharmacol 24:981-6. 2010Poor adherence to clozapine treatment represents an important problem in clinical practice because additional useful treatment options are unavailable...
- Haloperidol and clozapine differentially affect the expression of arrestins, receptor kinases, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase activationMohamed Rafiuddin Ahmed
Department of Pharmacology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Preston Research Building, Room 422, Nashville, TN 37232, USA
J Pharmacol Exp Ther 325:276-83. 2008..p.) or clozapine (20 mg/kg i.p.) 2 or 24 h after the last injection in 11 brain regions...
- Upregulation of NRG-1 and VAMP-1 in human brain aggregates exposed to clozapineGursharan Chana
Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0603, USA
Schizophr Res 113:273-6. 2009..In relation to a potential therapeutic mechanism for atypical antipsychotic medications, clozapine has been shown to increase both NRG-1 levels and synaptic markers in rodents...
- Schizophrenic patients treated with clozapine or olanzapine perform better on theory of mind tasks than those treated with risperidone or typical antipsychotic medicationsIoulia Savina
Department of Psychology, Queen s University, Kingston ON, Canada, K7L 3N6
Schizophr Res 94:128-38. 2007..Olanzapine or clozapine but not typical antipsychotics or risperidone preferentially affect c-fos expression in mPFC in animals...
- Evaluation of the role of P-glycoprotein in the uptake of paroxetine, clozapine, phenytoin and carbamazapine by bovine retinal endothelial cellsLynn W Maines
Department of Pharmacology, The Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, 500 University Drive, Hershey, PA 17033, USA
Neuropharmacology 49:610-7. 2005..neither verapamil nor PGP-4008 affected the intracellular accumulation of [3H]paroxetine, [14C]phenytoin, [3H]clozapine or [14C]carbamazapine, indicating that these drugs are not substrates for Pgp...
- Effects of clozapine and olanzapine on cytokine systems are closely linked to weight gain and drug-induced feverMichael Kluge
Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry, Munich, Germany
Psychoneuroendocrinology 34:118-28. 2009The second generation antipsychotics clozapine and olanzapine are known to cause weight gain. However, only clozapine is associated with drug-induced fever...
- Atypical and conventional antipsychotic drugs in treatment-naive first-episode schizophrenia: a 52-week randomized trial of clozapine vs chlorpromazineJeffrey A Lieberman
Department of Psychiatry, CB 7160, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 7160, USA
Neuropsychopharmacology 28:995-1003. 2003..examined efficacy and safety in a randomized, double-blind, 52-week trial, comparing chlorpromazine (CPZ) and clozapine (CLZ) in treatment naive patients experiencing their first episode of schizophrenia...
- Noradrenaline transporter blockers raise extracellular dopamine in medial prefrontal but not parietal and occipital cortex: differences with mianserin and clozapineV Valentini
Department of Toxicology and Centre of Excellence Neurobiology of Addiction, University of Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy
J Neurochem 88:917-27. 2004..and desipramine, two NA transporter blockers, of mianserin, an antagonist of alpha2 and 5-HT2 receptors, and of clozapine, an atypical antipsychotic, on dialysate DA in the medial PFCX, ParCX and OccCX was studied...
- The atypical antipsychotic drug clozapine enhances chronic PCP-induced regulation of prefrontal cortex 5-HT2A receptorsLucinda J Steward
Yoshitomi Research Institute of Neuroscience in Glasgow YRING, West Medical Building, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, UK
Neuropharmacology 47:527-37. 2004..We have compared the ability of the antipsychotic drugs clozapine and haloperidol, alone and in combination with chronic phencyclidine (PCP), to modulate 5-HT(2A) receptor ..
- Metabolic differences between Asian and Caucasian patients on clozapine treatmentMythily Subramaniam
Institute of Mental Health and Woodbridge Hospital, Singapore, and Department of Psychiatry, University of Melbourne, Richmond, Australia
Hum Psychopharmacol 22:217-22. 2007To establish if there are ethnic differences in the various metabolic disturbances that are common with clozapine treatment.
- Artificial neural network prediction of clozapine response with combined pharmacogenetic and clinical dataChao Cheng Lin
Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taiwan
Comput Methods Programs Biomed 91:91-9. 2008Although one third to one half of refractory schizophrenic patients responds to clozapine, however, there are few evidences currently that could predict clozapine response before the use of the medication...
- Polymorphism of the promoter region of the serotonin 5-HT(2C) receptor gene and clozapine-induced weight gainGavin P Reynolds
Department of Biomedical Science, University of Sheffield, UK
Am J Psychiatry 160:677-9. 2003..The authors determined whether this association held true for weight gain after clozapine treatment.
- NT69L: a potential, novel antischizophrenic drugElliott Richelson; Fiscal Year: 2009..We are hypothesizing that NT69L is similar in its behavioral and in its biochemical effects to clozapine, the classical, atypical antipsychotic drug...
- Tyrosine Availability Influences Mesocortico-Limbic CatecholaminesGEORGE EUGENE JASKIW; Fiscal Year: 2012..Drugs administered will include clozapine and haloperidol, medications used for the treatment of schizophrenia...
- Regulation of thyroid hormone levels by central and peripheral pathwaysKRISTEN RACHEL VELLA; Fiscal Year: 2013..DREADDs are mutant receptors that are stimulated only by the pharmacologically inert ligand clozapine-N-oxide (CNO)...
- Genetics and Haloperidol ResponseRobert J Hitzemann; Fiscal Year: 2012..The side-effects of the atypical antipsychotic drugs such as clozapine, include diabetes, severe weight gain and cardiac arrhythmias...
- Pharmacology of Risperidone Effects on Bone Remodeling and Energy MetabolismKaren L Houseknecht; Fiscal Year: 2013..functional consequence of specific receptor binding effects of RIS, and prolactin-sparing SGAs olanzapine and clozapine, using osteoblast and osteoclast culture in vitro, and in vivo by using established mouse models of RIS-induced ..
- Aging and Antipsychotic Efficacy - Epigenetic MechanismsHongxin Dong; Fiscal Year: 2013..young (3-month old) and aged (24-month old) mice will be treated with haloperidol (HAL, a typical) or clozapine (CLZ, an atypical) alone or in combination with the HDAC1-specific inhibitor entinostat (MS-275) or pan-HDAC ..
- Oxidative stress and schizophrenia: combination of cell biology and brain imagingAkira Sawa; Fiscal Year: 2013..Excess ROS in SZ was partially normalized by clozapine, which is utilized clinically in treatment of patients with SZ...
- Negative symptoms of schizophrenia: animal modelsAthina Markou; Fiscal Year: 2013..Our extensive Preliminary Studies showed that clozapine, but not quetiapine, partially attenuated repeated PCP-induced deficits in attention and response inhibition in ..
- Effect of Atypical Antipsychotics on Fructose Metabolism and Weight GainCAROLINE PALAVICINO-MAGGIO; Fiscal Year: 2012..serotonin and histamine receptors are expressed in the intestine;(2) our preliminary result that chronic clozapine treatment increases intestinal fructose uptake in C57BL/6 wild type mice;(3) our preliminary result that wild ..
- Mechanisms of schizophrenia-like phenotypes in BACE 1 knockout miceAlena Savonenko; Fiscal Year: 2010..Importantly, some of these symptoms were responsive to clozapine treatment...
- Development of Novel Agents for CNS-related DiseasesSeth Y Ablordeppey; Fiscal Year: 2012..Atypical Antipsychotic Agents (AAAs) or Second Generation Antipsychotics (SGAs), typified by clozapine and olanzapine, have replaced typical antipsychotic agents (TAAs) as the drugs of choice for the treatment of ..
- In Vivo Neuronal Modulation via Engineered G Protein-Coupled ReceptorsSARAH CLAIRE ROGAN; Fiscal Year: 2012..any detectable intrinsic activity, and are selectively activated by the bioavailable inert synthetic ligand, clozapine-N-oxide (CNO)...
- Effect of chronic antipsychotic medication administration on cocaine poisoningKENNON JAMES HEARD; Fiscal Year: 2010..density in mice treated for 28 days with continuous infusions of clinically relevant APMs (haloperidol, clozapine, ziprasidone, and aripiprazole) or placebo...
- GABA and Early Intervention of SchizophreniaTsung Ung W Woo; Fiscal Year: 2010..the peri-onset period, or placebo, added onto their regimen of second-generation antipsychotics, excluding clozapine. We will use a 2-back WM task and the WM sub-tests of the MATRICS (Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve ..
- Alcoholism and Schizophrenia: A Translational Approach to TreatmentAlan I Green; Fiscal Year: 2012..available antipsychotic medications do not limit alcohol use in patients with SCZ, the atypical antipsychotic clozapine (CLOZ) appears to do so...
- Innovative Intervention Strategies for Metabolic Problems in SchizophreniaXiaoduo Fan; Fiscal Year: 2012..randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of telmisartan 80 mg/day, as an adjunctive therapy in 70 clozapine or olanzapine treated schizophrenia patients...
- Endogenous Kynurenic Acid Modulates Prefrontal ACh Levels and Cognitive BehaviorRobert Schwarcz; Fiscal Year: 2013..effects will be evaluated both in control animals and in rats treated with typical (haloperidol) or atypical (clozapine) neuroleptic drugs in combination with an adjunctive therapy targeting the 17nAChR with a clinically used ..
- Prodrugs of NAAG Peptidase Inhibitors for the Treatment of SchizophreniaJia Zhou; Fiscal Year: 2009..Atypical antipsychotic drugs, such as clozapine, risperidone, and olanzapine are widely used to treat schizophrenia but are not fully effective in moderating ..
- Mechanism of 5HT2AR regulation by Egr3AMELIA GALLITANO; Fiscal Year: 2013..Moreover, their reduced sensitivity to the sedating effects of clozapine, compared with wildtype (WT) littermates, parallels the unexplained clinical observation that schizophrenia ..
- Physiological Implications of Serotonin Receptor RegulationLaura M Bohn; Fiscal Year: 2013..For example, the atypical antipsychotic drug clozapine was designed to block the activity of this receptor...
- Neural pathway of REM sleep atoniaJun Lu; Fiscal Year: 2013..which modified G coupled cholinergic receptors are inserted into the neurons that are only activated by activate clozapine-N-oxide (CNO)...
- Effects of Clopazine and haloperidol on respondingDanielle Gulick; Fiscal Year: 2010..In patients with SCZ and in the hamster, the atypical antipsychotic clozapine (CLOZ) dramatically decreases alcohol consumption but the typical antipsychotic haloperidol (HAL) does not...
- Understanding the Metabolic Impact of Aldehyde Oxidase on New Drug DesignJeffrey P Jones; Fiscal Year: 2013..From the inhibition results, we are able to determine that two compounds, clozapine and chlorpromazine, have high enough affinities to show drug-drug interactions...
- A novel, transient inactivation technique for studying the primate social brainChristopher J Machado; Fiscal Year: 2013..These novel receptors are triggered by intravenous or oral administration of a nontoxic molecule called clozapine-N-oxide (CNO)...
- DRUG METABOLISM BY INTESTINAL FLAVIN MONOOXYGENASESROSITA PROTEAU; Fiscal Year: 2001..The FMO system oxidizes a wide range of pharmaceuticals such as tamoxifen, imipramine, chlorpromazine, clozapine, and albendazole, all of which have low bioavailability...
- Investigating astrocytic Gq-GPCR and Ca2+ signaling in functional hyperemia in viDaniel Bonder; Fiscal Year: 2013..does not respond to endogenous ligands and instead is activated by the blood-brain barrier-permeable compound, Clozapine-N-Oxide (CNO);CNO does not activate endogenous receptors...
- Structure/Function Studies of Quinone Reductase 2Zhongtao Zhang; Fiscal Year: 2009..of QR2 polymorphism in relationship with certain neurological diseases, as QR2 polymorphism has been associated with idiopathic Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, alcohol withdrawal symptoms and clozapine-induced aranulocytosis.
- Development of Ultrafine Particles for Intranasal Delivery of AntipsychoticsSANDRA EDITH NORIEGA; Fiscal Year: 2013..project is to develop a biocompatible ultrafine particle-based vector system for the intranasal delivery of clozapine for the pharmacological therapy of treatment- resistant schizophrenic disorders and their associated suicidal ..
- Clozapine Sensors for Improving Therapeutic Treatments of SchizophreniaKaren Wu; Fiscal Year: 2011..It is estimated that 20% to 60% of patients have treatment-resistant schizophrenia. Clozapine remains the only effective antipsychotic for treatment-resistant schizophrenia despite the risks of toxic side ..
- Structure and function of the 5HT2A/mGluR2 complex in schizophreniaJavier Gonzalez-Maeso; Fiscal Year: 2013..Notably, clozapine and other atypical antipsychotics have high affinity for serotonin 5-HT2A receptors (2AR), and metabotropic ..
- Dissecting hypothalamic pathways that regulate sexually dimorphic behaviorsNIRAO MAHESH SHAH; Fiscal Year: 2013..In Aim 3, we will utilize a Cre- dependent heterologous receptor (DREADD) activated by a heterologous ligand (clozapine-N-oxide) to switch on activity in these VMH neurons in vivo in males and females...
- Dissecting Heterogeneity of Treatment Response of First Episode SchizophreniaAnil K Malhotra; Fiscal Year: 2012..effects, in the context of a standardized, open-label treatment algorithm with risperidone and aripiprazole (or clozapine in treatment refractory patients) for the remainder of a total 52-week study period...
- MOTOR EFFECTS OF ATYPICAL ANTIPSYCHOTICSJohn Salamone; Fiscal Year: 2003DESCRIPTION: (Verbatim from the Applicant's Abstract) Clozapine is an antipsychotic drug with a unique clinical, biochemical and behavioral profile...
- Clozapine for Cannabis Use Disorder in SchizophreniaAlan I Green; Fiscal Year: 2013..Moreover, the one antipsychotic that preliminary data suggest may well limit cannabis use in these patients, clozapine (CLOZ), is not used for this purpose;it is reserved for patients whose psychosis is treatment resistant...
- Adjunctive Minocycline in Clozapine Treated Patients for Psychosis and CognitionDeanna L Kelly; Fiscal Year: 2012DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Over 60% of people treated with clozapine continue to have persistent symptoms and cognitive impairments and little data is available to support evidence-based recommendations to guide clinicians in ..
- CELLULAR MECHANISMS OF DRUG REACTIONS IN SCHIZOPHRENIAEdmond Yunis; Fiscal Year: 1999DESCRIPTION (Adapted from applicant's abstract): There are different HLA associations in patients with clozapine-induced agranulocytosis (CA): in Jewish patients, HLA-B38, DR4 (DRB1*0402, DQB1*0302, DQA1*0301, DPB1*0401), HSP70 9...
- Developmental Psychopharmacology of AntipsychoticsJENNY WILEY; Fiscal Year: 2007..Research on the effects of atypical antipsychotics (e.g., clozapine) that do not produce extrapyramidal motor effects is particularly lacking...
- Acute Inhibition of Adult-born Granule Cells and its Effect on Antidepressant ActLINDSAY ELSA TANNENHOLZ; Fiscal Year: 2013..evolved G-protein coupled receptor (hM4Di), which is exclusively activated by the pharmacologically inert drug clozapine-N-oxide (CNO), selectively in adult-generated GCs...
- Acute Impact of Antipsychotics on Insulin Sensitivity: A Novel Human ModelJonathan Meyer; Fiscal Year: 2009..use certain medications, and 2) facilitating the development of antipsychotics with the efficacy of agents like clozapine, but free of the metabolic liability...
- GABA AGONIST THERAPY IN TARDIVE DYSKINESIACarol Tamminga; Fiscal Year: 1999..In addition, we have demonstrated a therapeutic effect of clozapine in TD and now are seeking to understand whether clozapine improves dyskinesias in TD through diminishing these ..
- Cannabis and Schizophrenia: Self-Medication and Agonist Treatment?Alan I Green; Fiscal Year: 2010..medication that preliminary studies have shown to have some ability to limit cannabis use in these patients, clozapine, has substantial toxicity and is thus used by only a small percentage of patients who might benefit from it...
- CANNABIS AND SCHIZOPHRENIA: CLOZAPINE VS RISPERIDONEAlan Green; Fiscal Year: 2005..Preliminary data suggest that the atypical antipsychotic drug clozapine (CLOZ), currently used primarily for treatment resistant patients, may limit cannabis use in "dual diagnosis" ..
- Clozapine, cannabis and first episode schizophreniaAlan Green; Fiscal Year: 2003..and large-scale investigations of novel antipsychotics in first episode patients are underway, the novel drug clozapine (CLOZ) is not used clinically or in most research studies in patients because of Its side effects and the ..
- NEUROLEPTIC-INDUCED DYSKINESIAS AND DYSTONIASGaylord Ellison; Fiscal Year: 1992..While "atypical" neuroleptics (clozapine and raclopride) do not induce these syndromes, with clozapine it seems that the TD-like profile gradually ..
- Cannabis & Schizophrenia: fMRI Reward Circuit BiomakerAlan Green; Fiscal Year: 2005..use in these patients, preliminary data from our group and others suggest that the atypical antipsychotic drug clozapine (CLOZ) may limit cannabis use in patients with SCHIZ much more effectively than do either typical antipsychotics ..
- ANTIPSYCHOTIC DRUGS AND CONTROL OF DOPAMINERGIC NEURONSRobert Roth; Fiscal Year: 2006..The atypical APD, clozapine, is effective in reversing the cognitive impairment and normalizing PFC DA turnover in the PCP dysregulated ..
- ANTIPSYCHOTICS AND RECEPTOR DESENSITIZATION MACHINERYEugenia Gurevich; Fiscal Year: 2002..of the effects of acute and subchronic treatment with typical antipsychotic haloperidol and atypical drug clozapine on the expression of arrestin and GRK mRNAs and proteins in various brain areas implicated in schizophrenia ..
- Atypical Antipsychotics: Determinants of ConcentrationBruce Pollock; Fiscal Year: 2004..exposure of the antipsychotics (risperidone, olanzapine, ziprasidone, fluphenazine, perphenazine, and clozapine) using mixed effect population pharmacokinetic methodologies...
- ATYPICAL ANTIPSYCHOTICS AND P50 GATING IN SCHIZOPHRENIALawrence Adler; Fiscal Year: 2001..In contrast, treatment with clozapine. a prototypical atypical antipsychotic, has normalized P50 auditory gating in neuroleptic-resistant ..
- ANTIPSYCHOTIC TREATMENT IN LATE LIFE SCHIZOPHRENIAJonathan Lacro; Fiscal Year: 2001..Recently, experience with serotonin- dopamine antagonists, or "atypical" antipsychotic medications such as clozapine and risperidone, has shown that is possible to better dissociate the antipsychotic effects of medications from ..
- SMOOTH PURSUIT, SACCADES, AND FIXATION IN SCHIZOPHRENIALee Friedman; Fiscal Year: 1992..withdrawal from medication and after treatment either with typical neuroleptics or the atypical neuroleptic clozapine. Patients with affective disorders have been studied either in the unmedicated condition or during treatment ..
- SMOKING, SCHIZOPHRENIA, AND ATYPICAL ANTIPSYCHOTICSJoseph McEvoy; Fiscal Year: 1999..decreases significantly when patients switch from haloperidol to pharmacotherapy with atypical antipsychotic, clozapine. Nicotine corrects certain deficits in sensory gating and cognitive psychomotor performance that are not ..
- GLYCINE AND D-CYCLOSERINE IN SCHIZOPHRENIADonald Goff; Fiscal Year: 2000DESCRIPTION (Applicant's Abstract): Clozapine is more effective for negative symptoms of schizophrenia than conventional neuroleptics, but the neurochemical actions contributing to this superior clinical efficacy remain unclear...
- MONOAMINERGIC MODULATION OF PREFRONTAL CORTEXDALTON SURMEIER; Fiscal Year: 2004..In part, the clinical effectiveness of atypical neuroleptics like clozapine has motivated this new line of thought...
- Drug-Induced Lipid Accumulation in C. elegansDonard Dwyer; Fiscal Year: 2006..elegans. Furthermore, tph-1 mutants treated with clozapine, an antipsychotic drug with weight gain liability, accumulated lipid and arrested without reaching sexual ..
- DOPAMINE SYSTEM INTERACTIONS AND SCHIZOPHRENIAARIEL DEUTCH; Fiscal Year: 2004..These studies will determine the efferent targets of PVT neurons that are activated by clozapine and psychostimulants, determine if the Fos response of PVT neurons occurs in D3 receptor-expressing cells, and ..
- CLOZAPINE INDUCED AGRANULOCYTOSIS IN SCHIZOPHRENIAStanton Gerson; Fiscal Year: 1992b>Clozapine is a unique, atypical antipsychotic dibenzoxazebine with unusual efficacy in treating patients with refractory schizophrenia. Randomized studies have shown it to be superior to conventional treatment of this disorder...
- Neurosteroids and SchizophreniaChristine Marx; Fiscal Year: 2005..We have also demonstrated that acute olanzapine and clozapine administration alters cerebral cortical neurosteroids in rodents...
- RISPERIDONE AND CLOZAPINE IN CHRONIC SCHIZOPHRENIAJeffrey Lieberman; Fiscal Year: 1999..Standard antipsychotic drugs are clinically effective in only 50% of the patients. The atypical antipsychotic clozapine (CLO) is the only treatment with proven efficacy in refractory patients...
- RISPERIDONE AND CLOZAPINE IN CHRONIC SCHIZOPHRENIAJan Volavka; Fiscal Year: 1999..Standard antipsychotic drugs are clinically effective in only 50% of the patients. The atypical antipsychotic clozapine (CLO) is the only treatment with proven efficacy in refractory patients...
- SEROTONERGIC MODULATION OF AMYGDALOID TRANSMISSIONDonald Rainnie; Fiscal Year: 2001..Lesions of the amygdala induce a permanent disruption of APDs, such as clozapine, are particularly efficacious in treating negative symptoms of schizophrenia...
- Antipsychotics: Temporal Effects on Cognitive FunctionAlvin Terry; Fiscal Year: 2006..neuroleptics such as haloperidol (in a temporally dependent fashion), but not atypical agents such as clozapine, leads to cognitive impairment and that a reduction in a key marker for cholinergic neurons, choline ..
- Ampakines in SchizophreniaSteven Johnson; Fiscal Year: 2002..We recently completed an exploratory safety trial of the AMPAKINE CX516 added to clozapine in 19 treatment-resistant patients...
- SEROTONIN IN TREATMENT REFRACTORY SCHIZOPHRENIARene Kahn; Fiscal Year: 1990..b>Clozapine is the only compound proven to be effective in this group of treatment refractory schizophrenics...
- Clozapine Treatment of Schizophrenic PatientsRobert Buchanan; Fiscal Year: 2006This is a submission of a competitive renewal application, MH 45074: "Clozapine Treatment of Schizophrenic Outpatients"...
- ECT IN CLOZAPINE REFRACTORY SCHIZOPHRENIAGeorgios Petrides; Fiscal Year: 2003..b>Clozapine represents a unique treatment in our armamentarium for schizophrenia as it is helpful in treating 30-50% of the ..
- Clozapine Drug Discrimination in C57BL/6J MiceSCOTT PHILIBIN; Fiscal Year: 2005b>Clozapine is the prototypical atypical antipsychotic drug and represents a tremendous improvement over conventional antipsychotics in terms of therapeutic efficacy and reduced side effect liability for the treatment of schizophrenia...
- CLOZAPINE AND SKILL TRAINING FOR SCHIZOPHRENIAThomas Smith; Fiscal Year: 2000..and c) conduct a research project studying the combined effects of the atypical antipsychotic medication clozapine and a manualized symptom management social skills training program on symptom control, social skill, and social ..