flucytosine

Summary

Summary: A fluorinated cytosine analog that is used as an antifungal agent.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Combination antifungal therapies for HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis: a randomised trial
    Annemarie E Brouwer
    Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
    Lancet 363:1764-7. 2004
  2. pmc Adjunctive interferon-γ immunotherapy for the treatment of HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis: a randomized controlled trial
    Joseph N Jarvis
    Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Infectious Diseases Unit, GF Jooste Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa
    AIDS 26:1105-13. 2012
  3. ncbi High-dose amphotericin B with flucytosine for the treatment of cryptococcal meningitis in HIV-infected patients: a randomized trial
    Tihana Bicanic
    Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Clin Infect Dis 47:123-30. 2008
  4. pmc Repurposing the antimycotic drug flucytosine for suppression of Pseudomonas aeruginosa pathogenicity
    Francesco Imperi
    Department of Biology and Biotechnology C Darwin, Sapienza University of Rome, 000185 Rome, Italy
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110:7458-63. 2013
  5. pmc Molecular mechanisms of primary resistance to flucytosine in Candida albicans
    William W Hope
    Immunocompromised Host Section POB, NCI, NIH CRC, Room 1 5700, 10 Center Dr, MSC 1100, Bethesda, MD 20892 1100, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 48:4377-86. 2004
  6. pmc Combination flucytosine and high-dose fluconazole compared with fluconazole monotherapy for the treatment of cryptococcal meningitis: a randomized trial in Malawi
    Jesse C Nussbaum
    University of North Carolina UNC Project and 2Kamuzu Central Hospital, Lilongwe, Malawi
    Clin Infect Dis 50:338-44. 2010
  7. ncbi Genetically engineered stem cells expressing cytosine deaminase and interferon-β migrate to human lung cancer cells and have potentially therapeutic anti-tumor effects
    Bo Rim Yi
    College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Chungbuk 361 763, Republic of Korea
    Int J Oncol 39:833-9. 2011
  8. ncbi Influence of the prodrugs 5-fluorocytosine and CPT-11 on ovarian cancer cells using genetically engineered stem cells: tumor-tropic potential and inhibition of ovarian cancer cell growth
    Ki Yon Kim
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Child and Family Research Institute, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    Cancer Sci 101:955-62. 2010
  9. ncbi Delta24-hyCD adenovirus suppresses glioma growth in vivo by combining oncolysis and chemosensitization
    Charles Conrad
    Department of Neuro Oncology, The Brain Tumor Center, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 4009, USA
    Cancer Gene Ther 12:284-94. 2005
  10. pmc Clonal population of flucytosine-resistant Candida tropicalis from blood cultures, Paris, France
    Marie Desnos-Ollivier
    Institut Pasteur, Paris, France
    Emerg Infect Dis 14:557-65. 2008

Detail Information

Publications236 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Combination antifungal therapies for HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis: a randomised trial
    Annemarie E Brouwer
    Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
    Lancet 363:1764-7. 2004
    ..In-vitro and animal studies lend support to the use of combinations of amphotericin B, flucytosine, and fluconazole for treatment of cryptococcosis...
  2. pmc Adjunctive interferon-γ immunotherapy for the treatment of HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis: a randomized controlled trial
    Joseph N Jarvis
    Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Infectious Diseases Unit, GF Jooste Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa
    AIDS 26:1105-13. 2012
    ..We performed a randomized controlled trial to determine whether addition of IFNγ to standard therapy increased the rate of clearance of cryptococcal infection in HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis...
  3. ncbi High-dose amphotericin B with flucytosine for the treatment of cryptococcal meningitis in HIV-infected patients: a randomized trial
    Tihana Bicanic
    Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Clin Infect Dis 47:123-30. 2008
    ..7 mg/kg per day) plus flucytosine frequently takes >2 weeks to sterilize the cerebral spinal fluid, and acute mortality remains high...
  4. pmc Repurposing the antimycotic drug flucytosine for suppression of Pseudomonas aeruginosa pathogenicity
    Francesco Imperi
    Department of Biology and Biotechnology C Darwin, Sapienza University of Rome, 000185 Rome, Italy
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110:7458-63. 2013
    ..We found that the antimycotic agent flucytosine inhibits the expression of the iron-starvation σ-factor PvdS, thereby repressing the production of major P...
  5. pmc Molecular mechanisms of primary resistance to flucytosine in Candida albicans
    William W Hope
    Immunocompromised Host Section POB, NCI, NIH CRC, Room 1 5700, 10 Center Dr, MSC 1100, Bethesda, MD 20892 1100, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 48:4377-86. 2004
    Primary resistance in Candida albicans to flucytosine (5-FC) was investigated in 25 strains by identifying and sequencing the genes FCA1, FUR1, FCY21, and FCY22, which code for cytosine deaminase, uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (UPRT), ..
  6. pmc Combination flucytosine and high-dose fluconazole compared with fluconazole monotherapy for the treatment of cryptococcal meningitis: a randomized trial in Malawi
    Jesse C Nussbaum
    University of North Carolina UNC Project and 2Kamuzu Central Hospital, Lilongwe, Malawi
    Clin Infect Dis 50:338-44. 2010
    ..Fluconazole at a dosage of 1200 mg per day is more fungicidal than at a dosage of 800 mg per day, but mortality rates remain unacceptably high. Therefore, we examined the effect of adding oral flucytosine to fluconazole.
  7. ncbi Genetically engineered stem cells expressing cytosine deaminase and interferon-β migrate to human lung cancer cells and have potentially therapeutic anti-tumor effects
    Bo Rim Yi
    College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Chungbuk 361 763, Republic of Korea
    Int J Oncol 39:833-9. 2011
    ..Furthermore, GESTECs expressing fusion genes (i.e., CD and IFN-β) may have a synergic antitumor effect on lung cancer cells...
  8. ncbi Influence of the prodrugs 5-fluorocytosine and CPT-11 on ovarian cancer cells using genetically engineered stem cells: tumor-tropic potential and inhibition of ovarian cancer cell growth
    Ki Yon Kim
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Child and Family Research Institute, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    Cancer Sci 101:955-62. 2010
    ..F3.CD or HB1.F3.CE cells resulted in the inhibition of ovarian cancer cell growth. Based on the data presented herein, we suggest that GESTECs expressing CD/CE may have a potent advantage to selectively treat ovarian cancers...
  9. ncbi Delta24-hyCD adenovirus suppresses glioma growth in vivo by combining oncolysis and chemosensitization
    Charles Conrad
    Department of Neuro Oncology, The Brain Tumor Center, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 4009, USA
    Cancer Gene Ther 12:284-94. 2005
    ..These findings demonstrate that Delta24-hyCD with concomitant systemic 5-FC is a significant improvement over the earlier Delta24 oncolytic tumor-selective strategy for therapy of experimental gliomas...
  10. pmc Clonal population of flucytosine-resistant Candida tropicalis from blood cultures, Paris, France
    Marie Desnos-Ollivier
    Institut Pasteur, Paris, France
    Emerg Infect Dis 14:557-65. 2008
    Candida tropicalis is a diploid ascomycetes yeast responsible for 4%-24% of candidemia. Resistance to flucytosine is rarely described for this species but was observed for 45 (35%) of 130 C...
  11. pmc In vitro antifungal susceptibilities and amplified fragment length polymorphism genotyping of a worldwide collection of 350 clinical, veterinary, and environmental Cryptococcus gattii isolates
    Ferry Hagen
    CBS KNAW Fungal Biodiversity Centre, Department of Yeast and Basidiomycete Research, Utrecht, Netherlands
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 54:5139-45. 2010
    ..The clinical AFLP6 isolates had significantly higher geometric mean MICs for flucytosine and fluconazole than the clinical AFLP4 isolates...
  12. ncbi Negative selection using yeast cytosine deaminase/uracil phosphoribosyl transferase in Plasmodium falciparum for targeted gene deletion by double crossover recombination
    Alexander G Maier
    The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Melbourne, Australia
    Mol Biochem Parasitol 150:118-21. 2006
  13. ncbi In vivo cancer gene therapy by adenovirus-mediated transfer of a bifunctional yeast cytosine deaminase/uracil phosphoribosyltransferase fusion gene
    P Erbs
    Transgene S A Strasbourg, France
    Cancer Res 60:3813-22. 2000
    ..These unique properties make of the FCU1/5-FC prodrug activation system a novel and powerful candidate for cancer gene therapy strategies...
  14. pmc Determinants of disease presentation and outcome during cryptococcosis: the CryptoA/D study
    Francoise Dromer
    Unité de Mycologie Moléculaire, Centre National de Référence Mycologie et Antifongiques, CNRS URA3042, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France
    PLoS Med 4:e21. 2007
    ....
  15. ncbi Pharmacodynamic implications for use of antifungal agents
    Russell E Lewis
    College of Pharmacy, University of Houston and The Department of Infectious Diseases, Infection Control and Employee Health, The University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, United States
    Curr Opin Pharmacol 7:491-7. 2007
    ....
  16. pmc Development and application of a positive-negative selectable marker system for use in reverse genetics in Plasmodium
    Joanna A M Braks
    Department of Parasitology, Centre of Infectious Diseases, Leiden University Medical Centre, The Netherlands
    Nucleic Acids Res 34:e39. 2006
    ..This is the first demonstration of the general use of yFCU in combination with a positive selectable marker in reverse genetics approaches and it should be possible to adapt its use to many other biological systems...
  17. pmc Design and selection of Toca 511 for clinical use: modified retroviral replicating vector with improved stability and gene expression
    Omar D Perez
    Tocagen Inc, San Diego, California 92109, USA
    Mol Ther 20:1689-98. 2012
    ..Toca 511 (vocimagene amiretrorepvec) has been taken forward to preclinical and clinical trials...
  18. doi Successful treatment of prosthetic knee Candida glabrata infection with caspofungin combined with flucytosine
    V Dumaine
    Int J Antimicrob Agents 31:398-9. 2008
  19. ncbi Phase I study of replication-competent adenovirus-mediated double-suicide gene therapy in combination with conventional-dose three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy for the treatment of newly diagnosed, intermediate- to high-risk prostate cancer
    Svend O Freytag
    Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Health System, One Ford Place, Detroit, Michigan 48202, USA
    Cancer Res 63:7497-506. 2003
    ..The shorter than expected PSA half-life in patients receiving more than 1 week of prodrug therapy may suggest a possible interaction between the oncolytic adenovirus and/or double-suicide gene therapies and radiation therapy...
  20. pmc Cryptococcus neoformans-Cryptococcus gattii species complex: an international study of wild-type susceptibility endpoint distributions and epidemiological cutoff values for amphotericin B and flucytosine
    A Espinel-Ingroff
    VCU Medical Center, Richmond, Virginia, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 56:3107-13. 2012
    ..neoformans and C. gattii versus amphotericin B and flucytosine. A total of 3,590 amphotericin B and 3,045 flucytosine CLSI MICs for C...
  21. pmc In vitro interaction of flucytosine with conventional and new antifungals against Cryptococcus neoformans clinical isolates
    Patrick Schwarz
    Centre National de Référence Mycologie et Antifongiques, Unité de Mycologie Moléculaire, Institut Pasteur, 75724 Paris Cedex 15, France
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 47:3361-4. 2003
    Combinations of flucytosine with conventional and new antifungals were evaluated in vitro against 30 clinical isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans...
  22. ncbi Species and susceptibility distribution of 1062 clinical yeast isolates to azoles, echinocandins, flucytosine and amphotericin B from a multi-centre study
    A F Schmalreck
    Mikrobiologische Beratung and Service, Munchen, Germany Division of Clinical Microbiology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, University Vienna, Austria
    Mycoses 55:e124-37. 2012
    ..For C. albicans, the proportions of susceptible isolates were 93.2% (amphotericin B), 95.6% (flucytosine), 84.3% (fluconazole), 83.8% (posaconazole), 91.8% (voriconazole), 96.5% (anidulafungin), 96...
  23. pmc A phase II randomized controlled trial adding oral flucytosine to high-dose fluconazole, with short-course amphotericin B, for cryptococcal meningitis
    Arthur T Jackson
    University of North Carolina Project, Lilongwe, Malawi
    AIDS 26:1363-70. 2012
    ..We examined strategies to improve on fluconazole (FLU) monotherapy: addition of flucytosine (5-FC) and/or addition of short-course amphotericin B (AmB).
  24. ncbi In vivo gene therapy for colon cancer using adenovirus-mediated, transfer of the fusion gene cytosine deaminase and uracil phosphoribosyltransferase
    G A Chung-Faye
    CRC Institute for Cancer Studies, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, UK
    Gene Ther 8:1547-54. 2001
    ..In summary, VDEPT for colon cancer utilising AdCDUPRT is more effective than AdCD and the bifunctional CDUPRT gene enables the use of either 5-FC or 5-FU as prodrugs...
  25. ncbi A case of chromoblastomycosis with an unusual clinical manifestation caused by Phialophora verrucosa on an unexposed area: treatment with a combination of amphotericin B and 5-flucytosine
    S G Park
    Department of Dermatology and Cutaneous Biology Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 134 Shinchon dong, Seodaemoon Gu, Seoul 120 752, Korea
    Br J Dermatol 152:560-4. 2005
    ..A uniform, reliable treatment does not exist but our patient was mycologically cured with the use of amphotericin B and the subsequent combination of 5-flucytosine and itraconazole.
  26. ncbi Targeted delivery of a suicide gene to human colorectal tumors by a conditionally replicating vaccinia virus
    J Foloppe
    Transgene SA, 11 rue de Molsheim, Strasbourg Cedex, France
    Gene Ther 15:1361-71. 2008
    ....
  27. ncbi Fluconazole alone or combined with flucytosine for the treatment of AIDS-associated cryptococcal meningitis
    Eric Milefchik
    University of Southern California, San Diego, California, USA
    Med Mycol 46:393-5. 2008
    ..Both fluconazole and flucytosine are available in oral formulations and have activity against Cryptococcus neoformans...
  28. ncbi Clinical pharmacology of antifungal compounds
    Andreas H Groll
    Infectious Disease Research Program, Center for Bone Marrow Transplantation, Department of Pediatric Hematology Oncology, Wilhelms University Medical Center, Domagkstrasse 9a, 48149 Muenster, Germany
    Infect Dis Clin North Am 17:159-91, ix. 2003
    ....
  29. ncbi Preferential cytotoxicity of cells transduced with cytosine deaminase compared to bystander cells after treatment with 5-flucytosine
    T S Lawrence
    Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor 48109 0010, USA
    Cancer Res 58:2588-93. 1998
    ..to determine whether GJIC affected either the bystander or protective effect of the cytosine deaminase (CD)/5-flucytosine (5-FC) gene therapy approach, in which CD converts 5-FC to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)...
  30. pmc Expression of the bifunctional suicide gene CDUPRT increases radiosensitization and bystander effect of 5-FC in prostate cancer cells
    Ligang Xing
    Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA
    Radiother Oncol 92:345-52. 2009
    ....
  31. pmc Acquisition of flucytosine, azole, and caspofungin resistance in Candida glabrata bloodstream isolates serially obtained from a hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipient
    Florence Chapeland-Leclerc
    EA 209 Eucaryotes Pathogènes Transports Membranaires et Chimiorésistance, Universite Paris Descartes, Paris, France
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 54:1360-2. 2010
    We describe the acquisition of flucytosine, azole, and caspofungin resistance in sequential Candida glabrata bloodstream isolates collected from a bone marrow transplant patient with clinical failure. Point mutations in C...
  32. ncbi Multimodality therapy with a replication-conditional herpes simplex virus 1 mutant that expresses yeast cytosine deaminase for intratumoral conversion of 5-fluorocytosine to 5-fluorouracil
    H Nakamura
    Division of Surgical Oncology and Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA
    Cancer Res 61:5447-52. 2001
    ..Combination oncolysis and prodrug bioactivation leads to significant prolongation of survival in mice with diffuse liver metastases...
  33. pmc Clade-specific flucytosine resistance is due to a single nucleotide change in the FUR1 gene of Candida albicans
    Andrew R Dodgson
    Department of Biological Sciences, 302 BBE, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 48:2223-7. 2004
    Population studies have indicated that natural resistance to flucytosine (5FC) in Candida albicans is limited to one of the five major clades, clade I. In addition, while 73% of clade I isolates are less susceptible to 5FC (MIC >/= 0...
  34. pmc Oral versus intravenous flucytosine in patients with human immunodeficiency virus-associated cryptococcal meningitis
    Annemarie E Brouwer
    Centre of Infection, St George s University of London, London SW17 ORE, United Kingdom
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 51:1038-42. 2007
    ..Thailand, we also compared the mycological efficacy, toxicity, and pharmacokinetics of oral versus intravenous flucytosine at 100 mg/kg of body weight/day for the initial 2 weeks...
  35. ncbi Combined suicide gene therapy for pancreatic peritoneal carcinomatosis using BGTC liposomes
    Amor Hajri
    INSERM U375, IRCAD, 1 Place de l Hopital, BP 426, 67091 Strasbourg, France
    Cancer Gene Ther 11:16-27. 2004
    ....
  36. ncbi Comparison of three methods for in vitro susceptibility testing of Candida species with flucytosine
    Caroline B Moore
    Department of Microbiology, Section of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Hope Hospital, Eccles Old Road, Salford M6 8HD
    J Antimicrob Chemother 51:297-304. 2003
    Optimal methods for susceptibility testing of Candida spp. with flucytosine have not been determined. Breakpoints were recommended in 1984, but never validated...
  37. pmc In vitro activities of 5-fluorocytosine against 8,803 clinical isolates of Candida spp.: global assessment of primary resistance using National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards susceptibility testing methods
    M A Pfaller
    Departments of Pathology Epidemiology Medicine, University of Iowa College of Medicine, and College of Public Health, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 46:3518-21. 2002
    We determined the in vitro activity of flucytosine (5-fluorocytosine [5FC]) against 8,803 clinical isolates of Candida spp. (18 species) obtained from more than 200 medical centers worldwide between 1992 and 2001...
  38. ncbi National surveillance of species distribution in blood isolates of Candida species in Japan and their susceptibility to six antifungal agents including voriconazole and micafungin
    Shunji Takakura
    Department of Clinical Laboratory Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, 54 Shogoin Kawaharacho, Sakyo ku, Kyoto 6068507, Japan
    J Antimicrob Chemother 53:283-9. 2004
    ..The aim of this study was to evaluate species distribution and antifungal susceptibility of Candida blood isolates in Japan...
  39. pmc Relationship between in vitro activities of amphotericin B and flucytosine and pH for clinical yeast and mold isolates
    D T A Te Dorsthorst
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Canisius Wilhelmina Hospital, Weg door Jonkerbos 100, 6532 SZ Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 49:3341-6. 2005
    In this study, we investigated the pH dependency of the in vitro activities of amphotericin B (AMB) and flucytosine (5FC) against Candida spp., Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus fumigatus, Rhizopus spp...
  40. ncbi In vitro antifungal susceptibility of Candida spp. oral isolates from HIV-positive patients and control individuals
    Graziella Nuernberg Back Brito
    Department of Biosciences and Oral Diagnosis, Sao Jose dos Campos Dental School, Univ Estadual Paulista, SP, Brazil
    Braz Oral Res 25:28-33. 2011
    ..Amphotericin B, fluconazole, flucytosine, nystatin and ketoconazole were tested according to the methodology of microdilution proposed by the Clinical ..
  41. pmc Loss of heterozygosity of FCY2 leading to the development of flucytosine resistance in Candida tropicalis
    Yen Ning Chen
    Department of Biological Science and Technology, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan, Republic of China
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 55:2506-14. 2011
    ..In the present study, 97 clinical isolates of C. tropicalis were tested for the susceptibilities to flucytosine (5FC) with the Etest method...
  42. pmc Combination therapy with fluconazole and flucytosine in the murine model of cryptococcal meningitis
    M H Nguyen
    University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville VA Medical Center, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 41:1120-3. 1997
    This study elucidates the role of combined fluconazole and flucytosine as therapy for cryptococcosis in the murine model of meningitis...
  43. ncbi Use of replication-competent retroviral vectors in an immunocompetent intracranial glioma model
    Weijun Wang
    Department of Neurosurgery, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90033, USA
    Neurosurg Focus 20:E25. 2006
    ..The purpose of this study was further investigation of this gene therapy option...
  44. pmc Multilocus sequence typing for differentiation of strains of Candida tropicalis
    Arianna Tavanti
    Institute of Medical Sciences, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZD, United Kingdom
    J Clin Microbiol 43:5593-600. 2005
    ..Five of six isolates in one cluster that may acquire clade status were resistant to flucytosine. This study adds C...
  45. pmc Efficacy of amphotericin B in combination with flucytosine against flucytosine-susceptible or flucytosine-resistant isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans during disseminated murine cryptococcosis
    Patrick Schwarz
    Centre National de Référence Mycologie et Antifongiques, Unité de Mycologie Moléculaire, Institut Pasteur, CNRS FRE2849, 25 rue du Dr Roux, 75724 Paris Cedex 15, France
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 50:113-20. 2006
    Whether or not flucytosine should be administered to patients infected with Cryptococcus neoformans isolates found to be resistant to flucytosine in vitro remains a controversial issue...
  46. pmc Combination of amphotericin B with flucytosine is active in vitro against flucytosine-resistant isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans
    Patrick Schwarz
    Centre National de Référence Mycologie et Antifongiques, Unité de Mycologie Moléculaire, CNRS FRE2849, Institut Pasteur, 25 rue du Dr Roux, 75724 Paris Cedex 15, France
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 51:383-5. 2007
    The combination of flucytosine and amphotericin B was tested against 10 flucytosine-resistant isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans by checkerboard, killing curves, and Etest...
  47. pmc In vivo characterization of the pharmacodynamics of flucytosine in a neutropenic murine disseminated candidiasis model
    D Andes
    Department of Medicine, Section of Infectious Diseases, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine, Madison, WI 53792, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 44:938-42. 2000
    ..percentage of time above the MIC, area under the concentration-time curve [AUC]/MIC and peak level/MIC) for flucytosine (5-FC) in vivo with efficacy as measured by organism number in homogenized kidney cultures after 24 h of ..
  48. pmc Candida dubliniensis at a university hospital in Saudi Arabia
    R Fotedar
    The Medical Mycology Unit, Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh 11461, Saudi Arabia
    J Clin Microbiol 41:1907-11. 2003
    ..6%) showed high levels of resistance to flucytosine (MIC > 64 microg/ml)...
  49. ncbi Direct and bystander killing of sarcomas by novel cytosine deaminase fusion gene
    Margaret Ramnaraine
    Departments of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA
    Cancer Res 63:6847-54. 2003
    ..Finally, 5FC treatment had no effect on animal weight or survival, whereas doses of 5FU providing equivalent tumor reduction as 5FC resulted in treatment-associated deaths and significant weight loss (P < 0.001)...
  50. pmc Multicenter comparison of the VITEK 2 antifungal susceptibility test with the CLSI broth microdilution reference method for testing amphotericin B, flucytosine, and voriconazole against Candida spp
    M A Pfaller
    Medical Microbiology Division, C606 GH, Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 45:3522-8. 2007
    ..against amphotericin B, flucytosine, and voriconazole. Reference BMD MIC endpoints were established after 24 and 48 h of incubation...
  51. ncbi Successful treatment of cryptococcal osteomyelitis and paraspinous abscess with fluconazole and flucytosine
    P P Cook
    Department of Medicine, Brody School of Medicine at East Carolina University, Greenville, NC 27858-4354, USA
    South Med J 94:936-8. 2001
    ..with thoracic cryptococcal osteomyelitis was treated successfully with the combination of fluconazole and flucytosine. This is the first reported case of cryptococcal osteomyelitis successfully treated with fluconazole and ..
  52. ncbi Targeted chemotherapy for head and neck cancer with a chimeric oncolytic adenovirus coding for bifunctional suicide protein FCU1
    João D Dias
    Cancer Gene Therapy Group, Molecular Cancer Biology Program and Transplantation Laboratory and Haartman Institute and Finnish Institute for Molecular Medicine, Helsinki, Finland
    Clin Cancer Res 16:2540-9. 2010
    ..We hypothesized that local amplification provided by a replication competent platform would help overcome these limitations...
  53. ncbi Anticancer efficacy of systemically delivered anaerobic bacteria as gene therapy vectors targeting tumor hypoxia/necrosis
    S C Liu
    Division of Radiation and Cancer Biology, Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305 5152, USA
    Gene Ther 9:291-6. 2002
    ..sporogenes produced greater antitumor effect than maximally tolerated doses of 5-FU. Since most human solid tumors have hypoxic and necrotic areas this vector system has considerable promise for tumor-selective gene therapy...
  54. ncbi Combination of a fusogenic glycoprotein, prodrug activation, and oncolytic herpes simplex virus for enhanced local tumor control
    Guy R Simpson
    BioVex Inc, Woburn, Massachusetts 01801, USA
    Cancer Res 66:4835-42. 2006
    ..It is intended to enter the GALV/Fcy::Fur expressing virus into clinical development for the treatment of tumor types, such as pancreatic or lung cancer, where local control would be anticipated to be clinically advantageous...
  55. ncbi Cytosine deaminase/5-fluorocytosine exposure induces bystander and radiosensitization effects in hypoxic glioblastoma cells in vitro
    Jennifer K Chen
    Brain Tumor Research Center of the Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 67:1538-47. 2007
    ..In this study, we investigated whether cytosine deaminase (CD)/5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) enzyme/prodrug treatment induced a bystander effect (BE) and/or radiosensitization in hypoxic GBM cells...
  56. ncbi An in vitro study on the active conversion of flucytosine to fluorouracil by microorganisms in the human intestinal microflora
    Andras Vermes
    Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Chemotherapy 49:17-23. 2003
    Investigation of the rate of active conversion of flucytosine to fluorouracil by microorganisms in the intestinal microflora.
  57. pmc Nonsense and missense mutations in FCY2 and FCY1 genes are responsible for flucytosine resistance and flucytosine-fluconazole cross-resistance in clinical isolates of Candida lusitaniae
    Martine Florent
    EA209 Eucaryotes Pathogènes, Transports Membranaires et Chimiorésistances, UFR des Sciences Pharmaceutiques et Biologiques, Universite Paris Descartes, 4 avenue de l Observatoire, Paris, France
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 53:2982-90. 2009
    The aim of this work was to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of flucytosine (5FC) resistance and 5FC/fluconazole (FLC) cross-resistance in 11 genetically and epidemiologically unrelated clinical isolates of Candida lusitaniae...
  58. pmc Wild-type MIC distributions and epidemiological cutoff values for amphotericin B, flucytosine, and itraconazole and Candida spp. as determined by CLSI broth microdilution
    M A Pfaller
    JMI Laboratories, North Liberty, Iowa, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 50:2040-6. 2012
    ..triazoles and echinocandins but are not yet available for older antifungal agents, such as amphotericin B, flucytosine, or itraconazole...
  59. ncbi Genotypic heterogeneity and molecular basis of 5-flucytosine resistance among Candida dubliniensis isolates recovered from clinical specimens in Kuwait
    Suhail Ahmad
    Department of Microbiology, Kuwait University, Kuwait
    Med Mycol 50:244-51. 2012
    ..Susceptibility to 5-flucytosine was determined by means of the Etest...
  60. ncbi Bystander or no bystander for gene directed enzyme prodrug therapy
    Gabi U Dachs
    Angiogenesis and Cancer Research Group, University of Otago, Christchurch, New Zealand
    Molecules 14:4517-45. 2009
    ....
  61. ncbi Cancer-specific killing by the CD suicide gene using the human telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter
    Jing Liu
    Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031, P R China
    Int J Oncol 21:661-6. 2002
    ..These results indicated that hTERT promoter could target the suicidal effect of CD gene to tumor cells, and therefore, may be a novel and promising targeting approach to the treatment of cancer...
  62. ncbi In Candida albicans, resistance to flucytosine and terbinafine is linked to MAT locus homozygosity and multilocus sequence typing clade 1
    Frank C Odds
    Aberdeen Fungal Group, School of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB25 2ZD, UK
    FEMS Yeast Res 9:1091-101. 2009
    ..by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and tested for susceptibility to amphotericin B, caspofungin, fluconazole, flucytosine, itraconazole, ketoconazole, miconazole, terbinafine and voriconazole was the material for a statistical ..
  63. ncbi In vitro susceptibility of clinical isolates of Zygomycota to amphotericin B, flucytosine, itraconazole and voriconazole
    A Gomez-Lopez
    Servicio de Micologia, Centro Nacional de Microbiologia, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Ctra Majadahonda Pozuelo km 2, 28220 Majadahonda, Madrid, Spain
    J Antimicrob Chemother 48:919-21. 2001
    ..The species of Zygomycota tested were resistant in vitro to flucytosine, itraconazole and voriconazole. Amphotericin B showed the best activity against most of the strains evaluated.
  64. pmc A Ser29Leu substitution in the cytosine deaminase Fca1p is responsible for clade-specific flucytosine resistance in Candida dubliniensis
    Brenda A McManus
    Microbiology Research Unit, Division of Oral Biosciences, School of Dental Science and Dublin Dental Hospital, University of Dublin, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2, Ireland
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 53:4678-85. 2009
    ..the Middle East that exhibit high-level resistance (MIC(50) > or = 128 microg/ml) to the fungicidal agent flucytosine (5FC). The close relative of C. dubliniensis, C...
  65. pmc Mutational analysis of flucytosine resistance in Candida glabrata
    Thomas D Edlind
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Drexel University College of Medicine, 2900 Queen Lane, Philadelphia, PA 19129, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 54:4733-8. 2010
    The antifungal flucytosine (5-fluorocytosine [5FC]) is a prodrug metabolized to its toxic form, 5-fluorouracil (5FU), only by organisms expressing cytosine deaminase...
  66. ncbi In vitro activity of a new echinocandin, LY303366, and comparison with fluconazole, flucytosine and amphotericin B against Candida species
    C B Moore
    Department of Microbiology, Hope Hospital, Salford, UK
    Clin Microbiol Infect 7:11-6. 2001
    ..LY303366 (LY) against Candida isolates comprising nine different species and comparison with fluconazole (FLU), flucytosine (5FC) and amphotericin B (AMB)...
  67. ncbi Antifungal resistance in pathogenic fungi
    Sofia Perea
    Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX 78229, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 35:1073-80. 2002
    ....
  68. ncbi Negative selection of Plasmodium falciparum reveals targeted gene deletion by double crossover recombination
    Manoj T Duraisingh
    The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, P O Royal Melbourne Hospital, Melbourne, VIC 3050, Australia
    Int J Parasitol 32:81-9. 2002
    ....
  69. ncbi The potential of 5-fluorocytosine/cytosine deaminase enzyme prodrug gene therapy in an intrahepatic colon cancer model
    M K Nyati
    Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 0010, USA
    Gene Ther 9:844-9. 2002
    ..The purpose of this study was to develop a noninvasive intrahepatic tumor model to study the efficacy of 5-flucytosine/yeast cytosine deaminase (5FC/yCD)-based gene therapy for liver tumors...
  70. ncbi Comparative evaluation of preclinical in vivo models for the assessment of replicating retroviral vectors for the treatment of glioblastoma
    Juraj Hlavaty
    Institute of Virology, Department of Pathobiology, University of Veterinary Medicine, 1210 Vienna, Austria
    J Neurooncol 102:59-69. 2011
    ..Injection of the RCR vector into pre-established orthotopic mouse tumor xenografts revealed substantial infection and virus spread of tumor tissue from most cell types...
  71. ncbi Intratumoral 5-fluorouracil produced by cytosine deaminase/5-fluorocytosine gene therapy is effective for experimental human glioblastomas
    C Ryan Miller
    Department of Radiation Oncology, Division of Radiation Biology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
    Cancer Res 62:773-80. 2002
    ....
  72. pmc Results obtained with various antifungal susceptibility testing methods do not predict early clinical outcome in patients with cryptococcosis
    E Dannaoui
    Centre National de Référence Mycologie et Antifongiques, Unité de Mycologie Moléculaire, CNRS FRE2849, Institut Pasteur, 25, rue du Dr Roux, 75724 Paris Cedex 15, France
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 50:2464-70. 2006
    ..virus-positive and -negative patients to the antifungal agents fluconazole, amphotericin B, and flucytosine were determined by different techniques, including the CLSI method, Etest, and broth microdilution in yeast ..
  73. ncbi Diagnosis and management of increased intracranial pressure in patients with AIDS and cryptococcal meningitis. The NIAID Mycoses Study Group and AIDS Cooperative Treatment Groups
    J R Graybill
    Infectious Diseases Section, South Texas Veterans Health Care System, Audie L Murphy Memorial Veterans Hospital Division, San Antonio, TX 78284, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 30:47-54. 2000
    ..from a randomized multicenter quasifactorial phase III study comparing amphotericin B with or without flucytosine in primary treatment of cryptococcal meningitis. CSF pressure was measured before treatment and at 2 weeks...
  74. ncbi Concomitant expression of E. coli cytosine deaminase and uracil phosphoribosyltransferase improves the cytotoxicity of 5-fluorocytosine
    M Tiraby
    CAYLA, Toulouse, France
    FEMS Microbiol Lett 167:41-9. 1998
    ....
  75. ncbi Therapeutic efficacy of replication-competent retrovirus vector-mediated suicide gene therapy in a multifocal colorectal cancer metastasis model
    Kei Hiraoka
    Department of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA
    Cancer Res 67:5345-53. 2007
    ....
  76. ncbi Antitumor efficiency of the cytosine deaminase/5-fluorocytosine suicide gene therapy system on malignant gliomas: an in vivo study
    Sheng qing Lv
    Department of Neurosurgery, Xinqiao Hospital, The Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, P R China
    Med Sci Monit 15:BR13-20. 2009
    ..The purpose of this study was to investigate the antitumor efficiency of the CD/5-FC system in malignant gliomas using a nude mouse model...
  77. pmc Bacterial cytosine deaminase mutants created by molecular engineering show improved 5-fluorocytosine-mediated cell killing in vitro and in vivo
    Michi Fuchita
    School of Molecular Biosciences and Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164 6534, USA
    Cancer Res 69:4791-9. 2009
    ....
  78. ncbi Cytosine deaminase-uracil phosphoribosyltransferase and interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-18: a multimodal anticancer interface marked by specific modulation in serum cytokines
    Aparajita Khatri
    Oncology Research Centre, Prince of Wales Hospital, Randwick, New South Wales, Australia
    Clin Cancer Res 15:2323-34. 2009
    ....
  79. pmc Human neural stem cells can target and deliver therapeutic genes to breast cancer brain metastases
    Kyeung Min Joo
    Department of Neurosurgery, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
    Mol Ther 17:570-5. 2009
    ..Taken together, brain transplantation of human NSCs, encoding the suicide enzyme CD, combined with systemic administration of the prodrug 5-FC, is an effective treatment regimen for brain metastases of tumors...
  80. ncbi Highly efficient gene delivery for bladder cancers by intravesically administered replication-competent retroviral vectors
    Eiji Kikuchi
    Departments of Urology and Pathology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10021, USA
    Clin Cancer Res 13:4511-8. 2007
    ..In an attempt to improve viral delivery of potentially therapeutic genes via an intravesical route, we have recently developed murine leukemia virus-based replication-competent retrovirus (RCR) vectors...
  81. pmc Antitumor therapy mediated by 5-fluorocytosine and a recombinant fusion protein containing TSG-6 hyaluronan binding domain and yeast cytosine deaminase
    Joshua I Park
    Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Biopharmaceutical Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143 0912, USA
    Mol Pharm 6:801-12. 2009
    ..Thus, the LinkCD fusion protein is an alternative to antibody-directed prodrug enzyme therapy (ADEPT) approaches for cancer treatment...
  82. ncbi Treatment of fungal peritonitis with a combination of intravenous amphotericin B and oral flucytosine, and delayed catheter replacement in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis
    Ping Nam Wong
    Renal Unit, Department of Medicine and Geriatrics, Kwong Wah Hospital, Hong Kong SAR, China
    Perit Dial Int 28:155-62. 2008
    ..Since January 2000 we have been treating FP with a combination of intravenous amphotericin B and oral flucytosine, together with deferred catheter replacement...
  83. ncbi Apoptotic induction with bifunctional E.coli cytosine deaminase-uracil phosphoribosyltransferase mediated suicide gene therapy is synergized by curcumin treatment in vitro
    P Gopinath
    Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati, 781039, India
    Mol Biotechnol 39:39-48. 2008
    ..Our in vitro studies confirmed synergistic induction of apoptotic pathway in the combination treatment. Therefore, combination of 5-FC/CD-UPRT with curcumin could be a potential chemosensitization strategy for cancer treatment...
  84. pmc Activities of flucytosine, fluconazole, amphotericin B, and micafungin in a murine model of disseminated infection by Candida glabrata
    Marçal Mariné
    Unitat de Microbiologia, Facultat de Medicina i Ciencies de la Salut, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Carrer Sant Llorenc 21, 43201, Reus, Spain
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 49:4757-9. 2005
    We compared the efficacies of amphotericin B, fluconazole, flucytosine, and micafungin in a systemic murine infection by three isolates of Candida glabrata...
  85. ncbi Single-shot, multicycle suicide gene therapy by replication-competent retrovirus vectors achieves long-term survival benefit in experimental glioma
    Chien Kuo Tai
    Department of Medicine, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
    Mol Ther 12:842-51. 2005
    ....
  86. ncbi Pilot trial of genetically modified, attenuated Salmonella expressing the E. coli cytosine deaminase gene in refractory cancer patients
    John Nemunaitis
    US Oncology, Mary Crowley Medical Research Center, and Baylor University Medical Center, 3535 Wirth St, Dallas, Texas 75246, USA
    Cancer Gene Ther 10:737-44. 2003
    ..e. able to convert 5-FC to 5-FU) at doses at or below 3 x 10(7) CFU/m(2)...
  87. ncbi Optimization of tumor-targeted gene delivery by engineered attenuated Salmonella typhimurium
    Shaoping Mei
    Laboratory of Experimental Radiobiology LEO, U Z Gasthuisberg K U Leuven, Herestraat 49, B 3000 Leuven
    Anticancer Res 22:3261-6. 2002
    ..Previous findings induce the necessity to optimize tumor selectivity and bacterial dosing in relation to tumor volume and intratumoral therapeutic gene expression...
  88. pmc Non-invasive 19F MR spectroscopy of 5-fluorocytosine to 5-fluorouracil conversion by recombinant Salmonella in tumours
    T Dresselaers
    Biomedical NMR Unit, KU Leuven, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    Br J Cancer 89:1796-801. 2003
    ..tu. with TAPET-CD/5-FC showed no 5-FU and only little amounts of catabolites. Our data illustrate most importantly the potential of (19)F MRS to monitor biologically-based treatments involving cytosine deaminase...
  89. pmc Efficacy and pharmacodynamics of flucytosine monotherapy in a nonneutropenic murine model of invasive aspergillosis
    D T A Te Dorsthorst
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Canisius Wilhelmina Hospital, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 49:4220-6. 2005
    The therapeutic efficacy of flucytosine (5FC) monotherapy and the pharmacodynamic index predictive of efficacy were evaluated in a nonneutropenic mouse model of acute invasive aspergillosis...
  90. pmc Inactivation of the FCY2 gene encoding purine-cytosine permease promotes cross-resistance to flucytosine and fluconazole in Candida lusitaniae
    Florence Chapeland-Leclerc
    Laboratoire des Sciences Végétales, UFR des Sciences Pharmaceutiques et Biologiques, Universite Paris 5, 4 avenue de l Observatoire, 75006 Paris, France
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 49:3101-8. 2005
    ..a defect of purine-cytosine permease and the acquisition of a cross-resistance to the antifungal combination flucytosine (5FC) and fluconazole (FLC) in Candida lusitaniae (T. Noël, F. François, P. Paumard, C. Chastin, D...
  91. ncbi In-vitro activity of 5-fluorocytosine against 1,021 Spanish clinical isolates of Candida and other medically important yeasts
    Guillermo Quindos
    Departamento de Inmunologia, Microbiologia y Parasitologia, Facultad de Medicina y Odontologia, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Bilbao, Spain
    Rev Iberoam Micol 21:63-9. 2004
    ..6% of isolates, MIC90, 1 microg/ml), 8 Trichosporon spp. (33.3% of isolates; MIC90, 64 microg/ml), and 1 C. lipolytica (50% of isolates). Interestingly, most C. albicans (67 out of 77 isolates) resistant to 5FC were serotype B isolates...
  92. ncbi Specific targeting of cytosine deaminase to solid tumors by engineered Clostridium acetobutylicum
    J Theys
    Laboratory of Bacteriology, Rega Institute for Medical Research, Leuven, Belgium
    Cancer Gene Ther 8:294-7. 2001
    ..acetobutylicum. The results provide evidence for the potential application of Clostrisdium-based therapeutic protein transfer to tumors in anticancer therapy...
  93. ncbi Flucytosine primary resistance in Candida species and Cryptococcus neoformans
    M Cuenca-Estrella
    Servicio de Micologia, Centro Nacional de Microbiologia, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Majadahonda Madrid, Spain
    Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 20:276-9. 2001
    The in vitro activity of flucytosine (5FC) against 1,140 clinical isolates of Candida spp. and Cryptococcus neoformans was evaluated and compared with the activity of amphotericin B, fluconazole and itraconazole. Overall, 87...
  94. ncbi In vitro susceptibilities of Malaysian clinical isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii and Cryptococcus gattii to five antifungal drugs
    S T Tay
    Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur
    Mycoses 49:324-30. 2006
    ..grubii and C . gattii to five antifungal drugs (amphotericin B, flucytosine, fluconazole, itraconazole and ketoconazole) were determined using the Etest method...
  95. pmc Flucytosine-fluconazole cross-resistance in purine-cytosine permease-deficient Candida lusitaniae clinical isolates: indirect evidence of a fluconazole uptake transporter
    Thierry Noel
    Laboratoire des Sciences Végétales, Faculte de Pharmacie, Universite Rene Descartes Paris 5, Paris 75006, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 47:1275-84. 2003
    An unusual interaction between flucytosine and fluconazole was observed when a collection of 60 Candida lusitaniae clinical isolates was screened for cross-resistance...
  96. ncbi Tumor-targeted Salmonella expressing cytosine deaminase as an anticancer agent
    Ivan King
    Vion Pharmaceuticals, Inc, New Haven, CT 06511, USA
    Hum Gene Ther 13:1225-33. 2002
    ..These data suggest that tumor-targeting Salmonella could be used to deliver prodrug-converting enzyme selectively to tumors and produced anti-tumor effects when the corresponding prodrug was also given...
  97. pmc Transfer of the bacterial gene for cytosine deaminase to mammalian cells confers lethal sensitivity to 5-fluorocytosine: a negative selection system
    C A Mullen
    Cellular Immunology Section, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 89:33-7. 1992
    ..Thus CD, with its ability to produce the toxic antimetabolite 5-fluorouracil from 5-fluorocytosine, may be useful as a negative selection system for studies and treatments employing gene transfer techniques...
  98. pmc Major role for amphotericin B-flucytosine combination in severe cryptococcosis
    Francoise Dromer
    Institut Pasteur, Mycologie Moléculaire, Centre National de Référence Mycologie et Antifongiques, CNRS URA3012, Paris, France
    PLoS ONE 3:e2870. 2008
    ..We assessed here the optimal therapeutic strategies for severe cryptococcosis using the observational prospective CryptoA/D study after analyzing routine clinical care of cryptococcosis in university or tertiary care hospitals...
  99. ncbi Multicenter evaluation of the reproducibility of the proposed antifungal susceptibility testing method for fermentative yeasts of the Antifungal Susceptibility Testing Subcommittee of the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (AFST-EU
    M Cuenca-Estrella
    Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Majadahonda, Spain
    Clin Microbiol Infect 9:467-74. 2003
    ..This standard is based on the M27-A procedure of the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS), but incorporates several modifications, including spectrophotometric growth-dependent endpoint reading...
  100. pmc Molecular mechanism of flucytosine resistance in Candida lusitaniae: contribution of the FCY2, FCY1, and FUR1 genes to 5-fluorouracil and fluconazole cross-resistance
    Nicolas Papon
    Laboratoire des Sciences Végétales, EA209, UFR des Sciences Pharmaceutiques et Biologiques, Universite Paris 5, 4 avenue de l Observatoire, 75006 Paris, France
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 51:369-71. 2007
    ..and FUR1 (uracil phosphoribosyltransferase) genes in Candida lusitaniae produced two patterns of resistance to flucytosine. Mutant fur1 demonstrated resistance to 5-fluorouracil, whereas mutants fcy1 and fcy2 demonstrated fluconazole ..
  101. ncbi The potential therapeutic gain of radiation-associated gene therapy with the suicide gene cytosine deaminase
    P Lambin
    University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Leuven, Belgium
    Int J Radiat Biol 76:285-93. 2000
    ..To estimate the concentration of 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC), necessary for conversion to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in tumours transduced with the gene cytosine deaminase (CD), to achieve clinically significant radiosensitization to radiotherapy...

Research Grants40

  1. AID-mediated genetic instability in BCR-ABL1-transformed B cell lineage leukemia
    MARKUS MUSCHEN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..abstract_text> ..
  2. Enhancing Suicide Gene Therapy Through Mechanism-Based Approaches
    Donna S Shewach; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..a novel mechanism for the synergistic bystander killing with HSV-TK/GCV and cytosine deaminase (CD)/5-flucytosine (5- FC), a suicide gene model that produces the anticancer drug 5-fluorouracil...
  3. Novel Antifungal Therapeutic Approaches
    Joseph Heitman; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Antifungal agents were limited to amphotericin B, flucytosine, and azoles, but now the candins, second-generation azoles, and lipid based amphotericin formulations have ..
  4. Discovering a Combination Therapeutic Approach to Use in the Treatment of Cryptoc
    Mitchell W Mutz; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Lack of access to the recommended first-line therapeutic combination of amphotericin B/flucytosine (AmB/flucytosine) is a key component of the high mortality rate in the developing world...
  5. Phenotypic Plasticity and Inter-Species Communication in Candida Albicans
    STEPHEN KNOX JONES; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..and mating, is increased in the presence of oxidative stress and also the commonly used anti-fungal drug Flucytosine. Given these results, in my first aim I will determine the rates of switching in C...
  6. Targeted Treatment of Early Cryptococcal Infection in HIV-infected Patients
    ANA CLAIRE LEW MEYER; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..trials of therapies for early cryptococcal infection, combination therapy with oral high-dose fluconazole and flucytosine has shown promise in small clinical trials for the treatment of cryptococcal meningitis...
  7. The glyoxylate cycle as a new target for antifungals
    Claude Selitrennikoff; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..ergosterol, a number of azoles and allylamines that inhibit steps in the ergosterol biosynthetic pathway, flucytosine that inhibits nucleic acid synthesis, and Cancidas, a (1,3)beta-glucan synthase inhibitor...
  8. Antifungal drugs: Beta(1,6)-glucan synthesis inhibitors
    Claude Selitrennikoff; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..ergosterol, a number of azoles and allylamines that inhibit steps in the ergosterol biosynthetic pathway, flucytosine that inhibits nucleic acid synthesis, and Cancidas(r), a beta (1,3)- glucan synthase inhibitor...
  9. Improved Suicide Gene Therapy for Hepatic Cancers
    William Ensminger; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..treatments for intrahepatic cancers using improved methods of delivery and forms of cytosine deaminase/5-flucytosine (CD/FC) in enzyme/prodrug gene therapy. Current gene therapy approaches have at least two critical limitations...
  10. Genetic Analysis of Echinocandin Sensitivity
    Santosh Katiyar; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..were limited by systemic toxicity (polyenes and imidazoles), lack of fungicidal activity (triazoles and flucytosine), or narrow spectrum (allylamines)...
  11. Enhancing Suicide Gene Therapy Through Mechanism-Based Approaches
    Donna Shewach; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..a novel mechanism for the synergistic bystander killing with HSV-TK/GCV and cytosine deaminase (CD)/5- flucytosine (5-FC), a suicide gene model that produces the anticancer drug 5-fluorouracil...
  12. TRIMODAL GENE THERAPY FOR PROSTATE CANCER
    SVEND FREYTAG; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ....
  13. ADULT AIDS CLINICAL TRIALS GROUP
    Michael Saag; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  14. RECENT ADVANCES IN AIDS AND HIV RESEARCH
    Michael Saag; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..CME credit for attending physicians will be provided. ..
  15. Dopamine Systems and Neuropsychiatric Changes in HIV/AIDS
    Benjamin B Gelman; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The project breaks ground neuroscientifically, as no autopsy study has advanced to a "task specific" behavioral correlation with circuit level anomalies of a specific neurotransmitter system. ..
  16. Gemcitabine-Radiation for Advanced Pancreatic Cancer
    Theodore S Lawrence; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..We feel our preclinical and clinical team with a track record of 10 years of carrying out leading clinical trials in this area makes it likely that these studies will improve patient outcome. ..
  17. Mutational Analysis of Fks1: Intrinsic Echinocandin Resistance
    Thomas D Edlind; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..These studies will accelerate the development of second generation ECs that provide a broader spectrum of protection from fungal pathogens. ..
  18. Transplant Associated Infection Surveillance Network
    Peter Pappas; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Finally, the establishment of a bank will be invaluable in the development and validation of newer diagnostic assays. ..
  19. Neural Progenitor Cells as Cancer Therapy Vectors
    Karen Aboody; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The described approach might then be adapted to the treatment of other solid tumors by careful choice of appropriate therapeutic transgenes. ..
  20. A C.elegans high-throughput assay for the identification of new antifungal agents
    Eleftherios Mylonakis; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  21. TEXAS REPOSITORY FOR AIDS NEUROPATHOGENESIS RESEARCH
    Benjamin Gelman; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  22. RADIATION DOSE ESCALATION FOR FOCAL LIVER CANCER
    Theodore Lawrence; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ....
  23. GENETIC & MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OF VIRULENCE IN C NEOFORMANS
    John Perfect; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..It is our hypothesis that beginning to understand the genetic regulation of C. neoformans during infection through this proposal will be a powerful tool to find targets to interrupt pathogenesis. ..
  24. Signaling Pathways in Yeast Azole Response
    Thomas Edlind; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Finally, the signalling pathway responsible for azole-dependent upregulation of ERG expression will be elucidated with a focus on Rox1p and Haplp transcription factors. ..
  25. Prevention/diagnosis/fungal infections/transplantation
    Barbara Alexander; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..This approach will shorten the time from development to clinical implementation in therapeutic trials and guidelines. ..
  26. CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS--A MODEL FOR PATHOGENIC FUNGI
    John Perfect; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..This program emphasizes a focus on a single pathogen with a basic but broad-spectrum and highly interactive genomic approach to scientific investigations which can be extrapolated to other fungi. ..
  27. HIV and the Proteasome in the Aging Human Brain
    Benjamin Gelman; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The linkage between brain inflammation and altered neuronal protein turnover could lead to a unifying functional concept of dementia with application to HIV and aging both. ..
  28. Improving gene therapy-mediated radiosensitization
    Theodore Lawrence; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  29. ANTIFUNGAL RESPONSE--MDR INDUCTION
    Thomas Edlind; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Candida homologues of these factors will be identified by PCR or expression in S. cerevisiae. Their role in MDR induction will be examined by gene disruption. ..
  30. Liver Radioprotection by Systemic of Regional Amifostine
    Theodore Lawrence; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Our preliminary data, research team, and record for translating preclinical findings to the clinic suggest that this proposal is likely to improve the outcome of treatment of patients with diffuse intrahepatic cancer. ..
  31. C.elegans as a model system forC.neoformans pathogenesis
    Eleftherios Mylonakis; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Because C. neoformanshas similarities with other pathogenic yeasts, we expect that our findings will facilitate the study of fungus/host interaction in general. ..
  32. MYELOPATHY AND NEUROPATHY DURING CHANGING HIV BURDEN
    Benjamin Gelman; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Together, the studies we have proposed will provide insights concerning prevalent AIDS morbidities in the HAART era. ..
  33. Role of IL18 in Spread of Prostate Cancer to Bone
    Pamela Russell; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..If IL18 inhibits PCa growth in bone, its delivery by adenovirus vectors into the prostate of patients prior to radical prostatectomy may prevent the development of bone metastasis. ..
  34. POTENTIATING THE ANTI-TUMOR ACTIVITY OF SALMONELLA
    Ivan King; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..The magnitude of the need for a tool for systemic delivery of peptides is huge so as to create an enormous market potential for cancer therapeutics. ..
  35. Antifungal Drug Susceptibility of Cryptococcus neoformans
    Robert Larsen; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ....
  36. Image Localization for Pathologic Correlation of Delta-24-RGD
    Charles Conrad; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  37. Pharmacodynamics in Antifungal Resistance
    David Andes; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The candidate's goal is to integrate knowledge of antifungal PD and the acquisition of approaches and skills in molecular biology through the completion of this grant. ..
  38. IDENTIFYING CANDIDA GENE IN THRUSH USING IVIAT
    M Nguyen; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..albicans infections in humans. ..