fluconazole

Summary

Summary: Triazole antifungal agent that is used to treat oropharyngeal candidiasis and cryptococcal meningitis in AIDS.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Epidemiology and outcomes of candidemia in 2019 patients: data from the prospective antifungal therapy alliance registry
    David L Horn
    Div of Infectious Diseases, Thomas Jefferson University, Ste 210, 211 S 9th St, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 48:1695-703. 2009
  2. pmc Aneuploidy and isochromosome formation in drug-resistant Candida albicans
    Anna Selmecki
    Department of Genetics, Cell Biology, and Development, University of Minnesota, 6 160 Jackson Hall, 321 Church Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    Science 313:367-70. 2006
  3. ncbi Time to initiation of fluconazole therapy impacts mortality in patients with candidemia: a multi-institutional study
    Kevin W Garey
    Department of Clinical Science and Administration, University of Houston College of Pharmacy, Houston, TX, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 43:25-31. 2006
  4. pmc Harnessing Hsp90 function as a powerful, broadly effective therapeutic strategy for fungal infectious disease
    Leah E Cowen
    Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 1A8, Canada
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:2818-23. 2009
  5. pmc Epidemiology and predictors of mortality in cases of Candida bloodstream infection: results from population-based surveillance, barcelona, Spain, from 2002 to 2003
    Benito Almirante
    Infectious Diseases Division, Hospital Universitari Vall d Hebron, Avda Vall d Hebron, 119 129, 08035 Barcelona, Spain
    J Clin Microbiol 43:1829-35. 2005
  6. pmc Cost-effectiveness of serum cryptococcal antigen screening to prevent deaths among HIV-infected persons with a CD4+ cell count < or = 100 cells/microL who start HIV therapy in resource-limited settings
    David B Meya
    Infectious Disease Institute, Makerere University, Mulago Hospital Complex, Kampala, Uganda
    Clin Infect Dis 51:448-55. 2010
  7. ncbi Combination antifungal therapies for HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis: a randomised trial
    Annemarie E Brouwer
    Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
    Lancet 363:1764-7. 2004
  8. pmc Acquisition of aneuploidy provides increased fitness during the evolution of antifungal drug resistance
    Anna M Selmecki
    Department of Genetics, Cell Biology and Development, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA
    PLoS Genet 5:e1000705. 2009
  9. pmc Cryptococcus neoformans overcomes stress of azole drugs by formation of disomy in specific multiple chromosomes
    Edward Sionov
    Molecular Microbiology Section, Laboratory of Clinical Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 6:e1000848. 2010
  10. pmc Calcineurin is essential for survival during membrane stress in Candida albicans
    M Cristina Cruz
    Department of Genetics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    EMBO J 21:546-59. 2002

Detail Information

Publications274 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Epidemiology and outcomes of candidemia in 2019 patients: data from the prospective antifungal therapy alliance registry
    David L Horn
    Div of Infectious Diseases, Thomas Jefferson University, Ste 210, 211 S 9th St, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 48:1695-703. 2009
    ..Candidemia remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the health care setting, and the epidemiology of Candida infection is changing...
  2. pmc Aneuploidy and isochromosome formation in drug-resistant Candida albicans
    Anna Selmecki
    Department of Genetics, Cell Biology, and Development, University of Minnesota, 6 160 Jackson Hall, 321 Church Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    Science 313:367-70. 2006
    ....
  3. ncbi Time to initiation of fluconazole therapy impacts mortality in patients with candidemia: a multi-institutional study
    Kevin W Garey
    Department of Clinical Science and Administration, University of Houston College of Pharmacy, Houston, TX, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 43:25-31. 2006
    ..The goals our analyses were to establish the frequency and duration of delayed antifungal treatment and to evaluate the relationship between treatment delay and mortality...
  4. pmc Harnessing Hsp90 function as a powerful, broadly effective therapeutic strategy for fungal infectious disease
    Leah E Cowen
    Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 1A8, Canada
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:2818-23. 2009
    ....
  5. pmc Epidemiology and predictors of mortality in cases of Candida bloodstream infection: results from population-based surveillance, barcelona, Spain, from 2002 to 2003
    Benito Almirante
    Infectious Diseases Division, Hospital Universitari Vall d Hebron, Avda Vall d Hebron, 119 129, 08035 Barcelona, Spain
    J Clin Microbiol 43:1829-35. 2005
    ..Twenty-four isolates (7%) had decreased susceptibility to fluconazole (MIC > or = 16 microg/ml)...
  6. pmc Cost-effectiveness of serum cryptococcal antigen screening to prevent deaths among HIV-infected persons with a CD4+ cell count < or = 100 cells/microL who start HIV therapy in resource-limited settings
    David B Meya
    Infectious Disease Institute, Makerere University, Mulago Hospital Complex, Kampala, Uganda
    Clin Infect Dis 51:448-55. 2010
    ..We sought to define the cost-effectiveness of serum cryptococcal antigen (CRAG) screening to identify persons with subclinical cryptococcosis and the efficacy of preemptive fluconazole therapy.
  7. ncbi Combination antifungal therapies for HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis: a randomised trial
    Annemarie E Brouwer
    Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
    Lancet 363:1764-7. 2004
    ..In-vitro and animal studies lend support to the use of combinations of amphotericin B, flucytosine, and fluconazole for treatment of cryptococcosis...
  8. pmc Acquisition of aneuploidy provides increased fitness during the evolution of antifungal drug resistance
    Anna M Selmecki
    Department of Genetics, Cell Biology and Development, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA
    PLoS Genet 5:e1000705. 2009
    The evolution of drug resistance is an important process that affects clinical outcomes. Resistance to fluconazole, the most widely used antifungal, is often associated with acquired aneuploidy...
  9. pmc Cryptococcus neoformans overcomes stress of azole drugs by formation of disomy in specific multiple chromosomes
    Edward Sionov
    Molecular Microbiology Section, Laboratory of Clinical Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 6:e1000848. 2010
    ..b>Fluconazole (FLC), a triazole, is widely used for the maintenance therapy of cryptococcosis...
  10. pmc Calcineurin is essential for survival during membrane stress in Candida albicans
    M Cristina Cruz
    Department of Genetics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    EMBO J 21:546-59. 2002
    ..However, combination of either CsA or FK506 with the antifungal drug fluconazole that perturbs synthesis of the membrane lipid ergosterol results in potent, synergistic fungicidal activity...
  11. pmc Standardized method for in vitro antifungal susceptibility testing of Candida albicans biofilms
    G Ramage
    Department of Microbiology, Division of Infectious Diseases, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, Texas 78245, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 45:2475-9. 2001
    ..albicans strains grown as biofilms against amphotericin B and fluconazole and the increased resistance of C. albicans biofilms against these antifungal agents was demonstrated...
  12. pmc Epidemiology, species distribution, antifungal susceptibility and outcome of nosocomial candidemia in a tertiary care hospital in Italy
    Matteo Bassetti
    Infectious Diseases Division, Santa Maria Misericordia University Hospital, Udine, Italy
    PLoS ONE 6:e24198. 2011
    ..Determining factors associated with these high rates may lead to identifying measures that can help to prevent disease...
  13. pmc Synergistic effect of calcineurin inhibitors and fluconazole against Candida albicans biofilms
    Priya Uppuluri
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 52:1127-32. 2008
    ..sensitive to the calcineurin inhibitors FK506 and cyclosporine A (CsA) in combination with the azole antifungal fluconazole. This drug synergism is attributable to two effects: first, calcineurin inhibitors render fluconazole ..
  14. pmc Variation in susceptibility of bloodstream isolates of Candida glabrata to fluconazole according to patient age and geographic location in the United States in 2001 to 2007
    M A Pfaller
    Medical Microbiology Division, Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 47:3185-90. 2009
    We examined the susceptibilities to fluconazole of 642 bloodstream infection (BSI) isolates of Candida glabrata and grouped the isolates by patient age and geographic location within the United States. Susceptibility of C...
  15. pmc Frequency of decreased susceptibility and resistance to echinocandins among fluconazole-resistant bloodstream isolates of Candida glabrata
    M A Pfaller
    JMI Laboratories, North Liberty, Iowa, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 50:1199-203. 2012
    ..Recent reports of BSI due to strains of C. glabrata resistant to both fluconazole and the echinocandins are of concern and prompted us to review the experience of two large surveillance ..
  16. pmc Increased mRNA levels of ERG16, CDR, and MDR1 correlate with increases in azole resistance in Candida albicans isolates from a patient infected with human immunodeficiency virus
    T C White
    Department of Pathobiology, School of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of Washington, and Seattle Biomedical Research Institute, 98109, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 41:1482-7. 1997
    Resistance to antifungal drugs, specifically azoles such as fluconazole, in the opportunistic yeast Candida albicans has become an increasing problem in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals...
  17. pmc Development and characterization of an in vivo central venous catheter Candida albicans biofilm model
    D Andes
    Department of Medicine, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53792, USA
    Infect Immun 72:6023-31. 2004
    ..Two fluconazole efflux pumps, CDR1 and CDR2, were upregulated in the in vivo biofilm-associated cells...
  18. ncbi Candida bloodstream infections in intensive care units: analysis of the extended prevalence of infection in intensive care unit study
    Daniel H Kett
    Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care, The University of Miami Miller School of Medicine and Jackson Memorial Hospital, Miami, FL, USA
    Crit Care Med 39:665-70. 2011
    ..To provide a global, up-to-date picture of the prevalence, treatment, and outcomes of Candida bloodstream infections in intensive care unit patients and compare Candida with bacterial bloodstream infection...
  19. pmc Recent exposure to caspofungin or fluconazole influences the epidemiology of candidemia: a prospective multicenter study involving 2,441 patients
    Olivier Lortholary
    Institut Pasteur, Unité de Mycologie Moléculaire, Centre National de Référence Mycologie et Antifongiques, Paris, France
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 55:532-8. 2011
    ..We analyzed the effect of recent exposure to fluconazole (n = 159) or caspofungin (n = 61) on the proportions of the five major Candida species...
  20. pmc Role of ATP-binding-cassette transporter genes in high-frequency acquisition of resistance to azole antifungals in Candida glabrata
    D Sanglard
    Institut de Microbiologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, 1011 Lausanne, Switzerland
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 45:1174-83. 2001
    ..isolated from AIDS patients with oropharyngeal candidiasis treated with azole antifungal agents, especially fluconazole. We recently showed that the ATP-binding-cassette (ABC) transporter gene CgCDR1 was upregulated in C...
  21. ncbi Primary prophylaxis of cryptococcal disease with fluconazole in HIV-positive Ugandan adults: a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial
    Rosalind Parkes-Ratanshi
    Medical Research Council MRC Uganda Virus Research Institute UVRI Uganda Research Unit on AIDS, UVRI, Entebbe, Uganda
    Lancet Infect Dis 11:933-41. 2011
    ..We studied fluconazole as primary prophylaxis against cryptococcal disease in patients awaiting or starting antiretroviral therapy in ..
  22. pmc Cryptococcus neoformans-Cryptococcus gattii species complex: an international study of wild-type susceptibility endpoint distributions and epidemiological cutoff values for fluconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole
    A Espinel-Ingroff
    VCU Medical Center, Richmond, Virginia, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 56:5898-906. 2012
    Epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs) for the Cryptococcus neoformans-Cryptococcus gattii species complex versus fluconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole are not available...
  23. ncbi High-dose oral fluconazole therapy effective for cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania (Vianna) braziliensis
    Anastácio Q Sousa
    Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Federal University of Ceara, Fortaleza, Ceara, Brazil
    Clin Infect Dis 53:693-5. 2011
    We report for the first time the successful use of fluconazole to treat cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania braziliensis. We used escalating doses from 5 to 8 mg/kg per day...
  24. pmc Reversal of fluconazole resistance by sulfated sterols from the marine sponge Topsentia sp
    Jessica A DiGirolamo
    Department of Pharmacognosy, National Center for Natural Products Research, and Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Mississippi, University, Mississippi 38677, USA
    J Nat Prod 72:1524-8. 2009
    ..1) and 29-demethylgeodisterol-3-O-sulfite (2), the active constituents reversing efflux pump-mediated fluconazole resistance...
  25. pmc Genetic basis of Candida biofilm resistance due to drug-sequestering matrix glucan
    Jeniel E Nett
    Department of Medicine, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53792, USA
    J Infect Dis 202:171-5. 2010
    ..These findings provide the genetic basis for how biofilm matrix production governs drug resistance by impeding drug diffusion and also identify a useful biofilm drug target...
  26. ncbi A phase II randomized trial of amphotericin B alone or combined with fluconazole in the treatment of HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis
    Peter G Pappas
    Div of Infectious Diseases, University of Alabama at Birmingham Medical Center, 1900 University Blvd, THT 229, Birmingham, AL 35294 0006, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 48:1775-83. 2009
    ..Therapeutic options for the treatment of central nervous system cryptococcosis are limited, especially in resource-limited settings...
  27. pmc Isolation and characterization of fluconazole- and amphotericin B-resistant Candida albicans from blood of two patients with leukemia
    F S Nolte
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 41:196-9. 1997
    Infections with fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans isolate have rarely been described in clinical settings other than oropharyngeal candidiasis in patients with late-stage AIDS...
  28. pmc Randomized, double-blind trial of fluconazole versus voriconazole for prevention of invasive fungal infection after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation
    John R Wingard
    University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA
    Blood 116:5111-8. 2010
    ..This multicenter, randomized, double-blind trial compared fluconazole (N = 295) versus voriconazole (N = 305) for the prevention of IFI in the context of a structured fungal ..
  29. pmc Independent association between rate of clearance of infection and clinical outcome of HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis: analysis of a combined cohort of 262 patients
    Tihana Bicanic
    Centre for Infection, St George s University of London, United Kingdom
    Clin Infect Dis 49:702-9. 2009
    ..We hypothesized that the rate of clearance of infection should also be a clinically meaningful endpoint...
  30. pmc Gain of function mutations in CgPDR1 of Candida glabrata not only mediate antifungal resistance but also enhance virulence
    Sélène Ferrari
    Institute of Microbiology, University of Lausanne and University Hospital Center, Lausanne, Switzerland
    PLoS Pathog 5:e1000268. 2009
    ..The presence of CgPDR1 hyperactive alleles also contributed to fluconazole treatment failure in the mouse model...
  31. ncbi The filamentation pathway controlled by the Efg1 regulator protein is required for normal biofilm formation and development in Candida albicans
    Gordon Ramage
    Department of Microbiology, Mail Code 7850, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, 7703 Floyd Curl Drive, 78229 3900, USA
    FEMS Microbiol Lett 214:95-100. 2002
    ..Antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed intrinsic resistance of all mutant strains to fluconazole and amphotericin B when attached to the surface of biomaterials...
  32. ncbi Investigation of multidrug efflux pumps in relation to fluconazole resistance in Candida albicans biofilms
    Gordon Ramage
    Department of Microbiology, Division of Infectious Diseases, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX 78245, USA
    J Antimicrob Chemother 49:973-80. 2002
    ..These biofilms were intrinsically resistant to fluconazole. Moreover, the resistance phenotype was maintained by sessile cells when resuspended as free-floating cells, ..
  33. ncbi An isochromosome confers drug resistance in vivo by amplification of two genes, ERG11 and TAC1
    Anna Selmecki
    Department of Genetics, Cell and Development, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55305, USA
    Mol Microbiol 68:624-41. 2008
    ..Here we exploited a series of isolates from an individual patient during the rapid acquisition of fluconazole resistance (Flu(R))...
  34. pmc Mechanism of the synergistic effect of amiodarone and fluconazole in Candida albicans
    Soledad Gamarra
    Public Health Research Institute, New Jersey Medical School UMDNJ, Newark, NJ 07103 3535, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 54:1753-61. 2010
    ..In addition, low doses of amiodarone have been reported to be synergistic with fluconazole in fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans. To establish its mechanism of toxicity in C...
  35. ncbi Resistance to fluconazole and cross-resistance to amphotericin B in Candida albicans from AIDS patients caused by defective sterol delta5,6-desaturation
    S L Kelly
    Krebs Institute for Biomolecular Research, Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Sheffield University, UK
    FEBS Lett 400:80-2. 1997
    b>Fluconazole resistance occurs in > 10% of cases of candidosis during the late stages of AIDS. We show here in two clinical isolates that resistance was caused by defective sterol delta5,6-desaturation...
  36. pmc Efficacy of isavuconazole, voriconazole and fluconazole in temporarily neutropenic murine models of disseminated Candida tropicalis and Candida krusei
    J Majithiya
    School of Medicine, University of Manchester, 1 800 Stopford Building, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PT, UK
    J Antimicrob Chemother 63:161-6. 2009
    The aim of this study was to assess the dose-response of isavuconazole, voriconazole and fluconazole in disseminated Candida tropicalis and Candida krusei infections.
  37. ncbi Pdr1 regulates multidrug resistance in Candida glabrata: gene disruption and genome-wide expression studies
    John Paul Vermitsky
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA
    Mol Microbiol 61:704-22. 2006
    ..fungal infection, in large part due to its intrinsic or acquired resistance to azole antifungals such as fluconazole. In C...
  38. pmc In vitro susceptibilities of invasive isolates of Candida species: rapid increase in rates of fluconazole susceptible-dose dependent Candida glabrata isolates
    Sheng Yuan Ruan
    Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital Yun Lin Branch, Yun Lin, Taiwan
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 52:2919-22. 2008
    ..Analysis of the fluconazole susceptibilities of 204 bloodstream Candida glabrata isolates revealed a rapid shift from susceptible (64% in ..
  39. pmc Structural characterization of CYP51 from Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma brucei bound to the antifungal drugs posaconazole and fluconazole
    Chiung Kuang Chen
    Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of California, San Francisco, California, United States of America
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 4:e651. 2010
    ..However, modification of azoles to enhance efficacy and circumvent potential drug resistance has been problematic for both parasitic and fungal infections due to the lack of structural insights into drug binding...
  40. ncbi Candida glabrata: an emerging pathogen in Brazilian tertiary care hospitals
    Arnaldo L Colombo
    Division of Infectious Diseases Hospital São Paulo, Escola Paulista de Medicina Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, Rua Botucatu, 740 S ã o Paulo, Brasil
    Med Mycol 51:38-44. 2013
    ..in private hospitals were older, more likely to be in an intensive care unit and to have been exposed to fluconazole before candidemia. Candida parapsilosis was more frequently recovered as the etiologic agent in public (33% vs...
  41. ncbi Fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans vulvovaginitis
    Dror Marchaim
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Detroit Medical Center, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan, USA
    Obstet Gynecol 120:1407-14. 2012
    As a result of high recurrence rates of Candida albicans vaginitis, successful suppressive fluconazole is widely used, and drug resistance is considered rare...
  42. pmc ABC transporter Cdr1p contributes more than Cdr2p does to fluconazole efflux in fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans clinical isolates
    Ann R Holmes
    Department of Oral Sciences, School of Dentistry, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 52:3851-62. 2008
    b>Fluconazole (FLC) remains the antifungal drug of choice for non-life-threatening Candida infections, but drug-resistant strains have been isolated during long-term therapy with azoles...
  43. pmc Combination flucytosine and high-dose fluconazole compared with fluconazole monotherapy for the treatment of cryptococcal meningitis: a randomized trial in Malawi
    Jesse C Nussbaum
    University of North Carolina UNC Project and 2Kamuzu Central Hospital, Lilongwe, Malawi
    Clin Infect Dis 50:338-44. 2010
    ..b>Fluconazole at a dosage of 1200 mg per day is more fungicidal than at a dosage of 800 mg per day, but mortality rates ..
  44. pmc Results from the ARTEMIS DISK Global Antifungal Surveillance Study, 1997 to 2007: 10.5-year analysis of susceptibilities of noncandidal yeast species to fluconazole and voriconazole determined by CLSI standardized disk diffusion testing
    M A Pfaller
    Medical Microbiology Division, C606 GH, Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 47:117-23. 2009
    b>Fluconazole in vitro susceptibility test results determined by the CLSI M44-A disk diffusion method for 11,240 isolates of noncandidal yeasts were collected from 134 study sites in 40 countries from June 1997 through December 2007...
  45. ncbi Induction of cytochrome P450 1A1 by ketoconazole and itraconazole but not fluconazole in murine and human hepatoma cell lines
    Hesham M Korashy
    Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2N8
    Toxicol Sci 97:32-43. 2007
    ..here the ability of three structurally different antifungal drugs, ketoconazole (KTZ), itraconazole (ITZ), and fluconazole (FLZ) to induce the CYP1A1, an enzyme known to play an important role in chemical activation of xenobiotics to ..
  46. pmc Population pharmacokinetics of fluconazole in critically ill patients receiving continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration: using Monte Carlo simulations to predict doses for specified pharmacodynamic targets
    Kashyap Patel
    The School of Pharmacy, The University of Queensland, Pharmacy Australia Centre of Excellence, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 55:5868-73. 2011
    b>Fluconazole is a widely used antifungal agent that is extensively reabsorbed in patients with normal renal function...
  47. pmc Amphotericin B- and fluconazole-resistant Candida spp., Aspergillus fumigatus, and other newly emerging pathogenic fungi are susceptible to basic antifungal peptides
    E J Helmerhorst
    Department of Oral Biochemistry, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 43:702-4. 1999
    ..analog designated dhvar4, and a peptide from frog skin, PGLa, are active against amphotericin B-resistant Candida albicans, Candida krusei, and Aspergillus fumigatus strains and against a fluconazole-resistant Candida glabrata isolate.
  48. ncbi Fluconazole prophylaxis in extremely low birth weight infants and neurodevelopmental outcomes and quality of life at 8 to 10 years of age
    David A Kaufman
    Pediatrics, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA
    J Pediatr 158:759-765.e1. 2011
    To examine the long-term effects of fluconazole prophylaxis in extremely low birth weight infants.
  49. pmc Effects of fluconazole on the secretome, the wall proteome, and wall integrity of the clinical fungus Candida albicans
    Alice G Sorgo
    Swammerdam Institute for Life Sciences, Universiteit van Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands
    Eukaryot Cell 10:1071-81. 2011
    b>Fluconazole is a commonly used antifungal drug that inhibits Erg11, a protein responsible for 14α-demethylation during ergosterol synthesis...
  50. ncbi A multicentre, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of primary cryptococcal meningitis prophylaxis in HIV-infected patients with severe immune deficiency
    P Chetchotisakd
    Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand
    HIV Med 5:140-3. 2004
    To assess the efficacy and survival benefit of low-dose fluconazole (400 mg weekly) for primary prophylaxis for cryptococcal meningitis in patients with advanced HIV infection.
  51. pmc Results from the ARTEMIS DISK Global Antifungal Surveillance study, 1997 to 2005: an 8.5-year analysis of susceptibilities of Candida species and other yeast species to fluconazole and voriconazole determined by CLSI standardized disk diffusion testing
    M A Pfaller
    Department of Pathology, Roy J and Lucille A Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 45:1735-45. 2007
    b>Fluconazole in vitro susceptibility test results for 205,329 yeasts were collected from 134 study sites in 40 countries from June 1997 through December 2005...
  52. pmc Multilocus sequence typing of Candida glabrata reveals geographically enriched clades
    Andrew R Dodgson
    School of Medicine, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom
    J Clin Microbiol 41:5709-17. 2003
    ..The clinical relevance of C. glabrata is enhanced by its reduced susceptibility to fluconazole. Despite this, little is known of the epidemiology or population structure of this species...
  53. ncbi Candida tropicalis in human disease
    Louis Yi Ann Chai
    Department of Medicine, National University Hospital, Singapore
    Crit Rev Microbiol 36:282-98. 2010
    ..Primary fluconazole resistance is uncommon but may be induced on exposure. Physicians in regions where C...
  54. ncbi The stepwise acquisition of fluconazole resistance mutations causes a gradual loss of fitness in Candida albicans
    Christoph Sasse
    Institut für Molekulare Infektionsbiologie, Universitat Wurzburg, Wurzburg, Germany
    Mol Microbiol 86:539-56. 2012
    The pathogenic yeast Candida albicans can develop resistance to the widely used antifungal agent fluconazole, which inhibits ergosterol biosynthesis...
  55. pmc Comparison of the broth microdilution (BMD) method of the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing with the 24-hour CLSI BMD method for testing susceptibility of Candida species to fluconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole by use of ep
    M A Pfaller
    Medical Microbiology Division, C606 GH, Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 49:845-50. 2011
    ..Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) was compared with CLSI BMD method M27-A3 for fluconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole susceptibility testing of 1,056 isolates of Candida...
  56. pmc Genome-wide expression profiling of the response to short-term exposure to fluconazole in Cryptococcus neoformans serotype A
    Ada Rita Florio
    Istituto di Microbiologia, Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Largo F Vito 1, 00168 Rome, Italy
    BMC Microbiol 11:97. 2011
    b>Fluconazole (FLC), a triazole antifungal drug, is widely used for the maintenance therapy of cryptococcal meningoencephalitis, the most common opportunistic infection in AIDS patients...
  57. ncbi Short course amphotericin B with high dose fluconazole for HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis
    Conrad K Muzoora
    Department of Medicine, Mbarara University Hospital, Plot 1 Hospital Road, P O Box 1410, Mbarara, Uganda
    J Infect 64:76-81. 2012
    ..To define more rapidly effective initial antifungal regimens sustainable in resource-constrained settings...
  58. ncbi Invasive fungal infections in pediatric leukemia patients receiving fluconazole prophylaxis
    Zuhre Kaya
    Pediatric Hematology Unit of Department of Pediatrics, Medical School of Gazi University, Ankara, Turkey
    Pediatr Blood Cancer 52:470-5. 2009
    ..Children with acute leukemia have increased risk for invasive fungal infections (IFI) but the role of long term antifungal prophylaxis (AFP) in morbidity and mortality of IFI is not well-known...
  59. ncbi Survival time of HIV-infected patients with cryptococcal meningitis
    Suthat Chottanapund
    Department of Tropical Hygiene, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
    J Med Assoc Thai 90:2104-11. 2007
    ..To study survival time and risk factors of mortality among HIV-infected patients who had cryptococcal meningitis...
  60. pmc Heteroresistance of Cryptococcus gattii to fluconazole
    A Varma
    Molecular Microbiology Section, Laboratory of Clinical Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 54:2303-11. 2010
    ..been isolated before or after the advent of azole antifungals to determine their level of heteroresistance to fluconazole (LHF). All strains of C...
  61. ncbi Candidaemia in adult cancer patients: risks for fluconazole-resistant isolates and death
    Monica A Slavin
    Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre and the Centre for Research Excellence in Infectious Diseases, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville, VIC 3050, Australia
    J Antimicrob Chemother 65:1042-51. 2010
    Candidaemia in cancer patients is associated with increasing fluconazole resistance. Models for predicting such isolates and their clinical impact are required.
  62. pmc An A643T mutation in the transcription factor Upc2p causes constitutive ERG11 upregulation and increased fluconazole resistance in Candida albicans
    Clemens J Heilmann
    Institut für Molekulare Infektionsbiologie, Universitat Wurzburg, Rontgenring 11, D 97070 Wurzburg, Germany
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 54:353-9. 2010
    ..One mechanism of acquired resistance to the antifungal drug fluconazole, which inhibits ergosterol biosynthesis, is constitutively increased expression of the ERG11 gene encoding the ..
  63. pmc Evolutionary divergence in the fungal response to fluconazole revealed by soft clustering
    Dwight Kuo
    Department of Bioengineering, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    Genome Biol 11:R77. 2010
    ..which yeasts can respond to anti-fungals, we compared gene expression patterns across three evolutionarily distant species - Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida glabrata and Kluyveromyces lactis - over time following fluconazole exposure.
  64. pmc Results from the ARTEMIS DISK Global Antifungal Surveillance Study, 1997 to 2007: a 10.5-year analysis of susceptibilities of Candida Species to fluconazole and voriconazole as determined by CLSI standardized disk diffusion
    M A Pfaller
    Medical Microbiology Division, C606 GH, Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 48:1366-77. 2010
    b>Fluconazole in vitro susceptibility test results for 256,882 isolates of Candida spp. were collected from 142 sites in 41 countries from June 1997 to December 2007...
  65. pmc In vitro antifungal susceptibilities and amplified fragment length polymorphism genotyping of a worldwide collection of 350 clinical, veterinary, and environmental Cryptococcus gattii isolates
    Ferry Hagen
    CBS KNAW Fungal Biodiversity Centre, Department of Yeast and Basidiomycete Research, Utrecht, Netherlands
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 54:5139-45. 2010
    ..The clinical AFLP6 isolates had significantly higher geometric mean MICs for flucytosine and fluconazole than the clinical AFLP4 isolates...
  66. ncbi Changing incidence of Candida bloodstream infections among NICU patients in the United States: 1995-2004
    Scott K Fridkin
    Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, US Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Pediatrics 117:1680-7. 2006
    Recent reports suggest that candidemia caused by fluconazole-resistant strains is increasing in certain adult populations...
  67. pmc Systematic discovery of multicomponent therapeutics
    Alexis A Borisy
    CombinatoRx Incorporated, 650 Albany Street, Boston, MA 02118, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:7977-82. 2003
    ..Systematic combination screening may ultimately be useful for exploring the connectivity of biological pathways and, when performed with reference-listed drugs, may result in the discovery of new combination drug regimens...
  68. pmc Cross-species discovery of syncretic drug combinations that potentiate the antifungal fluconazole
    Michaela Spitzer
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Cell Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
    Mol Syst Biol 7:499. 2011
    Resistance to widely used fungistatic drugs, particularly to the ergosterol biosynthesis inhibitor fluconazole, threatens millions of immunocompromised patients susceptible to invasive fungal infections...
  69. pmc Mechanism of fluconazole resistance in Candida albicans biofilms: phase-specific role of efflux pumps and membrane sterols
    Pranab K Mukherjee
    Center for Medical Mycology, Department of Dermatology, University Hospitals of Cleveland and Case Western Reserve University, Ohio 44106, USA
    Infect Immun 71:4333-40. 2003
    Candida albicans biofilms are formed through three distinct developmental phases and are associated with high fluconazole (FLU) resistance...
  70. ncbi Hsp90 potentiates the rapid evolution of new traits: drug resistance in diverse fungi
    Leah E Cowen
    Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, 9 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA
    Science 309:2185-9. 2005
    ..During selection in a human host, drug resistance that was initially Hsp90-dependent evolved toward independence. Thus, Hsp90 can act in diverse ways to couple environmental contingency to the emergence and fixation of new traits...
  71. ncbi Fluconazole modulates membrane rigidity, heterogeneity, and water penetration into the plasma membrane in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    Fumiyoshi Abe
    Molecular Evolution and Adaptation Research, Institute of Biogeosciences, Japan Agency for Marine Earth Science and Technology JAMSTEC, Yokosuka 237 0061, Japan
    Biochemistry 48:8494-504. 2009
    Azole anitifungal drugs such as fluconazole inhibit 14alpha-demethylase...
  72. ncbi Screening for amino acid substitutions in the Candida albicans Erg11 protein of azole-susceptible and azole-resistant clinical isolates: new substitutions and a review of the literature
    Florent Morio
    Universite de Nantes, Nantes Atlantique Universites, Département de Parasitologie et Mycologie Médicale, EA 1155 IICiMed, Faculte de Pharmacie, 1 rue Gaston Veil, 44035 Nantes, France
    Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 66:373-84. 2010
    ..In this study, we investigated the antifungal susceptibility to fluconazole, itraconazole, and voriconazole of 73 clinical isolates of Candida albicans...
  73. pmc Regulation of efflux pump expression and drug resistance by the transcription factors Mrr1, Upc2, and Cap1 in Candida albicans
    Sabrina Schubert
    Institut für Molekulare Infektionsbiologie, Universitat Wurzburg, Josef Schneider Str 2, Bau D15, D 97080 Wurzburg, Germany
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 55:2212-23. 2011
    ..albicans, but gain-of-function mutations in either of the two transcription factors can independently mediate efflux pump overexpression and drug resistance...
  74. pmc Requirement for ergosterol in V-ATPase function underlies antifungal activity of azole drugs
    Yong Qiang Zhang
    The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine of Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 6:e1000939. 2010
    ..In both S. cerevisiae and the fungal pathogen C. albicans, fluconazole impaired vacuolar acidification, whereas concomitant ergosterol feeding restored V-ATPase function and cell ..
  75. pmc One year prospective survey of Candida bloodstream infections in Scotland
    Frank C Odds
    Aberdeen Fungal Group, School of Medical Sciences, Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB25 2ZD, UK
    J Med Microbiol 56:1066-75. 2007
    ..Among C. glabrata isolates, 55 % showed reduced susceptibility to fluconazole, but azole resistance among other species was extremely low...
  76. ncbi Antifungal activity of amiodarone is mediated by disruption of calcium homeostasis
    Soma Sen Gupta
    Department of Physiology, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    J Biol Chem 278:28831-9. 2003
    ..We show that low doses of amiodarone and an azole (miconazole, fluconazole) are strongly synergistic and exhibit potent fungicidal effects in combination...
  77. ncbi History of the development of azole derivatives
    J A Maertens
    Department of Haematology, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Leuven, Belgium
    Clin Microbiol Infect 10:1-10. 2004
    ..Both fluconazole and itraconazole displayed a broader spectrum of antifungal activity than the imidazoles and had a markedly ..
  78. pmc Risk factors for fluconazole-resistant candidemia
    Jose Garnacho-Montero
    Critical Care and Emergency Department, Intensive Care Unit, Virgen del Rocio University Hospital, Avenida Manuel Siurot s n, Seville 41013, Spain
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 54:3149-54. 2010
    ..or with potentially fluconazole-resistant Candida spp. (C. glabrata and C. krusei)...
  79. pmc Characterization of plant-derived saponin natural products against Candida albicans
    Jeffrey J Coleman
    Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, USA
    ACS Chem Biol 5:321-32. 2010
    ..The large proportion of compounds identified as antifungal agents containing saponin structural features suggests it may be a suitable chemical scaffold for a new generation of antifungal compounds...
  80. ncbi Geographic variation in the frequency of isolation and fluconazole and voriconazole susceptibilities of Candida glabrata: an assessment from the ARTEMIS DISK Global Antifungal Surveillance Program
    Michael A Pfaller
    Medical Microbiology Division, Department of Pathology, University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 67:162-71. 2010
    ..glabrata during ARTEMIS DISK global surveillance. Susceptibility testing to fluconazole and voriconazole was assessed by disk diffusion, and the results were grouped by geographic location: North ..
  81. ncbi Attributable mortality of nosocomial candidemia, revisited
    Olafur Gudlaugsson
    Department of Epidemiology, University of Iowa College of Public Health, Iowa City, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 37:1172-7. 2003
    ..Nosocomial candidemia is still associated with an extremely high crude and attributable mortality--much higher than that expected from underlying disease alone...
  82. ncbi A multicenter, randomized trial of prophylactic fluconazole in preterm neonates
    Paolo Manzoni
    Neonatology and Hospital Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Sant Anna Hospital, Turin, Italy
    N Engl J Med 356:2483-95. 2007
    ..We performed a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of fluconazole for the prevention of fungal colonization and infection in very-low-birth-weight neonates.
  83. pmc Candida glabrata PDR1, a transcriptional regulator of a pleiotropic drug resistance network, mediates azole resistance in clinical isolates and petite mutants
    Huei Fung Tsai
    Clinical Mycology Section, Laboratory of Clinical Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 50:1384-92. 2006
    ..Transposon mutagenesis revealed that disruption of CgPDR1 resulted in an 8- to 16-fold increase in fluconazole susceptibility of C. glabrata...
  84. pmc Antifungal chemical compounds identified using a C. elegans pathogenicity assay
    Julia Breger
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 3:e18. 2007
    ..Compounds identified in the screen that affect the virulence of Candida in vivo can potentially be used as "probe compounds" and may have antifungal activity against other fungi...
  85. ncbi Epidemiology of candidemia in Swiss tertiary care hospitals: secular trends, 1991-2000
    Oscar Marchetti
    Infectious Diseases Service, Department of Internal Medicine, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne, Switzerland
    Clin Infect Dis 38:311-20. 2004
    ..krusei remained rare (2%). Fluconazole consumption increased significantly (P<.001)...
  86. pmc Outcome of AIDS-associated cryptococcal meningitis initially treated with 200 mg/day or 400 mg/day of fluconazole
    C F Schaars
    Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    BMC Infect Dis 6:118. 2006
    AIDS-associated cryptococcal meningitis has a high mortality. Fluconazole was the only systemic antifungal therapy available in our centre...
  87. ncbi Resistance mechanisms in fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans isolates from vaginal candidiasis
    Jana Cernicka
    Comenius University in Bratislava, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Department of Microbiology and Virology, Mlynska dolina B 2, 842 15 Bratislava 4, Slovak Republic
    Int J Antimicrob Agents 27:403-8. 2006
    ..Here we investigated the molecular mechanisms of resistance in 22 randomly selected fluconazole-resistant vaginal C. albicans isolates...
  88. ncbi Fungicidal effect of photodynamic therapy against fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans and Candida glabrata
    Lívia Nordi Dovigo
    Department of Dental Materials and Prosthodontics, Araraquara Dental School, Sao Paulo State University UNESP, Araraquara, SP, Brazil
    Mycoses 54:123-30. 2011
    ..of Photogem® (Photogem, Moscow, Russia) with LED (light emitting diode) light for the photoinactivation of fluconazole-resistant (FR) and American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) strains of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata...
  89. pmc Characterization and quantitation of the pharmacodynamics of fluconazole in a neutropenic murine disseminated candidiasis infection model
    D Andes
    Section of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine, Madison, Wisconsin 53792, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 43:2116-20. 1999
    ..the pharmacodynamic parameter and the magnitude of that parameter that was predictive of the efficacy of fluconazole in the treatment of disseminated candidiasis...
  90. ncbi Healing of Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis in travelers treated with fluconazole: drug effect or spontaneous evolution?
    Gloria Morizot
    Pôle de Recherche Biomédicale Centre Médical, Institut Pasteur de Paris, Paris, France
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 76:48-52. 2007
    The efficacy of fluconazole was evaluated in 35 travelers with parasitologically proven imported Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL)...
  91. pmc Results from the ARTEMIS DISK Global Antifungal Surveillance Study: a 6.5-year analysis of susceptibilities of Candida and other yeast species to fluconazole and voriconazole by standardized disk diffusion testing
    M A Pfaller
    Medical Microbiology Division, C606 GH, Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 43:5848-59. 2005
    b>Fluconazole in vitro susceptibility test results for 140,767 yeasts were collected from 127 participating investigators in 39 countries from June 1997 through December 2003...
  92. pmc Correlation of Neo-Sensitabs tablet diffusion assay results on three different agar media with CLSI broth microdilution M27-A2 and disk diffusion M44-A results for testing susceptibilities of Candida spp. and Cryptococcus neoformans to amphotericin B, cas
    A Espinel-Ingroff
    Division of Infectious Diseases, VCU Medical Center, 1101 Marshal St, Sanger Hall, Room 7049, Richmond, VA 23298 0049, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 45:858-64. 2007
    ..and Cryptococcus neoformans to amphotericin B, caspofungin, fluconazole, itraconazole, and voriconazole...
  93. ncbi Dose response effect of high-dose fluconazole for HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis in southwestern Uganda
    Nicky Longley
    Department of Medicine, Mbarara University Hospital, Mbarara, Uganda
    Clin Infect Dis 47:1556-61. 2008
    Therapy for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated cryptococcal meningitis in many centers in Africa is fluconazole administered at a dosage of 400-800 mg per day...
  94. pmc Multiple patterns of resistance to fluconazole in Candida glabrata isolates from a patient with oropharyngeal candidiasis receiving head and neck radiation
    Spencer W Redding
    Department of General Dentistry, The University of Texas Health Science Center and The South Texas Veterans Healthcare System, San Antonio, Texas 78229 3900, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 41:619-22. 2003
    ..glabrata. The goal of this study was to track the development of increased fluconazole resistance in C...
  95. ncbi Fluconazole prophylaxis for prevention of invasive fungal infections in targeted highest risk preterm infants limits drug exposure
    J H Weitkamp
    1Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Monroe Carell Jr Children s Hospital at Vanderbilt, Nashville, TN 37232 0656, USA
    J Perinatol 28:405-11. 2008
    Previous reports suggest a benefit of fluconazole prophylaxis in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants <1000 g...
  96. ncbi Candida albicans prosthetic hip infection in elderly patients: is fluconazole monotherapy an option?
    Theodoros Kelesidis
    Department of Medicine, Caritas St Elizabeth s Medical Center, Tufts University School of Medicine, 736 Cambridge Street, Boston, MA 02135, USA
    Scand J Infect Dis 42:12-21. 2010
    ..albicans prosthetic hip arthritis successfully treated with fluconazole monotherapy and review the literature on the pathogenesis, clinical manifestations and management of these ..
  97. ncbi Evolution of antifungal susceptibility among Candida species isolates recovered from human immunodeficiency virus-infected women receiving fluconazole prophylaxis
    J A Vazquez
    Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 33:1069-75. 2001
    The effect of fluconazole on the susceptibility of Candida isolates recovered from women infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was evaluated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial...
  98. ncbi Fluconazole for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania major
    Abdulrahman A Alrajhi
    Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard School of Public Health, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, MA, USA
    N Engl J Med 346:891-5. 2002
    ..certain oral antifungal azoles are well documented to have activity against leishmania, data on the efficacy of fluconazole for leishmaniasis are limited...
  99. pmc Fluconazole loading dose pharmacokinetics and safety in infants
    Lauren Piper
    Department of Pediatrics and Duke Clinical Research Institute, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 30:375-8. 2011
    ..Prompt administration of fluconazole and achievement of the therapeutic target (area under the curve 0 to 24 hours >400 mg*h/L) improve outcomes ..
  100. ncbi Candida glabrata ATP-binding cassette transporters Cdr1p and Pdh1p expressed in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain deficient in membrane transporters show phosphorylation-dependent pumping properties
    Shun ichi Wada
    Department of Bioactive Molecules, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, 1 23 1 Toyama, Shinjuku ku, Tokyo 162 8640, Japan
    J Biol Chem 277:46809-21. 2002
    ..This suggests that phosphorylation of Pdh1p may be required for efficient coupling of NTPase activity with drug efflux...
  101. pmc Mechanism of increased fluconazole resistance in Candida glabrata during prophylaxis
    John E Bennett
    Clinical Mycology Section, Laboratory of Clinical Investigation, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 48:1773-7. 2004
    Candida glabrata can become resistant to fluconazole, causing persistent colonization and invasive infection during prolonged exposure to the drug...

Research Grants62

  1. Triazole hypersensitivity in Candida albicans
    Neeraj Chauhan; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..results of MIC broth micro dilution assays indicate that the ssk1 mutant is hypersensitive to the triazoles, fluconazole and voriconazole compared to the wild type strain CAF2-1...
  2. Genetic and Evolutionary Basis of Fungal Drug Resistance
    Zhenglong Gu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The preliminary data for mapping sensitivity of the pathogenic strain (YJM789) to one antifungal drug (Fluconazole) using whole genome tiling array successfully identified a candidate gene (PDR5), and subsequent experiments ..
  3. Centromere Structure and Function in Candida albicans
    Judith G Berman; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..We recently found that acquired resistance to fluconazole is often conferred by genome rearrangements involving the centromere of chromosome 5...
  4. Novel antifungals for Immunocompromised/HIV patients.
    ESTEBAN EDWARD MENA; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Science Center at San Antonio (UTHSCSA), we are screening LifePharms'natural product library against both fluconazole sensitive (ATCC 90028) and resistant Candida strains ATCC 90030, 96901, 6852) and Aspergillus fumigatus and ..
  5. Prevention of Invasive Candidiasis: PK, Safety, and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes
    Daniel K Benjamin; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..It has been shown that invasive candidiasis is safely prevented by administering fluconazole prophylaxis in immunocompromised adults...
  6. Discovery and evaluation of fungicidal anti-cryptococcal molecules
    Damian J Krysan; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Finally, the in vivo efficacy of toremifene (alone and in combination with fluconazole) will be evaluated using a mouse model of cryptococcosis (Aim 4)...
  7. Discovering a Combination Therapeutic Approach to Use in the Treatment of Cryptoc
    Mitchell W Mutz; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..b>Fluconazole, an oral, fungistatic drug, is used after the initial treatment with AmB/flucytosine, and is often used for ..
  8. Development of B-Lock an antibiofilm catheter lock product
    Krzysztof Appelt; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..showed that clinical candidate was active against biofilms in vitro and in vivo, including biofilms formed by fluconazole-resistant C. albicans and C...
  9. Centromere structure and isochromosome formation in Candida albicans
    Laura S Burrack; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..b>Fluconazole is the most frequently prescribed oral antifungal for treating Candida infections and acquired resistance to ..
  10. Asymptomatic Cryptococcal Antigenemia in HIV-Infected Patients in the United Stat
    Michele W Tang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..CrAg+ predicted development of symptomatic cryptococcal disease and subsequent mortality, while fluconazole use was associated with increased survival...
  11. Hsp90 inhibitors to combat antifungal drug resistance.
    ESTEBAN EDWARD MENA; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Testing Laboratory and Division of Infectious Diseases at the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, we have identified natural products that restore fluconazole toxicity to previously resistant Candida strains.
  12. Targeted Treatment of Early Cryptococcal Infection in HIV-infected Patients
    ANA CLAIRE LEW MEYER; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Although the mainstay of anti-cryptococcal therapy in resource-limited settings is monotherapy with oral fluconazole, preliminary evidence suggests this is not an effective treatment in a heterogeneous population of individuals ..
  13. Glucan Binding to Azole Drugs: A Novel Resistance Mechanism in Candida albicans
    THEODORE WHITE; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The Specific Aims of this proposal are: 1. To determine the effect of ??1,3 glucan binding on fluconazole accumulation in Candida albicans...
  14. Dynamics of mixed candida species biofilms in response to antifungal treatment
    Geethanjali Vipulanandan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..glabrata in the mixed biofilm increases significantly upon treatment with fluconazole. My preliminary data also indicates that the metabolic activity of biofilms is altered when these four Candida ..
  15. Operational Research for cryptococcal antigen screening to improve ART survival
    DAVID BISAGAYA MEYA; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We propose to investigate how practical and effective CRAG screening and targeted pre-emptive fluconazole treatment would be in the operational setting of patients entering ART treatment programmes in Kampala City ..
  16. Pharmacogenetics and Drug Interactions
    Richard C Brundage; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..and in an initial in vivo human clinical study of the interaction of flurbiprofen (CYP2C9 probe substrate) and fluconazole (CYP2C9 inhibitor)...
  17. Novel antifungal therapeutics
    WILLIAM CONSTANTINE GROUTAS; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..cost of the less toxic liposomal preparations of AmpB, this drug remains as the major fall back choice to fluconazole or an echinocandin in the non-neutropenic patient with candidemia...
  18. Novel Rinse to Treat Oral Candidiasis in Cancer Patients
    Bakul Bhatt; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Oral candidiasis is generally treated with systemic antifungals or oral rinses. Fluconazole tablets and clotrimazole troches are the most popular therapies...
  19. Antimicrobial pharmacokinetics and outcomes in vulnerable infants
    Matthew Laughon; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..b>Fluconazole and rifampin are two antimicrobials commonly used in the nursery for which pharmacokinetic data can be improved...
  20. THE YEAST ERGOSTEROL PATHWAY
    Martin Bard; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..used antifungal classes, the polyenes (amphotericin B) target plasma membrane-bound sterols and the azoles (fluconazole, and itraconazole) target the cytochrome P450-mediated step, lanosterol C-14 demethylation...
  21. YEAST ERGOSTEROL PATHWAY--NEW ANTIFUNGAL TARGET SITES
    Martin Bard; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..the polyenes (amphotericin B) target plasma membrane-bound sterols and the new classes of azoles (ketoconazole, fluconazole, and itraconazole) target the cytochrome P450-mediated step, lanosterol C-14 demethylation...
  22. Electroporation and transcutaneous extraction of drugs
    SATHYANARAYANA MURTHY; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..from our recent success in utilizing ETE for sampling of drugs such as salicylic acid, acyclovir, ibuprofen, fluconazole and cefpodoxime from the dermal ECF...
  23. P-113: a novel peptide therapy for vaginal candidiasis
    David Osborne; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..by an overgrowth of endogenous Candida species, many resistant to mainstream azole antifungal therapies such as fluconazole. Azole resistance is associated with approximately 16 million recurrent VC cases per year in the US...
  24. TDM & Drug Interactions in HIVinfected Substance Abusers
    Gene Morse; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), and commonly prescribed medications including methadone, ethinyl estradiol, fluconazole, pravastatin, and fluoxetine in HIV-infected, substance abusers The proposed methodology employs a Therapeutic ..
  25. Azoles and Candida in AIDS - A Whole Cell Response
    THEODORE WHITE; Fiscal Year: 2004
    The use of azole antifungals, including fluconazole, for treatment and/or prophylaxis against infections caused by Candida albicans has resulted in a recent, dramatic increase in Candida strains that are resistant to antifungal drugs...
  26. AIDS Related Oral Candidiasis: Drugs, Sterols, and Fungal Cells
    Theodore C White; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..It is usually treated with antifungal drugs, most commonly the azole fluconazole which is used extensively in AIDS patients...
  27. Prevention of Candidiasis in Critically III Patients
    SHELLEY MAGILL; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Specific Aims. 1 ). To determine Candida species distribution and fluconazole susceptibilities in high-risk SICU patients and compare current species distribution and susceptibility data to ..
  28. Reversing Antifungal Drug Resistance
    Susan Lindquist; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..resistance of a fungal strain that was isolated from a patient receiving the very commonly used antifungal drug fluconazole Aim 2: Evaluate the compounds identified in the primary screen by measuring their potency, their spectrum of ..
  29. ANTIFUNGALS FROM MARINE INVERTEBRATES--AIDS ADJUVANTS
    Tadeusz F Molinski; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Each new generation of azole drugs, such as fluconazole, has succumbed to emergent cross resistance...
  30. FOCUSED PARALLEL SYNTHESIS OF DICATION ANTIFUNGAL AGENTS
    Richard Tidwell; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..albicans and fluconazole-resistant strains of C. albicans and C. neoformans...
  31. ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE IN CANDIDA ALBICANS BIOFILMS
    Bonnie Tyler; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..The efficacy of three antimicrobial agents, hydrogen peroxide, chlorhexidine gluconate, and fluconazole, against both biofilms and planktonic C. albicans will be measured...
  32. Mechanisms of drug resistance in Candida albicans
    Brian Wong; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..albicans sec4 mutant, and secretory vesicles from these cells will be tested for the ability to transport [3H]-fluconazole across their membranes...
  33. GENETIC VARIABILITY OF THE YEAST CANDIDA ALBICANS
    Fred Sherman; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..copy number include the utilization of D-arabinose, Aru- to Aru+, and resistance to the antifungal agent, fluconazole, FluS to FluR, thus establishing a general regulatory mechanism...
  34. Antifungal sphingolipids for AIDS-related Mycoses
    TADEUSZ MOLINSKI; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..of pure antifungal compounds will be characterized using in vitro antifungal susceptibility testing in panel of fluconazole-resistant fungi. Lead compounds will be selected for advanced in vivo evaluation in murine models of fungemia...
  35. Analysis of the Candida Albicans Proteome
    Jose Lopez Ribot; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Azole derivatives, in particular fluconazole, are generally effective in the treatment of mucosal candidiasis...
  36. Azoles and Candida in AIDS-Transcriptional Regulation
    THEODORE WHITE; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..These infections are treated with antifungal drugs including the azole fluconazole. Extensive azole use has resulted in resistance which is a growing and significant problem...
  37. New strategies for identification of C. albicans fluconazole resistance gene
    Aaron Mitchell; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..b>Fluconazole and other azoles are the major antifungals currently in use, in particular for long-term treatment...
  38. POTENTIATORS OF FLUCONAZOLE ACTIVITY IN CANDIDA
    PENELOPE MARKHAM; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Their ability to improve antifungal activity of fluconazole will be tested in a murine model of systemic candidiasis...
  39. Karyotypes of C. albicans fluconzole resistant mutants
    Elena Rustchenko; Fiscal Year: 2004
    Through the work of many groups, fluconazole resistance in some, but not all clinical isolates has been associated with the gene target of the drug, ERG11, as well as genes for cellular pumps, CDR1, CDR2 and MDR1...
  40. POTENTIATORS OF FLUCONAZOLE ACTIVITY IN CANDIDA
    PENELOPE MARKHAM; Fiscal Year: 1999
    There is an increasing incidence of life-threatening systemic fungal infections due to Candida species. Although fluconazole is currently the most widely used drug for preventing and treating these infections, its effectiveness is ..
  41. Transplant Associated Infection Surveillance Network
    Peter Pappas; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Finally, the establishment of a bank will be invaluable in the development and validation of newer diagnostic assays. ..
  42. QUALITY OF LIFE AND RELATIONSHIPS AFTER BMT
    John Wingard; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..This information is essential to subsequent planning and implementation of relevant, well-aimed interventions to minimize psychosocial disruption and enhance growth in future BMT recipients and their loved ones. ..
  43. Detection and Significance of Antifungal Resistance in Oropharyngeal Candidiasis
    Thomas F Patterson; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This research is aimed at developing rapid molecular tests to detect yeasts which are resistant to antifungal agents in order to allow early use of more effective therapy. ..
  44. Receptor Affects Fungal Mucosal Colonization in HIV
    Mary Ann Jabra Rizk; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..dubliniensis to be preferentially selected. ..
  45. MOLECULAR BASIS OF VIRULENCE FACTORS OF ORAL FUNGAL SP.
    Mary Ann Jabra Rizk; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Long range plans include using the mutants generated to study Candida mannoprotein-specific host immunomodulation, such as stimulation of cytokines and chemokines. ..
  46. Prevention/diagnosis/fungal infections/transplantation
    Barbara Alexander; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..This approach will shorten the time from development to clinical implementation in therapeutic trials and guidelines. ..
  47. RECENT ADVANCES IN AIDS AND HIV RESEARCH
    Michael Saag; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..CME credit for attending physicians will be provided. ..
  48. ADULT AIDS CLINICAL TRIALS GROUP
    Michael Saag; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  49. PHOSPHOLIPASE B: A VIRULENCE FACTOR FOR CANDIDA GLABRATA
    CORNELIUS CLANCY; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ....
  50. Clinical Predictors of Antiretroviral Failure
    Daniel Benjamin; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..abstract_text> ..
  51. Early Diagnosis of Neonatal Candidiasis
    Daniel Benjamin; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..abstract_text> ..
  52. Oral and Vaginal Gene Expression by Candida During AIDS
    CORNELIUS CLANCY; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..
  53. Impact of Medicaid Policy on cardiovascular drug use and clinical outcomes
    Michael A Fischer; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  54. Antifungal Drug Susceptibility of Cryptococcus neoformans
    Robert Larsen; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Presently selection of which anti-fungal agent (amphotericin B, fluconazole or the two combined), the dose and the duration of therapy are guided by clinical judgment from the synthesis ..
  55. Sterol Biosynthesis in Trypanosomatid Parasites
    Frederick Buckner; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The drugs discovered in this research program will hopefully provide better future treatment for patients with these devastating diseases. ..
  56. ADULT AIDS CLINICAL TRIALS UNIT
    Mitchell Goldman; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Specialized immunology, virology, and pharmacology laboratories will support this work. ..
  57. Susceptibility Testing, Treatment Choices, and Outcomes of MDR-GNB Infections
    Lisa Saiman; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Carefully conducted observational studies and clinically relevant in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing, hold the greatest promise to improve the treatment of patients infected with mutidrug-resistant organisms. ..
  58. Regulation of Drug Resistance Genes in C. Albicans
    Carol Kumamoto; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Greater than 90% of AIDS patients suffer from oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC). Fluconazole is the most commonly prescribed antifungal drug for these infections due to its efficacy and lack of side ..
  59. CORE FACILITY RESEARCH PEPTIDE SYNTHESIZER
    Michael Yeaman; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..Therefore, the proposed instrument will significantly enhance the efficiency and diversity of SPPS required for NIH-sponsored and hypothesis-driven research. ..
  60. DETERMINANTS IN PLATELET MICROBICIDAL PROTEINS
    Michael Yeaman; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Thus, these studies will significantly advance our understanding of antimicrobial host defense, and may yield new modes for its amplification. ..
  61. C. albicans From HIV+ Individuals&its Role in Drug resis
    Kaaren Vargas; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..In the long-term, I would like to make significant contributions to science in the area of antifungal drug resistance. It is an exciting area of research and I feel strongly that I have the motivation to accomplish this goal. ..