chloroquine

Summary

Summary: The prototypical antimalarial agent with a mechanism that is not well understood. It has also been used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and in the systemic therapy of amebic liver abscesses.

Top Publications

  1. pmc Pancreatic cancers require autophagy for tumor growth
    Shenghong Yang
    Division of Genomic Stability and DNA Repair, Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Genes Dev 25:717-29. 2011
  2. pmc Autophagy inhibition enhances therapy-induced apoptosis in a Myc-induced model of lymphoma
    Ravi K Amaravadi
    Division of Hematology Oncology, Department of Medicine, Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
    J Clin Invest 117:326-36. 2007
  3. ncbi Genetic diversity and chloroquine selective sweeps in Plasmodium falciparum
    John C Wootton
    Computational Biology Branch, National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20894 6075, USA
    Nature 418:320-3. 2002
  4. ncbi New developments in Plasmodium vivax malaria: severe disease and the rise of chloroquine resistance
    Ric N Price
    International Health Division, Menzies School of Health Research and Charles Darwin University, Darwin, Australia
    Curr Opin Infect Dis 22:430-5. 2009
  5. ncbi A molecular marker for chloroquine-resistant falciparum malaria
    A Djimde
    Malaria Section, Center for Vaccine Development, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore 21201, USA
    N Engl J Med 344:257-63. 2001
  6. ncbi Reemergence of chloroquine-sensitive Plasmodium falciparum malaria after cessation of chloroquine use in Malawi
    James G Kublin
    Malaria Section, Center for Vaccine Development, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    J Infect Dis 187:1870-5. 2003
  7. ncbi Chloroquine in cancer therapy: a double-edged sword of autophagy
    Tomonori Kimura
    Department of Geriatric Medicine and Nephrology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan
    Cancer Res 73:3-7. 2013
  8. ncbi Relapses of Plasmodium vivax infection usually result from activation of heterologous hypnozoites
    Mallika Imwong
    Department of Clinical Tropical Medicine, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
    J Infect Dis 195:927-33. 2007
  9. ncbi Pgh1 modulates sensitivity and resistance to multiple antimalarials in Plasmodium falciparum
    M B Reed
    The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    Nature 403:906-9. 2000
  10. pmc Akt inhibition promotes autophagy and sensitizes PTEN-null tumors to lysosomotropic agents
    Michael Degtyarev
    Genentech, Inc, South San Francisco, CA 94080, USA
    J Cell Biol 183:101-16. 2008

Detail Information

Publications257 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc Pancreatic cancers require autophagy for tumor growth
    Shenghong Yang
    Division of Genomic Stability and DNA Repair, Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Genes Dev 25:717-29. 2011
    ..Most importantly, inhibition of autophagy by genetic means or chloroquine treatment leads to robust tumor regression and prolonged survival in pancreatic cancer xenografts and genetic ..
  2. pmc Autophagy inhibition enhances therapy-induced apoptosis in a Myc-induced model of lymphoma
    Ravi K Amaravadi
    Division of Hematology Oncology, Department of Medicine, Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
    J Clin Invest 117:326-36. 2007
    ..Inhibition of autophagy with either chloroquine or ATG5 short hairpin RNA (shRNA) enhanced the ability of either p53 activation or alkylating drug therapy to ..
  3. ncbi Genetic diversity and chloroquine selective sweeps in Plasmodium falciparum
    John C Wootton
    Computational Biology Branch, National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20894 6075, USA
    Nature 418:320-3. 2002
    ..b>Chloroquine-resistant (CQR) parasites were initially reported about 45 years ago from two foci in southeast Asia and South ..
  4. ncbi New developments in Plasmodium vivax malaria: severe disease and the rise of chloroquine resistance
    Ric N Price
    International Health Division, Menzies School of Health Research and Charles Darwin University, Darwin, Australia
    Curr Opin Infect Dis 22:430-5. 2009
    ..disease in healthy travellers or in temperate endemic regions and has been regarded as readily treatable with chloroquine. However, in tropical areas, recent reports have highlighted severe and fatal disease associated with P...
  5. ncbi A molecular marker for chloroquine-resistant falciparum malaria
    A Djimde
    Malaria Section, Center for Vaccine Development, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore 21201, USA
    N Engl J Med 344:257-63. 2001
    b>Chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria is a major health problem, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa...
  6. ncbi Reemergence of chloroquine-sensitive Plasmodium falciparum malaria after cessation of chloroquine use in Malawi
    James G Kublin
    Malaria Section, Center for Vaccine Development, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    J Infect Dis 187:1870-5. 2003
    In 1993, Malawi became the first African country to replace chloroquine with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine nationwide in response to high rates of chloroquine-resistant falciparum malaria...
  7. ncbi Chloroquine in cancer therapy: a double-edged sword of autophagy
    Tomonori Kimura
    Department of Geriatric Medicine and Nephrology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan
    Cancer Res 73:3-7. 2013
    ..the unfavorable metastatic environment, and a number of clinical trials are now revealing the promising role of chloroquine, an autophagy inhibitor, as a novel antitumor drug...
  8. ncbi Relapses of Plasmodium vivax infection usually result from activation of heterologous hypnozoites
    Mallika Imwong
    Department of Clinical Tropical Medicine, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
    J Infect Dis 195:927-33. 2007
    ..Thus, reappearance of parasitemia after treatment can result from relapse, recrudescence, or reinfection. It has been assumed that parasites causing relapse would be a subset of the parasites that caused the primary infection...
  9. ncbi Pgh1 modulates sensitivity and resistance to multiple antimalarials in Plasmodium falciparum
    M B Reed
    The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    Nature 403:906-9. 2000
    ..the gene encoding the P-glycoprotein homologue 1 (Pgh1) protein of Plasmodium falciparum, have been linked to chloroquine resistance; Pgh1 has also been implicated in resistance to mefloquine and halofantrine...
  10. pmc Akt inhibition promotes autophagy and sensitizes PTEN-null tumors to lysosomotropic agents
    Michael Degtyarev
    Genentech, Inc, South San Francisco, CA 94080, USA
    J Cell Biol 183:101-16. 2008
    ..Further treatment with the lysosomotropic agent chloroquine caused accumulation of abnormal autophagolysosomes and reactive oxygen species, leading to accelerated cell ..
  11. pmc Clinical and laboratory features of human Plasmodium knowlesi infection
    Cyrus Daneshvar
    Malaria Research Centre, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, Malaysia
    Clin Infect Dis 49:852-60. 2009
    ..Plasmodium knowlesi is increasingly recognized as a cause of human malaria in Southeast Asia but there are no detailed prospective clinical studies of naturally acquired infections...
  12. ncbi Intercontinental spread of pyrimethamine-resistant malaria
    Cally Roper
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, UK
    Science 305:1124. 2004
    ..The resistance alleles carried by these migrants are now spreading across Africa at an alarming rate, signaling the end of affordable malaria treatment and presenting sub-Saharan Africa with a public health crisis...
  13. pmc Chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium vivax, Brazilian Amazon
    Franklin Simoes de Santana Filho
    Emerg Infect Dis 13:1125-6. 2007
  14. pmc Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine versus chloroquine in the treatment of Plasmodium vivax malaria in Thailand: a randomized controlled trial
    Aung Pyae Phyo
    Shoklo Malaria Research Unit, Mae Sod
    Clin Infect Dis 53:977-84. 2011
    b>Chloroquine (CQ) remains the treatment of choice for Plasmodium vivax malaria. Initially confined to parts of Indonesia and Papua, resistance of P. vivax to CQ seems to be spreading, and alternative treatments are required.
  15. ncbi Protection against a malaria challenge by sporozoite inoculation
    Meta Roestenberg
    Department of Medical Microbiology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    N Engl J Med 361:468-77. 2009
    ..Naturally acquired immunity to malaria develops slowly, and induction of protection in humans can be achieved artificially by the inoculation of radiation-attenuated sporozoites by means of more than 1000 infective mosquito bites...
  16. pmc Resistance to therapies for infection by Plasmodium vivax
    J Kevin Baird
    Eijkman Oxford Clinical Research Unit, Jalan Diponegoro No 69, Jakarta 10430, Indonesia
    Clin Microbiol Rev 22:508-34. 2009
    ..The two frontline therapies against vivax malaria, chloroquine and primaquine, may be failing...
  17. pmc Rapid selection of Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter gene and multidrug resistance gene-1 haplotypes associated with past chloroquine and present artemether-lumefantrine use in Inhambane District, southern Mozambique
    Thomas T Thomsen
    Section for Functional Genomics, Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, Ole Maaløes Vej 5, 2200 Copenhagen N, Denmark
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 88:536-41. 2013
    b>Chloroquine (CQ) use in Mozambique was stopped in 2002 and artemether-lumefantrine (AL) was implemented in 2008...
  18. pmc Protection against malaria after immunization by chloroquine prophylaxis and sporozoites is mediated by preerythrocytic immunity
    Else M Bijker
    Departments of Medical Microbiology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, 6500 HB, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110:7862-7. 2013
    Volunteers immunized under chloroquine chemoprophylaxis with Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites (CPS) develop complete, long-lasting protection against homologous sporozoite challenge...
  19. pmc Pyronaridine-artesunate versus chloroquine in patients with acute Plasmodium vivax malaria: a randomized, double-blind, non-inferiority trial
    Yi Poravuth
    National Malaria Center, Phnom Penh, Cambodia
    PLoS ONE 6:e14501. 2011
    New antimalarials are needed for P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria. This study compared the efficacy and safety of pyronaridine-artesunate with that of chloroquine for the treatment of uncomplicated P. vivax malaria.
  20. pmc Artemisinin combination therapy for vivax malaria
    Nicholas M Douglas
    Menzies School of Health Research, Darwin, NT, Australia
    Lancet Infect Dis 10:405-16. 2010
    ..with falciparum malaria whereas blood-stage infections with Plasmodium vivax are mostly still treated with chloroquine. We review the evidence for the relative benefits and disadvantages of the existing separate treatment approach ..
  21. pmc Chloroquine resistance before and after its withdrawal in Kenya
    Leah Mwai
    Kenya Medical Research Institute Wellcome Trust Collaborative Research Programme, Kilifi, Kenya
    Malar J 8:106. 2009
    The spread of resistance to chloroquine (CQ) led to its withdrawal from use in most countries in sub-Saharan Africa in the 1990s...
  22. pmc Chloroquine sensitizes breast cancer cells to chemotherapy independent of autophagy
    Paola Maycotte
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO, USA
    Autophagy 8:200-12. 2012
    b>Chloroquine (CQ) is a 4-aminoquinoline drug used for the treatment of diverse diseases. It inhibits lysosomal acidification and therefore prevents autophagy by blocking autophagosome fusion and degradation...
  23. ncbi Adding chloroquine to conventional treatment for glioblastoma multiforme: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial
    Julio Sotelo
    National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery of Mexico, Mexico City, Mexico
    Ann Intern Med 144:337-43. 2006
    ..Preliminary studies suggest that adding chloroquine to conventional therapy may improve treatment outcomes.
  24. pmc Assessment of the molecular marker of Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance (Pfcrt) in Senegal after several years of chloroquine withdrawal
    Magatte Ndiaye
    Service de Parasitologie Mycologie, Faculte de Medecine, Universite Cheikh Anta Diop, Dakar, Senegal
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 87:640-5. 2012
    ..In Senegal, the health authorities changed from chloroquine (CQ) to a combination of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) plus amodiaquine (AQ) in 2003...
  25. pmc In vivo selection of Plasmodium falciparum parasites carrying the chloroquine-susceptible pfcrt K76 allele after treatment with artemether-lumefantrine in Africa
    Christin Sisowath
    Infectious Diseases Unit, Department of Medicine and Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    J Infect Dis 199:750-7. 2009
    ..Identification of drug-specific parasite determinants that contribute to treatment failures will provide important tools for the detection and surveillance of AL resistance...
  26. ncbi Return of chloroquine antimalarial efficacy in Malawi
    Miriam K Laufer
    University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
    N Engl J Med 355:1959-66. 2006
    In 1993, Malawi became the first country in Africa to replace chloroquine with the combination of sulfadoxine and pyrimethamine for the treatment of malaria. At that time, the clinical efficacy of chloroquine was less than 50%...
  27. pmc Determinants of in vitro drug susceptibility testing of Plasmodium vivax
    B Russell
    International Health Program, Infectious Diseases Division, Menzies School of Health Research and Charles Darwin University, Darwin, Australia
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 52:1040-5. 2008
    ..falciparum (n = 277) was assessed using a modified schizont maturation assay for chloroquine, amodiaquine, artesunate, lumefantrine, mefloquine, and piperaquine. The most effective antimalarial against P...
  28. pmc Chloroquine resistance in Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites conferred by pfcrt mutations
    Amar bir Singh Sidhu
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, USA
    Science 298:210-3. 2002
    Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance is a major cause of worldwide increases in malaria mortality and morbidity. Recent laboratory and clinical studies have associated chloroquine resistance with point mutations in the gene pfcrt...
  29. pmc Recognition of single-stranded RNA viruses by Toll-like receptor 7
    Jennifer M Lund
    Section of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:5598-603. 2004
    ..These results demonstrate microbial ligand recognition by TLR7 and provide insights into the pathways used by the innate immune cells in the recognition of viral pathogens...
  30. ncbi Chloroquine and its analogs: a new promise of an old drug for effective and safe cancer therapies
    V Raja Solomon
    Tumor Biology Group, Northeastern Ontario Regional Cancer Program at the Sudbury Regional Hospital, 41 Ramsey Lake Road, Sudbury, Ontario, Canada P3E 5J1
    Eur J Pharmacol 625:220-33. 2009
    b>Chloroquine (CQ), N'-(7-chloroquinolin-4-yl)-N,N-diethyl-pentane-1,4-diamine, is widely used as an effective and safe anti-malarial and anti-rheumatoid agent...
  31. ncbi The public health impact of chloroquine resistance in Africa
    J F Trape
    Laboratoire de Paludologie, Institut de recherche pour le developpement IRD, formerly ORSTOM, Dakar, Senegal
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 64:12-7. 2001
    Between 1978 and 1988 Plasmodium falciparum resistance to chloroquine has been reported in all countries of tropical Africa...
  32. ncbi Chloroquine-resistant malaria
    T E Wellems
    Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Infect Dis 184:770-6. 2001
    The development of chloroquine as an antimalarial drug and the subsequent evolution of drug-resistant Plasmodium strains had major impacts on global public health in the 20th century. In P...
  33. pmc Geographic patterns of Plasmodium falciparum drug resistance distinguished by differential responses to amodiaquine and chloroquine
    Juliana Martha Sá
    Laboratory of Malaria and Vector Research and Biostatistics Research Branch, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:18883-9. 2009
    b>Chloroquine (CQ) resistance (CQR) in Plasmodium falciparum originated from at least six foci in South America, Asia, and Oceania...
  34. pmc Reduction of immune activation with chloroquine therapy during chronic HIV infection
    Shannon M Murray
    Human Immunology Section, NIH Vaccine Research Center, Bethesda, MD 20892 3005, USA
    J Virol 84:12082-6. 2010
    ..We evaluated chloroquine (CQ) as a potential therapy to reduce immune activation during HIV infection...
  35. ncbi Induction of lysosomal dilatation, arrested autophagy, and cell death by chloroquine in cultured ARPE-19 cells
    Young Hee Yoon
    Department of Ophthalmology, University of Ulsan, College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 51:6030-7. 2010
    To characterize and investigate the mechanism of chloroquine (CQ) retinotoxicity in human retinal pigment epithelium-derived ARPE-19 cells.
  36. pmc Chloroquine potentiates the anti-cancer effect of 5-fluorouracil on colon cancer cells
    Kazuhito Sasaki
    Department of Surgical Oncology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113 8655, Japan
    BMC Cancer 10:370. 2010
    b>Chloroquine (CQ), the worldwide used anti-malarial drug, has recently being focused as a potential anti-cancer agent as well as a chemosensitizer when used in combination with anti-cancer drugs...
  37. pmc Decreased in vitro susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum isolates to artesunate, mefloquine, chloroquine, and quinine in Cambodia from 2001 to 2007
    Pharath Lim
    Institut Pasteur in Cambodia, Molecular Epidemiology Unit, Phnom Penh, Cambodia
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 54:2135-42. 2010
    ..these, 1,588 were examined for their in vitro susceptibilities to four antimalarials (artesunate, mefloquine, chloroquine, and quinine), and 851 isolates were genotyped for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)...
  38. ncbi Exploring polyethylenimine-mediated DNA transfection and the proton sponge hypothesis
    Akin Akinc
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
    J Gene Med 7:657-63. 2005
    ..According to the proton sponge hypothesis, the buffering capacity of PEI leads to osmotic swelling and rupture of endosomes, resulting in the release of the vector into the cytoplasm...
  39. pmc Akt and autophagy cooperate to promote survival of drug-resistant glioma
    Qi Wen Fan
    Department of Neurology, University of California, 1450 Third Street, MC0520, San Francisco, CA 94158 9001, USA
    Sci Signal 3:ra81. 2010
    ..inhibitor NVP-BEZ235, which is in clinical use, synergized with the lysosomotropic inhibitor of autophagy, chloroquine, another agent in clinical use, to induce apoptosis in glioma xenografts in vivo, providing a therapeutic ..
  40. ncbi A large focus of naturally acquired Plasmodium knowlesi infections in human beings
    Balbir Singh
    Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia
    Lancet 363:1017-24. 2004
    ..We aimed to investigate whether such infections could be attributable to a variant form of P malariae or a newly emergent Plasmodium species...
  41. ncbi Tafenoquine plus chloroquine for the treatment and relapse prevention of Plasmodium vivax malaria (DETECTIVE): a multicentre, double-blind, randomised, phase 2b dose-selection study
    Alejandro Llanos-Cuentas
    Instituto de Medicina Tropical, Alexander von Humboldt, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru
    Lancet 383:1049-58. 2014
    ..We aimed to assess the dose-response, safety, and tolerability of single-dose tafenoquine plus 3-day chloroquine for P vivax malaria radical cure.
  42. pmc Evidence of selective sweeps in genes conferring resistance to chloroquine and pyrimethamine in Plasmodium falciparum isolates in India
    Tonya Mixson-Hayden
    Malaria Branch, Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4770 Buford Highway, MS F 12, Chamblee, GA 30341, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 54:997-1006. 2010
    ..We tested whether chloroquine- and antifolate drug-resistant genotypes would be more commonly associated with cases of cerebral malaria than ..
  43. pmc Prevalence of molecular markers of anti-malarial drug resistance in Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum in two districts of Nepal
    Samir Ranjitkar
    Centre for Medical Parasitology, Department of International Health, Immunology and Microbiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
    Malar J 10:75. 2011
    Sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) and chloroquine (CQ) have been used in treatment of falciparum and vivax malaria in Nepal...
  44. pmc Return of chloroquine-susceptible falciparum malaria in Malawi was a reexpansion of diverse susceptible parasites
    Miriam K Laufer
    Center for Vaccine Development, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 685 W Baltimore Street, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
    J Infect Dis 202:801-8. 2010
    ..We recently demonstrated the return of chloroquine-susceptible malaria in Malawi after chloroquine use was abandoned...
  45. pmc Prevalence of resistance associated polymorphisms in Plasmodium falciparum field isolates from southern Pakistan
    Najia Karim Ghanchi
    Malaria Research Lab, Infectious Diseases Unit, Department of Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital Karolinska Institutet, Retziusväg 10, Stockholm, Sweden
    Malar J 10:18. 2011
    ..The aim of this study was, therefore, to determine the prevalence of P. falciparum resistance associated polymorphisms in field isolates from southern Pakistan...
  46. ncbi Protective T cell immunity against malaria liver stage after vaccination with live sporozoites under chloroquine treatment
    Elodie Belnoue
    Department of Immunology, Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, Unité 567, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Universite Rene Descartes, Hopital Cochin, Paris, France
    J Immunol 172:2487-95. 2004
    ..Immunization with sporozoites, which was conducted under chloroquine treatment to minimize the influence of blood stage parasites, induced a strong protection against a subsequent ..
  47. ncbi Changes in genotypes of Plasmodium falciparum human malaria parasite following withdrawal of chloroquine in Tiwi, Kenya
    Clarence M Mang'era
    Center for Biotechnology Research and Development Mbagathi Road, Kenya Medical Research Institute KEMRI, P O Box 54840, Nairobi, Kenya
    Acta Trop 123:202-7. 2012
    b>Chloroquine (CQ) drug was withdrawn in 1998 as a first-line treatment of uncomplicated malaria in Kenya. This was in response to resistance to the drug in Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasite...
  48. ncbi Revised recommendations on screening for chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine retinopathy
    Michael F Marmor
    Eye Institute at Stanford, Stanford University, Palo Alto, California, USA
    Ophthalmology 118:415-22. 2011
    The American Academy of Ophthalmology recommendations for screening of chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) retinopathy were published in 2002, but improved screening tools and new knowledge about the prevalence of toxicity have ..
  49. pmc Chloroquine resistant vivax malaria in a pregnant woman on the western border of Thailand
    Marcus J Rijken
    Shoklo Malaria Research Unit, PO Box 46 Mae Sot, Tak 63110, Thailand
    Malar J 10:113. 2011
    b>Chloroquine (CQ) resistant vivax malaria is spreading. In this case, Plasmodium vivax infections during pregnancy and in the postpartum period were not satisfactorily cleared by CQ, despite adequate drug concentrations...
  50. pmc A non-radioactive DAPI-based high-throughput in vitro assay to assess Plasmodium falciparum responsiveness to antimalarials--increased sensitivity of P. falciparum to chloroquine in Senegal
    Daouda Ndiaye
    Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cheikh Anta Diop University, Dakar, Senegal
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 82:228-30. 2010
    ..Compared with earlier years, we found a significant decrease in chloroquine in vitro and in genotypic resistances (> 50% and > 65%, respectively, in previous studies) with only 23% ..
  51. ncbi Monitoring of in vitro susceptibilities and molecular markers of resistance of Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Thai-Myanmar border to chloroquine, quinine, mefloquine and artesunate
    Wanna Chaijaroenkul
    Graduate Program in Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, Thammasat University, Rangsit, Patumthani 12121, Thailand
    Acta Trop 113:190-4. 2010
    ..falciparum isolates to chloroquine (CQ), mefloquine (MQ), quinine (QN) and the artemisinin derivative - artesunate (AS). A total of 26 P...
  52. pmc Patterns of chloroquine use and resistance in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review of household survey and molecular data
    Anne E P Frosch
    Center for Vaccine Development, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 685 West Baltimore Street, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Malar J 10:116. 2011
    As a result of widespread chloroquine and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) resistance, 90% of sub-Saharan African countries had adopted policies of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) for treatment of uncomplicated malaria by 2007...
  53. pmc Evolution of a unique Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine-resistance phenotype in association with pfcrt polymorphism in Papua New Guinea and South America
    R K Mehlotra
    Division of Geographic Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, University Hospitals of Cleveland, School of Medicine, W147D, 2109 Adelbert Road, Cleveland, OH 44106-4983, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:12689-94. 2001
    The mechanistic basis for chloroquine resistance (CQR) in Plasmodium falciparum recently has been linked to the polymorphic gene pfcrt...
  54. pmc Identification of a mutant PfCRT-mediated chloroquine tolerance phenotype in Plasmodium falciparum
    Stephanie G Valderramos
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 6:e1000887. 2010
    ..forms of the Plasmodium falciparum transporter PfCRT constitute the key determinant of parasite resistance to chloroquine (CQ), the former first-line antimalarial, and are ubiquitous to infections that fail CQ treatment...
  55. ncbi Large differences in prevalence of Pfcrt and Pfmdr1 mutations between Mwanza, Tanzania and Iganga, Uganda-a reflection of differences in policies regarding withdrawal of chloroquine?
    Erasmus Kamugisha
    Department of Biochemistry, Bugando University College of Health Sciences, Mwanza, Tanzania
    Acta Trop 121:148-51. 2012
    ..prevalence of the wild type markers Pfcrt 76K and Pfmdr1 86N in some African countries and ideas of using chloroquine (CQ) in intermittent presumptive treatment for adults (IPTa) is coming up...
  56. pmc A randomized controlled trial of chloroquine for the treatment of dengue in Vietnamese adults
    Vianney Tricou
    Oxford University Clinical Research Unit, Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Ho Chi Minh City, Viet Nam
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 4:e785. 2010
    There is currently no licensed antiviral drug for treatment of dengue. Chloroquine (CQ) inhibits the replication of dengue virus (DENV) in vitro.
  57. ncbi Plasmodium vivax resistance to chloroquine in Dawei, southern Myanmar
    Jean Paul Guthmann
    Epicentre, Paris, France
    Trop Med Int Health 13:91-8. 2008
    To assess the efficacy of chloroquine in the treatment of Plasmodium vivax malaria in in Dawei District, southern Myanmar.
  58. pmc Population pharmacokinetics of chloroquine and sulfadoxine and treatment response in children with malaria: suggestions for an improved dose regimen
    Celestino Obua
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda
    Br J Clin Pharmacol 65:493-501. 2008
    Both chloroquine (CQ) and sulfadoxine/ pyrimethamine (SDx/PYR) remain important drugs in the control of malaria...
  59. pmc Azithromycin plus chloroquine: combination therapy for protection against malaria and sexually transmitted infections in pregnancy
    R Matthew Chico
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, Disease Control Department, UK
    Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol 7:1153-67. 2011
    ..Combination therapy using azithromycin and chloroquine is one possibility that has demonstrated adequate parasitological response > 95% in clinical trials of non-..
  60. ncbi Following the path of most resistance: dhps K540E dispersal in African Plasmodium falciparum
    Inbarani Naidoo
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London, WC1E 7HT, UK
    Trends Parasitol 26:447-56. 2010
    b>Chloroquine resistant malaria (CQR) emerged in East Africa during the late 1970s and then spread westward. A molecular marker only became available in the late 1990s, and by that time CQR had permeated throughout Africa...
  61. pmc Methylene blue for malaria in Africa: results from a dose-finding study in combination with chloroquine
    Peter E Meissner
    Department of Tropical Hygiene and Public Health, Ruprecht Karls University, INF 324, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
    Malar J 5:84. 2006
    ..Methylene blue (MB) has a similar mode of action as chloroquine (CQ) and has moreover been shown to selectively inhibit the Plasmodium falciparum glutathione reductase...
  62. ncbi In vivo chloroquine resistance and prevalence of the pfcrt codon 76 mutation in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from the Republic of Congo
    Pembe Issamou Mayengue
    Albert Schweitzer Hospital, BP 118, Lambarene, Gabon
    Acta Trop 95:219-25. 2005
    b>Chloroquine (CQ) resistance in Plasmodium falciparum has been particularly associated with mutations in the pfcrt gene...
  63. pmc Autophagy inhibition enhances vorinostat-induced apoptosis via ubiquitinated protein accumulation
    Jennifer S Carew
    Institute for Drug Development, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX 78245, USA
    J Cell Mol Med 14:2448-59. 2010
    ..Disruption of autophagy with chloroquine (CQ) induces the accumulation of ubiquitin-conjugated proteins in a manner similar to the proteasome inhibitor ..
  64. ncbi Bafilomycin A1 inhibits chloroquine-induced death of cerebellar granule neurons
    John J Shacka
    Department of Pathology, Division of Neuropathology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, SC961, 1530 3rd Ave South, Birmingham, AL 35294 0017, USA
    Mol Pharmacol 69:1125-36. 2006
    ..the macrolide antibiotic bafilomycin A1, an inhibitor of vacuolar (V)-ATPase, or with the lysosomotropic agent chloroquine, has been shown to pharmacologically inhibit autophagy as evidenced by an accumulation of autophagosomes, which ..
  65. pmc Dynamics of pfcrt alleles CVMNK and CVIET in chloroquine-treated Sudanese patients infected with Plasmodium falciparum
    Nahla B Gadalla
    Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK
    Malar J 9:74. 2010
    Parasite resistance to the anti-malarial drug chloroquine is common in eastern Sudan...
  66. pmc Chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium vivax malaria in Debre Zeit, Ethiopia
    Hiwot Teka
    Department of Biology, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
    Malar J 7:220. 2008
    Plasmodium vivax accounts for about 40% of all malaria infection in Ethiopia. Chloroquine (CQ) is the first line treatment for confirmed P. vivax malaria in the country. The first report of CQ treatment failure in P...
  67. ncbi Therapeutic efficacy of chloroquine in Plasmodium vivax from areas with different epidemiological patterns in India and their Pvdhfr gene mutation pattern
    Neena Valecha
    Malaria Research Centre ICMR, 22 Sham Nath Marg, Delhi 110 054, India
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 100:831-7. 2006
    ..However, there are some reports of chloroquine (CQ) resistance in P. vivax from different geographical regions...
  68. pmc Confirmed vivax resistance to chloroquine and effectiveness of artemether-lumefantrine for the treatment of vivax malaria in Ethiopia
    Ambachew M Yohannes
    World Health Organization Country Office, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 84:137-40. 2011
    b>Chloroquine (CQ) is still the drug of choice for the treatment of vivax malaria in Ethiopia, whereas artemether-lumefantrine (AL) is for falciparum malaria. In this setting, clinical malaria cases are treated with AL...
  69. pmc Assessment of the drug susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum clinical isolates from africa by using a Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase immunodetection assay and an inhibitory maximum effect model for precise measurement of the 50-percent inhibitory conc
    Halima Kaddouri
    Centre National de Référence du Paludisme, Laboratoire de Parasitologie, Hôpital Bichat Claude Bernard and Université René Descartes, Paris, France
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 50:3343-9. 2006
    ..African isolates were tested by pLDH ELISA and showed drug resistance or decreased susceptibilities of 62% to chloroquine and 11.5% to the active metabolite of amodiaquine...
  70. ncbi On chikungunya acute infection and chloroquine treatment
    Xavier de Lamballerie
    Unite des Virus Emergents, Université de la Méditerranée and Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, Marseille, France
    Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 8:837-9. 2008
    In recent issues, the efficacy of chloroquine (and the dosage that may be used) in the treatment of acute chikungunya infections was discussed...
  71. ncbi Plasmodium vivax clinically resistant to chloroquine in Colombia
    J Soto
    Consorcio de Investigaciones Bioclinicas, Bogota, Colombia
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 65:90-3. 2001
    b>Chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium vivax has been the subject of numerous case reports and prospective studies from Oceania and Asia. In contrast, only case reports exist from the Americas...
  72. pmc Chloroquine-induced autophagic vacuole accumulation and cell death in glioma cells is p53 independent
    Ying Geng
    Department of Pathology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294 0017, USA
    Neuro Oncol 12:473-81. 2010
    ..b>Chloroquine (CQ), an antimalarial lysosomotropic agent, has been identified as a potential adjuvant in the treatment ..
  73. ncbi Seasonal carriage of pfcrt and pfmdr1 alleles in Gambian Plasmodium falciparum imply reduced fitness of chloroquine-resistant parasites
    Rosalynn Ord
    Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, WC1E 7HT, UK
    J Infect Dis 196:1613-9. 2007
    ..Observations in natural Plasmodium falciparum populations after removal of failing drugs suggest that there is a fitness cost of drug resistance...
  74. ncbi The roles of the pfcrt 76T and pfmdr1 86Y mutations, immunity and the initial level of parasitaemia, in predicting the outcome of chloroquine treatment in two areas with different transmission intensities
    I F Khalil
    Department of International Health, Institute for Medical Microbiology and Immunology and Center for Medical Parasitology CMP, Copenhagen, Denmark
    Ann Trop Med Parasitol 99:441-8. 2005
    The resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to chloroquine (CQ) is probably mediated by point mutations in two genes: pfcrt and pfmdr1...
  75. ncbi Molecular analysis of pfatp6 and pfmdr1 polymorphisms and their association with in vitro sensitivity in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from the Thai-Myanmar border
    Papichaya Phompradit
    Thailand Center of Excellence on Drug Discovery and Development, Thammasat University, Rangsit Campus, Patumthani 12121, Thailand
    Acta Trop 120:130-5. 2011
    ..mutation and amplification) and in vitro susceptibility to mefloquine (MQ), artesunate (AS), quinine (QN), and chloroquine (CQ) was investigated in a total of sixty-three Plasmodium falciparum isolates collected from the Thai-Myanmar ..
  76. pmc Selection strength and hitchhiking around two anti-malarial resistance genes
    Denae Nash
    Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research SFBR, San Antonio, TX 78245, USA
    Proc Biol Sci 272:1153-61. 2005
    ..Here, we compare microsatellite variation around two drug resistance genes (chloroquine resistance transporter (pfcrt), chromosome 7, and dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr), chromosome 4) in malaria ..
  77. ncbi Increased prevalence of the Plasmodium falciparum Pfmdr1 86N genotype among field isolates from Franceville, Gabon after replacement of chloroquine by artemether-lumefantrine and artesunate-mefloquine
    Jean Bernard Lekana-Douki
    Unité de Parasitologie Médicale UPARAM, Centre International de Recherches Medicales de Franceville CIRMF, B P 769 Franceville, Gabon
    Infect Genet Evol 11:512-7. 2011
    ..falciparum multidrug resistance 1 (Pfmdr1) and the 76K genotype of P. falciparum chloroquine resistance (Pfcrt) genes...
  78. pmc Therapeutic response of multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax to chloroquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in southern Papua, Indonesia
    A Ratcliff
    International Health Program, Menzies School of Health Research and Charles Darwin University, Darwin, NT, Australia
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 101:351-9. 2007
    ..the level of antimalarial drug resistance in southern Papua, Indonesia, we assessed the therapeutic efficacy of chloroquine plus sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (CQ+SP) for Plasmodium falciparum infections as well as CQ monotherapy for P...
  79. pmc Autophagy is a renoprotective mechanism during in vitro hypoxia and in vivo ischemia-reperfusion injury
    Man Jiang
    Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy, Medical College of Georgia, 1459 Laney Walker Blvd, Augusta, GA 30912, USA
    Am J Pathol 176:1181-92. 2010
    ..Inhibition of autophagy by chloroquine and 3-methyladenine worsened renal ischemia/reperfusion injury, as indicated by renal function, histology, and ..
  80. pmc pfmdr1 amplification and fixation of pfcrt chloroquine resistance alleles in Plasmodium falciparum in Venezuela
    Sean Griffing
    Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 54:1572-9. 2010
    ..These alleles share ancestry, and no evidence of strong selective pressure on mutations was found. pfcrt chloroquine resistance alleles are fixed with two alleles: S(tct)VMNT (91%) and S(agt)VMNT (9%)...
  81. ncbi Chloroquine prophylaxis against vivax malaria in pregnancy: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial
    Leopoldo Villegas
    Shoklo Malaria Research Unit, Mae SotThailand
    Trop Med Int Health 12:209-18. 2007
    To assess the safety of chloroquine (CQ) as prophylaxis against Plasmodium vivax infection during pregnancy.
  82. pmc Efficacy of chloroquine, amodiaquine and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria: revisiting molecular markers in an area of emerging AQ and SP resistance in Mali
    Mamadou Tekete
    Department of Epidemiology of Parasitic Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, Malaria Research and Training Center, Bamako, Mali
    Malar J 8:34. 2009
    To update the National Malaria Control Programme of Mali on the efficacy of chloroquine, amodiaquine and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine in the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria.
  83. ncbi Antibiotics for prophylaxis of Plasmodium falciparum infections: in vitro activity of doxycycline against Senegalese isolates
    B Pradines
    , , Marseille, France
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 62:82-5. 2000
    The in vitro activities of doxycycline, chloroquine, quinine, amodiaquine, artemether, pyrimethamine, and cycloguanil were evaluated against Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Senegal (Dielmo and Ndiop), using an isotopic, micro, drug ..
  84. pmc Failure of artesunate-mefloquine combination therapy for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in southern Cambodia
    William O Rogers
    Naval Medical Research Unit 2, Komp, P2P PLP LITBANGKES, Jl, Percetakan Negara No, 29, Jakarta 10560, Indonesia
    Malar J 8:10. 2009
    ..The efficacy of standard therapies for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax malaria was assessed in Chumkiri, Kampot Province, Cambodia...
  85. pmc In vivo and in vitro efficacy of chloroquine against Plasmodium malariae and P. ovale in Papua, Indonesia
    H Siswantoro
    National Institute of Health Research and Development, Jakarta, Indonesia
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 55:197-202. 2011
    Reports of potential drug-resistant strains of Plasmodium malariae in western Indonesia raise concerns that chloroquine resistance may be emerging in P. malariae and P. ovale...
  86. pmc Chloroquine clinical failures in P. falciparum malaria are associated with mutant Pfmdr-1, not Pfcrt in Madagascar
    Valérie Andriantsoanirina
    Institut Pasteur, Antananarivo, Madagascar
    PLoS ONE 5:e13281. 2010
    Molecular studies have demonstrated that mutations in the Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter gene (Pfcrt) play a major role in chloroquine resistance, while mutations in P...
  87. ncbi Monocyte response to LPS after exposure to corticosteroids and chloroquine with implications for systemic lupus erythematosus
    A M Cepika
    Department of Pediatrics, Children s Hospital Zagreb, Klaiceva 16, Zagreb, Croatia
    Scand J Immunol 72:434-43. 2010
    ..to Gram-negative bacteria, we measured TLR4 expression in monocytes of untreated SLE patients and patients on chloroquine and low-dose steroid therapy and examined the drugs' influence on monocyte TLR4 expression in peripheral blood ..
  88. ncbi In vitro activity of chloroquine, quinine, mefloquine and halofantrine against Gabonese isolates of Plasmodium falciparum
    Jérôme Mezui Me Ndong
    Centre International de Recherches Medicales de Franceville, Gabon, Central Africa
    Trop Med Int Health 8:25-9. 2003
    ..To determine the in vitro activity of antimalarial drugs against isolates of Plasmodium falciparum in Gabon...
  89. pmc Drug-induced permeabilization of parasite's digestive vacuole is a key trigger of programmed cell death in Plasmodium falciparum
    J H Ch'ng
    Department of Microbiology, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore
    Cell Death Dis 2:e216. 2011
    Having previously characterized chloroquine (CQ)-induced programmed cell death (PCD) hallmarks in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum and delineating a pathway linking these features, the roles of non-classical mediators were ..
  90. pmc Effect of phospholipidosis on the cellular pharmacokinetics of chloroquine
    Nan Zheng
    Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Michigan College of Pharmacy, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 336:661-71. 2011
    In vivo, the weakly basic, lipophilic drug chloroquine (CQ) accumulates in the kidney to concentrations more than a thousand-fold greater than those in plasma...
  91. pmc Simple flow cytometric detection of haemozoin containing leukocytes and erythrocytes for research on diagnosis, immunology and drug sensitivity testing
    Rosangela Frita
    Instituto de Medicina Molecular, Faculdade de Medicina de Lisboa, Lisbon, Hospital Universitario de Santa Maria, Av, Prof, Egas Moniz, P 1649 028 Lisboa, Portugal
    Malar J 10:74. 2011
    ..These can range from the ex-vivo and in-vitro detection and functional analysis of Hz-containing leukocytes to the detection of parasitized Red-Blood-Cells (pRBCs) to assess antimalarial activity...
  92. pmc Association of microsatellite variations of Plasmodium falciparum Na+/H+ exchanger (Pfnhe-1) gene with reduced in vitro susceptibility to quinine: lack of confirmation in clinical isolates from Africa
    Valérie Andriantsoanirina
    Institut Pasteur de Madagascar, Unité de Recherche sur le Paludisme, Antananarivo, Madagascar, France
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 82:782-7. 2010
    ..falciparum isolates from Africa. Because we did not include any isolate of Asian origin in our series, these results did not exclude the possibility of regional associations, for example in South-East Asia...
  93. pmc Chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium vivax malaria in Serbo town, Jimma zone, south-west Ethiopia
    Tsige Ketema
    Department of Biology, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
    Malar J 8:177. 2009
    ..b>Chloroquine (CQ) is the drug of choice for the treatment of Plasmodium vivax infection in the country, although CQ ..
  94. ncbi Health workers perceptions on chloroquine and sulfadoxine/sulfalene pyrimethamine monotherapies: implications for the change to combination therapy of artemether/lumefantrine in Tanzania
    D S Tarimo
    Department of Parasitology and Medical Entomology, School of Public Health and Social Sciences, Muhimbili University College of Health Sciences, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
    East Afr J Public Health 4:43-6. 2007
    ..HWs) perspectives, the potential and actual barriers to the implementation of the first change of policy from chloroquine (CQ) to Sulfadoxine / Sulfalane - Pyrimewthamine (SP) in preparation for the second change of policy to ..
  95. pmc Monitoring of clinical efficacy and in vitro sensitivity of Plasmodium vivax to chloroquine in area along Thai Myanmar border during 2009-2010
    Poonuch Muhamad
    Pharmacology and Toxicology Unit, Graduate Program in Biomedical Sciences, Thammasat University, Thailand
    Malar J 10:44. 2011
    ..Reports of a trend of gradual decline of in vitro sensitivity of P. vivax to chloroquine in some areas of the country, together with accumulating evidences of chloroquine resistance P...
  96. ncbi A colorimetric high-throughput beta-hematin inhibition screening assay for use in the search for antimalarial compounds
    Kanyile K Ncokazi
    Department of Chemistry, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondebosch 7701, South Africa
    Anal Biochem 338:306-19. 2005
    Antimalarial drugs such as chloroquine are believed to act by inhibiting hemozoin formation in the food vacuole of the malaria parasite...
  97. pmc Selective sweeps and genetic lineages of Plasmodium falciparum drug -resistant alleles in Ghana
    Md Tauqeer Alam
    Malaria Branch, Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria, Center for Global Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
    J Infect Dis 203:220-7. 2011
    ..A comprehensive study of the drug-resistance-associated mutations and their genetic lineages will lead to a better understanding of the evolution of antimalarial drug resistance in this region...
  98. ncbi Molecular analysis of chloroquine resistance in Plasmodium falciparum in Yunnan Province, China
    Zhaoqing Yang
    Parasitology Department, Kunming Medical College, Kunming, Yunnan, China
    Trop Med Int Health 12:1051-60. 2007
    Resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to chloroquine (CQ) is determined by the mutation at K76T of the P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (pfcrt) gene and modified by other mutations in this gene and in the P...
  99. ncbi Efficacies of 5- and 14-day primaquine regimens in the prevention of relapses in Plasmodium vivax infections
    N J Gogtay
    Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Seth G S Medical College, Parel, Mumbai, India
    Ann Trop Med Parasitol 93:809-12. 1999
    ....
  100. pmc Chloroquine administration does not prevent Nipah virus infection and disease in ferrets
    Jackie Pallister
    CSIRO Livestock Industries, Australian Animal Health Laboratory, Geelong, Victoria 3220, Australia
    J Virol 83:11979-82. 2009
    ..A recent report indicated that chloroquine, used in malaria therapy for over 70 years, prevented infection with Nipah virus in vitro...
  101. pmc Prevention of malaria during pregnancy: assessing the effect of the distribution of IPTp through the national policy in Benin
    Agnès Le Port
    Institut de recherche pour le developpement IRD, UMR216, Mère et Enfant Face aux Infections Tropicales, Paris, France
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 84:270-5. 2011
    ..The first was carried out when chloroquine prophylaxis was still recommended, the second was an intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) ..

Research Grants76

  1. Structural and molecular basis of drug-induced IKACh reduction
    SAMI FOUAD NOUJAIM; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..with U of M investigators towards elucidating, from the molecule to the organ, the interactions between chloroquine and inward rectifier channels using optical mapping, patch clamping and molecular modeling...
  2. Structural and molecular basis of drug-induced IKACh reduction
    SAMI FOUAD NOUJAIM; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..with U of M investigators towards elucidating, from the molecule to the organ, the interactions between chloroquine and inward rectifier channels using optical mapping, patch clamping and molecular modeling...
  3. Human Beta-Defensin-1 in HSV-1 Innate Immunity
    LISA KATHLEEN RYAN; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..studies of virus and hBD-1 and whether hBD-1 requires endosomal acidification upon viral entry using chloroquine treatment of PBMC. To begin to address the biological function of hBD-1, chemotaxis studies will be done...
  4. DNA Damage Checkpoint and Cancer
    Toru Ouchi; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..pathway, and can be activated by different types of cellular stress including gamma-radiation, NaCl, chloroquine and Trichostatin A...
  5. Energy Restrction and Mammary Cancer
    Henry J Thompson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Proof- in-principle experiments are proposed to: 1) determine if chloroquine, an inhibitor of autophagy, enhances the cancer inhibitory activity of energy restriction...
  6. Development of Small Antimicrobial Peptide Mimics as Drug-Resistant and Susceptib
    Richard W Scott; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Importantly, the top hits are active against both chloroquine-sensitive and resistant parasite lines...
  7. Molecular epidemiology of drug resistance and population genetic structure of Pla
    Fangli Lu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Because of extensive use, chloroquine (CQ) has now lost its efficacy due to the emergence of resistant strains in most parts of the world...
  8. Development of a Chloroquine Replacement Drug
    MICHAEL KEVIN RISCOE; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..spread of strains of Plasmodium parasites that harbor resistance to multiple drugs including: the quinolines - chloroquine, quinine, and mefloquine;the antifolates - pyrimethamine and sulfadoxine;and the anti-respiratory combination ..
  9. Human T Cell Immunology of Plasmodium Vivax Malaria
    Anthony P Cannella; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Even chloroquine-resistant P...
  10. INFECTIOUS DISEASE AND BASIC MICROBIOLOGICAL MECHANISMS
    Marcia B Goldberg; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..biology, virulence, host defense, antiviral agents, and retrovirology;(3) parasitology, including pathogenesis, chloroquine resistance of malaria, parasite-cell interactions, and host defense;(4) immunology, including complement, T ..
  11. Pilot studies of the molecular epidemiology of drug-resistant malaria in Myanmar
    Christopher V Plowe; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Molecular resistance markers such as those used to detect resistance to chloroquine and other antimalarial drugs are not yet available for artemisinin resistance...
  12. Preventive Approach to Congenital Heart Block with Hydroxychloroquine (PATCH)
    JILL PAMELA BUYON; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This observation led to in vitro studies addressing inhibition of endosomal acidification by chloroquine. Subsequent translation to patients was approached by evaluating hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) use in an extensive ..
  13. FOSMIDOMYCIN RESISTANCE IN PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM
    AUDREY RAGAN ODOM; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..New therapies are urgently needed to treat this disease, due to widespread chloroquine resistance and emerging resistance to artemisinins. P...
  14. HLTF gene silencing: a novel determinant of sensitivity to autophagy inhibition
    Ravi K Amaravadi; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Autophagy inhibition with chloroquine (CQ) derivatives augments the efficacy of many anticancer therapies...
  15. Determinants of growth and fitness in drug resistant malaria parasites
    Michael T Ferdig; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The emergence and spread of multi-drug resistant (MDR) parasites following decades of over-use of chloroquine (CQ) is of fundamental significance to current malaria control efforts...
  16. A cell-based HTS for delayed death inhibitors of the malarial parasite plastid
    DAVID FIDOCK; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Assay development will be guided using the reference compounds azithromycin, chloroquine and isoniazid (representing delayed death, fast-acting and inactive compounds respectively) and configured for ..
  17. A Phase 0 Trial of Hydroxychloroquine in Patients with Stage III and IV Resectabl
    Janice Mehnert; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Preliminary results in melanoma cell lines indicate that treatment with chloroquine (CQ), a similar drug to HCQ used readily in the laboratory, increases autophagosome accumulation, and increased ..
  18. Attenuated malaria sporozoite vaccine using a P. falciparum blood-stage auxotroph
    STEPHEN LEV HOFFMAN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Furthermore, volunteers immunized by the bite of mosquitoes carrying fully infectious PfSPZ, and administered chloroquine to eliminate blood stage parasites, acquire protective immunity against liver stage parasites after exposure to ..
  19. Modular Chimeric Vaccines tailored for malaria parasites
    Alberto Moreno; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The emergence of P. vivax chloroquine and primaquine drug resistant strains has brought increased emphasis to the need for alternative prophylactic ..
  20. Vaccination with purified, cryopreserved, infectious Plasmodium vivax sporozoites
    STEPHEN LEV HOFFMAN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..malaria in humans, one using radiation-attenuated and the other using non-attenuated fully infectious SPZ with chloroquine. In a seminal paper it was shown that immunization by the bite of mosquitoes carrying fully infectious ..
  21. Inhibition of Autophagy: A Novel Therapeutic Strategy for Advanced Solid Tumors
    Francis J Giles; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..We recently established that the antimalarial drugs chloroquine (CQ) and its derivative hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) inhibit autophagy and significantly increase the efficacy of ..
  22. Mechanisms of Drug Induced Phospholipidosis
    JAMES ALAN SHAYMAN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of agents that cause phospholipidosis include, but are not limited to, azithromycin, fluoxetine, amiodarone, chloroquine, imipramine, and ketoconazole...
  23. Designed Antimalarial Agents Overcoming Chloroquine-Resistance
    David H Peyton; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..of compounds to address the pressing need for an orally available, inexpensive drug to counter the spread of chloroquine-resistant malaria...
  24. Investigating the Role of Autophagy in Pancreatic Cancer Radiation Resistance
    Alec Kimmelman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Since potent autophagy inhibitors, such as chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), are available and FDA approved, this work has immediate clinical application ..
  25. Autophagy & Functional Restoration of Irradiated Salivary Glands
    KIRSTEN H contact LIMESAND; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..cells following radiation and to utilize the FDA approved autophagy activator rapamycin or autophagy inhibitor chloroquine in a restoration of salivary function model...
  26. Effector and regulatory T cell responses and protection from clinical malaria
    Margaret E Feeney; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..humans demonstrate that similar protection is conferred by non-attenuated parasites when given under cover of chloroquine, which prevents blood stage malaria but does not impact the liver stage...
  27. Transgenic Mosquitoes for Improved Malaria Sporozoite Vaccine Manufacture
    Peter F Billingsley; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..for challenge infections to test vaccines and drugs (PfSPZ Challenge) and for vaccination by challenge under chloroquine protection (PfSPZ-CVac)...
  28. Role of pfcrt in chloroquine resistance in P. falciparum
    DAVID ARMAND FIDOCK; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The emergence and spread of chloroquine resistance (CQR) has decimated the efficacy of this former gold-standard antimalarial, and in SE Asia we are ..
  29. Functional Analysis of Mrgpr Family in Itch Sensation
    Xinzhong Dong; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..specifically expressed in a small subset of DRG neurons, function as receptors for the anti- malaria drug chloroquine and are required for chloroquine-induced itch...
  30. Plasmodium Genus and P. falciparum - P. vivax FISH Assays
    Jyotsna Shah; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..P. falciparum from much of the world is largely chloroquine resistant and thus the standard treatment for P. vivax cannot be used...
  31. Mechanisms of age-related RPE dysfunction and CNV
    Jiyang Cai; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Substantially more severe RPE pathology was developed in Nrf2-/- mice in a chronic toxicity model using chloroquine, an inhibitor of lysosome function and RPE autophagy...
  32. Optimizing Pharmachins for Treatment and Prevention of Drug Resistant Malaria
    MICHAEL KEVIN RISCOE; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..falciparum that harbor resistance to multiple drugs, including chloroquine. We have discovered a novel class of compounds, structurally similar to chloroquine, that are active against ..
  33. ARHI (DIRAS 3) in Autophagy and Dormancy of Ovarian Cancer
    Robert C Bast; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Inhibition of autophagy with chloroquine inhibits subsequent growth of dormant cancer cells, but the precise relationship of autophagy and tumor ..
  34. Plasmodium Falciparum Whole Sporozoite Malaria Vaccine
    STEPHEN LEV HOFFMAN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of volunteers to test vaccines and drugs (PfSPZ Challenge) and for vaccination with PfSPZ Challenge under chloroquine protection (PfSPZ-CVac)...
  35. Ruthenium-based antimalarial agents
    ROBERTO A SANCHEZ-DELGADO; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The most successful antimalarial drug for decades was chloroquine, but the widespread emergence of resistant parasites in most endemic areas severely limits its efficacy...
  36. Orally Active Formulations of DHA Dimers for the Treatment of Infectious Diseases
    Soumyajit Majumdar; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The natural product artemisinin is a sesquiterpene endoperoxide with known anti-malarial activity against both chloroquine-sensitive and chloroquine-resistant strains of the parasite Plasmodium falciparum...
  37. Efficacy evaluation of traditionally used antimalarial plants
    ROCKY T GRAZIOSE; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..b>Chloroquine and artemisinin, two of the most effective and widely used antimalarial drugs, are derived from plants...
  38. IMPROVING MANUFACTURING AND POTENCY OF CRYOPRESERVED MALARIA SPOROZOITE VACCINE
    STEPHEN LEV HOFFMAN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..in mice, and 4) our colleagues in the Netherlands'report that PfSPZ infection of volunteers taking chloroquine induced 100% protection that lasted for at least 28 months...
  39. T cell immunity to Plasmodium sporozoite immunization
    John T Harty; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Finally, recent data demonstrate that sporozoite infections under chloroquine drug cover can also generate substantial protective immunity in mice and humans...
  40. Protective biomarkers for the development of vaccines against malaria
    PHILIP LOUIS FELGNER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Pf by immunizing volunteers by the bite of mosquitoes carrying viable (non-irradiated) PfSPZ while taking chloroquine chemoprophylaxis to prevent parasitemia. This protection has now been shown to be sustained for 2 years...
  41. Novel Plasmodial Surface Anion Channel Inhibitors as Antimalarial Drugs
    Michelle M Butler; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..no effective vaccines available to prevent malaria, but several small molecule treatment options exist, such as chloroquine (CQ) and artemisinin...
  42. Clinical trial of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole or chloroquine in adults on ART
    Miriam K Laufer; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..daily TS prophylaxis for prevention of malaria and HlV-associated opportunistic infections, with weekly chloroquine prophylaxis to prevent only malaria, compared to no prophylaxis, in adults with undetectable HIV viral load and ..
  43. Identification of Novel Plant-derived Antimalarial Compounds
    Susan L Mooberry; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Quinine was originally isolated from Cinchona spp. and provided the chemical template for chloroquine and newer derivatives...
  44. PfSPZ Challenge with Chemoprophylaxis: Phase 1 Trial to Assess Liver Stage Drug
    STEPHEN LEV HOFFMAN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..this new product, which combines elements that have already tested in humans (PfSPZ) or approved for human use (chloroquine, pyrimethamine);in the first year, we will also initiate screening and enrollment of study participants...
  45. CONTEMPORARY THERAPEUTICS FOR ANAPLASTIC GLIOMAS
    G Yancey Gillespie; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..4) Lysosomotropic Therapy of Anaplastic Gliomas will characterize blood-brain barrier-permeable analogues of chloroquine and fluoroquinolone that induce glioma cell autophagy...
  46. Target-Based High-Throughput Screens for Plasmodium falciparum Malaria
    Jon Clardy; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The emergence of multi-drug resistant parasites, particularly in Plasmodium falciparum (especially to chloroquine) has led to the resurgence and spread of malaria in large parts of the developing world...
  47. Role of Stellate Cells in Hepatic Fibrosis
    SCOTT LAURENCE FRIEDMAN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..by analyzing cultured HSCs from Atg7LoxP/LoxP infected with a cre-expressing adenovirus;b) Mice treated with chloroquine, seeking specific evidence of attenuated autophagy in HSCs that cannot be explained by indirect effects of the ..
  48. Chloroquine Sensitive Plasmodium falciparum for MultiValent Vaccine &Challenge
    STEPHEN LEV HOFFMAN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..a vaccine composed of attenuated, purified, aseptic, cryopreserved PfSPZ, the PfSPZ Vaccine based on the chloroquine-sensitive NF54 strain of Pf...
  49. Genome Surveillance for drug resistant malaria
    Dyann F Wirth; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..encouraged by the great utility of smaller scale studies by others that identified the genes responsible for chloroquine and pyrimethamine resistance...
  50. Dual Function Acridones as A New Antimalarial Chemotype
    Jane X Kelly; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..g., chloroquine) or of low order (e.g.,quinine)...
  51. Investigating the molecular basis of primaquine resistance
    Elizabeth A Winzeler; Fiscal Year: 2011
    Abstract Plasmodium vivax blood stage malaria infections are still mostly treated with chloroquine although there are replacement medicines available that provide symptomatic relief...
  52. Pre-erythrocytic Stage Antigen Discovery for Malaria Vaccine Development
    Douglas E Brough; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of protective cell responses induced by immunization with highly protective regimens of live sporozoites under chloroquine prophylaxis will induce robust and protective immune responses in mice when delivered by adenovectors;and that ..
  53. Determine high-resolution structure of membrane protein by single particle cryoEM
    Yifan Cheng; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..important membrane proteins: a bacterial homologue of mammalian vesicular glutamate transport (VGLUTs) and a Chloroquine resistance transporter (PfCRT)...
  54. Genomic Analyses of Plasmodium vivax Responses to Antimalarial Drugs in Cambodia
    David Serre; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Emergence of chloroquine resistance in Cambodian Plasmodium vivax threatens the entire malaria control strategy in the region...
  55. Therapeutic approaches that target cancer cell metabolism
    Ravi K Amaravadi; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..to clinical outcomes in patients undergoing cancer therapy, and 2) To determine the antitumor activity of chloroquine as an inhibitor of autophagy...
  56. DIARRHEAL DISEASES: CALCIUM AND PHOSPHORYLATION
    GEOFFREY SHARP; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..g. trifluoperazine, W7, W5, dantrolene, TMB-8 and chloroquine. All these studies will be performed by incubation with Gamma32-P-ATP and analysis by SDS polyacrylamide gel ..
  57. Genetic Variation and Evolution of Artemisinin Resistance
    Dyann F Wirth; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Drug resistance to antimalarial drugs such as antifolates and chloroquine has spread from Asia throughout Africa and resistance to second and third line drugs is now commonplace...
  58. The ARF Tumor Suppressor
    Maureen E Murphy; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..such as ARF and Beclin1, dictate tumor response to small molecules that modulate this process, such as chloroquine (inhibits autophagy), and trehalose (induces autophagy)...
  59. Genetics pathways in intra-hepatic cholangiocarcinoma
    Aram F Hezel; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We have also used this model to successfully test a novel treatment approach using a well-known drug, chloroquine, for a subset of these tumors...
  60. Mechanism underlying Morphine modulation of gut barrier function in the Context o
    Sabita Roy; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In Aim 3: we will determine the therapeutic potential of methylnaltrexone in the presence of Chloroquine in mitigating morphine and HIV-1 TAT modulation of gut barrier function...
  61. Clinical trial of chloroquine weekly or as IPT to prevent malaria in pregnancy in
    Miriam K Laufer; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..unique opportunity to compare these strategies in Malawi, where we recently discovered that twelve years after chloroquine was withdrawn due to high rates of resistance, chloroquine-susceptible parasites predominate and chloroquine is ..
  62. AZITHROMYCIN TREATMENT FOR DRUG-RESISTANT MALARIA
    Jonathan Berman; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..e. azithromycin-quinine azithromycin-chloroquine) are safe and efficacious for curing drug-resistant malaria (Phase III pivotal trials). 4...
  63. Azithromycin Combination Therapy in Resistant Malaria
    Charles Knirsch; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..b>Chloroquine treatment is now rarely effective. The usual replacement, Fansidar, is already losing efficacy...
  64. Prevalence and fitness of drug resistant minority variant mutations in Plasmodium
    Steven Meshnick; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..In a Malawi pilot study, we demonstrated a high prevalence of minority variant pfcrt76 mutations (a marker for chloroquine resistance) which were missed by standard PCR...
  65. SP resistance markers & falciparum malaria transmission
    Fabian Mendez; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..As in other South American settings, there is a high level of chloroquine resistance on the Pacific coast of Colombia...
  66. Research Training for Cambodian Scientists in Effective*
    William Rogers; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..assistants and 4 clinical research data managers to conduct in vivo clinical trials to assess the efficacy of chloroquine against P. vivax blood stage infections and primaquine for preventing relapse of P...
  67. DRUG-RESISTANT MALARIA IN MALAWI
    CHRISTOPHER PLOWE; Fiscal Year: 2002
    The emergence of in vivo resistance of Plasmodium falciparum malaria to chloroquine and to the combination antifolate drug pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine (PS) is a major threat to public health in Africa...
  68. PRIMAQUINE-INDUCED HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA
    DAVID MC MILLAN; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..value has grown in recent years with the development of resistance to alternate antimalarial drugs such as chloroquine and because of its utility in the treatment of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in AIDS patients...
  69. Molecular epidemiology of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine
    Thomas Egwang; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The government interim drug policy recommends the use of the combination therapy chloroquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (CQ/SP) as the first line treatment for uncomplicated malaria...
  70. Clinical trial of chloroquine combinations in Malawi
    CHRISTOPHER PLOWE; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..This clinical trial follows our observation that chloroquine-sensitive falciparum malaria has reemerged and now predominates following cessation of chloroquine use in ..
  71. POTENTIAL TUMOR OR ORGAN IMAGING AGENTS
    RAYMOND COUNSELL; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..g. chloroquine-melanin affinity, bretylium-adrenergic neuron) and the synthesis and metabolism of biochemically-important ..
  72. Pre-Clinical Evaluation of Antimalarial Natural Products from Carica papaya L.
    Shuren Zhu; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..These compounds showed equally potent inhibitory activity against both chloroquine sensitive and resistant malaria strains...
  73. New Antimalarials from Plant-Pathogenic Fungi
    NP NANAYAKKARA; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..malaria, especially among children, has developed resistance to the one very effective antimalarial drug chloroquine and is developing resistance to other antimalarial drugs introduced more recently such as mefloquine and ..
  74. Determinants of Drug Resistant Malaria in Nigeria
    Dyann Wirth; Fiscal Year: 2006
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant) The mechanism of chloroquine resistance in Plasmodium falciparum is not clearly understood and remains very controversial...
  75. Synthesis and Evaluation of Novel Antimalarial Agents
    Shuren Zhu; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..falciparum malaria parasite clones: W2 (susceptible to mefloquine but resistant to chloroquine, sulfadoxine, pyrimethamine, and quinine) and D6 (resistant to mefloquine but susceptible to chloroquine, ..
  76. Role of Angiogenesis Following Stroke
    Patrick Lyden; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..block macrophage entry into the brain by depleting them (whole body irradiation) or inhibiting them (colchicine/chloroquine), and expect to see a marked reduction of both macrophages and microvessels near the ischemic zone...