cotinine

Summary

Summary: The N-glucuronide conjugate of cotinine is a major urinary metabolite of NICOTINE. It thus serves as a biomarker of exposure to tobacco SMOKING. It has CNS stimulating properties.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Factors influencing cotinine half-life during smoking abstinence in African American and Caucasian women
    Karen L Ahijevych
    Ohio State University College of Nursing, Columbus 43210, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 4:423-31. 2002
  2. ncbi The accuracy of self-reported smoking: a systematic review of the relationship between self-reported and cotinine-assessed smoking status
    Sarah Connor Gorber
    Health Measures Analysis Section, Health Information and Research Division, Statistics Canada, 24th Floor R H Coats Building, 100 Tunney s Pasture Driveway, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0T6
    Nicotine Tob Res 11:12-24. 2009
  3. pmc Self-reported smoking status and plasma cotinine concentrations among pregnant women in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study
    Liv G Kvalvik
    Department of Public Health and Primary Health Care, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway
    Pediatr Res 72:101-7. 2012
  4. pmc Did smokefree legislation in England reduce exposure to secondhand smoke among nonsmoking adults? Cotinine analysis from the Health Survey for England
    Michelle Sims
    Department for Health, and the UK Centre for Tobacco Control Studies, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath, United Kingdom
    Environ Health Perspect 120:425-30. 2012
  5. ncbi Validation of self-reported smoking status using saliva cotinine: a rapid semiquantitative dipstick method
    Norman J Montalto
    Acordia National Wells Fargo, 602 Virginia St E, Charleston, West Virginia, 25327 1921, USA
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 16:1858-62. 2007
  6. ncbi Acute impact of active and passive electronic cigarette smoking on serum cotinine and lung function
    Andreas D Flouris
    FAME Laboratory, Centre for Research and Technology Thessaly, Karies, Trikala, Greece
    Inhal Toxicol 25:91-101. 2013
  7. pmc Cotinine-assessed second-hand smoke exposure and risk of cardiovascular disease in older adults
    B J Jefferis
    UCL Department of Primary Care and Population Health, UCL Medical School, London, UK
    Heart 96:854-9. 2010
  8. ncbi Hidden female smokers in Asia: a comparison of self-reported with cotinine-verified smoking prevalence rates in representative national data from an Asian population
    Kyung Hee Jung-Choi
    Department of Preventive Medicine, Ewha Womans University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
    Tob Control 21:536-42. 2012
  9. ncbi Impact of smoke-free legislation on children's exposure to secondhand smoke: cotinine data from the Health Survey for England
    Martin J Jarvis
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, CRUK Health Behaviour Research Centre, London WC1E 6BT, UK
    Tob Control 21:18-23. 2012
  10. ncbi Quality of measurement of smoking status by self-report and saliva cotinine among pregnant women
    N R Boyd
    Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
    Matern Child Health J 2:77-83. 1998

Detail Information

Publications314 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Factors influencing cotinine half-life during smoking abstinence in African American and Caucasian women
    Karen L Ahijevych
    Ohio State University College of Nursing, Columbus 43210, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 4:423-31. 2002
    b>Cotinine, the proximate metabolite of nicotine, has been identified as an indicator of smoke constituent exposure. Higher cotinine levels in African American cigarette smokers have been identified...
  2. ncbi The accuracy of self-reported smoking: a systematic review of the relationship between self-reported and cotinine-assessed smoking status
    Sarah Connor Gorber
    Health Measures Analysis Section, Health Information and Research Division, Statistics Canada, 24th Floor R H Coats Building, 100 Tunney s Pasture Driveway, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0T6
    Nicotine Tob Res 11:12-24. 2009
    ..Smoking is a leading cause of premature mortality and preventable morbidity. Surveillance is most often based on self-reported data, but studies have shown that self-reports tend to underestimate smoking status...
  3. pmc Self-reported smoking status and plasma cotinine concentrations among pregnant women in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study
    Liv G Kvalvik
    Department of Public Health and Primary Health Care, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway
    Pediatr Res 72:101-7. 2012
    ..In this prospective study, we validated self-reported tobacco use against nicotine exposure assessed by plasma cotinine in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa).
  4. pmc Did smokefree legislation in England reduce exposure to secondhand smoke among nonsmoking adults? Cotinine analysis from the Health Survey for England
    Michelle Sims
    Department for Health, and the UK Centre for Tobacco Control Studies, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath, United Kingdom
    Environ Health Perspect 120:425-30. 2012
    ..On 1 July 2007, smokefree legislation was implemented in England, which made virtually all enclosed public places and workplaces smokefree...
  5. ncbi Validation of self-reported smoking status using saliva cotinine: a rapid semiquantitative dipstick method
    Norman J Montalto
    Acordia National Wells Fargo, 602 Virginia St E, Charleston, West Virginia, 25327 1921, USA
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 16:1858-62. 2007
    ..performance characteristics of a novel rapid method for verifying smoking status in individuals by measurement of cotinine, the primary metabolite of nicotine, in saliva samples using an immunochromatographic strip in a "dipstick" ..
  6. ncbi Acute impact of active and passive electronic cigarette smoking on serum cotinine and lung function
    Andreas D Flouris
    FAME Laboratory, Centre for Research and Technology Thessaly, Karies, Trikala, Greece
    Inhal Toxicol 25:91-101. 2013
    ..Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are becoming increasingly popular yet their effects on health remain unknown...
  7. pmc Cotinine-assessed second-hand smoke exposure and risk of cardiovascular disease in older adults
    B J Jefferis
    UCL Department of Primary Care and Population Health, UCL Medical School, London, UK
    Heart 96:854-9. 2010
    To examine whether second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure measured by serum cotinine is associated with increased coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke risk among contemporary older British adults.
  8. ncbi Hidden female smokers in Asia: a comparison of self-reported with cotinine-verified smoking prevalence rates in representative national data from an Asian population
    Kyung Hee Jung-Choi
    Department of Preventive Medicine, Ewha Womans University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
    Tob Control 21:536-42. 2012
    The low smoking prevalence in Asian women may be due to under-reporting. We therefore investigated gender difference in self-reported and cotinine-verified smoking prevalence rates in Korea
  9. ncbi Impact of smoke-free legislation on children's exposure to secondhand smoke: cotinine data from the Health Survey for England
    Martin J Jarvis
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, CRUK Health Behaviour Research Centre, London WC1E 6BT, UK
    Tob Control 21:18-23. 2012
    ..To examine the impact of the ban on smoking in enclosed public places implemented in England in July 2007 on children's exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke...
  10. ncbi Quality of measurement of smoking status by self-report and saliva cotinine among pregnant women
    N R Boyd
    Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
    Matern Child Health J 2:77-83. 1998
    ....
  11. ncbi Assessment of exposure to secondhand smoke by questionnaire and salivary cotinine in the general population of Barcelona, Spain (2004-2005)
    Jose M Martínez-Sánchez
    Tobacco Control and Research Unit, Institut Català d Oncologia ICO, L Hospitalet de Llobregat Barcelona, Spain
    Prev Med 48:218-23. 2009
    To estimate the prevalence of self-reported exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) in different settings and to describe salivary cotinine concentration and its determinants among non-smokers.
  12. ncbi Assessment of exposure to secondhand smoke at outdoor bars and family restaurants in Athens, Georgia, using salivary cotinine
    J C Hall
    The University of Georgia, College of Public Health, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Athens, Georgia 30602, USA
    J Occup Environ Hyg 6:698-704. 2009
    ..The objective of this study was to measure salivary cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine, in subjects aged 21-30 exposed to SHS outside bars and restaurants in Athens, Georgia...
  13. ncbi Cotinine reduces amyloid-β aggregation and improves memory in Alzheimer's disease mice
    Valentina Echeverria
    Bay Pines VA Healthcare System, Bay Pines, FL, USA
    J Alzheimers Dis 24:817-35. 2011
    Alzheimer's disease (AD) affects millions of people world-wide and new effective and safe therapies are needed. Cotinine, the main metabolite of nicotine, has a long half-life and does not have cardiovascular or addictive side effects in ..
  14. ncbi Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure in children with asthma-relation between lead and cadmium, and cotinine concentrations in urine
    Stefan Willers
    Unit of Preventive Medicine, Heart and Lung Center, Lund University Hospital, SE 221 85 Lund, Sweden
    Respir Med 99:1521-7. 2005
    ..4+/-3.7 yr). ETS exposure was assessed by an inquiry data-based exposure index, the urinary concentration of cotinine (U-cotinine; a major nicotine metabolite) and the house dust (fine and coarse fractions) concentrations of ..
  15. ncbi Mentholated cigarette smoking inhibits nicotine metabolism
    Neal L Benowitz
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, University of California, San Francisco, Box 1220, San Francisco, CA 94143 1220, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 310:1208-15. 2004
    ..carbon monoxide were measured throughout the day and an intravenous infusion of deuterium-labeled nicotine and cotinine was administered to determine the rate and pathways of nicotine metabolism...
  16. ncbi Smoke-free homes in England: prevalence, trends and validation by cotinine in children
    M J Jarvis
    Health Behaviour Research Centre, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, UK
    Tob Control 18:491-5. 2009
    ..Main outcome measures were cotinine measured in saliva, smoke-free homes defined by "no" response to "Does anyone smoke inside this house/flat on ..
  17. ncbi Estimates of nondisclosure of cigarette smoking among pregnant and nonpregnant women of reproductive age in the United States
    Patricia M Dietz
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 173:355-9. 2011
    ..of 994 pregnant and 3,203 nonpregnant women 20-44 years of age who did not report smoking but had serum cotinine levels that exceeded the defined cut point for active smoking (nondisclosure)...
  18. ncbi Assessing smoking status in children, adolescents and adults: cotinine cut-points revisited
    Martin J Jarvis
    Health Behaviour Research Centre, and Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, UK
    Addiction 103:1553-61. 2008
    To reassess saliva cotinine cut-points to discriminate smoking status. Cotinine cut-points that are in use were derived from relatively small samples of smokers and non-smokers 20 or more years ago...
  19. ncbi Self-reported nicotine exposure and plasma levels of cotinine in early and late pregnancy
    Lena George
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 85:1331-7. 2006
    ..This study aimed to validate self-reported smoking, smoking cessation, and environmental tobacco smoke exposure in early and late pregnancy, using the biomarker cotinine as the gold standard.
  20. pmc Global DNA hypomethylation is associated with in utero exposure to cotinine and perfluorinated alkyl compounds
    Rafael Guerrero-Preston
    Otolaryngology Department, Bloomberg School of Public Health, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Epigenetics 5:539-46. 2010
    ..8 ng/ml), low (range 1-10 ng/ml, mean 1.6 ng/ml) and very low (< 1 ng/ml, mean 0.06 ng/ml) cord serum cotinine levels. Y chromosome analysis was performed to rule out maternal DNA cross-contamination...
  21. ncbi Assessment of environmental tobacco smoke exposure: urinary cotinine concentrations in children are strongly associated with the house dust concentrations of nicotine at home
    S Willers
    Unit of Preventive Medicine, Heart and Lung Center and Dept of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University Hospital, SE 221 85 Lund, Sweden
    Indoor Air 14:83-6. 2004
    ..significant associations between an inquiry data based ETS exposure index on the one hand, and urinary cotinine concentrations in children (U-cotinine), F-nicotine and VC-nicotine of their homes, on the other...
  22. pmc Association of serum cotinine level with a cluster of three nicotinic acetylcholine receptor genes (CHRNA3/CHRNA5/CHRNB4) on chromosome 15
    Kaisu Keskitalo
    Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, Finland
    Hum Mol Genet 18:4007-12. 2009
    ..variation at this locus regulates nicotine intake among smokers by using the level of a metabolite of nicotine, cotinine, as an outcome...
  23. ncbi Quantitative profiling of biomarkers related to B-vitamin status, tryptophan metabolism and inflammation in human plasma by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry
    Øivind Midttun
    Bevital A S, Armauer Hansens Hus, N 5021 Bergen, Norway
    Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 23:1371-9. 2009
    ..acid, 3-hydroxykynurenine, xanthurenic acid and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid), cystathionine, neopterin and cotinine. Trichloroacetic acid containing 13 isotope-labelled internal standards was added to 60 microL of plasma, the ..
  24. pmc Sequential combination of self-report, breath carbon monoxide, and saliva cotinine to assess smoking status
    M A Javors
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Texas Health Science Center, 7703 Floyd Curl Drive, San Antonio, TX 78229, USA
    Drug Alcohol Depend 113:242-4. 2011
    ..of smoking during the previous few days by combining self-report, breath carbon monoxide (BCO), and saliva cotinine (sCOT). These measurements are convenient, quantitative, and do not require invasive procedures...
  25. pmc Salivary cotinine concentrations in daily smokers in Barcelona, Spain: a cross-sectional study
    Marcela Fu
    Tobacco Control and Research Unit, Institut Català d Oncologia ICO IDIBELL, Av Gran Via de L Hospitalet 199 203, 08907 L Hospitalet de Llobregat Barcelona, Spain
    BMC Public Health 9:320. 2009
    Characterizing and comparing the determinant of cotinine concentrations in different populations should facilitate a better understanding of smoking patterns and addiction...
  26. ncbi Questionnaire or objective assessment for studying exposure to tobacco smoke among asthmatic and healthy children: The French VESTA Study
    F Callais
    Hygiene and Public Health Laboratory, Rene Descartes University, Paris, France
    Prev Med 36:108-13. 2003
    ..This study explores the validity of parent-reported ETS exposure in a French multicenter study on asthma...
  27. pmc When smokers move out and non-smokers move in: residential thirdhand smoke pollution and exposure
    Georg E Matt
    Department of Psychology, San Diego State University, San Diego, California 92182 4611, USA
    Tob Control 20:e1. 2011
    ..This study examined whether thirdhand smoke (THS) persists in smokers' homes after they move out and non-smokers move in, and whether new non-smoking residents are exposed to THS in these homes...
  28. ncbi Increased nicotine and cotinine levels in smokers with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder is not a metabolic effect
    Jill M Williams
    UMDNJ Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, USA
    Schizophr Res 79:323-35. 2005
    ..This study examines this phenomenon by comparing the serum nicotine and cotinine levels in smokers with either schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder compared to control smokers without ..
  29. ncbi Nicotine and cotinine increases the brain penetration of saquinavir in rat
    Vamshi K Manda
    Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, School of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Amarillo, Texas 79106 1712, USA
    J Neurochem 115:1495-507. 2010
    ..We examined the ability of nicotine and its primary metabolite cotinine to modify brain uptake of saquinavir in rats...
  30. ncbi Environmental tobacco smoke exposure in children: parental perception of smokiness at home and other factors associated with urinary cotinine in preschool children
    Dolores Jurado
    Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Granada, Spain
    J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol 14:330-6. 2004
    ..ETS exposure was evaluated through a questionnaire about parents' smoking behavior and determinations of urinary cotinine -- a biomarker of exposure -- in children...
  31. ncbi Nicotine metabolism and intake in black and white smokers
    E J Perez-Stable
    Department of Medicine, Medical Effectiveness Research Center for Diverse Populations, San Francisco General Hospital Medical Center, CA, USA
    JAMA 280:152-6. 1998
    Racial differences in tobacco-related diseases are not fully explained by cigarette-smoking behavior. Despite smoking fewer cigarettes per day, blacks have higher levels of serum cotinine, the proximate metabolite of nicotine.
  32. ncbi Smoking restrictions in the home and secondhand smoke exposure among primary schoolchildren before and after introduction of the Scottish smoke-free legislation
    P C Akhtar
    Child and Adolescent Health Research Unit CAHRU, University of Edinburgh, St Leonard s Land, Holyrood Road, Edinburgh EH88AQ, UK
    Tob Control 18:409-15. 2009
    ..To examine change in home smoking restrictions one year after introduction of Scottish smoke-free legislation, and whether type of restriction impacts upon secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure among children...
  33. pmc CHRNA3 rs1051730 genotype and short-term smoking cessation
    Marcus R Munafo
    School of Experimental Psychology, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK
    Nicotine Tob Res 13:982-8. 2011
    ..We investigated the potential association of rs1051730 genotype with reduced likelihood of smoking cessation in 2 cohorts of treatment-seeking smokers in primary care in the United Kingdom...
  34. pmc Validation of self reported smoking by serum cotinine measurement in a community-based study
    E Vartiainen
    National Public Health Institute, Helsinki, Finland
    J Epidemiol Community Health 56:167-70. 2002
    The validity of self reported smoking in population surveys remains an important question. An associated question is what would be the value of measuring serum cotinine concentrations in such surveys to obtain validated smoking data.
  35. ncbi Factors associated with discrepancies between self-reports on cigarette smoking and measured serum cotinine levels among persons aged 17 years or older: Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994
    R S Caraballo
    National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 153:807-14. 2001
    The discrepancy between cigarette smoking status reported during an interview and measured level of serum cotinine, a nicotine biomarker, was investigated in a representative sample of the US population aged >/=17 years (N = 15,357)...
  36. ncbi Diagnostic accuracy of NicAlert cotinine test strips in saliva for verifying smoking status
    Fiona Cooke
    Market Economics Ltd, Auckland, New Zealand
    Nicotine Tob Res 10:607-12. 2008
    ..This paper describes the diagnostic accuracy of one type of test strip currently available (NicAlert cotinine test strips; NCTS). GC was used as the reference standard and saliva as the sample medium...
  37. pmc Prevalence of smoking assessed biochemically in an urban public hospital: a rationale for routine cotinine screening
    Neal L Benowitz
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143 1220, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 170:885-91. 2009
    b>Cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine, has been used to study tobacco smoke exposure in population studies, but the authors are unaware of its use to screen hospitalized patients...
  38. ncbi Tobacco smoke exposure is associated with attenuated endothelial function in 11-year-old healthy children
    Katariina Kallio
    Research Centre of Applied and Preventive Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Turku, Kiinamyllynkatu 10, FIN 20520 Turku, Finland
    Circulation 115:3205-12. 2007
    ..Passive smoking is associated with early arterial damage in adults, but its effect on endothelial function in children is unknown...
  39. ncbi Clinical pharmacology of nicotine: implications for understanding, preventing, and treating tobacco addiction
    N L Benowitz
    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, California, USA
    Clin Pharmacol Ther 83:531-41. 2008
    ....
  40. pmc Association of smoking with serum and dietary levels of antioxidants in adults: NHANES III, 1988-1994
    W Wei
    Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, Ohio, 43404, USA
    Am J Public Health 91:258-64. 2001
    ..National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (NHANES III) data as nonsmokers or as smokers if their serum cotinine levels were either lower than 14 ng/mL or 14 ng/mL or greater, respectively...
  41. ncbi Tobacco smoke exposure and serum cotinine in a random sample of adults living in Verona, Italy
    Mario Olivieri
    Dipartimento di Medicina e Sanita Pubblica, Universita di Verona, Verona, Italy
    Arch Environ Health 57:355-9. 2002
    ..The respondents were invited to visit the chest clinic at Verona, Italy, and their serum cotinine levels were measured...
  42. pmc Who is exposed to secondhand smoke? Self-reported and serum cotinine measured exposure in the U.S., 1999-2006
    Wendy Max
    Institute for Health and Aging, University of California, San Francisco, 3333 California Street, Suite 340, San Francisco, CA 94118, USA
    Int J Environ Res Public Health 6:1633-48. 2009
    This study presents self-reported and serum cotinine measures of exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) for nonsmoking children, adolescents, and adults...
  43. ncbi The effect of environmental tobacco smoke during pregnancy on birth weight
    Hanne K Hegaard
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hvidovre Hospital, Copenhagen Hospital Corporation, Denmark
    Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 85:675-81. 2006
    ..This study explores whether pregnant nonsmokers' exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) affects the average birth weight at term...
  44. ncbi Gene-gene interactions between CYP2B6 and CYP2A6 in nicotine metabolism
    Huijun Z Ring
    Center for Health Sciences, SRI International, Menlo Park, CA, USA
    Pharmacogenet Genomics 17:1007-15. 2007
    ..We investigated the influence of genetic variation in another potential nicotine-metabolizing enzyme, CYP2B6, and its interaction with CYP2A6, on the metabolism of nicotine...
  45. pmc Cotinine and trans 3'-hydroxycotinine in dried blood spots as biomarkers of tobacco exposure and nicotine metabolism
    Sharon E Murphy
    Department of Biochemistry Molecular Biology and Biophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA
    J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol 23:513-8. 2013
    ..The plasma concentration of cotinine, the primary metabolite of nicotine, is widely accepted as a quantitative measure of tobacco and SHS exposure...
  46. ncbi Tobacco smoke exposure, wheeze, and atopy
    Clare S Murray
    North West Lung Centre, Wythenshawe Hospital, Manchester, UK
    Pediatr Pulmonol 37:492-8. 2004
    ..Parental smoking questionnaires were administered, and plasma cotinine in cord and peripheral blood (at age 1 year) was measured (capillary column gas-liquid chromatography)...
  47. ncbi Lung tumorigenesis promoted by anti-apoptotic effects of cotinine, a nicotine metabolite through activation of PI3K/Akt pathway
    Tomohisa Nakada
    Laboratory of Drug Metabolism, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan
    J Toxicol Sci 37:555-63. 2012
    ..It has been reported that the plasma concentration of cotinine, a major metabolite of nicotine, in carriers of wild-type alleles of CYP2A6 is considerably higher than that in ..
  48. pmc Agreement of umbilical cord drug and cotinine levels with maternal self-report of drug use and smoking during pregnancy
    T E Wright
    Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Women s Health, University of Hawaii John A Burns School of Medicine, Honolulu, HI 96826, USA
    J Perinatol 31:324-9. 2011
    ..We undertook this study to assess the agreement between fetal umbilical cord drug levels and maternal self-report...
  49. ncbi Influence of nicotine and cotinine on epithelial colonization by periodontopathogens
    Wim Teughels
    Department of Periodontology, Catholic University Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
    J Periodontol 76:1315-22. 2005
    Since smoking is an established risk factor for the development of periodontitis, the present study investigated whether nicotine and cotinine can make epithelial cells more prone to colonization by periodontopathogens.
  50. ncbi Nicotine metabolite ratio as an index of cytochrome P450 2A6 metabolic activity
    Delia Dempsey
    Department of Medicine, Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Medical Service, San Francisco General Hospital Medical Center, University of California, 94143 1220, USA
    Clin Pharmacol Ther 76:64-72. 2004
    ..Our objective was to evaluate the use of oral nicotine with measurement of the trans-3'-hydroxycotinine (3HC)/cotinine (COT) metabolite ratio as a noninvasive probe of CYP2A6 activity.
  51. ncbi Urinary concentrations of environmental contaminants and phytoestrogens in adults in Israel
    T Berman
    Public Health Services, Ministry of Health, Israel
    Environ Int 59:478-84. 2013
    ..estimated exposure of individuals in the Israeli population to bisphenol A (BPA), organophosphate (OP) pesticides, phthalates, cotinine, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and the phytoestrogenic compounds genistein and daidzein.
  52. ncbi Simultaneous determination of the tobacco smoke uptake parameters nicotine, cotinine and thiocyanate in urine, saliva and hair, using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for characterisation of smoking status of recently exposed subjects
    Javier Sastre Toraño
    Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Room number EO 127, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, P O Box 226600, 1100 DD Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Analyst 128:838-43. 2003
    ..spectrometry (MS) for the simultaneous determination of the smoke uptake parameters thiocyanate, nicotine and cotinine in human tissues is reported...
  53. ncbi Correction of urine cotinine concentrations for creatinine excretion: is it useful?
    Peter Jatlow
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
    Clin Chem 49:1932-4. 2003
  54. ncbi Acute and short-term effects of secondhand smoke on lung function and cytokine production
    Andreas D Flouris
    Institute of Human Performance and Rehabilitation, Centre for Research and Technology Thessaly, 32 Siggrou Street, Trikala GR42100, Greece
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 179:1029-33. 2009
    ..The acute effect of secondhand smoke (SHS) on lung function and the duration of system disruption remain unknown...
  55. ncbi Serum cotinine level as predictor of lung cancer risk
    Paolo Boffetta
    IARC, 150 cours Albert Thomas, 69008 Lyon, France
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 15:1184-8. 2006
    No prospective studies are available on serum cotinine level as a marker of lung cancer risk.
  56. ncbi Neonatal urinary cotinine correlates with behavioral alterations in newborns prenatally exposed to tobacco smoke
    Giuseppina Mansi
    Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology, University Federico II, 80010 Naples, Italy
    Pediatr Res 61:257-61. 2007
    ..Antenatal exposure to tobacco smoke at the end of the pregnancy was determined by measurement of urinary cotinine. Newborns from smoking mothers showed significant lower scores in various BNBAS items compared with neonates from ..
  57. ncbi Secondhand smoke exposure among nonsmokers nationally and in New York City
    Jennifer A Ellis
    Bureau of Tobacco Control, Division of Health Promotion and Disease Prevention, New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, New York, NY, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 11:362-70. 2009
    ..We describe smoking prevalence and secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure among adult nonsmokers in New York City (NYC) across key demographic strata and compare exposure estimates with those found nationally...
  58. pmc Changes in child exposure to secondhand smoke after implementation of smoke-free legislation in Wales: a repeated cross-sectional study
    Jo C Holliday
    Cardiff Institute of Society, Health and Ethics, School of Social Sciences, Cardiff University, 1 3 Museum Place, Cardiff, CF10 3BD, UK
    BMC Public Health 9:430. 2009
    ..In response to concerns regarding potential displacement of smoking into the home following legislation, this study assessed changes in secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure amongst non-smoking children...
  59. pmc Providing coaching and cotinine results to preteens to reduce their secondhand smoke exposure: a randomized trial
    Melbourne F Hovell
    Center for Behavioral Epidemiology and Community Health, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92123, USA
    Chest 140:681-9. 2011
    ..Most interventions to protect children from SHSe have coached adult smokers. This trial determined whether coaching and cotinine feedback provided to preteens can reduce their SHSe.
  60. pmc Self-reported smoking and urinary cotinine levels among pregnant women in Korea and factors associated with smoking during pregnancy
    Hyung Joon Jhun
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, College of Medicine, Korea University, Ansan, Korea
    J Korean Med Sci 25:752-7. 2010
    This study examined urinary cotinine levels and self-reported smoking among pregnant women in Korea and the factors associated with smoking during pregnancy...
  61. ncbi Evidence that nicotine acetylcholine receptors are not the main targets of cotinine toxicity
    O Riah
    Laboratoire des Mécanismes d Action des Nicotianées, Faculte des sciences pharmaceutiques, Toulouse, France
    Toxicol Lett 109:21-9. 1999
    The toxicity of nicotine, cotinine and their mixtures was studied in Mus musculus mice as well their effects on growth after repetitive administration to young mice...
  62. ncbi Trends in and predictors of second-hand smoke exposure indexed by cotinine in children in England from 1996 to 2006
    Michelle Sims
    School for Health, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY, UK
    Addiction 105:543-53. 2010
    ..To explore trends in and predictors of second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure in children. To identify whether inequalities in SHS exposure are changing over time...
  63. ncbi Nicotine and cotinine affect the release of vasoactive factors by trophoblast cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells
    F Romani
    Cattedra di Fisiopatologia della Riproduzione Umana, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore UCSC, Largo A Gemelli 8, 00168 Roma, Italy
    Placenta 32:153-60. 2011
    To examine nicotine (N) and cotinine (C) effects on trophoblast cells (TCs) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) secretion of soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase (sFlt-1), soluble endoglin (sENG), placental growth factor (PlGF),..
  64. pmc Is the hair nicotine level a more accurate biomarker of environmental tobacco smoke exposure than urine cotinine?
    W K Al-Delaimy
    Department of Public Health, Wellington School of Medicine, Wellington, New Zealand
    J Epidemiol Community Health 56:66-71. 2002
    The aim of this study was to compare the two biomarkers of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS); urine cotinine and hair nicotine, using questionnaires as the standard.
  65. pmc CYP2A6 and CYP2B6 genetic variation and its association with nicotine metabolism in South Western Alaska Native people
    Matthew J Binnington
    Departments of Psychiatry, Pharmacology and Toxicology, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Pharmacogenet Genomics 22:429-40. 2012
    ..Variations in the CYP2A6 and CYP2B6 genes, encoding enzymes responsible for nicotine metabolic inactivation and procarcinogen activation, have not been characterized in AN and may contribute toward the increased risk...
  66. ncbi Analysis of nicotine, 3-hydroxycotinine, cotinine, and caffeine in urine of passive smokers by HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry
    T Tuomi
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health FIOH, Indoor Air and Environment Program of the FIOH, Uusimaa Regional Institute, Arinatie 3A, 00370 Helsinki, Finland
    Clin Chem 45:2164-72. 1999
    A method is described for the simultaneous analysis of nicotine and two of its major metabolites, cotinine and 3-hydroxycotinine, as well as for caffeine from urine samples...
  67. pmc Cotinine-conjugated aptamer/anti-cotinine antibody complexes as a novel affinity unit for use in biological assays
    Sunyoung Park
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110 799, Korea
    Exp Mol Med 44:554-61. 2012
    ..In this study, we developed a method to label the 5' ends of aptamers with cotinine, which allows formation of a stable complex with anti-cotinine antibodies for the purpose of providing another ..
  68. pmc Hair as a biomarker for exposure to tobacco smoke
    W K Al-Delaimy
    Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Tob Control 11:176-82. 2002
    ..Nevertheless, hair nicotine promises to be a valid and reliable measure of longer term exposure that can be readily applied in epidemiological studies of exposure to tobacco smoke, and more specifically ETS, and its risk to health...
  69. pmc A randomized trial of parental behavioral counseling and cotinine feedback for lowering environmental tobacco smoke exposure in children with asthma: results of the LET'S Manage Asthma trial
    Sandra R Wilson
    Department of Health Services Research, Palo Alto Medical Foundation Research Institute, 795 El Camino Real, Ames Bldg, Palo Alto, CA 94301, USA
    Chest 139:581-90. 2011
    ..Secondhand tobacco smoke exposure impairs the control of pediatric asthma. Evidence of the efficacy of interventions to reduce children's exposure and improve disease outcomes has been inconclusive...
  70. ncbi Hair nicotine/cotinine concentrations as a method of monitoring exposure to tobacco smoke among infants and adults
    M N Tzatzarakis
    Centre of Toxicology Sciences and Research, Division of Morphology, Medical School, University of Crete, Heraklion, Crete, Greece
    Hum Exp Toxicol 31:258-65. 2012
    In this pilot study, we examined the validity and usefulness of hair nicotine-cotinine evaluation as a biomarker of monitoring exposure to tobacco...
  71. ncbi Genetic polymorphisms in 15q25 and 19q13 loci, cotinine levels, and risk of lung cancer in EPIC
    Maria N Timofeeva
    International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 20:2250-61. 2011
    ..Circulating levels of the nicotine metabolite cotinine is a marker of recent smoking exposure...
  72. ncbi Abuse potential of non-nicotine tobacco smoke components: acetaldehyde, nornicotine, cotinine, and anabasine
    Allison C Hoffman
    U S Food and Drug Administration, Rockville, MD 20850, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 15:622-32. 2013
    ..review identified published animal studies evaluating the possible abuse potential of acetaldehyde, nornicotine, cotinine, and anabasine based on five commonly used paradigms...
  73. ncbi A sensitive enzyme immunoassay for measuring cotinine in passive smokers
    Sunyoung Park
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Seoul National University School of Medicine, Republic of Korea
    Clin Chim Acta 411:1238-42. 2010
    ..The serum level of cotinine, a major proximate metabolite of nicotine, reflects active or passive exposure to tobacco smoke...
  74. ncbi A brief exposure to moderate passive smoke increases metabolism and thyroid hormone secretion
    Giorgos S Metsios
    Laboratory of Applied Physiology, Department of Sports and Exercise Science, University of Thessaly, Karies, Trikala GR42100, Greece
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 92:208-11. 2007
    ..Active smoking influences normal metabolic status and thyroid function...
  75. ncbi A single-step extraction method for the determination of nicotine and cotinine in Jordanian smokers' blood and urine samples by RP-HPLC and GC-MS
    Adnan M Massadeh
    Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jordan University of Science and Technology, P O Box 3030, Irbid 22110 Jordan
    J Chromatogr Sci 47:170-7. 2009
    ..and low cost one-step extraction method is developed and validated for the determination of nicotine and cotinine in human plasma and urine in smokers using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and ..
  76. pmc The association of pipe and cigar use with cotinine levels, lung function, and airflow obstruction: a cross-sectional study
    Josanna Rodriguez
    Columbia University Medical Center, PH 9 East, Room 105, 630 West 168th Street, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Ann Intern Med 152:201-10. 2010
    ..Cigarette smoking is the major cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, but studies on the contribution of other smoking techniques are sparse...
  77. pmc Exposure to secondhand smoke and cognitive impairment in non-smokers: national cross sectional study with cotinine measurement
    David J Llewellyn
    Department of Public Health and Primary Care, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 2SR
    BMJ 338:b462. 2009
    To examine the association between a biomarker of exposure to secondhand smoke (salivary cotinine concentration) and cognitive impairment.
  78. pmc Socioeconomic patterning in changes in child exposure to secondhand smoke after implementation of smoke-free legislation in Wales
    Graham F Moore
    Cardiff Institute of Society and Health, School of Social Sciences, Cardiff University, 1 3 Museum Place, Cardiff CF10 3BD, United Kingdom
    Nicotine Tob Res 13:903-10. 2011
    ..Legislation banning smoking in public places has been linked with reduced SHS exposure in children. However, socioeconomic patterning in responses to legislation has been little explored...
  79. pmc Comparison of urine cotinine and the tobacco-specific nitrosamine metabolite 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) and their ratio to discriminate active from passive smoking
    Maciej Lukasz Goniewicz
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, University of California, San Francisco, Box 1220, San Francisco, CA 94143 1220, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 13:202-8. 2011
    b>Cotinine is the most widely used biomarker to distinguish active versus passive smoking. However, there is an overlap in cotinine levels when comparing light or occasional smokers versus heavily exposed passive smokers...
  80. ncbi Association of self-reported passive smoking in pregnant women with cotinine level of maternal urine and umbilical cord blood at delivery
    Azam Baheiraei
    Department of Reproductive Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran
    Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 26:70-6. 2012
    ..present investigation was designed to evaluate the association between maternal reported passive smoking with the cotinine concentration of maternal urine and umbilical cord blood at delivery and to determine the accuracy of maternal ..
  81. ncbi Sexual dimorphism in the acute effects of secondhand smoke on thyroid hormone secretion, inflammatory markers and vascular function
    Andreas D Flouris
    Institute of Human Performance and Rehabilitation, Centre for Research and Technology Thessaly, 32 Siggrou Street, Trikala, Greece
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 294:E456-62. 2008
    ..Serum and urine cotinine, gonadal and thyroid hormones, inflammatory cytokines, heart rate, and arterial blood pressure were assessed ..
  82. ncbi Metabolites of a tobacco-specific lung carcinogen in the urine of elementary school-aged children
    S S Hecht
    University of Minnesota Cancer Center, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 10:1109-16. 2001
    ..We also measured cotinine and its glucuronide (total cotinine). Urine samples were collected from 204 children. Seventy (34...
  83. ncbi Misclassification of maternal smoking status and its effects on an epidemiologic study of pregnancy outcomes
    Lucinda J England
    Division of Reproductive Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 9:1005-13. 2007
    ..Urinary cotinine concentration was used to validate quit status, and factors associated with exposure misclassification and the ..
  84. ncbi Hubble-bubble (water pipe) smoking: levels of nicotine and cotinine in plasma, saliva and urine
    Y A Shafagoj
    Department of Physiology and Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Jordan, Amman
    Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 40:249-55. 2002
    The purpose of the present study was to assess the levels of nicotine and cotinine in biological fluids (plasma, saliva, and urine) following hubble-bubble (HB) smoking.
  85. ncbi Arterial intima-media thickness, endothelial function, and apolipoproteins in adolescents frequently exposed to tobacco smoke
    Katariina Kallio
    Research Centre of Applied and Preventive Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Turku, Turku, Finland
    Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes 3:196-203. 2010
    ..Exposure to tobacco smoke is associated with markers of preclinical atherosclerosis in adults, but its effect on arterial structure in adolescents is unknown...
  86. ncbi Pharmacokinetics and metabolism of nicotine
    Piotr Tutka
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical University of Lublin, Jaczewskiego 8, PL 20 090 Lublin, Poland
    Pharmacol Rep 57:143-53. 2005
    ..It is anticipated that genetic findings can lead to the identification of individuals at a greater risk for tobacco addiction and will be used for more effective treatment and prevention strategies to reduce smoking...
  87. ncbi Disconnection between activation and desensitization of autonomic nicotinic receptors by nicotine and cotinine
    Jerry J Buccafusco
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Alzheimer s Research Center, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA 30912 2300, United States
    Neurosci Lett 413:68-71. 2007
    b>Cotinine is the major metabolite of nicotine in humans, and the substance greatly outlasts the presence of nicotine in the body...
  88. ncbi Characterization and comparison of nicotine and cotinine metabolism in vitro and in vivo in DBA/2 and C57BL/6 mice
    Eric C K Siu
    The Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
    Mol Pharmacol 71:826-34. 2007
    ..Nicotine was metabolized to cotinine in vitro by two enzymatic sites. The high-affinity sites exhibited similar parameters (Km, 10.7 +/- 4.8 versus 11...
  89. ncbi Cotinine: a potential new therapeutic agent against Alzheimer's disease
    Valentina Echeverria
    Bay Pines VA Healthcare System, Tampa, FL, USA
    CNS Neurosci Ther 18:517-23. 2012
    ..In this review, we discuss evidence showing that cotinine, the main metabolite of nicotine, has many of the beneficial effects but none of the negative side-effects of its ..
  90. ncbi N-glucuronidation of nicotine and cotinine by human liver microsomes and heterologously expressed UDP-glucuronosyltransferases
    Gwendolyn E Kuehl
    University of Minnesota Cancer Center, Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA
    Drug Metab Dispos 31:1361-8. 2003
    Nicotine is considered the major addictive agent in tobacco. Tobacco users extensively metabolize nicotine to cotinine. Both nicotine and cotinine undergo N-glucuronidation...
  91. ncbi Nicotine metabolite ratio predicts efficacy of transdermal nicotine for smoking cessation
    Caryn Lerman
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Clin Pharmacol Ther 79:600-8. 2006
    Nicotine is metabolized to cotinine, and cotinine is metabolized to 3'-hydroxycotinine (3-HC) by the liver enzyme cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2A6...
  92. pmc Racial differences in serum cotinine levels of smokers
    Lisa B Signorello
    International Epidemiology Institute, Rockville, MD 20850, USA
    Dis Markers 27:187-92. 2009
    The purpose of this study was to estimate black/white differences in cotinine levels for current smokers of both sexes, and to explore the potential contribution of mentholated cigarettes to these differences...
  93. ncbi Assessment of environmental tobacco smoke exposure in children with asthmatic symptoms by questionnaire and cotinine concentrations in plasma, saliva, and urine
    S Willers
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University, Sweden
    J Clin Epidemiol 53:715-21. 2000
    To validate a detailed questionnaire for assessment of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure by the biomarker cotinine in various media, a population-based study in the urban area of Malmö, Sweden was performed in children aged 8-13 ..
  94. ncbi Nicotine yield from machine-smoked cigarettes and nicotine intakes in smokers: evidence from a representative population survey
    M J Jarvis
    Imperial Cancer Research Fund ICRF Health Behavior Unit, University College London, UK
    J Natl Cancer Inst 93:134-8. 2001
    ..e., those yielding around 1 mg of tar and 0.1 mg of nicotine)...
  95. ncbi Passive cigarette smoke exposure in primary school children in Liverpool
    A Delpisheh
    Child and Reproductive Health Group, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke Place, L3 5QA Liverpool, UK
    Public Health 120:65-9. 2006
    ..To assess environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure amongst primary school children...
  96. ncbi The validation of self-reported smoking status by analysing cotinine levels in stimulated and unstimulated saliva, serum and urine
    V Binnie
    Glasgow Dental School, Glasgow, UK
    Oral Dis 10:287-93. 2004
    b>Cotinine, a nicotine metabolite, can be used to measure exposure to tobacco smoke...
  97. ncbi Ethnic differences in N-glucuronidation of nicotine and cotinine
    N L Benowitz
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Medical Service, San Francisco General Hospital Medical Center, University of California, San Francisco, 94143 1220, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 291:1196-203. 1999
    We previously reported that the metabolism of cotinine, the proximate metabolite of nicotine, is significantly slower in black than in white cigarette smokers...
  98. ncbi Reference values for hair cotinine as a biomarker of active and passive smoking in women of reproductive age, pregnant women, children, and neonates: systematic review and meta-analysis
    Ana Florescu
    Public Health Sciences, Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Ther Drug Monit 29:437-46. 2007
    ..Biomarkers can provide valid information on ETS exposure, the preferred biomarker being cotinine. However, no reference range of hair cotinine exists to distinguish among active, passive, and unexposed ..
  99. pmc Association of nicotine metabolite ratio and CYP2A6 genotype with smoking cessation treatment in African-American light smokers
    M K Ho
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Clin Pharmacol Ther 85:635-43. 2009
    ..We investigated the relationships between CYP2A6 genotype, baseline plasma trans- 3'-hydroxycotinine/cotinine (3HC/COT) (a phenotypic marker of CYP2A6 activity), and smoking behavior in African-American light smokers...
  100. ncbi In vitro evaluation of the effect of nicotine, cotinine, and caffeine on oral microorganisms
    Karina Cogo
    Department of Physiological Sciences, Area of Pharmacology, Anesthesiology and Therapeutics, Dentistry School of Piracicaba, State University of Campinas UNICAMP, Piracicaba, SP, Brazil
    Can J Microbiol 54:501-8. 2008
    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effects of nicotine, cotinine, and caffeine on the viability of some oral bacterial species. It also evaluated the ability of these bacteria to metabolize those substances...
  101. ncbi Maternal tobacco exposure and cotinine levels in fetal fluids in the first half of pregnancy
    E Jauniaux
    Academic Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University College London, United Kingdom
    Obstet Gynecol 93:25-9. 1999
    To evaluate the distribution of cotinine in fetal fluids and serum during the first half of pregnancy, and compare the fetal and maternal cotinine levels in passive and active smokers.

Research Grants72

  1. Assessment of Nicotine Metabolism Among Underserved Pregnant Women from NE SCRIPT
    Donna Parker; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..to explore the use of a novel biomarker of nicotine metabolism, the ratio of trans-3'-hydroxycotinine to cotinine (3-HC:C), as an estimate of nicotine exposure from tobacco during pregnancy...
  2. Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Density and Veteran Cigarette Smokers
    Arthur Brody; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..inhibits nicotine metabolism, and that menthol cigarette smoking leads to elevated serum levels of nicotine and cotinine, and greater exhaled carbon monoxide levels...
  3. High Throughput Methods to Measure Disparities in Childhood Exposure to Tobacco
    Sharon E Murphy; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The goal of this project is to study disparities in childhood exposure to SHS by measuring cotinine, a biomarker of tobacco exposure...
  4. Diesel, Allergens and Gene Interaction and Child Atopy
    Grace LeMasters; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..ETS exposure is a major contributor to childhood respiratory disorders. Nicotine and cotinine measures serve as a proxy for systemic exposure to over 4700 chemicals present in ETS, many with pro-inflammatory ..
  5. Brain Nicotine Receptor Density &Response to Nicotine Patch
    Arthur Brody; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..visit and at the end of treatment using participant reports, exhaled carbon monoxide levels, and urinary cotinine levels. Pre-treatment 1422* nAChR density in the ROIs will be linked with treatment outcome (e.g...
  6. A+ Head Start Intervention for Smoke Free Homes
    Cynthia S Rand; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Secondary outcomes include caregiver-reported home and car smoking bans, child's salivary cotinine levels, children's respiratory symptoms, caregiver smoking cessation, school absences, and health care ..
  7. Motivational Incentives to Reduce Secondhand Smoke in NICU Infants'Homes
    Angela L Stotts; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Primary efficacy variables will include objective and valid measures of SHSe (infant cotinine, household air nicotine monitors, Timeline Followback for SHSe)...
  8. Biomarkers of NNK in prediction of lung cancer development in smokers
    Jian Min Yuan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..e., the sum of nicotine, cotinine, trans-32-hydroxycotinine and their corresponding glucuronides), and total isothiocyanates in urine, and beta-..
  9. Socioeconomic status and smoking exposure in Appalachia
    Joshua E Muscat; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Specific Aim 2. Determine whether SES is associated with biomarkers of smoking exposure including salivary cotinine and expired carbon monoxide...
  10. Vitamin D, Epstein-Barr virus infection, and cigarette smoking and risk of multip
    Alberto Ascherio; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..here: 1) a study of pre-diagnostic serum vitamin D (25-hydroxyvitamin D) levels, EBV IgG antibody titers, and cotinine levels (a marker of cigarette smoking) and risk of MS among the mothers and 2) a study of in utero exposure to ..
  11. Biomarkers of Exposure to and Health Effects from SHS in Outdoor Smoking Areas
    Luke P Naeher; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..5) and/or carbon monoxide (CO) and number of smokers outside establishments, significant increases in salivary cotinine, and measurable increases in urinary 4-(N- methylnitrosamino)-1-(s-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) in subjects exposed ..
  12. Comparative Effectiveness of Post-Discharge Strategies for Hospitalized Smokers
    Nancy A Rigotti; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Outcomes, assessed at 1, 3, and 12 months after hospital discharge, are: (1) intervention effectiveness (cotinine-validated 7-day point-prevalence tobacco abstinence rate at 12 month follow-up [1o outcome] and other measures of ..
  13. Validation of a Genomic Biomarker of Response to Environmental Tobacco Smoke
    AVRUM E SPIRA; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..or miRNA expression will be compared to measures of SHS exposure derived from questionnaire, air sampling and cotinine. The repeatability of the genomic biomarker measurements will be assessed by repeat sampling of 40 children after ..
  14. Treating Low-Income Smokers in the Hospital Emergency Department
    Steven L Bernstein; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Follow-up assessments at 1, 3 and 12 months will combine self-report with in-person salivary cotinine testing at 3 months for smokers who assert abstinence via phone...
  15. Maternal and Child Health Benefits from Reducing Household Air Pollution
    Patricia L Hibberd; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..5 micrometers, carbon monoxide and biomarkers 1-hydroxypyrene, methoxyphenol and cotinine (tobacco smoke)...
  16. Liquid Chromatograph-Triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer
    Peyton Jacob; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Two of our methods are in particularly high demand: (1) Simultaneous determination of the nicotine metabolites cotinine and trans-3'- hydroxycotinine...
  17. Efficacy of Resistance Training as an Aid To Smoking Cessation Treatment
    Joseph T Ciccolo; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The primary outcome is salivary cotinine verified 7-Day Point Prevalence Abstinence (PPA) at the 3-month assessment, and at the 6 and 12-month follow-ups...
  18. Novel Methods to Reduce Children's Secondhand Smoke Exposure
    THEODORE LEE WAGENER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Follow-up assessments will occur at 3, 6, and 12 weeks. The primary outcome measure will be child salivary cotinine (an objective indicator of SHSe)...
  19. Biomarkers of toxic response to low nicotine cigarette smoke
    Andrew Strasser; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Existing biomarkers of exposure to cigarette smoke have concentrated on measurements of nicotine exposure (cotinine levels), and PAH exposure such as the analysis 1-hydroxypyrene and the urinary metabolite of NNK, (4- ..
  20. PHARMACOKINETICS AND PHARMACODYNAMICS OF NICOTINE
    Neal L Benowitz; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Chemistry activities will include (1) synthesis of stable isotope-labeled compounds, including nicotine, cotinine and 3-hydroxy-cotinine for quantitative metabolic studies;and (2) developing and applying GC- MS and LC-MS/MS ..
  21. Translational approaches to multilevel models of prenatal exposure to cigarettes
    Vanja Dukic; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..of effects of prenatal exposure to cigarettes frequently acquire both self- report and biologic assays (such as cotinine levels in urine or blood) of maternal smoking...
  22. Pediatrician Advice, Family Counseling, &SHS Reduction for Underserved Children
    Stephen J Lepore; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..primary aim is to test the hypothesis that relative to CQI+A, CQI+BC will result in greater reductions in child cotinine (SHSe biomarker) and reported cigarettes exposed/day...
  23. Health Effects of Adolescent Water Pipe Smoking with &without Cigarette Smoking
    Virginia Hill Rice; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..the longest and most severe water pipe and/or cigarette smoking histories will be asked to participate in saliva cotinine testing (to verify their smoking status) and pulmonary function testing...
  24. Center for Novel Biomarkers of Response
    Joel G Pounds; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Electrochemical Biosensor (IEB) that will support the measurement of markers for exposure (cotinine) and response, both specific (modified proteins) and generic markers of oxidative stress and chronic inflammation,..
  25. Phone-Based Postpartum Continuing Care: Smoking Cessation Beginning in Pregnancy
    VICTORIA HOPE COLEMAN-COWGER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..while breastfeeding, g) smoke fewer times while in the same room as the infant, and h) reduce their infant's cotinine levels...
  26. Sensitivity to smoking reinforcement in women: menstrual cycle effects
    Elizabeth Van Voorhees; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..A Progressive Ratio (PR) task will be used to measure smoking reinforcement;cotinine, estrogen, and progesterone levels will be measured to verify smoking status and menstrual cycle phase;and mood, ..
  27. Nicotine Replacement for Smoking Cessation During Pregnancy
    CHERYL ANN ONCKEN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..pregnancy;(2) To compare the nicotine inhaler with placebo on overall nicotine exposure (as reflected by serum cotinine concentrations), and on birth outcomes (i.e...
  28. Tobacco/nicotine, cytochrome P450, and HIV-1
    Santosh Kumar; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Nicotine, its major metabolite, cotinine, and other important tobacco-specific compounds are predominantly metabolized by cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6), ..
  29. New Pharmacotherapy for Alcohol and Co-morbid Disorders
    Bankole A Johnson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..that topiramate compared with placebo significantly improved smoking abstinence rates and decreased serum cotinine levels among alcohol- dependent smokers...
  30. Centralized Disease Management for Rural Hospitalized Smokers
    Edward F Ellerbeck; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The primary outcome is 7-day point prevalence abstinence confirmed by salivary cotinine. Hospitalized rural smokers will be randomized to either CDM or counseling (C) alone (303 in each arm)...
  31. Reducing Cervical Cancer in Appalachia
    Electra D Paskett; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..social) intervention to promote smoking cessation (behavioral) and validate cessation endpoints with saliva cotinine measurements (biological) in a quasi-experimental trial design;those women who are in need of &Pap test (48% ..
  32. Efficacy of brisk walking as a smoking cessation treatment adjunct among women
    David M Williams; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..the exercise/wellness programs;and (c) multiple objective assessments of smoking status (CO monitoring and saliva cotinine analysis) during the 12-week treatment and during a 6-month follow- up period...
  33. Using Ecolog. Momentary Assess. To Examine Pain & Smoking In Head & Neck Cancer P
    CHO YAN LAM; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Furthermore, study personnel will assess participants'smoking abstinence and administer breath and saliva cotinine tests to confirm self-reported abstinence.
  34. Reducing Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure in Public Housing
    DOUGLAS LEVY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..ETS exposure will be assessed by measuring participants'saliva cotinine;air quality in households and common areas (airborne nicotine and particulate matter - PM2...
  35. Hair and toenail nicotine as biomarkers of actual population exposure to tobacco
    Wael K Al Delaimy; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..For tobacco exposure, serum, saliva and urine cotinine biomarkers have been more widely used than others because population values do exist for them...
  36. Zonisamide Augmentation of Varenicline for Smoking Cessation
    Annie Umbricht; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Smoking status will be assessed via urinalysis testing for the nicotine metabolite cotinine (<200ng/ml will be considered abstinent) from specimens obtained at each study visit...
  37. Cigarette Smoke Exposure and Acute Lung Injury After Severe Blunt Trauma
    CAROLYN CALFEE; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..passive cigarette smoke exposure will be rigorously quantified by well-validated biomarkers: specifically, plasma cotinine and urine total 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL)...
  38. Cigarette Smoking and Tuberculosis among Injection Drug Users in Tijuana, Mexico
    SANGHYUK SAM SHIN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..smoking and TB infection by employing biological measures for cigarette smoking (a semi- quantitative urinary cotinine assay) and TB infection (an interferon gamma release assay) for a subset of 350 participants...
  39. Metabolism of Carcinogenic Tobacco-Specific Nitrosamines
    Stephen S Hecht; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Further develop the toenail biomarkers for NNAL and cotinine. 5...
  40. Behavioral Smoking Cessation Treatment for People Living with HIV/AIDS
    David M Ledgerwood; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..treatment will include longest duration of continuous abstinence and biologically verified reduction in smoking (cotinine and expired carbon monoxide)...
  41. Accuracy of Self-Reported Prenatal Smoking in Child Cancer Epidemiology Studies
    Beth A Mueller; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ABSTRACT This proposed study will explore the relationship between reported tobacco use and presence/amount of cotinine (an objective biomarker of smoking) in existing specimens linked to a large, widely available dataset often used for ..
  42. Tobacco carcinogens as markers of exposure, carcinogenesis and risk in oral cance
    Samir S Khariwala; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..are 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), N'- nitrosonornicotine (NNN), 1-hydroxypyrene and cotinine. In addition, we will also study the formation of DNA adducts in buccal squamous cells...
  43. Brain and behavioral effects of graphic cigarette warning labels
    Daniel D Langleben; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We shall use biochemical (urine cotinine levels) and neuroimaging (Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging, fMRI) assays, as well as traditional measures of ..
  44. Nicotine Metabolism and the Development of Addiction in Adolescent Light Smokers
    Mark L Rubinstein; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..design, we will examine the influence of the rate of nicotine metabolism (measured by the 3'-hydroxycotinine/cotinine ratio) on the development of nicotine addiction in adolescent early/experimental smokers (13-16 years-old who ..
  45. Vitamin D, cigarette smoking, EBV infection and risk of MS progression
    Alberto Ascherio; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..are to examine whether low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels, elevated antibodies against EBV, or elevated serum cotinine levels (indicative of current smoking) increase the risk of conversion from CIS to MS and whether they increase ..
  46. Nicotine Metabolism and the Development of Addiction in Adolescent Light Smokers
    Mark L Rubinstein; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..design, we will examine the influence of the rate of nicotine metabolism (measured by the 3'-hydroxycotinine/cotinine ratio) on the development of nicotine addiction in adolescent early/experimental smokers (13-16 years-old who ..
  47. Development of a Tailored eHealth Smoking Intervention for Community Colleges
    Carla J Berg; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Secondary outcomes will include abstinence (both self-report and cotinine-validated) and message processing...
  48. Smoking, Neurocircuitry, and Genes in Adult ADHD
    JEAN G GEHRICKE; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Smoking will be assessed via questionnaires and salivary cotinine levels. Prefrontal-limbic brain activity will be examined via fMRI...
  49. MAINTAINING NONSMOKING
    Gary L Humfleet; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..12, 24, 52, 64, and 104, participants will be assessed on self-reported smoking verified by carbon monoxide and cotinine assays, as well as on psychometric measures...
  50. Ambient PM2.5 and ETS exposure: interactive health effects for asthmatic children
    Matthew J Strand; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..direct measures of pollutant exposures are difficult or impossible to obtain, other surrogate measures such as cotinine or fixed outdoor monitor concentrations need to be utilized...
  51. Efficacy Study of A Nicotine Barrier Cream
    Youcheng Liu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..who will randomly receive one of the formulations;4) collect urine samples and analyze them for nicotine and cotinine content;5) test differences in nicotine exposure with and without the use of a barrier cream and between ..
  52. A Randomized Control Trial of Tobacco Tactics for Operating Engineers
    Sonia A Duffy; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..intervention to those randomized to the 1-800-QUIT-NOW control condition on: a) 30-day and 6-month quit rates;b) cotinine levels;c) cigarettes smoked/day;d) number of quit attempts;and e) nicotine addiction...
  53. Innovation for Smoke-Free Homes: Real-Time Feedback
    Melbourne F Hovell; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..advice/praise on low-income families'ability to reduce children's exposure to nicotine, as measured by cotinine assays, reduce smoking in the home, and establish home smoking bans...
  54. Abstinence Reinforcement Therapy (ART) for Rural Veteran Smokers
    Patrick S Calhoun; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Participating patients will be surveyed at 3-months, 6-months and 12-months post-randomization. The primary outcome of the trial is prolonged self-reported abstinence at the 6 month follow-up verified by cotinine assay.
  55. Cotinine for Cognitive Impairment in Neurological and Neuropsychiatric Disorders
    Alvin V Terry; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..years our research findings have provided a new appreciation for the potential pharmacological properties of cotinine, the principal metabolite of nicotine produced after using tobacco products...
  56. Tobacco cessation interventions with Ohio Appalachian smokers
    Mary Ellen Wewers; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..and 6 and 12 months, LL and control group participants will be reassessed for tobacco use via self-report and cotinine-validation...
  57. Exploring current smokers? interest in using smokeless tobacco products
    RICHARD J O'CONNOR; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Outcome measures include cigarettes and ST units consumed per day, saliva cotinine levels, alveolar CO levels, and indicators of nicotine dependence, craving, and withdrawal...
  58. Asthma Express: Bridging Emergency to Primary Care in Underserved Children
    ARLENE MANNS BUTZ; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Allergy and cotinine biomarkers, collected during the ED visit, are used to target the home environmental control component of the ..
  59. Understanding Disparities in Quitting in African American and White Smokers
    Nicole L Nollen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..treatment process, and biological factors that independently explain the relationship between race/ethnicity and cotinine-verified 7-day abstinence in African American and White smokers, and 3) examine the side effect profile of ..
  60. Web-based Smoking Cessation Program for Tribal College Students
    Won S Choi; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Data will be collected at baseline, 3 months and 6 months using salivary cotinine, as well as comprehensive set of environmental and psychosocial measures...
  61. Adolescent Smoking Cessation in Pediatric Primary Care
    Jonathan D Klein; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..and long-term adolescent smoking cessation outcomes and self-reported quitters will provide saliva samples for cotinine validation...
  62. Integrated Smoking Cessation Treatment for Low Income Community Corrections
    Karen L Cropsey; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..All participants will be treated for 12 weeks with bupropion and abstinence rates will be determine based on cotinine and expired CO for baseline, 4 weekly counseling sessions, weeks 8 and 12 (end-of- treatment)...
  63. Contingency Management for Initiating Smoking Abstinence
    WILLIAM BARRY WHITE; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..0 mg twice daily) for 12 weeks along with standard smoking cessation therapy and regular carbon monoxide (CO) and cotinine monitoring...
  64. Clinical Response to Biomarker Documentation of Child Secondhand Smoke Exposure
    ANNE JOSEPH; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..that routinely measures and reports levels of tobacco toxicants (tobacco-specific carcinogens, nicotine and cotinine) found in the urine of children exposed to SHS will 1) increase provider delivery of tobacco treatment, 2) ..
  65. IRON, ZINC AND FOLATE AND PRETERM DELIVERY
    David Savitz; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..and stored for future assessment of genital tract infection, plasma and leukocyte levels of vitamin C, urinary cotinine, and urinary drug metabolites...
  66. PHARMACOKINETICS AND PHARMACODYNAMICS OF NICOTINE
    Neal Benowitz; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Using stable isotope methodology, the kinetics of nicotine and cotinine and its relationship to daily intake of nicotine from smoking will be compared in various population groups...
  67. Impact of Intrauterine Tobacco Smoke Exposure on Umbilical Cord Blood Stem Cells
    JENNIFER KORNOSKY; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..as part of a larger study at Tampa General Hospital will be analyzed for concentration of red blood cell folate, cotinine, and stem cells as well as for the amount of global genomic DNA methylation...
  68. Bitter taste phenotype as a risk factor of oral nicotine replacement nonadherence
    Karen L Ahijevych; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..the number of oral NRT products used each week), participants sensory experience of each product (logs), cotinine concentrations at the end of each week in comparison to baseline as a monitor of adherence to nicotine ..
  69. Contingency Management for Smoking in Substance Abusers
    Sheila Alessi; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..All participants will submit breath samples tested for CO twice daily and urine samples tested for cotinine once weekly for 4 weeks...
  70. VIOLENCE AND SPONTANEOUS ABORTION IN INNER CITY WOMEN
    Deborah Nelson; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..baseline data collection will include a structured in-person interview, laboratory analyses of hair and urine for cotinine, alcohol, and drugs of abuse...
  71. Parents Awareness Reducing Exposure to Nicotine and Tobacco (PARENT)
    Myra Muramoto; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Primary outcome measures are: 1) children's'SHS exposure as measured by salivary cotinine and 2) changes in self-reported P/C behaviors related to smoking and SHS exposure...
  72. Tailored Nicotine Replacement Therapy for Outpatients
    ERIKA BOROFF; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..smoking cessation program that uses transdermal nicotine replacement therapy tailored to match precessation serum cotinine levels...