Genomes and Genes
Summary: A compound that contains a reduced PURINE ring system but is not biosynthetically related to the purine alkaloids. It is a poison found in certain edible mollusks at certain times; elaborated by GONYAULAX and consumed by mollusks, fishes, etc. without ill effects. It is neurotoxic and causes RESPIRATORY PARALYSIS and other effects in MAMMALS, known as paralytic SHELLFISH poisoning.
Publications222 found, 100 shown here
- Quantitative determination of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins in shellfish using prechromatographic oxidation and liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection: collaborative studyJames F Lawrence
Health Canada, Food Research Division, Bureau of Chemical Safety, Food Directorate, Banting Research Centre 2203D, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0L2, Canada
J AOAC Int 88:1714-32. 2005..The PSP toxins studied were saxitoxin (STX), neosaxitoxin (NEO), gonyautoxins 2 and 3 (GTX2,3; together), gonyautoxins 1 and 4 (GTX1,4; together), ..
- Assessment of specific binding proteins suitable for the detection of paralytic shellfish poisons using optical biosensor technologyKatrina Campbell
Institute of Agri food and Land Use, Queen s University, David Keir Building, Stranmillis Road, Belfast, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom
Anal Chem 79:5906-14. 2007..a monoclonal antibody (GT13-A) raised to gonyautoxin 2/3, and a rabbit polyclonal antibody (R895) raised to saxitoxin (STX). Inhibition assay formats were used throughout...
- Paralytic shellfish poisoning: seafood safety and human health perspectivesStacey M Etheridge
U S FDA, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Office of Regulatory Science, Division of Analytical Chemistry, 5100 Paint Branch Parkway, HFS 707, College Park, MD 20740, USA
Toxicon 56:108-22. 2010..This paper highlights PSP seafood safety concerns, documented human cases, applied detection methods as well as monitoring and management strategies for preventing PSP-contaminated seafood products from entering the food supply...
- Evolution of saxitoxin synthesis in cyanobacteria and dinoflagellatesJeremiah D Hackett
Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Arizona, AZ, USA
Mol Biol Evol 30:70-8. 2013..b>Saxitoxin (STX), the cause of paralytic shellfish poisoning, is produced by three marine dinoflagellate genera and is also ..
- Discovery of nuclear-encoded genes for the neurotoxin saxitoxin in dinoflagellatesAnke Stüken
Microbial Evolution Research Group, Department of Biology, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway
PLoS ONE 6:e20096. 2011b>Saxitoxin is a potent neurotoxin that occurs in aquatic environments worldwide. Ingestion of vector species can lead to paralytic shellfish poisoning, a severe human illness that may lead to paralysis and death...
- Biosynthetic intermediate analysis and functional homology reveal a saxitoxin gene cluster in cyanobacteriaRalf Kellmann
The University of New South Wales, School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
Appl Environ Microbiol 74:4044-53. 2008b>Saxitoxin (STX) and its analogues cause the paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) syndrome, which afflicts human health and impacts coastal shellfish economies worldwide...
- Evolutionary acquisition and loss of saxitoxin biosynthesis in dinoflagellates: the second "core" gene, sxtGRussell J S Orr
MERG Microbial Evolution Research Group, Department of Biosciences, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway
Appl Environ Microbiol 79:2128-36. 2013b>Saxitoxin and its derivatives are potent neurotoxins produced by several cyanobacteria and dinoflagellate species. SxtA is the initial enzyme in the biosynthesis of saxitoxin...
- Neurotoxic alkaloids: saxitoxin and its analogsMaria Wiese
School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, 2052, Australia
Mar Drugs 8:2185-211. 2010b>Saxitoxin (STX) and its 57 analogs are a broad group of natural neurotoxic alkaloids, commonly known as the paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs)...
- On the chemistry, toxicology and genetics of the cyanobacterial toxins, microcystin, nodularin, saxitoxin and cylindrospermopsinLeanne Pearson
School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, 2052, Australia
Mar Drugs 8:1650-80. 2010..Over the past decade, the biosynthesis pathways of the four major cyanotoxins: microcystin, nodularin, saxitoxin and cylindrospermopsin, have been genetically and biochemically elucidated...
- PSP toxin release from the cyanobacterium Raphidiopsis brookii D9 (Nostocales) can be induced by sodium and potassium ionsKatia Soto-Liebe
Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Facultad de Ciencias Biologicas, Alameda 340, 8331150 Santiago, Chile
Toxicon 60:1324-34. 2012..Although saxitoxin (STX) and analogs are all potent Na(+) channel blockers in vertebrate cells, the functional role of these ..
- Extraordinary conservation, gene loss, and positive selection in the evolution of an ancient neurotoxinShauna A Murray
School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, University of New South Wales, New South Wales, Australia
Mol Biol Evol 28:1173-82. 2011The recent determination of the genetic basis for the biosynthesis of the neurotoxin, saxitoxin, produced by cyanobacteria, has revealed a highly complex sequence of reactions, involving over 30 biosynthetic steps encoded by up to 26 ..
- sxtA-based quantitative molecular assay to identify saxitoxin-producing harmful algal blooms in marine watersShauna A Murray
Sydney Institute of Marine Sciences, Chowder Bay Road, Mosman, NSW 2088, Australia
Appl Environ Microbiol 77:7050-7. 2011The recent identification of genes involved in the production of the potent neurotoxin and keystone metabolite saxitoxin (STX) in marine eukaryotic phytoplankton has allowed us for the first time to develop molecular genetic methods to ..
- Saxitoxin blocks L-type ICaZhi Su
Cardiology Division, University of Utah Health Sciences Center, Salt Lake City, Utah 84132, USA
J Pharmacol Exp Ther 308:324-9. 2004b>Saxitoxin (STX) and tetrodotoxin (TTX) are frequently used to selectively block sodium channels...
- Origin of saxitoxin biosynthetic genes in cyanobacteriaAhmed Moustafa
Interdisciplinary Program in Genetics, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA
PLoS ONE 4:e5758. 2009..PSP) is a potentially fatal syndrome associated with the consumption of shellfish that have accumulated saxitoxin (STX). STX is produced by microscopic marine dinoflagellate algae...
- Saxitoxin is a gating modifier of HERG K+ channelsJixin Wang
Department of Molecular Pharmacology, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA 19486, USA
J Gen Physiol 121:583-98. 2003..In this study, we identify saxitoxin (STX) as a hERG channel modifier and investigate the mechanism using heterologous expression of the recombinant ..
- First report of saxitoxin production by a species of the freshwater benthic cyanobacterium, Scytonema AgardhFrancine M J Smith
Department of Chemistry, Canterbury University, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140, New Zealand
Toxicon 57:566-73. 2011..The sxtA gene, which is known to be involved in saxitoxin production, was detected in UCFS10...
- Sodium channel mutation leading to saxitoxin resistance in clams increases risk of PSPV Monica Bricelj
Institute for Marine Biosciences, National Research Council, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 3Z1, Canada
Nature 434:763-7. 2005..caused by natural mutation of a single amino acid residue, which causes a 1,000-fold decrease in affinity at the saxitoxin-binding site in the sodium channel pore of resistant, but not sensitive, clams...
- Evolution and distribution of saxitoxin biosynthesis in dinoflagellatesRussell J S Orr
Microbial Evolution Research Group MERG, Department of Biosciences, University of Oslo, PO Box 1066 Blindern, Oslo 0316, Norway
Mar Drugs 11:2814-28. 2013Numerous species of marine dinoflagellates synthesize the potent environmental neurotoxic alkaloid, saxitoxin, the agent of the human illness, paralytic shellfish poisoning...
- Paralytic shellfish poisoning toxin-producing cyanobacterium Aphanizomenon gracile in northeast GermanyAndreas Ballot
Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Department of Limnology of Stratified Lakes, Alte Fischerhütte 2, 16775 Stechlin, Germany
Appl Environ Microbiol 76:1173-80. 2010..Melang and Scharmützel produced four PSP toxin variants (gonyautoxin 5 [GTX5], decarbamoylsaxitoxin [dcSTX], saxitoxin [STX], and neosaxitoxin [NEO])...
- Comparison of analytical tools and biological assays for detection of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxinsA R Humpage
Australian Water Quality Centre, GPO Box 1751, Adelaide, SA, 5001, Australia
Anal Bioanal Chem 397:1655-71. 2010..Additionally, the number of naturally occurring PSTs has grown substantially since saxitoxin was first characterised, markedly increasing the analytical challenge of this group of compounds...
- Examination of the seasonal dynamics of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella at Redondo Beach, California, by quantitative PCRMarie Eve Garneau
Limnological Station, Institute of Plant Biology, University of Zurich, Seestrasse 187, 8802 Kilchberg, Switzerland
Appl Environ Microbiol 77:7669-80. 2011..King Harbor, CA, to investigate the seasonal dynamics of Alexandrium catenella and the presence of a particulate saxitoxin (STX), the parent compound of the PSTs. A quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay was developed for quantifying A...
- Bioterrorism: toxins as weaponsPeter D Anderson
Forensic Pharmacologist, Private Practice, Adjunct Associate Professor of Pharmacy Practice, University of Rhode Island, Randolph, MA, USA
J Pharm Pract 25:121-9. 2012..Shigatoxins inhibit protein synthesis and induce apoptosis. Saxitoxin and tetrodotoxin inhibit sodium channels in neurons. Mycotoxins include aflatoxins and trichothecenes...
- Post-mortem analysis of samples from a human victim of a fatal poisoning caused by the xanthid crab, Zosimus aeneusL E Llewellyn
Australian Institute of Marine Science, PMB 3, Townsville MC, QLD, 4810, Australia
Toxicon 40:1463-69. 2002..Metabolism of the PSTs occurred with the ingested crab harbouring gonyautoxin 2, gonyautoxin 3 and saxitoxin (STX) whereas neoSTX, decarbamoylSTX and STX dominated the PSTs in the victim's urine...
- Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography--mass spectrometry for the analysis of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxinsCarmela Dell'Aversano
Institute for Marine Biosciences, National Research Council of Canada, 1411 Oxford Street, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
J Chromatogr A 1081:190-201. 2005..LOD in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode on a sensitive triple quadrupole system were as low as 5-30 nM. Excellent linearity of response was observed...
- Selection and identification of a DNA aptamer that mimics saxitoxin in antibody bindingPan Hu
Key Laboratory of Zoonoses, Ministry of Education, Institute of Zoonoses, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin 130062, China
J Agric Food Chem 61:3533-41. 2013In this article, high-affinity single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) aptamer-targeting F(ab')₂ fragments of saxitoxin (STX) antibodies were selected from a random ssDNA library by the SELEX strategy...
- The sodium channel from rat brain. Purification and subunit compositionR P Hartshorne
J Biol Chem 259:1667-75. 1984..The final preparation binds 2910 pmol of saxitoxin (STX)/mg of protein or 0.9 mol of STX/mol of sodium channel of Mr approximately 316,000...
- Marked difference in saxitoxin and tetrodotoxin affinity for the human nociceptive voltage-gated sodium channel (Nav1.7) [corrected]James R Walker
Department of Chemistry, Structural Biology, and Computer Science, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 5080, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:18102-7. 2012..of antinociceptive agents, is blocked by low nanomolar concentrations of (-)-tetrodotoxin(TTX) but not (+)-saxitoxin (STX) and (+)-gonyautoxin-III (GTX-III). These findings question the long-accepted view that the 1...
- When naked became armored: an eight-gene phylogeny reveals monophyletic origin of theca in dinoflagellatesRussell J S Orr
Microbial Evolution Research Group MERG, Department of Biology, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway
PLoS ONE 7:e50004. 2012..g. saxitoxin. Here we present an improved dinoflagellate phylogeny, based on eight genes, with the broadest taxon sampling to ..
- Inhibition of copper uptake in yeast reveals the copper transporter Ctr1p as a potential molecular target of saxitoxinKathleen D Cusick
Center for Environmental Biotechnology, The University of Tennessee, 676 Dabney Hall, Knoxville, Tennessee 37966, United States
Environ Sci Technol 46:2959-66. 2012b>Saxitoxin is a secondary metabolite produced by several species of dinoflagellates and cyanobacteria which targets voltage-gated sodium and potassium channels in higher vertebrates...
- Single-laboratory validation of the microplate receptor binding assay for paralytic shellfish toxins in shellfishFrances M Van Dolah
NOAA National Ocean Service, Marine Biotoxins Program, 219 Fort Johnson Rd, Charleston, SC 29412, USA
J AOAC Int 92:1705-13. 2009..The basis of the assay is the competition between [3H]saxitoxin (STX) and STX in a standard or sample for binding to the voltage dependent sodium channel...
- Toxicity phenotype does not correlate with phylogeny of Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii strainsKarina Stucken
Laboratorio de Ecología Microbiana y Toxicología Ambiental, Departamento de Genetica Molecular y Microbiologia, Facultad de Ciencias Biologicas, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Alameda 340, 8331010 Santiago, Chile
Syst Appl Microbiol 32:37-48. 2009..C. raciborskii produces toxins, including cylindrospermopsin (hepatotoxin) and saxitoxin (neurotoxin), although non toxin-producing strains are also observed. In spite of differences in toxicity, C...
- A putative gene cluster from a Lyngbya wollei bloom that encodes paralytic shellfish toxin biosynthesisTroco K Mihali
School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
PLoS ONE 6:e14657. 2011b>Saxitoxin and its analogs cause the paralytic shellfish-poisoning syndrome, adversely affecting human health and coastal shellfish industries worldwide...
- Interactions between intracellular Na+ levels and saxitoxin production in Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii T3Francesco Pomati
Cyanobacteria and Astrobiology Research Laboratory, School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052, NSW, Australia
Microbiology 150:455-61. 2004b>Saxitoxin (STX) is the most potent representative among the paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins, which are highly selective Na(+) channel-blocking alkaloids...
- Toxicological comparison of diverse Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii strains: evidence of liver damage caused by a French C raciborskii strainC Bernard
USM0505 Ecosystèmes et interactions toxiques, Museum national d histoire naturelle, 12 rue Buffon, F 75005 Paris, France
Environ Toxicol 18:176-86. 2003..by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection of the cell extracts, which revealed the presence of saxitoxin, neosaxitoxin, and decarbamoylsaxitoxin, along with two unidentified compounds...
- Non-traditional vectors for paralytic shellfish poisoningJonathan R Deeds
US Food and Drug Administration Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, 5100 Paint Branch Parkway, College Park, Maryland, 20723, USA
Mar Drugs 6:308-48. 2008Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), due to saxitoxin and related compounds, typically results from the consumption of filter-feeding molluscan shellfish that concentrate toxins from marine dinoflagellates...
- The genetics and genomics of cyanobacterial toxicityBrett A Neilan
Cyanobacteria and Astrobiology Research Laboratory, School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, The University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052, NSW, Australia
Adv Exp Med Biol 619:417-52. 2008
- Cooccupancy of the outer vestibule of voltage-gated sodium channels by micro-conotoxin KIIIA and saxitoxin or tetrodotoxinMin Min Zhang
Department of Biology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112, USA
J Neurophysiol 104:88-97. 2010The guanidinium alkaloids tetrodotoxin (TTX) and saxitoxin (STX) are classic ligands of voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs). Like TTX and STX, micro-conotoxin peptides are pore blockers but with greater VGSC subtype selectivity...
- A rapid and sensitive assay for paralytic shellfish poison (PSP) toxins using mouse brain synaptoneurosomesRussell A Nicholson
Department of Biological Sciences, Simon Fraser University, 8888 University Drive, Burnaby, BC, Canada V5A 1S6
Toxicon 40:831-8. 2002..Standard saxitoxin was found to be a potent inhibitor of the membrane depolarizing effects of the sodium channel activator ..
- Distribution of tetrodotoxin, saxitoxin, and their analogs among tissues of the puffer fish Fugu pardalisJunho Jang
Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University, 1 1 Tsutsumidori Amamiyamachi, Aoba ku, Sendai 981 8555, Japan
Toxicon 48:980-7. 2006The anatomical distribution of tetrodotoxin (TTX), saxitoxin (STX) and their analogs (TTXs, STXs) in three female and three male specimens of the marine puffer fish Fugu pardalis from Miyagi Prefecture, 2005, Japan, were studied...
- Toxin-resistant sodium channels: parallel adaptive evolution across a complete gene familyManda Clair Jost
Sections of Integrative Biology and Neurobiology and Center for Computational Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Texas at Austin, USA
Mol Biol Evol 25:1016-24. 2008..of pufferfishes (Tetraodontidae) each evolved resistance to the guanidinium toxins tetrodotoxin (TTX) and saxitoxin (STX) via parallel amino acid replacements across all 8 sodium channels present in teleost fish genomes...
- Saxitoxin puffer fish poisoning in the United States, with the first report of Pyrodinium bahamense as the putative toxin sourceJan H Landsberg
Fish and Wildlife Research Institute, Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, St Petersburg, Florida 33701, USA
Environ Health Perspect 114:1502-7. 2006..Saxitoxins (STXs) of unknown source were first identified in fillet remnants from a New Jersey PFP case in 2002...
- First report of saxitoxin in octopiAlison Robertson
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, James Cook University, Townsville, Qld 4811, Australia
Toxicon 44:765-71. 2004We report for the first time, the presence of saxitoxin (STX) in a common cephalopod, Octopus (Abdopus) sp. 5, collected from Cooke Point on the northern coastline of Western Australia...
- Localization of pufferfish saxitoxin and tetrodotoxin binding protein (PSTBP) in the tissues of the pufferfish, Takifugu pardalis, analyzed by immunohistochemical stainingMari Yotsu-Yamashita
Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University, Sendai 981 8555, Japan
Toxicon 72:23-8. 2013Pufferfish saxitoxin and tetrodotoxin binding protein (PSTBP) was previously isolated from the plasma of the marine pufferfish, Takifugu pardalis...
- Subclinical effects of saxitoxin and domoic acid on aggressive behaviour and monoaminergic turnover in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)Marit Jørgensen Bakke
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, N 0033 Oslo, Norway
Aquat Toxicol 99:1-9. 2010The algal produced neurotoxins saxitoxin and domoic acid may have serious effects on marine life and can be responsible for the intoxication of for instance sea mammals, sea birds and fish...
- Investigations into matrix components affecting the performance of the official bioassay reference method for quantitation of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins in oystersAndrew D Turner
Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science Cefas, Barrack Road, The Nothe, Weymouth, Dorset DT4 8UB, UK
Toxicon 59:215-30. 2012..Secondly, a range of mussel and cockle extracts, plus a standard solution of saxitoxin di-hydrochloride were spiked at variable concentrations of zinc...
- Ecological and physiological studies of Gymnodinium catenatum in the Mexican Pacific: a reviewChristine J Band-Schmidt
Departamento de Plancton y Ecología Marina, Centro Interdisciplinario de Ciencias Marinas Instituto Politécnico Nacional, A P 592, La Paz, B C S, Mexico
Mar Drugs 8:1935-61. 2010..Interestingly, genetic sequencing of D1-D2 LSU rDNA revealed that it differs only in one base pair, compared with strains from other regions...
- First report of the use of a saxitoxin-protein conjugate to develop a DNA aptamer to a small molecule toxinSara M Handy
U S Food and Drug Administration, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, 5100 Paint Branch Parkway, College Park, MD 20740, USA
Toxicon 61:30-7. 2013b>Saxitoxin (STX) is a low molecular weight neurotoxin mainly produced by certain marine dinoflagellates that, along with its family of similarly related paralytic shellfish toxins, may cause the potentially fatal intoxication known as ..
- Determination of paralytic shellfish toxins in shellfish by receptor binding assay: collaborative studyFrances M Van Dolah
Center for Coastal Environmental Health and Biomolecular Research, NOAA Marine Biotoxins Program, Charleston, SC 29412, USA
J AOAC Int 95:795-812. 2012..the composite PST toxicity in shellfish samples based on the ability of sample extracts to compete with (3)H saxitoxin (STX) diHCl for binding to voltage-gated sodium channels in a rat brain membrane preparation...
- Purification, characterization, and cDNA cloning of a novel soluble saxitoxin and tetrodotoxin binding protein from plasma of the puffer fish, Fugu pardalisM Yotsu-Yamashita
Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University, Aoba ku, Sendai, Japan
Eur J Biochem 268:5937-46. 2001Some species of puffer fish have been reported to possess both of tetrodotoxin and saxitoxin, which share one binding site on sodium channels...
- An overview on the marine neurotoxin, saxitoxin: genetics, molecular targets, methods of detection and ecological functionsKathleen D Cusick
The University of Tennessee Center for Environmental Biotechnology, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA
Mar Drugs 11:991-1018. 2013..b>Saxitoxin and its derivatives, collectively referred to as paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), are unique among neurotoxins ..
- First evidence of "paralytic shellfish toxins" and cylindrospermopsin in a Mexican freshwater system, Lago Catemaco, and apparent bioaccumulation of the toxins in "tegogolo" snails (Pomacea patula catemacensis)John P Berry
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Florida International University, 354 Marine Science Building, 3000 NE 151st Street, North Miami, FL 33181, USA
Toxicon 55:930-8. 2010..Identification of the apparent bioaccumulation of these toxins in tegogolos may suggest the need to further our understanding of the transfer of cyanobacterial toxins in freshwater food webs as it relates to human health...
- Influence of inorganic nutrition on growth and PSP toxin production of Alexandrium minutum (Dinophyceae) from Cork Harbour, IrelandNicolas Touzet
The Martin Ryan Institute, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland
Toxicon 50:106-19. 2007..minutum cells as a metabolic response to adverse environmental conditions, could potentially increase risks for shellfish farming operations...
- Refinement of AOAC Official Method 2005.06 liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection method to improve performance characteristics for the determination of paralytic shellfish toxins in king and queen scallopsAndrew D Turner
Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science, Barrack Rd, The Nothe, Weymouth, Dorset DT4 8UB, United Kingdom
J AOAC Int 95:129-42. 2012..It is, therefore, recommended as a more appropriate option for the routine monitoring of PSP toxins in these species...
- Toxicity and toxin identification in Colomesus asellus, an Amazonian (Brazil) freshwater puffer fishJoacir Stolarz Oliveira
Department of Physiology, Biosciences Institute, University of Sao Paulo, Rua do Matão 101, Travessa 14, 05508 900 Sao Paulo, Brazil
Toxicon 48:55-63. 2006..6+/-0 5MU/g). The HPLC profile showed no traces of TTX, but only the presence of PSPs (STX, GTX 2 and GTX 3). These toxins were also confirmed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry...
- Occurrence of saxitoxins as a major toxin in the ovary of a marine puffer Arothron firmamentumKazuhito Nakashima
Japan Frozen Foods Inspection Corporation, Fukuoka Branch, Fukuoka 812 0016, Japan
Toxicon 43:207-12. 2004..In the analyses, saxitoxin (STX) and decarbamoylSTX (dcSTX) were identified as the major toxins in the ovary, while the skin contained only ..
- Flow cytometric detection of saxitoxins using fluorescent voltage-sensitive dyesRonald Manger
Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Biologics Production Facility, Seattle, WA 98109, USA
Anal Biochem 366:149-55. 2007..The method is demonstrated in preliminary studies using saxitoxin and crude shellfish extracts.
- Predictive toxinology: an initial foray using calculated molecular descriptors to describe toxicity using saxitoxins as a modelLyndon E Llewellyn
Australian Institute of Marine Science, PMB 3, Townsville MC, Qld 4810, Australia
Toxicon 50:901-13. 2007..Some of these predicted toxicity values however would not be expected if there was a direct relationship between mammalian sodium channel affinity of the saxitoxins and whole animal toxicity...
- The adsorption of saxitoxin to clays and sediments in fresh and saline watersJustina M Burns
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208, USA
Water Res 43:1899-904. 2009The adsorption of saxitoxin to Na- and Ca-montmorillonite, kaolin (crystalline and amorphous), kaolinite, Bread and Butter Creek sediment (an estuarine tidal creek), Gulf of Mexico sediment, and Santa Barbara Basin sediment in deionized ..
- Induction to oxidative stress by saxitoxin investigated through lipid peroxidation in Neuro 2A cells and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii algaSilvia P Melegari
Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology, LABTOX, Department of Sanitary and Environmental Engineering, Campus Universitario Trindade, CEP 88040 970 Florianópolis, SC, Brazil
Chemosphere 89:38-43. 2012b>Saxitoxin (STX) is a cyanotoxin, which can cause neurotoxic effects and induce ecological changes in aquatic environments, a potential risk to public and environmental health...
- Influence of negative surface charge on toxin binding to canine heart Na channels in planar bilayersA Ravindran
Department of Pharmacology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06510
Biophys J 55:359-65. 1989The presence of negative surface charge near the tetrodotoxin/saxitoxin binding site of canine heart Na channels was revealed by analysis of the kinetics of toxin block of single batrachotoxin-activated Na channels in planar bilayers as ..
- Solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography procedures for the analysis of paralytic shellfish toxinsJ M Leão
Departamento de Quimica Analitica y Alimentaria, Facultad de Ciencias CUVI, Universidad de Vigo, Spain
J Chromatogr A 798:131-6. 1998..These recoveries must be taken into account in order to quantify the exact amount of PSP toxins present in the contaminated samples...
- Evidence for paralytic shellfish poisons in the freshwater cyanobacterium Lyngbya wollei (Farlow ex Gomont) comb. novW W Carmichael
Department of Biological Sciences, Wright State University, Dayton, Ohio 45435, USA
Appl Environ Microbiol 63:3104-10. 1997..bioassayed for paralytic shellfish toxins by the Association of Official Analytical Chemists method exhibited saxitoxin equivalents ranging from 0 to 58 micrograms g (dry weight)-1...
- Site 1 sodium channel blockers prolong the duration of sciatic nerve blockade from tricyclic antidepressantsCaryn S Barnet
Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA
Pain 110:432-8. 2004..whether nerve block from TCAs is prolonged by site 1 sodium channel blockers such as tetrodotoxin and saxitoxin, which are known to prolong block from conventional local anesthetics...
- Neuroecology, chemical defense, and the keystone species conceptRichard K Zimmer
Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 1606, USA
Biol Bull 213:208-25. 2007..Effects of two guanidine alkaloids, tetrodotoxin (TTX) and saxitoxin (STX), coalesce neurobiological and ecological perspectives...
- Development of quantitative NMR method with internal standard for the standard solutions of paralytic shellfish toxins and characterisation of gonyautoxin-5 and gonyautoxin-6Ryuichi Watanabe
National Research Institute of Fisheries Science, Fukuura 2 12 4, Kanazawa Ku, Yokohama 236 8648, Japan
Toxicon 56:589-95. 2010..16 mM, which corresponded to 67 microg/mL as Saxitoxin (STX) diacetate form, while the limit of detection (LOD) was 0.04 mM...
- Toxins of cyanobacteriaMarian E van Apeldoorn
Centre for Substances and Integrated Risk Assessment, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands
Mol Nutr Food Res 51:7-60. 2007..Official regulations for other cyanotoxins have not been established, although some (provisional) guideline values have been derived for microcystins in drinking water by WHO and several countries...
- The tip-E mutation of Drosophila decreases saxitoxin binding and interacts with other mutations affecting nerve membrane excitabilityF R Jackson
J Neurogenet 3:1-17. 1986A recessive temperature-sensitive paralytic mutation, tip-E, is associated with reduced binding of [3H]saxitoxin to voltage-sensitive sodium channels in membranes from adult Drosophila heads...
- The outer vestibule of the Na+ channel-toxin receptor and modulator of permeation as well as gatingRene Cervenka
Institute of Pharmacology, Centre of Physiology and Pharmacology, Medical University of Vienna, 1090 Vienna, Austria
Mar Drugs 8:1373-93. 2010..Moreover, partial pore block by mutated toxins may reverse gating changes induced by mutations. Therefore, toxins that bind to the outer vestibule can be used to modulate channel gating...
- Isolation and purification procedures for the preparation of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxin standardsM V Laycock
Institute for Marine Biosciences, National Research Council, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
Nat Toxins 2:175-83. 1994Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is caused by mixtures of saxitoxin analogs of which more than eighteen are known...
- Visible fluorescence chemosensor for saxitoxinRobert E Gawley
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas 72701, USA
J Org Chem 72:2187-91. 2007..or 27-membered crown ether rings and have been evaluated as visible sensors for the paralytic shellfish toxin saxitoxin. The binding constant for one of them is in the range of 3-9x10(5) M-1 and exhibits a fluorescence enhancement ..
- Effects of a saxitoxin-producer strain of Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii (cyanobacteria) on the swimming movements of cladoceransAloysio da S Ferrão Filho
Departamento de Biologia, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, FIOCRUZ, Laboratório de Avaliação e Promoção da Saúde Ambiental, Av Brasil 4365, Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21045 900 Brazil
Environ Toxicol 23:161-8. 2008This study evaluated the effects of a saxitoxin-producer strain (T3) of the cyanobacteria species Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii on the swimming movements of three cladoceran species (Daphnia gessneri, D. pulex, and Moina micrura)...
- Chemosensors for the marine toxin saxitoxinRobert E Gawley
Department of Chemistry, and NIEHS Marine and Freshwater Biomedical Sciences Center, University of Miami, P O Box 249118, Coral Gables, Florida 33124 0431, USA
J Am Chem Soc 124:13448-53. 2002..anthracylmethyl crown ethers have been synthesized and evaluated as fluorescence sensors for the marine toxin saxitoxin. Fluorescence enhancement data are consistent with a 1:1 binding complex for all crowns...
- Binding properties of (3)H-PbTx-3 and (3)H-saxitoxin to brain membranes and to skeletal muscle membranes of puffer fish Fugu pardalis and the primary structure of a voltage-gated Na(+) channel alpha-subunit (fMNa1) from skeletal muscle of F. pardalisM Yotsu-Yamashita
Graduate School of Agriculture, Tohoku University, Tsutsumidori Amamiyamachi, Aoba ku, Sendai, 981 8555, Japan
Biochem Biophys Res Commun 267:403-12. 2000The dissociation constants for (3)H-saxitoxin to brain membranes and to skeletal muscle membranes of puffer fish Fugu pardalis have been estimated to be 190- and 460-fold, respectively, larger than those to corresponding membranes of rat,..
- Production of antibodies and development of highly sensitive formats of enzyme immunoassay for saxitoxin analysisL Micheli
Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Chimiche, Universita di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica, 00133 Rome, Italy
Anal Bioanal Chem 373:678-84. 2002In this paper the production of antibodies against saxitoxin (STX) is described, as is the optimization and comparison of two competitive ELISA formats (direct and indirect) for the detection of this toxin...
- Selective detection of saxitoxin over tetrodotoxin using acridinylmethyl crown ether chemosensorRobert E Gawley
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701, USA
Toxicon 45:783-7. 2005At pH 7.1, saxitoxin decomposes to produce a trace impurity that can interfere with fluorescence sensing when using irradiation wavelengths near 325 nm...
- Accumulation and depuration rates of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins in the shore crab Telmessus acutidens by feeding toxic mussels under laboratory controlled conditionsHiroshi Oikawa
National Research Institute of Fisheries Science, Fisheries Research Agency, Fukuura 2 12 4, Kanazawa, Yokohama, Kanagawa 236 8648, Japan
Toxicon 45:163-9. 2005..Consequently, high concentrations of GTX2 and GTX3, and STX that were not detected in the prey mussels, were found in the crab...
- Investigating the fate of saxitoxins in biologically active water treatment plant filtersNawal Kayal
Australian Water Quality Centre, South Australian Water Corporation, PMB 3, Salisbury, South Australia 5108, Australia
Environ Toxicol 23:751-5. 2008....
- Modeling P-loops domain of sodium channel: homology with potassium channels and interaction with ligandsDenis B Tikhonov
Department of Biochemistry and Biomedical Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
Biophys J 88:184-97. 2005..which includes residues in positions -2 through +4 from the DEKA locus, was shaped around rigid molecules of saxitoxin and tetrodotoxin that are known to form multiple contacts with this region...
- Comparative paralytic shellfish toxin profiles in the strains of Gymnodinium catenatum Graham from the Gulf of California, MexicoI Gárate-Lizárraga
Departamento de Plancton y Ecología Marina, Centro Interdisciplinario de Ciencias Marinas CICIMAR IPN, Apdo Postal 592, La Paz, B C S 23000, Mexico
Mar Pollut Bull 50:211-7. 2005
- Gonyautoxin: new treatment for healing acute and chronic anal fissuresRogelio Garrido
Departamento de Cirugia, Seccion Proctologia, Hospital Clinico Universidad de Chile, Casilla 70005, Corrreo 7, Santiago, Chile
Dis Colon Rectum 48:335-40; discussion 340-3. 2005..This vicious circle leads to fissure recurrence and chronicity. This study was designed to show the efficacy of gonyautoxin infiltration in healing patients with anal fissures...
- The saxitoxin/tetrodotoxin binding site on cloned rat brain IIa Na channels is in the transmembrane electric fieldJ Satin
Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, Illinois 60637
Biophys J 67:1007-14. 1994..Therefore, we propose that amino acids at positions corresponding to this Phe in the BrIIa channel, which lie in the outer vestibule of the channel adjacent to the pore entrance,are partially in the transmembrane potential drop...
- Occurrence of paralytic shellfish toxins in Cambodian Mekong pufferfish Tetraodon turgidus: selective toxin accumulation in the skinLaymithuna Ngy
Graduate School of Science and Technology, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 852 8521, Japan
Toxicon 51:280-8. 2008..turgidus was localized mainly in the skin and ovary. Paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), comprising saxitoxin (STX) and decarbamoylsaxitoxin (dcSTX), account for approximately 85% of the total toxicity...
- Treatment of chronic anal fissure by gonyautoxinR Garrido
Departamento de Cirugia, Sección Coloproctología, Hospital Clinico Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile
Colorectal Dis 9:619-24. 2007..This study was designed to show better efficacy in healing patients with chronic anal fissure by increasing the frequency of toxin injection...
- Accumulation of paralytic shellfish toxins (PST) from the cyanobacterium Aphanizomenon issatschenkoi by the cladoceran Daphnia magnaIsabel C G Nogueira
Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigacao Marinha e Ambiental, Rua dos Bragas 177 289, 4150 123 Porto, Portugal
Toxicon 44:773-80. 2004..The results of this study indicate that D. magna can accumulate PST toxins and that the cyanobacterium A. issatschenkoi affects both the fitness and growth potential of juvenile D. magna...
- [Spatial-temporal dynamics of red tide precursor organisms at the Pacific coast of North and Central America]A P Sierra-Beltrán
Programa de Ecología de Pesquerías, Centro de Investigaciones Biologicas del Noroeste, S C Apdo Postal 128, La Paz, B C S, Mexico
Rev Biol Trop 52:99-107. 2004..The collaborative communication among small-budget monitoring operations in the region allowed to "pass the voice" about peaking concentrations of HAB organisms, diminishing the risk of poisoning...
- Saxitoxin, a toxic marine natural product that targets a multitude of receptorsLyndon E Llewellyn
Australian Institute of Marine Science, PMB 3, Townsville MC, QLD
Nat Prod Rep 23:200-22. 2006b>Saxitoxin (STX) was discovered early last century and can contaminate seafood and drinking water, and over time has become an invaluable research tool and an internationally regulated chemical weapon...
- Application of precolumn oxidation HPLC method with fluorescence detection to evaluate saxitoxin levels in discrete brain regions of ratsRosa Carmina Cervantes Cianca
Departamento de Ciencias Marinas, Instituto Tecnológico de Boca del Río, Ver Mexico
Toxicon 49:89-99. 2007b>Saxitoxin (STX) is one of several related toxins that cause paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP)...
- Marine toxins and nonmarine toxins: convergence or symbiotic organisms?John W Daly
Laboratory of Bioorganic Chemistry, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, DHHS, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 0820, USA
J Nat Prod 67:1211-5. 2004..The occurrence and possible origin of tetrodotoxin and congeners, including chiriquitoxin, and of the saxitoxin analogue zetekitoxin in amphibians are reviewed.
- Identification of an Na(+)-dependent transporter associated with saxitoxin-producing strains of the cyanobacterium Anabaena circinalisFrancesco Pomati
School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, The University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052, NSW, Australia
Appl Environ Microbiol 70:4711-9. 2004..are recognized as an important health risk worldwide due to the production of a range of toxins such as saxitoxin (STX) and its derivatives...
- Local infiltration of gonyautoxin is safe and effective in treatment of chronic tension-type headacheK Lattes
Laboratorio Bioquímica de Membrana, Departamento de Fisiologia y Biofisica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile
Neurol Res 31:228-33. 2009..Gonyautoxin are phycotoxins, whose molecular mechanism of action is a reversible block of the voltage-gated sodium channels at axonal level, impeding nerve impulse propagation...
- Receptor binding assay for paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins: optimization and interlaboratory comparisonShryamalie R Ruberu
California Department of Health Services, Sanitation and Radiation Laboratories Branch, 2151 Berkeley Way, Berkeley, CA 94704, USA
J AOAC Int 86:737-45. 2003..Precision, accuracy, and sensitivity [limit of detection = 0.2 microg saxitoxin (STX) equiv/100 g shellfish tissue] of the modified protocol were equivalent to those of the original protocol...
- Characterisation of the paralytic shellfish toxin biosynthesis gene clusters in Anabaena circinalis AWQC131C and Aphanizomenon sp. NH-5Troco K Mihali
School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
BMC Biochem 10:8. 2009b>Saxitoxin and its analogues collectively known as the paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) are neurotoxic alkaloids and are the cause of the syndrome named paralytic shellfish poisoning...
- Energetic localization of saxitoxin in its channel binding siteGaurav Choudhary
Department of Medicine, Emory University and Atlanta Veterans Administration Medical Center, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 USA
Biophys J 83:912-9. 2002b>Saxitoxin (STX) selectively blocks the voltage-gated sodium channel at the outer vestibule lined by P-loops of the four domains...
- Metabolites of saxitoxin analogues in bivalves contaminated by Gymnodinium catenatumPaulo Vale
Instituto Nacional dos Recursos Biológicos, I P L IPIMAR, Avenida de Brasília s n, 1449 006 Lisbon, Portugal
Toxicon 55:162-5. 2010Bivalve metabolites of saxitoxin analogues, not present in microalgae, were recently described as an important toxin fraction in mussels contaminated by Alexandrium tamarense...
- Radioreceptor assays for sensitive detection and quantitation of saxitoxin and its analogues from strains of the freshwater cyanobacterium, Anabaena circinalisL E Llewellyn
Australian Institute of Marine Science, Townsville MC, Australia
Environ Sci Technol 35:1445-51. 2001..Two microtiter plate based bioassays have emerged for measuring saxitoxin (STX) and its derivatives, commonly found in the freshwater cyanobacteria Anabaena and Aphanizomenon...
- Tonic and phasic guanidinium toxin-block of skeletal muscle Na channels expressed in Mammalian cellsOscar Moran
Istituto di Biofisica, Sezione di Genova, CNR, Italy
Biophys J 84:2999-3006. 2003The blockage of skeletal muscle sodium channels by tetrodotoxin (TTX) and saxitoxin (STX) have been studied in CHO cells permanently expressing rat Nav1.4 channels...
- GTX(4) imposters: characterization of fluorescent compounds synthesized by Pseudomonas stutzeri SF/PS and Pseudomonas/Alteromonas PTB-1, symbionts of saxitoxin-producing Alexandrium sppTracie R Baker
Institute of Marine Science, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK 99775 7220, USA
Toxicon 41:339-47. 2003..Several reports indicate that bacteria are capable of saxitoxin synthesis...
- Mutual binding inhibition of tetrodotoxin and saxitoxin to their binding protein from the plasma of the puffer fish, Fugu pardalisMari Yotsu-Yamashita
Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University, 1 1 Tsutsumidori Amamiyamachi, Aoba ku, Sendai 981 8555, Japan
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 66:2520-4. 2002The mutual binding inhibition of tetrodotoxin and saxitoxin to their binding protein from the plasma of Fugu pardalis was investigated by HPLC. The values for the half inhibitory concentration of tetrodotoxin (1...
- Effects of toxic dinoflagellates and toxin biotransformation in bivalvesYa Hui Lu
Department of Food Science, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung, Taiwan
J Nat Toxins 11:315-22. 2002..diphos during the early exposure period was similar to that of A. minutum. Moreover, toxin components in the gills and in other organs were retained at near constant concentrations during the exposure period...
- Accumulation of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins in the edible shore crab Telmessus acutidensHiroshi Oikawa
National Research Institute of Fisheries Science, Fisheries Research Agency, 2 12 4, Fukuura, Kanazawa, Yokohama, Kanagawa 236 8648, Japan
Toxicon 40:1593-9. 2002..The difference in the toxin abundance suggests that the toxin content in the crab was affected by those of the prey...
- Mutation D384N alters recovery of the immobilized gating charge in rat brain IIA sodium channelsF J P Kühn
Physiologisches Institut, Universitat Zurich, Winterthurerstr 190, CH 8057 Zurich, Switzerland
J Membr Biol 185:145-55. 2002..On the other hand, the voltage dependence of the Qg-recovery was not changed by the mutation. These data suggest a direct interaction between the selectivity filter and the immobilized voltage sensor S4D4 of rBIIA sodium channels...
- Linking Limnology to Cyanotoxins in Drinking Water Using Buoy Sensors and Auto-SaTodd R Miller; Fiscal Year: 2013..mass spectrometry and include hepatotoxins (microcystins and cylindrospermopsin) and neurotoxins (anatoxins, saxitoxin, and beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine)...
- PROLONGED DURATION LOCAL ANESTHESIADaniel S Kohane; Fiscal Year: 2013..develop particulate prolonged duration local anesthetics (PDLA) employing site 1 sodium channel blockers such as saxitoxin (STX). To date, this line of inquiry has been very productive;since the current R01 began 3...
- A Photo-triggered on-demand drug delivery system for chronic painBRIAN PAUL TIMKO; Fiscal Year: 2012..the "on" and "off" state permeability of the membrane to a number of compounds, including tetrodotoxin (TTX), saxitoxin (STX), bupivacaine, and dexamethasone...
- Guanidinium Toxins as Tools for Ion Channel StudyJUSTIN DU BOIS; Fiscal Year: 2012..We are developing small molecule probes for NaV studies based on naturally occurring guanidinium toxins - saxitoxin, gonyautoxin, and zetekitoxin AB...
- Development of novel toxin detection methodologies applicable tomarine and freshJudy Westrick; Fiscal Year: 2013..The investigators will use the MqPCR to investigate the response of microcystin/nodularin-, cylindrospermopsin-, saxitoxin-, and anatoxin-a-producing cyanobacteria as well as potentially toxic euglenoids to environmental variables ..
- Annulation Strategies Toward the Total Synthesis of Saxitoxin and Zetekitoxin ABMichael R Krout; Fiscal Year: 2011..Guanidinium alkaloids saxitoxin and zetekitoxin AB are potent voltage-gated sodium channel blockers that pose significant synthetic challenges...
- MARINE AND FRESHWATER BIOMEDICAL SCIENCES CENTERLora Fleming; Fiscal Year: 2006..of utilization and overall value to programs in the past five years: Toxin Probes, supplying brevetoxins, saxitoxin, okadaic acid, domoic acid, ciguatoxins and application-related toxin derivatives, as well as cultures of toxin ..
- Sodium Channel Contratoxins Derived from Cone Snail VenomsGrzegorz Bulaj; Fiscal Year: 2007..Archetypal examples in this regard are the alkaloids tetrodotoxin (TTX) and saxitoxin (SIX), both potent paralytic agents that act by binding to the same site on, and blocking the function of ..
- MOLECULAR PHARMACOLOGY OF VOLTAGE SENSITIVE NA CHANNELSEdward Moczydlowski; Fiscal Year: 2001..target of several classes of drugs and neurotoxins such as local anesthetics, antiarrhythmics, tetrodotoxin and saxitoxin. Genetically defective NaV channels are also responsible for various human muscle and heart disorders such as ..
- Facility Airborne Biological Toxin Alarm SystemJohn Parrish; Fiscal Year: 2005..ion signatures profiles of non-hazardous simulants that mimic the protypic biological toxins botulism, ricin, saxitoxin and ET-B...
- THE MOLECULAR BASIS OF ELECTRICAL EXCITABILITYWilliam Catterall; Fiscal Year: 1980..b>Saxitoxin binds to a third receptor site and inhibits the Na ionophore...
- CHEMISTRY AND BIOCHEMISTRY OF AQUATIC TOXINSYuzuru Shimizu; Fiscal Year: 1999..of 1) excitatory amino acids such as domoic acid and kainic acid; 2) paralytic shellfish poisons (PSP) such as saxitoxin and gonyautoxins; 3) polyether toxins such as brevetoxins and okadaic acid derivatives; 4) blue-green algal ..
- SYNTHESES OF BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE MARINE ALKALOIDSDavid Horne; Fiscal Year: 2001..and zoamides, the C11N5 family of oroidin alkaloids, the dimeric oroidin alkaloids, and the red-tide toxins saxitoxin and gonyautoxins...
- Molecular Physiology of Voltage-gated Ion ChannelsRichard Horn; Fiscal Year: 2009..Cationic blockers will include extracellular toxins (tetrodotoxin, saxitoxin, and mu-conotoxin) and intracellular local anesthetics...
- CONTROL OF NEURAL FUNCTION IN ANESTHESIAGary Strichartz; Fiscal Year: 2001..local anesthetics (lidocaine and bupivacaine) in combination with capsaicin (a vanilloid receptor agonist), tetrodotoxin and saxitoxin (selective sodium channel antagonists), and veratridine and cevadine (sodium channel activators).
- BIOCHEMISTRY OF EXCITABLE MEMBRANESBRUCE KRUEGER; Fiscal Year: 1991..The voltage dependence of block by saxitoxin (STX) and tetrodotoxin will be investigated in reconstituted vesicles using binding of 3H-STX...
- GENETIC ANALYSIS OF SODIUM CHANNELSLinda Hall; Fiscal Year: 1992..Previous work has defined 4-6 different genetic loci which affect saxitoxin-binding to sodium channels or which affect propagation of action potentials...
- ENZYMOLOGY OF SINGLE NA-CHANNELS IN ARTIFICIAL BILAYERSEdward Moczydlowski; Fiscal Year: 1992..Biochemical analysis and investigation of the functional significance of an unusual water- soluble receptor for saxitoxin that is present in bullfrog skeletal muscle...
- POISONOUS DINOFLAGELLATES AND SHELLFISH POISONINGHEINRICH SCHNOES; Fiscal Year: 1980..It is further proposed to investigate the chemistry of saxitoxin with the aim of preparing structural analogs and radiolabelled derivation that might serve as specific probes ..
- CARDIAC MYOCYTE-SPECIFIC SODIUM CHANNEL PROTEINSDONALD DOYLE; Fiscal Year: 1992..fractions from adult mammalian hearts have been prepared in this laboratory which are highly enriched in TTX-I saxitoxin (STX) binding receptors and devoid of TTX-S STX receptors...
- Synthesis of 2-Aminoimidazole-Based AlkaloidsDavid Horne; Fiscal Year: 2007..In addition, the methods developed in this area will be applied to synthesis of the red-tide toxins, saxitoxin, gonyautoxin I and gonyautoxin IV. [unreadable] [unreadable]
- EMYELINATING DISEASE--BIOPHYSICS OF NERVE DYSFUNCTIONJ Ritchie; Fiscal Year: 1999..it is now clear that when nerves are demyelinated, they cease to conduct impulses because, as shown both by saxitoxin-binding experiments and by electrophysiological experiments, the exposed internodal axolemma is poor in, or ..
- Automated Identification of Foodborne PathogensKENNETH PUZEY; Fiscal Year: 2006..II, actual pathogens will be studied and the scope of the pathogens broadened to include viruses and biotoxins (saxitoxin). The new spectrometer will be fabricated and tested in a food processing environment. [unreadable] [unreadable]
- Sensor for Paralytic Shellfish PoisonsROBERT GAWLEY; Fiscal Year: 2006..3. Evaluation of the fluorescence amplification to solutions of saxitoxin, PSP toxins, and toxic shellfish extracts...
- Synthetic Studies of Chiral OrganometallicsROBERT GAWLEY; Fiscal Year: 2004..4. To pursue our recent findings relating to possible stereoelectronic effects on transmetalation and the nature of heteroatom participation in tin-lithium exchanges using rapid injection NMR. ..
- MUCOSAL DEFENSE MECHANISMS IN SUBSTANCE ABUSEDavid R Brown; Fiscal Year: 2010....
- Olfactory Development: Cell Proliferation and MaturationCHARLES DERBY; Fiscal Year: 2007..abstract_text> ..
- Mechnaisms of Late Sodium Current in Failing HeartAlbertas Undrovinas; Fiscal Year: 2006..Knowledge derived from the present proposal may reveal novel targets for the treatment of life-threatening arrhythmias associated with chronic HF. ..