saxitoxin

Summary

Summary: A compound that contains a reduced PURINE ring system but is not biosynthetically related to the purine alkaloids. It is a poison found in certain edible mollusks at certain times; elaborated by GONYAULAX and consumed by mollusks, fishes, etc. without ill effects. It is neurotoxic and causes RESPIRATORY PARALYSIS and other effects in MAMMALS, known as paralytic SHELLFISH poisoning.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Quantitative determination of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins in shellfish using prechromatographic oxidation and liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection: collaborative study
    James F Lawrence
    Health Canada, Food Research Division, Bureau of Chemical Safety, Food Directorate, Banting Research Centre 2203D, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0L2, Canada
    J AOAC Int 88:1714-32. 2005
  2. ncbi Assessment of specific binding proteins suitable for the detection of paralytic shellfish poisons using optical biosensor technology
    Katrina Campbell
    Institute of Agri food and Land Use, Queen s University, David Keir Building, Stranmillis Road, Belfast, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom
    Anal Chem 79:5906-14. 2007
  3. ncbi Paralytic shellfish poisoning: seafood safety and human health perspectives
    Stacey M Etheridge
    U S FDA, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Office of Regulatory Science, Division of Analytical Chemistry, 5100 Paint Branch Parkway, HFS 707, College Park, MD 20740, USA
    Toxicon 56:108-22. 2010
  4. pmc Evolution of saxitoxin synthesis in cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates
    Jeremiah D Hackett
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Arizona, AZ, USA
    Mol Biol Evol 30:70-8. 2013
  5. pmc Discovery of nuclear-encoded genes for the neurotoxin saxitoxin in dinoflagellates
    Anke Stüken
    Microbial Evolution Research Group, Department of Biology, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway
    PLoS ONE 6:e20096. 2011
  6. pmc Biosynthetic intermediate analysis and functional homology reveal a saxitoxin gene cluster in cyanobacteria
    Ralf Kellmann
    The University of New South Wales, School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
    Appl Environ Microbiol 74:4044-53. 2008
  7. pmc Evolutionary acquisition and loss of saxitoxin biosynthesis in dinoflagellates: the second "core" gene, sxtG
    Russell J S Orr
    MERG Microbial Evolution Research Group, Department of Biosciences, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway
    Appl Environ Microbiol 79:2128-36. 2013
  8. pmc Neurotoxic alkaloids: saxitoxin and its analogs
    Maria Wiese
    School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, 2052, Australia
    Mar Drugs 8:2185-211. 2010
  9. pmc On the chemistry, toxicology and genetics of the cyanobacterial toxins, microcystin, nodularin, saxitoxin and cylindrospermopsin
    Leanne Pearson
    School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, 2052, Australia
    Mar Drugs 8:1650-80. 2010
  10. ncbi PSP toxin release from the cyanobacterium Raphidiopsis brookii D9 (Nostocales) can be induced by sodium and potassium ions
    Katia Soto-Liebe
    Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Facultad de Ciencias Biologicas, Alameda 340, 8331150 Santiago, Chile
    Toxicon 60:1324-34. 2012

Detail Information

Publications222 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Quantitative determination of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins in shellfish using prechromatographic oxidation and liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection: collaborative study
    James F Lawrence
    Health Canada, Food Research Division, Bureau of Chemical Safety, Food Directorate, Banting Research Centre 2203D, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0L2, Canada
    J AOAC Int 88:1714-32. 2005
    ..The PSP toxins studied were saxitoxin (STX), neosaxitoxin (NEO), gonyautoxins 2 and 3 (GTX2,3; together), gonyautoxins 1 and 4 (GTX1,4; together), ..
  2. ncbi Assessment of specific binding proteins suitable for the detection of paralytic shellfish poisons using optical biosensor technology
    Katrina Campbell
    Institute of Agri food and Land Use, Queen s University, David Keir Building, Stranmillis Road, Belfast, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom
    Anal Chem 79:5906-14. 2007
    ..a monoclonal antibody (GT13-A) raised to gonyautoxin 2/3, and a rabbit polyclonal antibody (R895) raised to saxitoxin (STX). Inhibition assay formats were used throughout...
  3. ncbi Paralytic shellfish poisoning: seafood safety and human health perspectives
    Stacey M Etheridge
    U S FDA, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Office of Regulatory Science, Division of Analytical Chemistry, 5100 Paint Branch Parkway, HFS 707, College Park, MD 20740, USA
    Toxicon 56:108-22. 2010
    ..This paper highlights PSP seafood safety concerns, documented human cases, applied detection methods as well as monitoring and management strategies for preventing PSP-contaminated seafood products from entering the food supply...
  4. pmc Evolution of saxitoxin synthesis in cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates
    Jeremiah D Hackett
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Arizona, AZ, USA
    Mol Biol Evol 30:70-8. 2013
    ..b>Saxitoxin (STX), the cause of paralytic shellfish poisoning, is produced by three marine dinoflagellate genera and is also ..
  5. pmc Discovery of nuclear-encoded genes for the neurotoxin saxitoxin in dinoflagellates
    Anke Stüken
    Microbial Evolution Research Group, Department of Biology, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway
    PLoS ONE 6:e20096. 2011
    b>Saxitoxin is a potent neurotoxin that occurs in aquatic environments worldwide. Ingestion of vector species can lead to paralytic shellfish poisoning, a severe human illness that may lead to paralysis and death...
  6. pmc Biosynthetic intermediate analysis and functional homology reveal a saxitoxin gene cluster in cyanobacteria
    Ralf Kellmann
    The University of New South Wales, School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
    Appl Environ Microbiol 74:4044-53. 2008
    b>Saxitoxin (STX) and its analogues cause the paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) syndrome, which afflicts human health and impacts coastal shellfish economies worldwide...
  7. pmc Evolutionary acquisition and loss of saxitoxin biosynthesis in dinoflagellates: the second "core" gene, sxtG
    Russell J S Orr
    MERG Microbial Evolution Research Group, Department of Biosciences, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway
    Appl Environ Microbiol 79:2128-36. 2013
    b>Saxitoxin and its derivatives are potent neurotoxins produced by several cyanobacteria and dinoflagellate species. SxtA is the initial enzyme in the biosynthesis of saxitoxin...
  8. pmc Neurotoxic alkaloids: saxitoxin and its analogs
    Maria Wiese
    School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, 2052, Australia
    Mar Drugs 8:2185-211. 2010
    b>Saxitoxin (STX) and its 57 analogs are a broad group of natural neurotoxic alkaloids, commonly known as the paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs)...
  9. pmc On the chemistry, toxicology and genetics of the cyanobacterial toxins, microcystin, nodularin, saxitoxin and cylindrospermopsin
    Leanne Pearson
    School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, 2052, Australia
    Mar Drugs 8:1650-80. 2010
    ..Over the past decade, the biosynthesis pathways of the four major cyanotoxins: microcystin, nodularin, saxitoxin and cylindrospermopsin, have been genetically and biochemically elucidated...
  10. ncbi PSP toxin release from the cyanobacterium Raphidiopsis brookii D9 (Nostocales) can be induced by sodium and potassium ions
    Katia Soto-Liebe
    Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Facultad de Ciencias Biologicas, Alameda 340, 8331150 Santiago, Chile
    Toxicon 60:1324-34. 2012
    ..Although saxitoxin (STX) and analogs are all potent Na(+) channel blockers in vertebrate cells, the functional role of these ..
  11. ncbi Extraordinary conservation, gene loss, and positive selection in the evolution of an ancient neurotoxin
    Shauna A Murray
    School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, University of New South Wales, New South Wales, Australia
    Mol Biol Evol 28:1173-82. 2011
    The recent determination of the genetic basis for the biosynthesis of the neurotoxin, saxitoxin, produced by cyanobacteria, has revealed a highly complex sequence of reactions, involving over 30 biosynthetic steps encoded by up to 26 ..
  12. pmc sxtA-based quantitative molecular assay to identify saxitoxin-producing harmful algal blooms in marine waters
    Shauna A Murray
    Sydney Institute of Marine Sciences, Chowder Bay Road, Mosman, NSW 2088, Australia
    Appl Environ Microbiol 77:7050-7. 2011
    The recent identification of genes involved in the production of the potent neurotoxin and keystone metabolite saxitoxin (STX) in marine eukaryotic phytoplankton has allowed us for the first time to develop molecular genetic methods to ..
  13. ncbi Saxitoxin blocks L-type ICa
    Zhi Su
    Cardiology Division, University of Utah Health Sciences Center, Salt Lake City, Utah 84132, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 308:324-9. 2004
    b>Saxitoxin (STX) and tetrodotoxin (TTX) are frequently used to selectively block sodium channels...
  14. pmc Origin of saxitoxin biosynthetic genes in cyanobacteria
    Ahmed Moustafa
    Interdisciplinary Program in Genetics, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA
    PLoS ONE 4:e5758. 2009
    ..PSP) is a potentially fatal syndrome associated with the consumption of shellfish that have accumulated saxitoxin (STX). STX is produced by microscopic marine dinoflagellate algae...
  15. pmc Saxitoxin is a gating modifier of HERG K+ channels
    Jixin Wang
    Department of Molecular Pharmacology, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA 19486, USA
    J Gen Physiol 121:583-98. 2003
    ..In this study, we identify saxitoxin (STX) as a hERG channel modifier and investigate the mechanism using heterologous expression of the recombinant ..
  16. ncbi First report of saxitoxin production by a species of the freshwater benthic cyanobacterium, Scytonema Agardh
    Francine M J Smith
    Department of Chemistry, Canterbury University, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140, New Zealand
    Toxicon 57:566-73. 2011
    ..The sxtA gene, which is known to be involved in saxitoxin production, was detected in UCFS10...
  17. ncbi Sodium channel mutation leading to saxitoxin resistance in clams increases risk of PSP
    V Monica Bricelj
    Institute for Marine Biosciences, National Research Council, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 3Z1, Canada
    Nature 434:763-7. 2005
    ..caused by natural mutation of a single amino acid residue, which causes a 1,000-fold decrease in affinity at the saxitoxin-binding site in the sodium channel pore of resistant, but not sensitive, clams...
  18. pmc Evolution and distribution of saxitoxin biosynthesis in dinoflagellates
    Russell J S Orr
    Microbial Evolution Research Group MERG, Department of Biosciences, University of Oslo, PO Box 1066 Blindern, Oslo 0316, Norway
    Mar Drugs 11:2814-28. 2013
    Numerous species of marine dinoflagellates synthesize the potent environmental neurotoxic alkaloid, saxitoxin, the agent of the human illness, paralytic shellfish poisoning...
  19. pmc Paralytic shellfish poisoning toxin-producing cyanobacterium Aphanizomenon gracile in northeast Germany
    Andreas Ballot
    Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Department of Limnology of Stratified Lakes, Alte Fischerhütte 2, 16775 Stechlin, Germany
    Appl Environ Microbiol 76:1173-80. 2010
    ..Melang and Scharmützel produced four PSP toxin variants (gonyautoxin 5 [GTX5], decarbamoylsaxitoxin [dcSTX], saxitoxin [STX], and neosaxitoxin [NEO])...
  20. ncbi Comparison of analytical tools and biological assays for detection of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins
    A R Humpage
    Australian Water Quality Centre, GPO Box 1751, Adelaide, SA, 5001, Australia
    Anal Bioanal Chem 397:1655-71. 2010
    ..Additionally, the number of naturally occurring PSTs has grown substantially since saxitoxin was first characterised, markedly increasing the analytical challenge of this group of compounds...
  21. pmc Examination of the seasonal dynamics of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella at Redondo Beach, California, by quantitative PCR
    Marie Eve Garneau
    Limnological Station, Institute of Plant Biology, University of Zurich, Seestrasse 187, 8802 Kilchberg, Switzerland
    Appl Environ Microbiol 77:7669-80. 2011
    ..King Harbor, CA, to investigate the seasonal dynamics of Alexandrium catenella and the presence of a particulate saxitoxin (STX), the parent compound of the PSTs. A quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay was developed for quantifying A...
  22. ncbi Bioterrorism: toxins as weapons
    Peter D Anderson
    Forensic Pharmacologist, Private Practice, Adjunct Associate Professor of Pharmacy Practice, University of Rhode Island, Randolph, MA, USA
    J Pharm Pract 25:121-9. 2012
    ..Shigatoxins inhibit protein synthesis and induce apoptosis. Saxitoxin and tetrodotoxin inhibit sodium channels in neurons. Mycotoxins include aflatoxins and trichothecenes...
  23. ncbi Post-mortem analysis of samples from a human victim of a fatal poisoning caused by the xanthid crab, Zosimus aeneus
    L E Llewellyn
    Australian Institute of Marine Science, PMB 3, Townsville MC, QLD, 4810, Australia
    Toxicon 40:1463-69. 2002
    ..Metabolism of the PSTs occurred with the ingested crab harbouring gonyautoxin 2, gonyautoxin 3 and saxitoxin (STX) whereas neoSTX, decarbamoylSTX and STX dominated the PSTs in the victim's urine...
  24. ncbi Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography--mass spectrometry for the analysis of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins
    Carmela Dell'Aversano
    Institute for Marine Biosciences, National Research Council of Canada, 1411 Oxford Street, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
    J Chromatogr A 1081:190-201. 2005
    ..LOD in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode on a sensitive triple quadrupole system were as low as 5-30 nM. Excellent linearity of response was observed...
  25. ncbi Selection and identification of a DNA aptamer that mimics saxitoxin in antibody binding
    Pan Hu
    Key Laboratory of Zoonoses, Ministry of Education, Institute of Zoonoses, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin 130062, China
    J Agric Food Chem 61:3533-41. 2013
    In this article, high-affinity single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) aptamer-targeting F(ab')₂ fragments of saxitoxin (STX) antibodies were selected from a random ssDNA library by the SELEX strategy...
  26. ncbi The sodium channel from rat brain. Purification and subunit composition
    R P Hartshorne
    J Biol Chem 259:1667-75. 1984
    ..The final preparation binds 2910 pmol of saxitoxin (STX)/mg of protein or 0.9 mol of STX/mol of sodium channel of Mr approximately 316,000...
  27. pmc Marked difference in saxitoxin and tetrodotoxin affinity for the human nociceptive voltage-gated sodium channel (Nav1.7) [corrected]
    James R Walker
    Department of Chemistry, Structural Biology, and Computer Science, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 5080, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:18102-7. 2012
    ..of antinociceptive agents, is blocked by low nanomolar concentrations of (-)-tetrodotoxin(TTX) but not (+)-saxitoxin (STX) and (+)-gonyautoxin-III (GTX-III). These findings question the long-accepted view that the 1...
  28. pmc When naked became armored: an eight-gene phylogeny reveals monophyletic origin of theca in dinoflagellates
    Russell J S Orr
    Microbial Evolution Research Group MERG, Department of Biology, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway
    PLoS ONE 7:e50004. 2012
    ..g. saxitoxin. Here we present an improved dinoflagellate phylogeny, based on eight genes, with the broadest taxon sampling to ..
  29. pmc Inhibition of copper uptake in yeast reveals the copper transporter Ctr1p as a potential molecular target of saxitoxin
    Kathleen D Cusick
    Center for Environmental Biotechnology, The University of Tennessee, 676 Dabney Hall, Knoxville, Tennessee 37966, United States
    Environ Sci Technol 46:2959-66. 2012
    b>Saxitoxin is a secondary metabolite produced by several species of dinoflagellates and cyanobacteria which targets voltage-gated sodium and potassium channels in higher vertebrates...
  30. ncbi Single-laboratory validation of the microplate receptor binding assay for paralytic shellfish toxins in shellfish
    Frances M Van Dolah
    NOAA National Ocean Service, Marine Biotoxins Program, 219 Fort Johnson Rd, Charleston, SC 29412, USA
    J AOAC Int 92:1705-13. 2009
    ..The basis of the assay is the competition between [3H]saxitoxin (STX) and STX in a standard or sample for binding to the voltage dependent sodium channel...
  31. ncbi Toxicity phenotype does not correlate with phylogeny of Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii strains
    Karina Stucken
    Laboratorio de Ecología Microbiana y Toxicología Ambiental, Departamento de Genetica Molecular y Microbiologia, Facultad de Ciencias Biologicas, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Alameda 340, 8331010 Santiago, Chile
    Syst Appl Microbiol 32:37-48. 2009
    ..C. raciborskii produces toxins, including cylindrospermopsin (hepatotoxin) and saxitoxin (neurotoxin), although non toxin-producing strains are also observed. In spite of differences in toxicity, C...
  32. pmc A putative gene cluster from a Lyngbya wollei bloom that encodes paralytic shellfish toxin biosynthesis
    Troco K Mihali
    School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
    PLoS ONE 6:e14657. 2011
    b>Saxitoxin and its analogs cause the paralytic shellfish-poisoning syndrome, adversely affecting human health and coastal shellfish industries worldwide...
  33. ncbi Interactions between intracellular Na+ levels and saxitoxin production in Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii T3
    Francesco Pomati
    Cyanobacteria and Astrobiology Research Laboratory, School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052, NSW, Australia
    Microbiology 150:455-61. 2004
    b>Saxitoxin (STX) is the most potent representative among the paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins, which are highly selective Na(+) channel-blocking alkaloids...
  34. ncbi Toxicological comparison of diverse Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii strains: evidence of liver damage caused by a French C raciborskii strain
    C Bernard
    USM0505 Ecosystèmes et interactions toxiques, Museum national d histoire naturelle, 12 rue Buffon, F 75005 Paris, France
    Environ Toxicol 18:176-86. 2003
    ..by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection of the cell extracts, which revealed the presence of saxitoxin, neosaxitoxin, and decarbamoylsaxitoxin, along with two unidentified compounds...
  35. pmc Non-traditional vectors for paralytic shellfish poisoning
    Jonathan R Deeds
    US Food and Drug Administration Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, 5100 Paint Branch Parkway, College Park, Maryland, 20723, USA
    Mar Drugs 6:308-48. 2008
    Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), due to saxitoxin and related compounds, typically results from the consumption of filter-feeding molluscan shellfish that concentrate toxins from marine dinoflagellates...
  36. ncbi The genetics and genomics of cyanobacterial toxicity
    Brett A Neilan
    Cyanobacteria and Astrobiology Research Laboratory, School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, The University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052, NSW, Australia
    Adv Exp Med Biol 619:417-52. 2008
  37. pmc Cooccupancy of the outer vestibule of voltage-gated sodium channels by micro-conotoxin KIIIA and saxitoxin or tetrodotoxin
    Min Min Zhang
    Department of Biology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112, USA
    J Neurophysiol 104:88-97. 2010
    The guanidinium alkaloids tetrodotoxin (TTX) and saxitoxin (STX) are classic ligands of voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs). Like TTX and STX, micro-conotoxin peptides are pore blockers but with greater VGSC subtype selectivity...
  38. ncbi A rapid and sensitive assay for paralytic shellfish poison (PSP) toxins using mouse brain synaptoneurosomes
    Russell A Nicholson
    Department of Biological Sciences, Simon Fraser University, 8888 University Drive, Burnaby, BC, Canada V5A 1S6
    Toxicon 40:831-8. 2002
    ..Standard saxitoxin was found to be a potent inhibitor of the membrane depolarizing effects of the sodium channel activator ..
  39. ncbi Distribution of tetrodotoxin, saxitoxin, and their analogs among tissues of the puffer fish Fugu pardalis
    Junho Jang
    Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University, 1 1 Tsutsumidori Amamiyamachi, Aoba ku, Sendai 981 8555, Japan
    Toxicon 48:980-7. 2006
    The anatomical distribution of tetrodotoxin (TTX), saxitoxin (STX) and their analogs (TTXs, STXs) in three female and three male specimens of the marine puffer fish Fugu pardalis from Miyagi Prefecture, 2005, Japan, were studied...
  40. pmc Toxin-resistant sodium channels: parallel adaptive evolution across a complete gene family
    Manda Clair Jost
    Sections of Integrative Biology and Neurobiology and Center for Computational Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Texas at Austin, USA
    Mol Biol Evol 25:1016-24. 2008
    ..of pufferfishes (Tetraodontidae) each evolved resistance to the guanidinium toxins tetrodotoxin (TTX) and saxitoxin (STX) via parallel amino acid replacements across all 8 sodium channels present in teleost fish genomes...
  41. pmc Saxitoxin puffer fish poisoning in the United States, with the first report of Pyrodinium bahamense as the putative toxin source
    Jan H Landsberg
    Fish and Wildlife Research Institute, Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, St Petersburg, Florida 33701, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 114:1502-7. 2006
    ..Saxitoxins (STXs) of unknown source were first identified in fillet remnants from a New Jersey PFP case in 2002...
  42. ncbi First report of saxitoxin in octopi
    Alison Robertson
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, James Cook University, Townsville, Qld 4811, Australia
    Toxicon 44:765-71. 2004
    We report for the first time, the presence of saxitoxin (STX) in a common cephalopod, Octopus (Abdopus) sp. 5, collected from Cooke Point on the northern coastline of Western Australia...
  43. ncbi Localization of pufferfish saxitoxin and tetrodotoxin binding protein (PSTBP) in the tissues of the pufferfish, Takifugu pardalis, analyzed by immunohistochemical staining
    Mari Yotsu-Yamashita
    Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University, Sendai 981 8555, Japan
    Toxicon 72:23-8. 2013
    Pufferfish saxitoxin and tetrodotoxin binding protein (PSTBP) was previously isolated from the plasma of the marine pufferfish, Takifugu pardalis...
  44. ncbi Subclinical effects of saxitoxin and domoic acid on aggressive behaviour and monoaminergic turnover in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
    Marit Jørgensen Bakke
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, N 0033 Oslo, Norway
    Aquat Toxicol 99:1-9. 2010
    The algal produced neurotoxins saxitoxin and domoic acid may have serious effects on marine life and can be responsible for the intoxication of for instance sea mammals, sea birds and fish...
  45. ncbi Investigations into matrix components affecting the performance of the official bioassay reference method for quantitation of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins in oysters
    Andrew D Turner
    Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science Cefas, Barrack Road, The Nothe, Weymouth, Dorset DT4 8UB, UK
    Toxicon 59:215-30. 2012
    ..Secondly, a range of mussel and cockle extracts, plus a standard solution of saxitoxin di-hydrochloride were spiked at variable concentrations of zinc...
  46. pmc Ecological and physiological studies of Gymnodinium catenatum in the Mexican Pacific: a review
    Christine J Band-Schmidt
    Departamento de Plancton y Ecología Marina, Centro Interdisciplinario de Ciencias Marinas Instituto Politécnico Nacional, A P 592, La Paz, B C S, Mexico
    Mar Drugs 8:1935-61. 2010
    ..Interestingly, genetic sequencing of D1-D2 LSU rDNA revealed that it differs only in one base pair, compared with strains from other regions...
  47. ncbi First report of the use of a saxitoxin-protein conjugate to develop a DNA aptamer to a small molecule toxin
    Sara M Handy
    U S Food and Drug Administration, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, 5100 Paint Branch Parkway, College Park, MD 20740, USA
    Toxicon 61:30-7. 2013
    b>Saxitoxin (STX) is a low molecular weight neurotoxin mainly produced by certain marine dinoflagellates that, along with its family of similarly related paralytic shellfish toxins, may cause the potentially fatal intoxication known as ..
  48. ncbi Determination of paralytic shellfish toxins in shellfish by receptor binding assay: collaborative study
    Frances M Van Dolah
    Center for Coastal Environmental Health and Biomolecular Research, NOAA Marine Biotoxins Program, Charleston, SC 29412, USA
    J AOAC Int 95:795-812. 2012
    ..the composite PST toxicity in shellfish samples based on the ability of sample extracts to compete with (3)H saxitoxin (STX) diHCl for binding to voltage-gated sodium channels in a rat brain membrane preparation...
  49. ncbi Purification, characterization, and cDNA cloning of a novel soluble saxitoxin and tetrodotoxin binding protein from plasma of the puffer fish, Fugu pardalis
    M Yotsu-Yamashita
    Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University, Aoba ku, Sendai, Japan
    Eur J Biochem 268:5937-46. 2001
    Some species of puffer fish have been reported to possess both of tetrodotoxin and saxitoxin, which share one binding site on sodium channels...
  50. pmc An overview on the marine neurotoxin, saxitoxin: genetics, molecular targets, methods of detection and ecological functions
    Kathleen D Cusick
    The University of Tennessee Center for Environmental Biotechnology, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA
    Mar Drugs 11:991-1018. 2013
    ..b>Saxitoxin and its derivatives, collectively referred to as paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), are unique among neurotoxins ..
  51. ncbi First evidence of "paralytic shellfish toxins" and cylindrospermopsin in a Mexican freshwater system, Lago Catemaco, and apparent bioaccumulation of the toxins in "tegogolo" snails (Pomacea patula catemacensis)
    John P Berry
    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Florida International University, 354 Marine Science Building, 3000 NE 151st Street, North Miami, FL 33181, USA
    Toxicon 55:930-8. 2010
    ..Identification of the apparent bioaccumulation of these toxins in tegogolos may suggest the need to further our understanding of the transfer of cyanobacterial toxins in freshwater food webs as it relates to human health...
  52. ncbi Influence of inorganic nutrition on growth and PSP toxin production of Alexandrium minutum (Dinophyceae) from Cork Harbour, Ireland
    Nicolas Touzet
    The Martin Ryan Institute, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland
    Toxicon 50:106-19. 2007
    ..minutum cells as a metabolic response to adverse environmental conditions, could potentially increase risks for shellfish farming operations...
  53. ncbi Refinement of AOAC Official Method 2005.06 liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection method to improve performance characteristics for the determination of paralytic shellfish toxins in king and queen scallops
    Andrew D Turner
    Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science, Barrack Rd, The Nothe, Weymouth, Dorset DT4 8UB, United Kingdom
    J AOAC Int 95:129-42. 2012
    ..It is, therefore, recommended as a more appropriate option for the routine monitoring of PSP toxins in these species...
  54. ncbi Toxicity and toxin identification in Colomesus asellus, an Amazonian (Brazil) freshwater puffer fish
    Joacir Stolarz Oliveira
    Department of Physiology, Biosciences Institute, University of Sao Paulo, Rua do Matão 101, Travessa 14, 05508 900 Sao Paulo, Brazil
    Toxicon 48:55-63. 2006
    ..6+/-0 5MU/g). The HPLC profile showed no traces of TTX, but only the presence of PSPs (STX, GTX 2 and GTX 3). These toxins were also confirmed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry...
  55. ncbi Occurrence of saxitoxins as a major toxin in the ovary of a marine puffer Arothron firmamentum
    Kazuhito Nakashima
    Japan Frozen Foods Inspection Corporation, Fukuoka Branch, Fukuoka 812 0016, Japan
    Toxicon 43:207-12. 2004
    ..In the analyses, saxitoxin (STX) and decarbamoylSTX (dcSTX) were identified as the major toxins in the ovary, while the skin contained only ..
  56. ncbi Flow cytometric detection of saxitoxins using fluorescent voltage-sensitive dyes
    Ronald Manger
    Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Biologics Production Facility, Seattle, WA 98109, USA
    Anal Biochem 366:149-55. 2007
    ..The method is demonstrated in preliminary studies using saxitoxin and crude shellfish extracts.
  57. ncbi Predictive toxinology: an initial foray using calculated molecular descriptors to describe toxicity using saxitoxins as a model
    Lyndon E Llewellyn
    Australian Institute of Marine Science, PMB 3, Townsville MC, Qld 4810, Australia
    Toxicon 50:901-13. 2007
    ..Some of these predicted toxicity values however would not be expected if there was a direct relationship between mammalian sodium channel affinity of the saxitoxins and whole animal toxicity...
  58. ncbi The adsorption of saxitoxin to clays and sediments in fresh and saline waters
    Justina M Burns
    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208, USA
    Water Res 43:1899-904. 2009
    The adsorption of saxitoxin to Na- and Ca-montmorillonite, kaolin (crystalline and amorphous), kaolinite, Bread and Butter Creek sediment (an estuarine tidal creek), Gulf of Mexico sediment, and Santa Barbara Basin sediment in deionized ..
  59. ncbi Induction to oxidative stress by saxitoxin investigated through lipid peroxidation in Neuro 2A cells and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii alga
    Silvia P Melegari
    Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology, LABTOX, Department of Sanitary and Environmental Engineering, Campus Universitario Trindade, CEP 88040 970 Florianópolis, SC, Brazil
    Chemosphere 89:38-43. 2012
    b>Saxitoxin (STX) is a cyanotoxin, which can cause neurotoxic effects and induce ecological changes in aquatic environments, a potential risk to public and environmental health...
  60. pmc Influence of negative surface charge on toxin binding to canine heart Na channels in planar bilayers
    A Ravindran
    Department of Pharmacology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06510
    Biophys J 55:359-65. 1989
    The presence of negative surface charge near the tetrodotoxin/saxitoxin binding site of canine heart Na channels was revealed by analysis of the kinetics of toxin block of single batrachotoxin-activated Na channels in planar bilayers as ..
  61. ncbi Solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography procedures for the analysis of paralytic shellfish toxins
    J M Leão
    Departamento de Quimica Analitica y Alimentaria, Facultad de Ciencias CUVI, Universidad de Vigo, Spain
    J Chromatogr A 798:131-6. 1998
    ..These recoveries must be taken into account in order to quantify the exact amount of PSP toxins present in the contaminated samples...
  62. pmc Evidence for paralytic shellfish poisons in the freshwater cyanobacterium Lyngbya wollei (Farlow ex Gomont) comb. nov
    W W Carmichael
    Department of Biological Sciences, Wright State University, Dayton, Ohio 45435, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 63:3104-10. 1997
    ..bioassayed for paralytic shellfish toxins by the Association of Official Analytical Chemists method exhibited saxitoxin equivalents ranging from 0 to 58 micrograms g (dry weight)-1...
  63. ncbi Site 1 sodium channel blockers prolong the duration of sciatic nerve blockade from tricyclic antidepressants
    Caryn S Barnet
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA
    Pain 110:432-8. 2004
    ..whether nerve block from TCAs is prolonged by site 1 sodium channel blockers such as tetrodotoxin and saxitoxin, which are known to prolong block from conventional local anesthetics...
  64. ncbi Neuroecology, chemical defense, and the keystone species concept
    Richard K Zimmer
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 1606, USA
    Biol Bull 213:208-25. 2007
    ..Effects of two guanidine alkaloids, tetrodotoxin (TTX) and saxitoxin (STX), coalesce neurobiological and ecological perspectives...
  65. ncbi Development of quantitative NMR method with internal standard for the standard solutions of paralytic shellfish toxins and characterisation of gonyautoxin-5 and gonyautoxin-6
    Ryuichi Watanabe
    National Research Institute of Fisheries Science, Fukuura 2 12 4, Kanazawa Ku, Yokohama 236 8648, Japan
    Toxicon 56:589-95. 2010
    ..16 mM, which corresponded to 67 microg/mL as Saxitoxin (STX) diacetate form, while the limit of detection (LOD) was 0.04 mM...
  66. ncbi Toxins of cyanobacteria
    Marian E van Apeldoorn
    Centre for Substances and Integrated Risk Assessment, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands
    Mol Nutr Food Res 51:7-60. 2007
    ..Official regulations for other cyanotoxins have not been established, although some (provisional) guideline values have been derived for microcystins in drinking water by WHO and several countries...
  67. ncbi The tip-E mutation of Drosophila decreases saxitoxin binding and interacts with other mutations affecting nerve membrane excitability
    F R Jackson
    J Neurogenet 3:1-17. 1986
    A recessive temperature-sensitive paralytic mutation, tip-E, is associated with reduced binding of [3H]saxitoxin to voltage-sensitive sodium channels in membranes from adult Drosophila heads...
  68. pmc The outer vestibule of the Na+ channel-toxin receptor and modulator of permeation as well as gating
    Rene Cervenka
    Institute of Pharmacology, Centre of Physiology and Pharmacology, Medical University of Vienna, 1090 Vienna, Austria
    Mar Drugs 8:1373-93. 2010
    ..Moreover, partial pore block by mutated toxins may reverse gating changes induced by mutations. Therefore, toxins that bind to the outer vestibule can be used to modulate channel gating...
  69. ncbi Isolation and purification procedures for the preparation of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxin standards
    M V Laycock
    Institute for Marine Biosciences, National Research Council, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
    Nat Toxins 2:175-83. 1994
    Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is caused by mixtures of saxitoxin analogs of which more than eighteen are known...
  70. pmc Visible fluorescence chemosensor for saxitoxin
    Robert E Gawley
    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas 72701, USA
    J Org Chem 72:2187-91. 2007
    ..or 27-membered crown ether rings and have been evaluated as visible sensors for the paralytic shellfish toxin saxitoxin. The binding constant for one of them is in the range of 3-9x10(5) M-1 and exhibits a fluorescence enhancement ..
  71. ncbi Effects of a saxitoxin-producer strain of Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii (cyanobacteria) on the swimming movements of cladocerans
    Aloysio da S Ferrão Filho
    Departamento de Biologia, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, FIOCRUZ, Laboratório de Avaliação e Promoção da Saúde Ambiental, Av Brasil 4365, Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21045 900 Brazil
    Environ Toxicol 23:161-8. 2008
    This study evaluated the effects of a saxitoxin-producer strain (T3) of the cyanobacteria species Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii on the swimming movements of three cladoceran species (Daphnia gessneri, D. pulex, and Moina micrura)...
  72. ncbi Chemosensors for the marine toxin saxitoxin
    Robert E Gawley
    Department of Chemistry, and NIEHS Marine and Freshwater Biomedical Sciences Center, University of Miami, P O Box 249118, Coral Gables, Florida 33124 0431, USA
    J Am Chem Soc 124:13448-53. 2002
    ..anthracylmethyl crown ethers have been synthesized and evaluated as fluorescence sensors for the marine toxin saxitoxin. Fluorescence enhancement data are consistent with a 1:1 binding complex for all crowns...
  73. ncbi Binding properties of (3)H-PbTx-3 and (3)H-saxitoxin to brain membranes and to skeletal muscle membranes of puffer fish Fugu pardalis and the primary structure of a voltage-gated Na(+) channel alpha-subunit (fMNa1) from skeletal muscle of F. pardalis
    M Yotsu-Yamashita
    Graduate School of Agriculture, Tohoku University, Tsutsumidori Amamiyamachi, Aoba ku, Sendai, 981 8555, Japan
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 267:403-12. 2000
    The dissociation constants for (3)H-saxitoxin to brain membranes and to skeletal muscle membranes of puffer fish Fugu pardalis have been estimated to be 190- and 460-fold, respectively, larger than those to corresponding membranes of rat,..
  74. ncbi Production of antibodies and development of highly sensitive formats of enzyme immunoassay for saxitoxin analysis
    L Micheli
    Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Chimiche, Universita di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica, 00133 Rome, Italy
    Anal Bioanal Chem 373:678-84. 2002
    In this paper the production of antibodies against saxitoxin (STX) is described, as is the optimization and comparison of two competitive ELISA formats (direct and indirect) for the detection of this toxin...
  75. ncbi Selective detection of saxitoxin over tetrodotoxin using acridinylmethyl crown ether chemosensor
    Robert E Gawley
    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701, USA
    Toxicon 45:783-7. 2005
    At pH 7.1, saxitoxin decomposes to produce a trace impurity that can interfere with fluorescence sensing when using irradiation wavelengths near 325 nm...
  76. ncbi Accumulation and depuration rates of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins in the shore crab Telmessus acutidens by feeding toxic mussels under laboratory controlled conditions
    Hiroshi Oikawa
    National Research Institute of Fisheries Science, Fisheries Research Agency, Fukuura 2 12 4, Kanazawa, Yokohama, Kanagawa 236 8648, Japan
    Toxicon 45:163-9. 2005
    ..Consequently, high concentrations of GTX2 and GTX3, and STX that were not detected in the prey mussels, were found in the crab...
  77. ncbi Investigating the fate of saxitoxins in biologically active water treatment plant filters
    Nawal Kayal
    Australian Water Quality Centre, South Australian Water Corporation, PMB 3, Salisbury, South Australia 5108, Australia
    Environ Toxicol 23:751-5. 2008
    ....
  78. pmc Modeling P-loops domain of sodium channel: homology with potassium channels and interaction with ligands
    Denis B Tikhonov
    Department of Biochemistry and Biomedical Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
    Biophys J 88:184-97. 2005
    ..which includes residues in positions -2 through +4 from the DEKA locus, was shaped around rigid molecules of saxitoxin and tetrodotoxin that are known to form multiple contacts with this region...
  79. ncbi Comparative paralytic shellfish toxin profiles in the strains of Gymnodinium catenatum Graham from the Gulf of California, Mexico
    I Gárate-Lizárraga
    Departamento de Plancton y Ecología Marina, Centro Interdisciplinario de Ciencias Marinas CICIMAR IPN, Apdo Postal 592, La Paz, B C S 23000, Mexico
    Mar Pollut Bull 50:211-7. 2005
  80. ncbi Gonyautoxin: new treatment for healing acute and chronic anal fissures
    Rogelio Garrido
    Departamento de Cirugia, Seccion Proctologia, Hospital Clinico Universidad de Chile, Casilla 70005, Corrreo 7, Santiago, Chile
    Dis Colon Rectum 48:335-40; discussion 340-3. 2005
    ..This vicious circle leads to fissure recurrence and chronicity. This study was designed to show the efficacy of gonyautoxin infiltration in healing patients with anal fissures...
  81. pmc The saxitoxin/tetrodotoxin binding site on cloned rat brain IIa Na channels is in the transmembrane electric field
    J Satin
    Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, Illinois 60637
    Biophys J 67:1007-14. 1994
    ..Therefore, we propose that amino acids at positions corresponding to this Phe in the BrIIa channel, which lie in the outer vestibule of the channel adjacent to the pore entrance,are partially in the transmembrane potential drop...
  82. ncbi Occurrence of paralytic shellfish toxins in Cambodian Mekong pufferfish Tetraodon turgidus: selective toxin accumulation in the skin
    Laymithuna Ngy
    Graduate School of Science and Technology, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 852 8521, Japan
    Toxicon 51:280-8. 2008
    ..turgidus was localized mainly in the skin and ovary. Paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), comprising saxitoxin (STX) and decarbamoylsaxitoxin (dcSTX), account for approximately 85% of the total toxicity...
  83. ncbi Treatment of chronic anal fissure by gonyautoxin
    R Garrido
    Departamento de Cirugia, Sección Coloproctología, Hospital Clinico Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile
    Colorectal Dis 9:619-24. 2007
    ..This study was designed to show better efficacy in healing patients with chronic anal fissure by increasing the frequency of toxin injection...
  84. ncbi Accumulation of paralytic shellfish toxins (PST) from the cyanobacterium Aphanizomenon issatschenkoi by the cladoceran Daphnia magna
    Isabel C G Nogueira
    Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigacao Marinha e Ambiental, Rua dos Bragas 177 289, 4150 123 Porto, Portugal
    Toxicon 44:773-80. 2004
    ..The results of this study indicate that D. magna can accumulate PST toxins and that the cyanobacterium A. issatschenkoi affects both the fitness and growth potential of juvenile D. magna...
  85. ncbi [Spatial-temporal dynamics of red tide precursor organisms at the Pacific coast of North and Central America]
    A P Sierra-Beltrán
    Programa de Ecología de Pesquerías, Centro de Investigaciones Biologicas del Noroeste, S C Apdo Postal 128, La Paz, B C S, Mexico
    Rev Biol Trop 52:99-107. 2004
    ..The collaborative communication among small-budget monitoring operations in the region allowed to "pass the voice" about peaking concentrations of HAB organisms, diminishing the risk of poisoning...
  86. ncbi Saxitoxin, a toxic marine natural product that targets a multitude of receptors
    Lyndon E Llewellyn
    Australian Institute of Marine Science, PMB 3, Townsville MC, QLD
    Nat Prod Rep 23:200-22. 2006
    b>Saxitoxin (STX) was discovered early last century and can contaminate seafood and drinking water, and over time has become an invaluable research tool and an internationally regulated chemical weapon...
  87. ncbi Application of precolumn oxidation HPLC method with fluorescence detection to evaluate saxitoxin levels in discrete brain regions of rats
    Rosa Carmina Cervantes Cianca
    Departamento de Ciencias Marinas, Instituto Tecnológico de Boca del Río, Ver Mexico
    Toxicon 49:89-99. 2007
    b>Saxitoxin (STX) is one of several related toxins that cause paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP)...
  88. ncbi Marine toxins and nonmarine toxins: convergence or symbiotic organisms?
    John W Daly
    Laboratory of Bioorganic Chemistry, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, DHHS, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 0820, USA
    J Nat Prod 67:1211-5. 2004
    ..The occurrence and possible origin of tetrodotoxin and congeners, including chiriquitoxin, and of the saxitoxin analogue zetekitoxin in amphibians are reviewed.
  89. pmc Identification of an Na(+)-dependent transporter associated with saxitoxin-producing strains of the cyanobacterium Anabaena circinalis
    Francesco Pomati
    School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, The University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052, NSW, Australia
    Appl Environ Microbiol 70:4711-9. 2004
    ..are recognized as an important health risk worldwide due to the production of a range of toxins such as saxitoxin (STX) and its derivatives...
  90. ncbi Local infiltration of gonyautoxin is safe and effective in treatment of chronic tension-type headache
    K Lattes
    Laboratorio Bioquímica de Membrana, Departamento de Fisiologia y Biofisica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile
    Neurol Res 31:228-33. 2009
    ..Gonyautoxin are phycotoxins, whose molecular mechanism of action is a reversible block of the voltage-gated sodium channels at axonal level, impeding nerve impulse propagation...
  91. ncbi Receptor binding assay for paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins: optimization and interlaboratory comparison
    Shryamalie R Ruberu
    California Department of Health Services, Sanitation and Radiation Laboratories Branch, 2151 Berkeley Way, Berkeley, CA 94704, USA
    J AOAC Int 86:737-45. 2003
    ..Precision, accuracy, and sensitivity [limit of detection = 0.2 microg saxitoxin (STX) equiv/100 g shellfish tissue] of the modified protocol were equivalent to those of the original protocol...
  92. pmc Characterisation of the paralytic shellfish toxin biosynthesis gene clusters in Anabaena circinalis AWQC131C and Aphanizomenon sp. NH-5
    Troco K Mihali
    School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
    BMC Biochem 10:8. 2009
    b>Saxitoxin and its analogues collectively known as the paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) are neurotoxic alkaloids and are the cause of the syndrome named paralytic shellfish poisoning...
  93. pmc Energetic localization of saxitoxin in its channel binding site
    Gaurav Choudhary
    Department of Medicine, Emory University and Atlanta Veterans Administration Medical Center, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 USA
    Biophys J 83:912-9. 2002
    b>Saxitoxin (STX) selectively blocks the voltage-gated sodium channel at the outer vestibule lined by P-loops of the four domains...
  94. ncbi Metabolites of saxitoxin analogues in bivalves contaminated by Gymnodinium catenatum
    Paulo Vale
    Instituto Nacional dos Recursos Biológicos, I P L IPIMAR, Avenida de Brasília s n, 1449 006 Lisbon, Portugal
    Toxicon 55:162-5. 2010
    Bivalve metabolites of saxitoxin analogues, not present in microalgae, were recently described as an important toxin fraction in mussels contaminated by Alexandrium tamarense...
  95. ncbi Radioreceptor assays for sensitive detection and quantitation of saxitoxin and its analogues from strains of the freshwater cyanobacterium, Anabaena circinalis
    L E Llewellyn
    Australian Institute of Marine Science, Townsville MC, Australia
    Environ Sci Technol 35:1445-51. 2001
    ..Two microtiter plate based bioassays have emerged for measuring saxitoxin (STX) and its derivatives, commonly found in the freshwater cyanobacteria Anabaena and Aphanizomenon...
  96. pmc Tonic and phasic guanidinium toxin-block of skeletal muscle Na channels expressed in Mammalian cells
    Oscar Moran
    Istituto di Biofisica, Sezione di Genova, CNR, Italy
    Biophys J 84:2999-3006. 2003
    The blockage of skeletal muscle sodium channels by tetrodotoxin (TTX) and saxitoxin (STX) have been studied in CHO cells permanently expressing rat Nav1.4 channels...
  97. ncbi GTX(4) imposters: characterization of fluorescent compounds synthesized by Pseudomonas stutzeri SF/PS and Pseudomonas/Alteromonas PTB-1, symbionts of saxitoxin-producing Alexandrium spp
    Tracie R Baker
    Institute of Marine Science, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK 99775 7220, USA
    Toxicon 41:339-47. 2003
    ..Several reports indicate that bacteria are capable of saxitoxin synthesis...
  98. ncbi Mutual binding inhibition of tetrodotoxin and saxitoxin to their binding protein from the plasma of the puffer fish, Fugu pardalis
    Mari Yotsu-Yamashita
    Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University, 1 1 Tsutsumidori Amamiyamachi, Aoba ku, Sendai 981 8555, Japan
    Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 66:2520-4. 2002
    The mutual binding inhibition of tetrodotoxin and saxitoxin to their binding protein from the plasma of Fugu pardalis was investigated by HPLC. The values for the half inhibitory concentration of tetrodotoxin (1...
  99. ncbi Effects of toxic dinoflagellates and toxin biotransformation in bivalves
    Ya Hui Lu
    Department of Food Science, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung, Taiwan
    J Nat Toxins 11:315-22. 2002
    ..diphos during the early exposure period was similar to that of A. minutum. Moreover, toxin components in the gills and in other organs were retained at near constant concentrations during the exposure period...
  100. ncbi Accumulation of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins in the edible shore crab Telmessus acutidens
    Hiroshi Oikawa
    National Research Institute of Fisheries Science, Fisheries Research Agency, 2 12 4, Fukuura, Kanazawa, Yokohama, Kanagawa 236 8648, Japan
    Toxicon 40:1593-9. 2002
    ..The difference in the toxin abundance suggests that the toxin content in the crab was affected by those of the prey...
  101. ncbi Mutation D384N alters recovery of the immobilized gating charge in rat brain IIA sodium channels
    F J P Kühn
    Physiologisches Institut, Universitat Zurich, Winterthurerstr 190, CH 8057 Zurich, Switzerland
    J Membr Biol 185:145-55. 2002
    ..On the other hand, the voltage dependence of the Qg-recovery was not changed by the mutation. These data suggest a direct interaction between the selectivity filter and the immobilized voltage sensor S4D4 of rBIIA sodium channels...

Research Grants31

  1. Linking Limnology to Cyanotoxins in Drinking Water Using Buoy Sensors and Auto-Sa
    Todd R Miller; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..mass spectrometry and include hepatotoxins (microcystins and cylindrospermopsin) and neurotoxins (anatoxins, saxitoxin, and beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine)...
  2. PROLONGED DURATION LOCAL ANESTHESIA
    Daniel S Kohane; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..develop particulate prolonged duration local anesthetics (PDLA) employing site 1 sodium channel blockers such as saxitoxin (STX). To date, this line of inquiry has been very productive;since the current R01 began 3...
  3. A Photo-triggered on-demand drug delivery system for chronic pain
    BRIAN PAUL TIMKO; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..the "on" and "off" state permeability of the membrane to a number of compounds, including tetrodotoxin (TTX), saxitoxin (STX), bupivacaine, and dexamethasone...
  4. Guanidinium Toxins as Tools for Ion Channel Study
    JUSTIN DU BOIS; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..We are developing small molecule probes for NaV studies based on naturally occurring guanidinium toxins - saxitoxin, gonyautoxin, and zetekitoxin AB...
  5. Development of novel toxin detection methodologies applicable tomarine and fresh
    Judy Westrick; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The investigators will use the MqPCR to investigate the response of microcystin/nodularin-, cylindrospermopsin-, saxitoxin-, and anatoxin-a-producing cyanobacteria as well as potentially toxic euglenoids to environmental variables ..
  6. Annulation Strategies Toward the Total Synthesis of Saxitoxin and Zetekitoxin AB
    Michael R Krout; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Guanidinium alkaloids saxitoxin and zetekitoxin AB are potent voltage-gated sodium channel blockers that pose significant synthetic challenges...
  7. MARINE AND FRESHWATER BIOMEDICAL SCIENCES CENTER
    Lora Fleming; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..of utilization and overall value to programs in the past five years: Toxin Probes, supplying brevetoxins, saxitoxin, okadaic acid, domoic acid, ciguatoxins and application-related toxin derivatives, as well as cultures of toxin ..
  8. Sodium Channel Contratoxins Derived from Cone Snail Venoms
    Grzegorz Bulaj; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Archetypal examples in this regard are the alkaloids tetrodotoxin (TTX) and saxitoxin (SIX), both potent paralytic agents that act by binding to the same site on, and blocking the function of ..
  9. MOLECULAR PHARMACOLOGY OF VOLTAGE SENSITIVE NA CHANNELS
    Edward Moczydlowski; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..target of several classes of drugs and neurotoxins such as local anesthetics, antiarrhythmics, tetrodotoxin and saxitoxin. Genetically defective NaV channels are also responsible for various human muscle and heart disorders such as ..
  10. Facility Airborne Biological Toxin Alarm System
    John Parrish; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..ion signatures profiles of non-hazardous simulants that mimic the protypic biological toxins botulism, ricin, saxitoxin and ET-B...
  11. THE MOLECULAR BASIS OF ELECTRICAL EXCITABILITY
    William Catterall; Fiscal Year: 1980
    ..b>Saxitoxin binds to a third receptor site and inhibits the Na ionophore...
  12. CHEMISTRY AND BIOCHEMISTRY OF AQUATIC TOXINS
    Yuzuru Shimizu; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..of 1) excitatory amino acids such as domoic acid and kainic acid; 2) paralytic shellfish poisons (PSP) such as saxitoxin and gonyautoxins; 3) polyether toxins such as brevetoxins and okadaic acid derivatives; 4) blue-green algal ..
  13. SYNTHESES OF BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE MARINE ALKALOIDS
    David Horne; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..and zoamides, the C11N5 family of oroidin alkaloids, the dimeric oroidin alkaloids, and the red-tide toxins saxitoxin and gonyautoxins...
  14. Molecular Physiology of Voltage-gated Ion Channels
    Richard Horn; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Cationic blockers will include extracellular toxins (tetrodotoxin, saxitoxin, and mu-conotoxin) and intracellular local anesthetics...
  15. CONTROL OF NEURAL FUNCTION IN ANESTHESIA
    Gary Strichartz; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..local anesthetics (lidocaine and bupivacaine) in combination with capsaicin (a vanilloid receptor agonist), tetrodotoxin and saxitoxin (selective sodium channel antagonists), and veratridine and cevadine (sodium channel activators).
  16. BIOCHEMISTRY OF EXCITABLE MEMBRANES
    BRUCE KRUEGER; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..The voltage dependence of block by saxitoxin (STX) and tetrodotoxin will be investigated in reconstituted vesicles using binding of 3H-STX...
  17. GENETIC ANALYSIS OF SODIUM CHANNELS
    Linda Hall; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..Previous work has defined 4-6 different genetic loci which affect saxitoxin-binding to sodium channels or which affect propagation of action potentials...
  18. ENZYMOLOGY OF SINGLE NA-CHANNELS IN ARTIFICIAL BILAYERS
    Edward Moczydlowski; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..Biochemical analysis and investigation of the functional significance of an unusual water- soluble receptor for saxitoxin that is present in bullfrog skeletal muscle...
  19. POISONOUS DINOFLAGELLATES AND SHELLFISH POISONING
    HEINRICH SCHNOES; Fiscal Year: 1980
    ..It is further proposed to investigate the chemistry of saxitoxin with the aim of preparing structural analogs and radiolabelled derivation that might serve as specific probes ..
  20. CARDIAC MYOCYTE-SPECIFIC SODIUM CHANNEL PROTEINS
    DONALD DOYLE; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..fractions from adult mammalian hearts have been prepared in this laboratory which are highly enriched in TTX-I saxitoxin (STX) binding receptors and devoid of TTX-S STX receptors...
  21. Synthesis of 2-Aminoimidazole-Based Alkaloids
    David Horne; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..In addition, the methods developed in this area will be applied to synthesis of the red-tide toxins, saxitoxin, gonyautoxin I and gonyautoxin IV. [unreadable] [unreadable]
  22. EMYELINATING DISEASE--BIOPHYSICS OF NERVE DYSFUNCTION
    J Ritchie; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..it is now clear that when nerves are demyelinated, they cease to conduct impulses because, as shown both by saxitoxin-binding experiments and by electrophysiological experiments, the exposed internodal axolemma is poor in, or ..
  23. Automated Identification of Foodborne Pathogens
    KENNETH PUZEY; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..II, actual pathogens will be studied and the scope of the pathogens broadened to include viruses and biotoxins (saxitoxin). The new spectrometer will be fabricated and tested in a food processing environment. [unreadable] [unreadable]
  24. Sensor for Paralytic Shellfish Poisons
    ROBERT GAWLEY; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..3. Evaluation of the fluorescence amplification to solutions of saxitoxin, PSP toxins, and toxic shellfish extracts...
  25. Synthetic Studies of Chiral Organometallics
    ROBERT GAWLEY; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..4. To pursue our recent findings relating to possible stereoelectronic effects on transmetalation and the nature of heteroatom participation in tin-lithium exchanges using rapid injection NMR. ..
  26. MUCOSAL DEFENSE MECHANISMS IN SUBSTANCE ABUSE
    David R Brown; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  27. Olfactory Development: Cell Proliferation and Maturation
    CHARLES DERBY; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  28. Mechnaisms of Late Sodium Current in Failing Heart
    Albertas Undrovinas; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Knowledge derived from the present proposal may reveal novel targets for the treatment of life-threatening arrhythmias associated with chronic HF. ..