hexokinase

Summary

Summary: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and a D-hexose to ADP and a D-hexose 6-phosphate. D-Glucose, D-mannose, D-fructose, sorbitol, and D-glucosamine can act as acceptors; ITP and dATP can act as donors. The liver isoenzyme has sometimes been called glucokinase. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.1.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Onset of carbon catabolite repression in Aspergillus nidulans. Parallel involvement of hexokinase and glucokinase in sugar signaling
    Michel Flipphi
    Institut de Genetique et Microbiologie, CNRS Unité Mixte de Recherche 8621, Universite Paris Sud XI, Centre d Orsay, Batiment 409, F 91405 Orsay cedex, France
    J Biol Chem 278:11849-57. 2003
  2. ncbi Hexokinase-mitochondria interaction mediated by Akt is required to inhibit apoptosis in the presence or absence of Bax and Bak
    Nathan Majewski
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60607, USA
    Mol Cell 16:819-30. 2004
  3. ncbi Isozymes of mammalian hexokinase: structure, subcellular localization and metabolic function
    John E Wilson
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
    J Exp Biol 206:2049-57. 2003
  4. pmc Hexokinase 2 is a key mediator of aerobic glycolysis and promotes tumor growth in human glioblastoma multiforme
    Amparo Wolf
    The Arthur and Sonia Labatt Brain Tumor Research Centre, Hospital for Sick Children Research Institute, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    J Exp Med 208:313-26. 2011
  5. pmc Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 and dysregulated c-Myc cooperatively induce vascular endothelial growth factor and metabolic switches hexokinase 2 and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1
    Jung whan Kim
    Division of Hematology, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    Mol Cell Biol 27:7381-93. 2007
  6. pmc A novel miR-155/miR-143 cascade controls glycolysis by regulating hexokinase 2 in breast cancer cells
    Shuai Jiang
    State Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China
    EMBO J 31:1985-98. 2012
  7. pmc Hexokinase-2 bound to mitochondria: cancer's stygian link to the "Warburg Effect" and a pivotal target for effective therapy
    Saroj P Mathupala
    Department of Neurological Surgery and Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201, United States
    Semin Cancer Biol 19:17-24. 2009
  8. ncbi Role of the Arabidopsis glucose sensor HXK1 in nutrient, light, and hormonal signaling
    Brandon Moore
    Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, and Department of Molecular Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Science 300:332-6. 2003
  9. pmc Hexokinase 2 is required for tumor initiation and maintenance and its systemic deletion is therapeutic in mouse models of cancer
    Krushna C Patra
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, College of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607, USA
    Cancer Cell 24:213-28. 2013
  10. pmc Hexokinase II: cancer's double-edged sword acting as both facilitator and gatekeeper of malignancy when bound to mitochondria
    S P Mathupala
    Department of Neurological Surgery and Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI, USA
    Oncogene 25:4777-86. 2006

Detail Information

Publications260 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Onset of carbon catabolite repression in Aspergillus nidulans. Parallel involvement of hexokinase and glucokinase in sugar signaling
    Michel Flipphi
    Institut de Genetique et Microbiologie, CNRS Unité Mixte de Recherche 8621, Universite Paris Sud XI, Centre d Orsay, Batiment 409, F 91405 Orsay cedex, France
    J Biol Chem 278:11849-57. 2003
    ..A d-fructose non-utilizing, hexokinase-deficient (hxkA1, formerly designated frA1) strain was utilized to obtain new mutants lacking either glucokinase ..
  2. ncbi Hexokinase-mitochondria interaction mediated by Akt is required to inhibit apoptosis in the presence or absence of Bax and Bak
    Nathan Majewski
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60607, USA
    Mol Cell 16:819-30. 2004
    ..Here, we provide genetic evidence that Akt is required to maintain hexokinase association with mitochondria...
  3. ncbi Isozymes of mammalian hexokinase: structure, subcellular localization and metabolic function
    John E Wilson
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
    J Exp Biol 206:2049-57. 2003
    The first step in metabolism of glucose (Glc) is usually phosphorylation, catalyzed by hexokinase. However, the Glc-6-P produced can then enter one or more of several alternative pathways...
  4. pmc Hexokinase 2 is a key mediator of aerobic glycolysis and promotes tumor growth in human glioblastoma multiforme
    Amparo Wolf
    The Arthur and Sonia Labatt Brain Tumor Research Centre, Hospital for Sick Children Research Institute, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    J Exp Med 208:313-26. 2011
    ..Here, we show that the glycolytic enzyme hexokinase 2 (HK2) is crucial for the Warburg effect in human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most common malignant ..
  5. pmc Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 and dysregulated c-Myc cooperatively induce vascular endothelial growth factor and metabolic switches hexokinase 2 and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1
    Jung whan Kim
    Division of Hematology, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    Mol Cell Biol 27:7381-93. 2007
    ..MYC, we demonstrate that HIF-1 cooperates with dysregulated c-Myc to promote glycolysis by induction of hexokinase 2, which catalyzes the first step of glycolysis, and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1, which inactivates pyruvate ..
  6. pmc A novel miR-155/miR-143 cascade controls glycolysis by regulating hexokinase 2 in breast cancer cells
    Shuai Jiang
    State Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China
    EMBO J 31:1985-98. 2012
    ..We further show that miR-155 acts to upregulate hexokinase 2 (hk2), through two distinct mechanisms...
  7. pmc Hexokinase-2 bound to mitochondria: cancer's stygian link to the "Warburg Effect" and a pivotal target for effective therapy
    Saroj P Mathupala
    Department of Neurological Surgery and Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201, United States
    Semin Cancer Biol 19:17-24. 2009
    ..The pivotal player in this frequent cancer phenotype is mitochondrial-bound hexokinase [Bustamante E, Pedersen PL...
  8. ncbi Role of the Arabidopsis glucose sensor HXK1 in nutrient, light, and hormonal signaling
    Brandon Moore
    Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, and Department of Molecular Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Science 300:332-6. 2003
    ..Analyses of Arabidopsis glucose insensitive2 (gin2) mutants define the physiological functions of a specific hexokinase (HXK1) in the plant glucose-signaling network. HXK1 coordinates intrinsic signals with extrinsic light intensity...
  9. pmc Hexokinase 2 is required for tumor initiation and maintenance and its systemic deletion is therapeutic in mouse models of cancer
    Krushna C Patra
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, College of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607, USA
    Cancer Cell 24:213-28. 2013
    ..Hexokinases catalyze the first committed step of glucose metabolism. Hexokinase 2 (HK2) is expressed at high level in cancer cells, but only in a limited number of normal adult tissues...
  10. pmc Hexokinase II: cancer's double-edged sword acting as both facilitator and gatekeeper of malignancy when bound to mitochondria
    S P Mathupala
    Department of Neurological Surgery and Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI, USA
    Oncogene 25:4777-86. 2006
    ..entry of glucose into cancer cells on the glucose transporter, the highly glycolytic phenotype is supported by hexokinase (primarily HK II) that is overexpressed and bound to the outer mitochondrial membrane via the porin-like protein ..
  11. pmc Hexokinase II detachment from mitochondria triggers apoptosis through the permeability transition pore independent of voltage-dependent anion channels
    Federica Chiara
    CNR Institute of Neuroscience and Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Padova, Padova, Italy
    PLoS ONE 3:e1852. 2008
    Type II hexokinase is overexpressed in most neoplastic cells, and it mainly localizes on the outer mitochondrial membrane. Hexokinase II dissociation from mitochondria triggers apoptosis...
  12. ncbi Hexokinase II acts through UCP3 to suppress mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production and maintain aerobic respiration
    Ryan J Mailloux
    Faculty of Medicine, Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology, and Immunology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada
    Biochem J 437:301-11. 2011
    ..g. fed state) has remained largely unexplored. In the present study, we show that mitochondrial-bound HK (hexokinase) II curtails oxidative stress and enhances aerobic metabolism of glucose in the fed state in a UCP3-dependent ..
  13. pmc Inhibition of early apoptotic events by Akt/PKB is dependent on the first committed step of glycolysis and mitochondrial hexokinase
    K Gottlob
    Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60607, USA
    Genes Dev 15:1406-18. 2001
    ..First, Akt increases mitochondria-associated hexokinase activity...
  14. ncbi Suppression of apoptosis by cyclophilin D via stabilization of hexokinase II mitochondrial binding in cancer cells
    Kiyotaka Machida
    Antibiotics Laboratory, Discovery Research Institute, RIKEN, Hirosawa 2 1, Saitama 351 0198, Japan
    J Biol Chem 281:14314-20. 2006
    ..the PPIase-dependent apoptosis suppression by cyclophilin D correlated with the amounts of mitochondrial-bound hexokinase II, which has anti-apoptotic activity...
  15. ncbi Warburg, me and Hexokinase 2: Multiple discoveries of key molecular events underlying one of cancers' most common phenotypes, the "Warburg Effect", i.e., elevated glycolysis in the presence of oxygen
    Peter L Pedersen
    Department of Biological Chemistry, Johns Hopkins University, School of Medicine, 725 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD, 21205 2185, USA
    J Bioenerg Biomembr 39:211-22. 2007
    ..touching five decades how despite some impairment in the respiratory capacity of malignant tumors, that hexokinase 2 (HK-2), its mitochondrial receptor (VDAC), and the gene that encodes HK-2 (HK-2 gene) play the most pivotal ..
  16. pmc Subcellular localization of hexokinases I and II directs the metabolic fate of glucose
    Scott John
    UCLA Cardiovascular Research Laboratory, Department of Medicine Cardiology, David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 6:e17674. 2011
    ....
  17. pmc Analyses of resected human brain metastases of breast cancer reveal the association between up-regulation of hexokinase 2 and poor prognosis
    Diane Palmieri
    Women s Cancers Section, Laboratory of Molecular Pharmacology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892 7322, USA
    Mol Cancer Res 7:1438-45. 2009
    ..b>Hexokinase 2 (HK2) was also of interest because of its increased expression in brain metastases...
  18. ncbi Activation of glycogen synthase kinase 3beta disrupts the binding of hexokinase II to mitochondria by phosphorylating voltage-dependent anion channel and potentiates chemotherapy-induced cytotoxicity
    John G Pastorino
    Department of Pathology, Anatomy and Cell Biology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19107, USA
    Cancer Res 65:10545-54. 2005
    Transformed cells are highly glycolytic and overexpress hexokinase II (HXK II)...
  19. pmc In self-defence: hexokinase promotes voltage-dependent anion channel closure and prevents mitochondria-mediated apoptotic cell death
    Heftsi Azoulay-Zohar
    Department of Life Sciences, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva 84105, Israel
    Biochem J 377:347-55. 2004
    In tumour cells, elevated levels of mitochondria-bound isoforms of hexokinase (HK-I and HK-II) result in the evasion of apoptosis, thereby allowing the cells to continue proliferating...
  20. ncbi 2-[18F]-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) uptake in human tumor cells is related to the expression of GLUT-1 and hexokinase II
    L C Ong
    Singapore General Hospital, Singapore National Cancer Centre, Singapore
    Acta Radiol 49:1145-53. 2008
    ..Many tumors have been shown to overexpress facilitated glucose transporters, especially GLUT-1 and a glycolytic enzyme, hexokinase II.
  21. ncbi In vivo imaging of the dynamics of glucose uptake in the cytosol of COS-7 cells by fluorescent nanosensors
    Marcus Fehr
    Zentrum für Molekular biologie der Pflanzen Tübingen, Plant Physiology, Auf der Morgenstelle 1, D 72076 Tubingen, Germany
    J Biol Chem 278:19127-33. 2003
    ..Within the physiological range, glucose utilization, i.e. hexokinase activity, was not limiting...
  22. pmc Extent of mitochondrial hexokinase II dissociation during ischemia correlates with mitochondrial cytochrome c release, reactive oxygen species production, and infarct size on reperfusion
    Philippe Pasdois
    School of Biochemistry and The Bristol Heart Institute, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK
    J Am Heart Assoc 2:e005645. 2013
    ..Here we investigate whether and how mitochondria-bound hexokinase 2 (mtHK2) may exert part of the cardioprotective effects of IP.
  23. pmc Choline kinase alpha and hexokinase-2 protein expression in hepatocellular carcinoma: association with survival
    Sandi A Kwee
    The Queen s Medical Center, Honolulu, Hawaii, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 7:e46591. 2012
    b>Hexokinase-2 (HK2) and more recently choline kinase alpha (CKA) expression has been correlated with clinical outcomes in several major cancers...
  24. ncbi Lactate downregulates the glycolytic enzymes hexokinase and phosphofructokinase in diverse tissues from mice
    Tiago C Leite
    Laboratório de Enzimologia e Controle do Metabolismo LabECoM, Departamento de Fármacos, Faculdade de Farmacia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
    FEBS Lett 585:92-8. 2011
    We examined the effects of lactate on the enzymatic activity of hexokinase (HK), phosphofructokinase (PFK) and pyruvate kinase (PK) in various mouse tissues...
  25. ncbi Mitochondrial hexokinases, novel mediators of the antiapoptotic effects of growth factors and Akt
    R B Robey
    Research and Development Service, White River Junction VA Medical Center, White River Junction, VT 05009 0001, USA
    Oncogene 25:4683-96. 2006
    ..antiapoptotic effects of growth factors and Akt plus a strong correlation between Akt-regulated mitochondrial hexokinase association and apoptotic susceptibility suggest a major role for hexokinases in these effects...
  26. pmc Convergent evolution of similar enzymatic function on different protein folds: the hexokinase, ribokinase, and galactokinase families of sugar kinases
    P Bork
    European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Heidelberg, Germany
    Protein Sci 2:31-40. 1993
    ..The first is the hexokinase family, which contains many prokaryotic and eukaryotic sugar kinases with diverse specificities, including a new ..
  27. ncbi Mitochondrial bound hexokinase activity as a preventive antioxidant defense: steady-state ADP formation as a regulatory mechanism of membrane potential and reactive oxygen species generation in mitochondria
    Wagner Seixas da-Silva
    Departamento de Bioquimica Medica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Cidade Universitaria, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro 21941 590, Brazil
    J Biol Chem 279:39846-55. 2004
    Brain hexokinase is associated with the outer membrane of mitochondria, and its activity has been implicated in the regulation of ATP synthesis and apoptosis...
  28. ncbi Glucose-sensing mechanisms in eukaryotic cells
    F Rolland
    Laboratorium voor Moleculaire Celbiologie, Instituut voor Plantkunde en Microbiologie, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 31, B-3001 Leuven-Heverlee, Flanders, Belgium
    Trends Biochem Sci 26:310-7. 2001
    ....
  29. ncbi Mitochondrial binding of hexokinase II inhibits Bax-induced cytochrome c release and apoptosis
    John G Pastorino
    Department of Pathology, Anatomy, and Cell Biology, Thomas Jefferson University, Jefferson Alumni Hall Rm 269, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA
    J Biol Chem 277:7610-8. 2002
    ..In planar lipid bilayers, Bax and VDAC form a channel through which cytochrome c can pass. Hexokinase II (HXK II) also binds to VDAC...
  30. pmc Sirtuin-3 deacetylation of cyclophilin D induces dissociation of hexokinase II from the mitochondria
    Nataly Shulga
    Department of Molecular Biology, School of Osteopathic Medicine, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Stratford, NJ 08084, USA
    J Cell Sci 123:894-902. 2010
    ..Moreover, the sirtuin-3-induced inactivation of cyclophilin D causes a detachment of hexokinase II from the mitochondria that is necessary for stimulation of oxidative phosphorylation...
  31. ncbi Glucose catabolism in the rabbit VX2 tumor model for liver cancer: characterization and targeting hexokinase
    Y H Ko
    Department of Biological Chemistry, Johns Hopkins University, School of Medicine, 725 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205-2185, USA
    Cancer Lett 173:83-91. 2001
    ..Significantly, studies described here show that the VX2 tumor exhibits a high glycolytic/high hexokinase phenotype that is retained following implantation and growth in rabbit liver...
  32. pmc Regulation of hexokinase binding to VDAC
    John G Pastorino
    Department of Molecular Biology, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Science Center, Stratford, NJ 08084, USA
    J Bioenerg Biomembr 40:171-82. 2008
    b>Hexokinase isoforms I and II bind to mitochondrial outer membranes in large part by interacting with the outer membrane voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC)...
  33. ncbi Role of AMPKalpha2 in basal, training-, and AICAR-induced GLUT4, hexokinase II, and mitochondrial protein expression in mouse muscle
    Sebastian B Jørgensen
    Dept of Human Physiology, Copenhagen Muscle Research Centre, Inst of Exercise and Sport Sciences, 13 Universitetsparken, Univ of Copenhagen, DK 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 292:E331-9. 2007
    ..We investigated the role of AMPKalpha2in basal, exercise training-, and AICAR-induced protein expression of GLUT4, hexokinase II (HKII), mitochondrial markers, and AMPK subunits...
  34. ncbi Akt mediates mitochondrial protection in cardiomyocytes through phosphorylation of mitochondrial hexokinase-II
    S Miyamoto
    Department of Pharmacology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0636, USA
    Cell Death Differ 15:521-9. 2008
    ..We conclude that Akt has a direct effect at the level of the mitochondrion, which is mediated via phosphorylation of HK-II and results in protection of mitochondria against oxidant or Ca(2+)-stimulated PT-pore opening...
  35. ncbi Hexokinase-mitochondrial interaction in cardiac tissue: implications for cardiac glucose uptake, the 18FDG lumped constant and cardiac protection
    Richard Southworth
    Division of Imaging Sciences, King s College London, The Rayne Institute, St Thomas Hospital, Lambeth Palace Rd, London, SE1 7EH, UK
    J Bioenerg Biomembr 41:187-93. 2009
    ..Whether hexokinase-mitochondrial interaction is a dynamic and responsive process in the heart has been difficult to prove, but ..
  36. pmc Hexokinase II detachment from the mitochondria potentiates cisplatin induced cytotoxicity through a caspase-2 dependent mechanism
    Nataly Shulga
    Department of Molecular Biology, School of Osteopathic Medicine, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Stratford, NJ, USA
    Cell Cycle 8:3355-64. 2009
    Cancer cells are frequently glycolytic and overexpress hexokinase II (HXK II). In cancer cells, the majority of hexokinase II is localized to the mitochondria through interaction with the voltage dependent anion channel (VDAC)...
  37. ncbi Evaluation of the role of hexokinase type II in cellular proliferation and apoptosis using human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines
    Keun Jae Ahn
    Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
    J Nucl Med 50:1525-32. 2009
    ..b>Hexokinase, especially hexokinase type II (HKII), plays a critical role in (18)F-FDG uptake in rapidly growing tumors...
  38. ncbi Positron-emission tomography with [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose. Part I. Biochemical uptake mechanism and its implication for clinical studies
    E K Pauwels
    Leiden University Medical Centre, Division of Nuclear Medicine, The Netherlands
    J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 126:549-59. 2000
    ..In this article, a review is given of the factors influencing FdGlc uptake and the implications for clinical studies...
  39. pmc Phosphorylation of yeast hexokinase 2 regulates its nucleocytoplasmic shuttling
    Paula Fernández-García
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Oviedo, 33006 Oviedo, Spain
    J Biol Chem 287:42151-64. 2012
    ..Taken together, this study establishes a functional link between Hxk2, Reg1, and Snf1 signaling, which involves the regulation of Hxk2 nucleocytoplasmic shuttling by phosphorylation-dephosphorylation of serine 14...
  40. pmc Hexokinase II knockdown results in exaggerated cardiac hypertrophy via increased ROS production
    Rongxue Wu
    Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Northwestern University School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA
    EMBO Mol Med 4:633-46. 2012
    b>Hexokinase-II (HKII) is highly expressed in the heart and can bind to the mitochondrial outer membrane...
  41. ncbi miR-143 regulates hexokinase 2 expression in cancer cells
    A Peschiaroli
    Institute of Cellular Biology and Neurobiology, CNR, Rome, Italy
    Oncogene 32:797-802. 2013
    ..Accordingly, a variety of human tumors are characterized by elevated expression levels of the hexokinase 2 isoform (HK2)...
  42. pmc Arabidopsis Hexokinase-Like1 and Hexokinase1 form a critical node in mediating plant glucose and ethylene responses
    Abhijit Karve
    Biosciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831, USA
    Plant Physiol 158:1965-75. 2012
    Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) Hexokinase-Like1 (HKL1) lacks glucose (Glc) phosphorylation activity and has been shown to act as a negative regulator of plant growth...
  43. pmc Fructokinase and hexokinase from pollen grains of bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.): possible role in pollen germination under conditions of high temperature and CO2 enrichment
    Leah Karni
    Department of Vegetable Crops, Institute of Field and Garden Crops, A R O, The Volcani Center, Bet Dagan, 50250 Israel
    Ann Bot 90:607-12. 2002
    ..The main objective of this study was to investigate changes in fructokinase (EC 2.7.1.4) and hexokinase (EC.2.7.1...
  44. ncbi Molecular mechanism underlying the detection of colorectal cancer by 18F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography
    Kunihiko Izuishi
    Department of Gastroenterological Surgery, Kagawa University, 1750 11, Ikenobe, Miki, Kita, Takamatsu, Kagawa, 761 0793, Japan
    J Gastrointest Surg 16:394-400. 2012
    ..In this study, we examined the molecular mechanism underlying the detection of colorectal cancers by FDG-PET...
  45. pmc Emerging metabolic targets in cancer therapy
    Yuhua Zhao
    Mitchell Cancer Institute, University of South Alabama, Mobile, AL 36604, USA
    Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) 16:1844-60. 2011
    ..Here we provide an overview of the current understanding of the Warburg effect upon tumor cell growth and survival, and discussion on the potential metabolic targets for cancer therapy...
  46. ncbi Relationship between retention index in dual-phase (18)F-FDG PET, and hexokinase-II and glucose transporter-1 expression in pancreatic cancer
    Tatsuya Higashi
    Department of Nuclear Medicine and Diagnostic Imaging, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan
    J Nucl Med 43:173-80. 2002
    ..However, no study has evaluated the relationship between temporal changes in (18)F-FDG uptake and expression of hexokinase or glucose transporter.
  47. pmc [18F]FDG uptake and PCNA, Glut-1, and Hexokinase-II expressions in cancers and inflammatory lesions of the lung
    Marcelo Mamede
    Department of Nuclear Medicine and Diagnostic Imaging, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan
    Neoplasia 7:369-79. 2005
    ..The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships among [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose ([18F]-FDG) uptake, Glut-1 and HK-II expressions, and grade of inflammation in resected lung lesions...
  48. ncbi Disruption of hexokinase II-mitochondrial binding blocks ischemic preconditioning and causes rapid cardiac necrosis
    Kirsten M A Smeele
    Department of Anesthesiology, Laboratory of Experimental Intensive Care and Anesthesiology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands
    Circ Res 108:1165-9. 2011
    Isoforms I and II of the glycolytic enzyme hexokinase (HKI and HKII) are known to associate with mitochondria...
  49. pmc Molecular complex of three testis-specific isozymes associated with the mouse sperm fibrous sheath: hexokinase 1, phosphofructokinase M, and glutathione S-transferase mu class 5
    Noriko Nakamura
    Gamete Biology Section, Laboratory of Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Biol Reprod 82:504-15. 2010
    ..One of the latter is the spermatogenic cell-specific variant isozyme of hexokinase type 1 (HK1S), characterized by an N-terminal 24-amino acid spermatogenic cell-specific region (SSR)...
  50. ncbi Purification and characterization of hexokinase from Leishmania mexicana
    Miguel A Pabón
    Laboratorio de Enzimología de Parásitos, Centro de Ingeniería Genética, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Los Andes, La Hechicera, Merida, 5101, Venezuela
    Parasitol Res 100:803-10. 2007
    b>Hexokinase from Leishmania mexicana was purified to homogeneity from a glycosome-enriched fraction obtained after a differential centrifugation of promastigote form...
  51. pmc Aspergillus fumigatus catalytic glucokinase and hexokinase: expression analysis and importance for germination, growth, and conidiation
    Christian B Fleck
    Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology, Hans Knoell Institute, Microbial Biochemistry and Physiology, Beutenbergstr 11a, 07745 Jena, Germany
    Eukaryot Cell 9:1120-35. 2010
    ..Glucose and fructose phosphorylations appear to rely exclusively on glucokinase and hexokinase. Here, we characterized the catalytic glucokinase and hexokinase from the opportunistic human pathogen ..
  52. ncbi Regulatory functions of nuclear hexokinase1 complex in glucose signaling
    Young Hee Cho
    Department of Molecular Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Cell 127:579-89. 2006
    ..The findings support a model in which conserved metabolic enzymes and proteins of well-established activities may perform previously unrecognized nuclear functions...
  53. pmc Akt inhibits apoptosis downstream of BID cleavage via a glucose-dependent mechanism involving mitochondrial hexokinases
    Nathan Majewski
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics M C 669, College of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, 900 S Ashland Avenue, Chicago, IL 60607, USA
    Mol Cell Biol 24:730-40. 2004
    ..Glucose deprivation, which impaired the ability of Akt to maintain mitochondrion-hexokinase association, prevented Akt from inhibiting BID-mediated apoptosis...
  54. pmc MicroRNA-143 (miR-143) regulates cancer glycolysis via targeting hexokinase 2 gene
    Rong Fang
    State Key Laboratory of Cell Biology, Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031, China
    J Biol Chem 287:23227-35. 2012
    ..b>Hexokinase 2 (HK2), coding for the first rate-limiting enzyme of glycolysis, is among the top list of genes predicted and ..
  55. ncbi Glut-1 and hexokinase expression: relationship with 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose uptake in A431 and T47D cells in culture
    L Aloj
    Nuclear Medicine Department, Clinical Center, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 1180, USA
    Cancer Res 59:4709-14. 1999
    ..3-O-Methylglucose transport is higher in A431 cells. Although hexokinase I and II mRNA levels are higher in A431 cells than in T47D cells, the ability of mitochondrial preparations to ..
  56. pmc Reduction in hexokinase II levels results in decreased cardiac function and altered remodeling after ischemia/reperfusion injury
    Rongxue Wu
    Department of Medicine, Northwestern University School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA
    Circ Res 108:60-9. 2011
    ..b>Hexokinase (HK)II is a HK isoform that is expressed in the heart and can bind to the mitochondrial outer membrane.
  57. pmc A role for F-actin in hexokinase-mediated glucose signaling
    Rajagopal Balasubramanian
    Department of Genetics and Biochemistry, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina 29631, USA
    Plant Physiol 145:1423-34. 2007
    ..We also demonstrate that Glc treatment of Arabidopsis seedlings rapidly and reversibly disrupts fine mesh actin filaments. The possible roles of actin in HXK-dependent Glc signaling are discussed...
  58. pmc Metabolic profiling of transgenic tomato plants overexpressing hexokinase reveals that the influence of hexose phosphorylation diminishes during fruit development
    Ute Roessner-Tunali
    Department of Lothar Willmitzer, Max Planck Institut fur Molekulare Pflanzenphysiologie, Am Muhlenberg 1, 14476 Golm, Germany
    Plant Physiol 133:84-99. 2003
    ..through fruit development by analyzing transgenic plants constitutively overexpressing Arabidopsis hexokinase AtHXK1...
  59. ncbi Disruption of the hexokinase-VDAC complex for tumor therapy
    L Galluzzi
    INSERM, U848, 39 Rue C Desmoulins, Villejuif, France
    Oncogene 27:4633-5. 2008
    ..from most normal tissues, cancer cell mitochondria demonstrate an association between the glycolytic enzyme hexokinase (HK) and the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC)...
  60. pmc RanBP2 modulates Cox11 and hexokinase I activities and haploinsufficiency of RanBP2 causes deficits in glucose metabolism
    Azamat Aslanukov
    Third Wave Technologies, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America
    PLoS Genet 2:e177. 2006
    ..and in vivo and colocalizes with the mitochondrial metallochaperone, Cox11, and the pacemaker of glycolysis, hexokinase type I (HKI) via its leucine-rich domain...
  61. pmc Role of the rice hexokinases OsHXK5 and OsHXK6 as glucose sensors
    Jung Il Cho
    Plant Metabolism Research Center and Graduate School of Biotechnology, Department of Horticultural Biotechnology, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 446 701, Korea
    Plant Physiol 149:745-59. 2009
    The Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) hexokinase 1 (AtHXK1) is recognized as an important glucose (Glc) sensor...
  62. ncbi Voltage-dependent anion channel 1 is involved in endostatin-induced endothelial cell apoptosis
    Shaopeng Yuan
    Beijing Key Laboratory for Protein Therapeutics, Department of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
    FASEB J 22:2809-20. 2008
    ..Moreover, we reveal that ES induces the reduction of hexokinase 2 (HK2), which, in turn, promotes VDAC1 phosphorylation and accumulation...
  63. ncbi Apoptosis-inducing antitumor efficacy of hexokinase II inhibitor in hepatocellular carcinoma
    Won Kim
    Department of Internal Medicine and Liver Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
    Mol Cancer Ther 6:2554-62. 2007
    Hypoxia stimulates hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell growth via hexokinase (HK) II induction, and alternatively, HK II inhibition induces apoptosis by activating mitochondrial signaling...
  64. pmc Overexpression of Arabidopsis hexokinase in tomato plants inhibits growth, reduces photosynthesis, and induces rapid senescence
    N Dai
    Institute of Field and Garden Crops, Agricultural Research Organization, Volcani Center, Bet Dagan 50250, Israel
    Plant Cell 11:1253-66. 1999
    Sugars are key regulatory molecules that affect diverse processes in higher plants. Hexokinase is the first enzyme in hexose metabolism and may be a sugar sensor that mediates sugar regulation...
  65. ncbi Evidence that SNF1-related kinase and hexokinase are involved in separate sugar-signalling pathways modulating post-translational redox activation of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase in potato tubers
    Axel Tiessen
    Max Planck Institute of Molecular Plant Physiology, 14476 Golm, Germany
    Plant J 35:490-500. 2003
    ..Feeding of different glucose analogues revealed that the phosphorylation of hexoses by hexokinase is an essential component in the glucose-dependent redox activation of AGPase...
  66. ncbi Application of rice nuclear proteome analysis to the identification of evolutionarily conserved and glucose-responsive nuclear proteins
    Toshihiko Aki
    Department of Applied Biological Chemistry, The University of Tokyo, Japan
    J Proteome Res 8:3912-24. 2009
    ..them, we found not only transcription and splicing factors, but also a mediator of sugar signaling in plants, hexokinase. For identification of evolutionarily conserved and sugar-responsive nuclear factors, we performed in silico ..
  67. pmc Expression and evolutionary features of the hexokinase gene family in Arabidopsis
    Abhijit Karve
    Department of Genetics and Biochemistry, Clemson University, Clemson, SC, 29634, USA
    Planta 228:411-25. 2008
    ..We also show that three of the genes encode hexokinase-like (HKL) proteins, which are about 50% identical to AtHXK1, but do not phosphorylate glucose or fructose...
  68. ncbi Isozymes of plant hexokinase: occurrence, properties and functions
    Eric Claeyssen
    Institut de recherche en biologie végétale, Universite de Montreal, 4101 rue Sherbrooke est, Montreal, Que, Canada H1X 2B2
    Phytochemistry 68:709-31. 2007
    b>Hexokinase (HK) occurs in all phyla, as an enzyme of the glycolytic pathway...
  69. ncbi Hxk2 regulates the phosphorylation state of Mig1 and therefore its nucleocytoplasmic distribution
    Deifilia Ahuatzi
    Departamento de Bioquimica y Biologia Molecular, Universidad de Oviedo, Campus del Cristo, Edificio Santiago Gascon, 33006 Oviedo, Spain
    J Biol Chem 282:4485-93. 2007
    ..These results allow postulating that the Hxk2 operates by interacting both with Mig1 and Snf1 to inhibit the Mig1 phosphorylation at serine 311 during high glucose grown...
  70. pmc Targeting of a germ cell-specific type 1 hexokinase lacking a porin-binding domain to the mitochondria as well as to the head and fibrous sheath of murine spermatozoa
    A J Travis
    Center for Research on Reproduction and Women s Health, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Pennsylvania Medical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 6080, USA
    Mol Biol Cell 9:263-76. 1998
    Multiple isoforms of type 1 hexokinase (HK1) are transcribed during spermatogenesis in the mouse, including at least three that are presumably germ cell specific: HK1-sa, HK1-sb, and HK1-sc...
  71. ncbi Enhancement of hexokinase II inhibitor-induced apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma cells via augmenting ER stress and anti-angiogenesis by protein disulfide isomerase inhibition
    Su Jong Yu
    Department of Internal Medicine and Liver Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 101 Daehak Ro, Jongno gu, Seoul 110 744, Republic of Korea
    J Bioenerg Biomembr 44:101-15. 2012
    3-bromopyruvate (3-BP), a hexokinase (HK) II inhibitor, promotes tumor cell death by inducing endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines...
  72. ncbi A novel NH(2)-terminal, nonhydrophobic motif targets a male germ cell-specific hexokinase to the endoplasmic reticulum and plasma membrane
    A J Travis
    Center for Research on Reproduction and Women s Health, University of Pennsylvania Medical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 6142, USA
    J Biol Chem 274:34467-75. 1999
    Although three germ cell-specific transcripts of type 1 hexokinase exist in murine male germ cells, only one form, HK1-sc, is found at the protein level...
  73. ncbi Role of reactive oxygen species-mediated mitochondrial dysregulation in 3-bromopyruvate induced cell death in hepatoma cells : ROS-mediated cell death by 3-BrPA
    Ji Su Kim
    Department of Microbiology and Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Sciences, Institute for Immunology and Immunological Diseases, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 134, Shinchon dong, Seodaemoon Gu, 120 752, Seoul, South Korea
    J Bioenerg Biomembr 40:607-18. 2008
    b>Hexokinase type II (HK II) is the key enzyme for maintaining increased glycolysis in cancer cells where it is overexpressed. 3-bromopyruvate (3-BrPA), an inhibitor of HK II, induces cell death in cancer cells...
  74. ncbi Androgen stimulates glycolysis for de novo lipid synthesis by increasing the activities of hexokinase 2 and 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase 2 in prostate cancer cells
    Jong Seok Moon
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Institute of Genetic Science, Center for Chronic Metabolic Disease Research, Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University, College of Medicine, Seodaemungu, Seoul, Korea
    Biochem J 433:225-33. 2011
    ..androgen increases glucose utilization for de novo lipogenesis in LNCaP cells through the activation of HK2 (hexokinase 2) and activation of the cardiac isoform of PFKFB2 (6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase)...
  75. pmc PGC-1β deficiency accelerates the transition to heart failure in pressure overload hypertrophy
    Christian Riehle
    Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes, and Program in Molecular Medicine, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA
    Circ Res 109:783-93. 2011
    ....
  76. ncbi Determining and understanding the control of glycolysis in fast-growth tumor cells. Flux control by an over-expressed but strongly product-inhibited hexokinase
    Alvaro Marin-Hernandez
    Instituto Nacional de Cardiologia, Departamento de Bioquimica, Juan Badiano No 1, Colonia Seccion XVI, Tlalpan, Mexico, Mexico
    FEBS J 273:1975-88. 2006
    ..Determination of the maximal velocity (V(max)) of the 10 glycolytic enzymes from hexokinase to lactate dehydrogenase revealed that hexokinase (153-306 times) and phosphofructokinase-1 (PFK-1) (22-56 times)..
  77. pmc Mannose inhibits Arabidopsis germination via a hexokinase-mediated step
    J V Pego
    Department of Botanical Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Utrecht Padualaan 8, 3584 CH Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Plant Physiol 119:1017-23. 1999
    ..Man is phosphorylated by hexokinase (HXK), but the absence of germination was not due to ATP or phosphate depletion...
  78. pmc Functional domains of yeast hexokinase 2
    Rafael Pelaez
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Oviedo, Spain
    Biochem J 432:181-90. 2010
    Hkx2 (hexokinase 2) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae was one of the first metabolic enzymes described as a multifunctional protein...
  79. ncbi Expressions of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α and hexokinase-II in gastric adenocarcinoma: the impact on prognosis and correlation to clinicopathologic features
    Miao Zhen Qiu
    State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Guangzhou 510060, China
    Tumour Biol 32:159-66. 2011
    The impact of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α and hexokinase-II (HK-II) expression on prognosis of gastric adenocarcinoma patients has not been clearly established...
  80. ncbi Nitric oxide stimulates 18F-FDG uptake in human endothelial cells through increased hexokinase activity and GLUT1 expression
    Jin Young Paik
    Department of Nuclear Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
    J Nucl Med 46:365-70. 2005
    ..Nitric oxide (NO) is an important regulator of vascular homeostasis and angiogenesis and stimulates glucose metabolism in certain cells. We thus investigated the effect of exogenous NO on (18)F-FDG transport in human endothelial cells...
  81. ncbi Molecular model of hexokinase binding to the outer mitochondrial membrane porin (VDAC1): Implication for the design of new cancer therapies
    Camillo Rosano
    National Institute for Cancer Research IST, L go Rosanna Benzi 10, 16129 Genova, Italy
    Mitochondrion 11:513-9. 2011
    ..This characteristic was first discovered in 1924 by Otto Heinrich Warburg. Hexokinase, the first enzyme in the glycolytic pathway, not only improves the cell's energy supply in malignant cells, but ..
  82. ncbi Key regions of VDAC1 functioning in apoptosis induction and regulation by hexokinase
    Varda Shoshan-Barmatz
    Department of Life Sciences, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, 84105, Israel
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1787:421-30. 2009
    ..VDAC also serves as a site for the docking of cytosolic proteins, such as hexokinase, and is recognized as a key protein in mitochondria-mediated apoptosis...
  83. ncbi Clinicopathological presentation of varying 18F-FDG uptake and expression of glucose transporter 1 and hexokinase II in cases of hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocellular carcinoma
    Bishnuhari Paudyal
    Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, 3 39 22 Showa machi, Maebashi, Gunma, 371 8511, Japan
    Ann Nucl Med 22:83-6. 2008
    ..positron emission tomography (FDG PET) and immunohistochemical staining of glucose transporter 1 (Glut-1) and hexokinase II (HK-II) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and cholangiocellular carcinoma (CCC) to observe the ..
  84. ncbi Plant science. Hexokinase, Jack-of-all-trades
    Wolf B Frommer
    Department of Plant Physiology, Zentrum für Molekularbiologie der Pflanzen, Universitat Tubingen, D 72076 Tubingen, Germany
    Science 300:261-3. 2003
  85. ncbi Cloning, biochemical characterization and expression of a sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) hexokinase associated with seed storage compounds accumulation
    M A Troncoso-Ponce
    Instituto de la Grasa, CSIC, Avenida Padre Garcia Tejero 4, Seville, Spain
    J Plant Physiol 168:299-308. 2011
    A full-length hexokinase cDNA, HaHXK1, was cloned and characterized from Helianthus annuus L. developing seeds. Based on its sequence and phylogenetic relationships, HaHXK1 is a membrane-associated (type-B) hexokinase...
  86. ncbi Relationship between glucose transporter, hexokinase and FDG-PET in esophageal cancer
    Takayuki Tohma
    Department of Academic Surgery, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba shi, Chiba, Japan
    Hepatogastroenterology 52:486-90. 2005
    ..FDG accumulation has been demonstrated to correlate with hexokinase activity. However, recent reports suggest that glucose transporters participate in FDG accumulation...
  87. ncbi Spinach SoHXK1 is a mitochondria-associated hexokinase
    Hila Damari-Weissler
    Institute of Plant Sciences, Agricultural Research Organization, The Volcani Center, Bet Dagan 50250, Israel
    Planta 226:1053-8. 2007
    b>Hexokinase, a hexose-phosphorylating enzyme, has emerged as a central enzyme in sugar-sensing processes. A few HXK isozymes have been identified in various plant species...
  88. ncbi Structure, expression, and functional analysis of the hexokinase gene family in rice (Oryza sativa L.)
    Jung Il Cho
    Plant Metabolism Research Center and Graduate School of Biotechnology, Kyung Hee University, 449 701 Yongin, Republic of South Korea
    Planta 224:598-611. 2006
    b>Hexokinase (HXK) is a dual-function enzyme that both phosphorylates hexose to form hexose 6-phosphate and plays an important role in sugar sensing and signaling...
  89. ncbi Cloning, expression, purification, and properties of a putative plasma membrane hexokinase from Solanum chacoense
    Eric Claeyssen
    Institut de recherche en biologie végétale, Universite de Montreal, 4101 rue Sherbrooke est, Montreal, Que, Canada H1X 2B2
    Protein Expr Purif 47:329-39. 2006
    A full-length hexokinase cDNA was cloned from Solanum chacoense, a wild relative of the cultivated potato...
  90. ncbi Elevated expression of hexokinase II protects human lung epithelial-like A549 cells against oxidative injury
    Aftab Ahmad
    Department of Pediatrics, National Jewish Medical and Research Center, Denver, Colorado 80206, USA
    Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 283:L573-84. 2002
    Increased glucose utilization and hexokinase (HK)-II expression are adaptive features of lung cells exposed to hypoxia or hyperoxia. HK-II is the most regulated isoform of HK...
  91. ncbi Glucose catabolism in cancer cells: identification and characterization of a marked activation response of the type II hexokinase gene to hypoxic conditions
    S P Mathupala
    Department of Biological Chemistry, The Johns Hopkins University, School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205-2185, USA
    J Biol Chem 276:43407-12. 2001
    ..Hepatomas exhibiting this phenotype are dependent on the high expression of type II hexokinase, which supplies such tumors with abundant amounts of glucose 6-phosphate, a significant carbon and energy source ..
  92. pmc Mitochondrial localization of TIGAR under hypoxia stimulates HK2 and lowers ROS and cell death
    Eric C Cheung
    The Beatson Institute for Cancer Research, Switchback Road, Glasgow G61 1BD, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:20491-6. 2012
    ..we show that under hypoxia, a fraction of TIGAR protein relocalized to mitochondria and formed a complex with hexokinase 2 (HK2), resulting in an increase in HK2 activity...
  93. ncbi Evolutionary lineages and functional diversification of plant hexokinases
    Rucha Karve
    Department of Genetics and Biochemistry, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634, USA
    Mol Plant 3:334-46. 2010
    Sequencing data from 10 species show that a plant hexokinase (HXK) family contains 5-11 genes...
  94. pmc Mitochondrial hexokinase II (HKII) and phosphoprotein enriched in astrocytes (PEA15) form a molecular switch governing cellular fate depending on the metabolic state
    Philipp Mergenthaler
    Department of Experimental Neurology, Center for Stroke Research Berlin, Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, 10117 Berlin, Germany
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:1518-23. 2012
    ..Here, we show that the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1-regulated glycolytic enzyme hexokinase II (HKII) acts as a molecular switch that determines cellular fate by regulating both cytoprotection and ..
  95. ncbi Trigonellafoenum graecum (fenugreek) seed powder improves glucose homeostasis in alloxan diabetic rat tissues by reversing the altered glycolytic, gluconeogenic and lipogenic enzymes
    J Raju
    Department of Foods and Nutrition, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada
    Mol Cell Biochem 224:45-51. 2001
    ..These biochemical effects exerted by Trigonella seeds make it a possible new therapeutic in type-1 diabetes...
  96. ncbi The plastid hexokinase pHXK: a node of convergence for sugar and plastid signals in Arabidopsis
    Zhong Wei Zhang
    Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Bio Resource and Eco Environment, College of Life Science, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064, China
    FEBS Lett 584:3573-9. 2010
    ..The repressive effects of glucose and chloramphenicol on LHCB expression were inhibited in phxk (plastid hexokinase) mutant...
  97. pmc Role of mitochondria-associated hexokinase II in cancer cell death induced by 3-bromopyruvate
    Zhao Chen
    Department of Molecular Pathology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1787:553-60. 2009
    ..b>Hexokinase II (HKII) is a key glycolytic enzyme that plays a role in the regulation of the mitochondria-initiated apoptotic ..
  98. pmc Glucose metabolism as a target of histone deacetylase inhibitors
    Suzanne E Wardell
    Duke University Medical Center, Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, Box 3813, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    Mol Endocrinol 23:388-401. 2009
    ..glucose transport into multiple myeloma cells through both down-regulation of GLUT1 and inhibition of hexokinase 1 (HXK1) enzymatic activity...
  99. pmc Function of Arabidopsis hexokinase-like1 as a negative regulator of plant growth
    Abhijit Karve
    Department of Genetics and Biochemistry, Clemson University, Clemson SC 29634, USA
    J Exp Bot 60:4137-49. 2009
    A recent analysis of the hexokinase (HXK) gene family from Arabidopsis revealed that three hexokinase-like (HKL) proteins lack catalytic activity, but share about 50% identity with the primary glucose (glc) sensor/transducer protein ..
  100. ncbi Evidence for intracellular spatial separation of hexokinases and fructokinases in tomato plants
    Hila Damari-Weissler
    Institute of Plant Sciences, Agricultural Research Organization, The Volcani Center, Bet Dagan, 50250, Israel
    Planta 224:1495-502. 2006
    Four hexokinase (LeHXK1-4) and four fructokinase (LeFRK1-4) genes were identified in tomato plants...
  101. ncbi The VDAC1 N-terminus is essential both for apoptosis and the protective effect of anti-apoptotic proteins
    Salah Abu-Hamad
    Department of Life Sciences and the National Institute for Biotechnology in the Negev, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, 84105, Israel
    J Cell Sci 122:1906-16. 2009
    ..the release of cytochrome c, apoptosis and the regulation of apoptosis by anti-apoptotic proteins such as hexokinase and Bcl2...

Research Grants62

  1. Nanoelectrode arrays for study of the molecular mechanisms, triggers, and inhibit
    Peter J Burke; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..alteration of cancer cell mitochondrial function: changes in the Akt signal transduction pathway, induction of hexokinase II, alteration an adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT) isoform expression, down regulation of the SOC2 ..
  2. Energy Balance During Ketosis in Rat Brain
    JOSEPH CHARLES LAMANNA; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..feed-back regulation is known to down regulate glycolytic rates at the level of citrate, phosphofructokinase or hexokinase. Another proposed mechanism may be that ketosis facilitates anaplerosis (replenishment of the Krebs-TCA cycle ..
  3. Metabolic Pathways and Defects in Fructose Metabolism
    DEAN TOLAN; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..tags (dbEST) will be analyzed for overlapping expression profiles of the GLUT5, GLUT2, ketohexokinase, aldolase, hexokinase, and triose kinase in both mouse and humans to predict alternative sites of fructose metabolism...
  4. Genome-wide Association Study: Fetal Hemoglobin Phenotypes in Sickle Cell Disease
    Betty Pace; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..aerobic metabolism, [unreadable]-oxidation, and mitochondrial biogenesis inclusive of PGC-1[unreadable], GLUT4, hexokinase, citrate synthase, beta-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase, and the serine phosphorylation of insulin receptor ..
  5. ERR-gamma-dependent mammary tumorigenesis in response to BPA and a high-fat diet
    Rebecca B Riggins; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..rats, suggestive of early INS resistance, and hepatic expression of ERR? and two of its putative target genes (hexokinase 2, HK2;pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4, PDK4) are increased by BPA exposure in these animals...
  6. HPV, Tumor Metabolism and Radiosensitivity in Head and Neck Cancer
    Hyeong Reh Choi Kim; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Consistently, our preliminary data showed that HPV-negative HNSCC cells express higher levels of hexokinase, the rate-limiting enzyme in glycolysis, whereas HPV-positive HNSCC cells express low levels of hexokinase and ..
  7. Insulin Sensitivity using Aerobic Interval Conditioning (ISAIC)
    Conrad P Earnest; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..aerobic metabolism, [unreadable]-oxidation, and mitochondrial biogenesis inclusive of PGC-1[unreadable], GLUT4, hexokinase, citrate synthase, beta-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase, and the serine phosphorylation of insulin receptor ..
  8. Targeting Hexokinase II in Chemotherapy
    John G Pastorino; Fiscal Year: 2012
    b>Hexokinase II (HXK II) controls the first step in glycolysis, phosphorylating glucose to glucose-6-phosphate (G-6-P)...
  9. (PQA1)Molecular mechanisms by which the diabetic drug metformin kills cancer cell
    W Keith Miskimins; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Our new preliminary data show that metformin causes hexokinase II (HKII) to dissociate from mitochondria and promotes depletion of cellular ATP and NAD+...
  10. A novel role for p53 in congenital disorders of glycosylation
    Jaime Chu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..MPI-CDG is the only CDG with a known treatment: oral mannose increases flux through hexokinase and a minor complementary metabolic pathway that produces mannose-6-phosphate and normalizes protein ..
  11. Role of Reactive Oxygen Species in B Lymphoma Fate
    Gregory B Carey; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..and it is firmly established that PI-3K regulates bioenergetics in part, through mTOR and the mitochondrial Akt/hexokinase diad...
  12. Hypothermia in Cardiac Arrest: Akt Preservation of Mitochondrial Integrity
    WILLARD WILLIAM SHARP; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of Akt activation and localization to the mitochondria with subsequent inhibition of GSK-32 and activation of hexokinase II...
  13. Innate Immune Sensing of Bacterial Sugars
    David M Underhill; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In this project, we will stretch the definition of a pattern recognition receptor to include the host enzyme hexokinase, a central enzyme in cellular glucose metabolism...
  14. The Cyto-Protective Role of Hexokinase II During Metabolic Stress
    JONATHAN MICHAEL GALL; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Preliminary studies show that metabolic stress, an established model of renal ischemia, targets hexokinase II (HKII), the rate-limiting enzyme in glycolysis and a potential regulator of the Bax-mediated cell death ..
  15. Role of Hypoxia-Induced miR-210 in Tumor Metabolism
    Mircea Ivan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of breast cancer cells with altered levels of miR-210 to 2-Deoxyglucose and Dichloroacetate, (inhibitors of hexokinase and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, respectively)...
  16. Impact of Inflammation on the Control of Muscle Glucose Uptake
    Owen P McGuinness; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..g. hexokinase) to modulate a single step or multiple steps and measure the impact on MGU...
  17. Islet Dysregulation in Infants with Congenital Hyperinsulinism
    CHARLES ALFRED STANLEY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..4 mb region on chromosome 10q that includes the high affinity hexokinase enzyme, HK1...
  18. Mechanism of Activity of Lonidamine
    Jerry D Glickson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..A number of mechanisms have been proposed for LND: 1) inhibition of hexokinase II, 2) interference with mitochondrial electron transport, 3) inhibition of cellular lactate export through the ..
  19. Evaluation of BRAF-inhibitor induced alterations in glucose metabolism
    Nicholas Theodosakis; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of vemurafenib show a decrease in glucose uptake and proliferation, associated with a significant decrease in hexokinase activity...
  20. DEVELOPMENT EFFECT ON LOOP DIURETIC OTOTOXICITY
    Leonard Rybak; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..Aim 1 will investigate the effect of furosemide in the cochlea on the activities of key glycolytic enzymes, hexokinase (HK) 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase (PKE) and pyruvate kinase (PK)...
  21. OPPC targeting to improve pancreatic cancer treatment
    George C Prendergast; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..same is true for the oxidative pentose phosphate cycle (OPPC), a fork in the glycolysis pathway downstream of hexokinase. OPPC is responsible for generating much of the NADPH reducing activity for which cancer cells have an ..
  22. Hexokinases and Cardioprotection
    James N Weiss; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..is a general consensus that mitochondria are the final effectors of cardioprotective signaling regimes, and hexokinase (HK) has been suggested by multiple groups to regulate the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT)...
  23. Mitochondrial Protection by Hexokinase-II and Akt in the Heart
    Shigeki Miyamoto; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..activated Akt translocates to mitochondria and provides acute cardioprotection via its ability to phosphorylate hexokinase-II (HK-II) and enhance HK-II association with and inhibition of permeability transition pore (PT-pore) opening...
  24. Anemia in the Elderly: Pathogenesis
    Jeffrey S Friedman; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Erythrocyte survival will be estimated by CO levels and red cell hexokinase activity;oxidative damage to erythrocytes will be assessed by estimating GSSG/GSH, glutathione peroxidase, ..
  25. The role of Akt in cell survival and cell growth
    Nissim Hay; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Intriguingly, our preliminary results showed that glucose and hexokinases, and in particular hexokinase II (HKII), can induce pro-oncogenic signaling pathways...
  26. Prenyl Synthase Inhibitors: Novel Anti-Infective Agents
    Eric Oldfield; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..investigation of three other high-value targets: in trypanosomatid parasites, farnesyl diphosphate synthase and hexokinase, in bacteria, undecaprenyl diphosphate synthase...
  27. Nutrient sensing and hexokinases in T. brucei
    JAMES CULVIN MORRIS; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Mis-regulation of the first enzyme in the pathway, hexokinase, is toxic to the parasite...
  28. Hexokinase 2 and cancer therapy
    Nissim Hay; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): We found that in human prostate carcinoma and in lung carcinoma hexokinase 2 (HK2) expression is markedly elevated, while in normal prostate and lung cells its expression is hardly detectable...
  29. High Throughput Screening to Identify Inhibitors of a Fifth Mammalian Hexokinase
    JEFFREY DALE JOHNSON; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..project is to develop and validate a high throughput screening (HTS) assay to identify specific inhibitors of hexokinase domain containing 1 (HKDC1), a fifth mammalian hexokinase, which we have identified...
  30. PI3K/PTEN/Akt signaling and the genesis of cancer
    Nissim Hay; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Finally, we will assess whether the conditional deletion of hexokinase 2, a downstream effector of Akt, could affect tumor development, and whether it could be targeted for cancer ..
  31. Regulation of energy metabolism in the failing heart
    Raymond Russell; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..changes in the expression of key regulatory proteins in carbohydrate (the glucose transporters GLUT1 and GLUT4, hexokinase, phosphofructokinase-2, pyruvate dehydrogenase, and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase), fatty acid metabolism (fatty ..
  32. Understanding the role of altered metabolism in gliomagenesis
    Russell O Pieper; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Two metabolic enzymes, hexokinase (HK) and pyruvate kinase (PK) are key regulators of the metabolic changes that accompany tumorigenesis...
  33. ORAL L GLUTAMINE THERAPY FOR SICKLE CELL ANEMIA
    Yutaka Niihara; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..sickle cell anemia patients' hematological parameters including hemoglobin, hematocrit, reticulocyte count,and hexokinase level, and 4) adverse effects attributable to L-glutamine...
  34. GENETIC APPROACHES TO MITOCHONDRIAL VDAC FUNCTION
    William Craigen; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..The kinases known to bind VDACs include hexokinase, glucokinase, glycerol kinase, and mitochondrial creatine kinase...
  35. FRUCTOFURANOSE MODULATORS--STRUCTURAL/ENZYMATIC STUDIES
    EZZAT YOUNATHAN; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..carefully on the basis of exploiting the differences in the activity levels and in the stereospecificity of hexokinase and fructokinase in liver vis-a-vis extrahepatic tissues...
  36. LYMPHOMA: DIAGNOSIS BY BLOOD AND LIVER TESTS
    ANNEMARIE HERZFELD; Fiscal Year: 1980
    ..in the activities of enzymes in liver (arginase, peptidyl proline hydroxylase, alanine amino-transferase, hexokinase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, thyimidine kinase (particulate), pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase (cold ..
  37. ROLE OF HEXOKINASE IN LUNG ADAPTATION TO OXIDANT STRESS
    Carl White; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Some of these stimuli can upregulate lung hexokinase (HK), especially HK-II...
  38. BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SUPPORT
    HENRYK WISNIEWSKI; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..Ledley (cobalamin dependent metabolic enzymes); E. McCabe (metabolic enzymes glycerol kinase and hexokinase); D. Marcus (anti-carbohydrate antibodies); T. Means (calmodulin and calmodulin dependent enzymes); D...
  39. Role of ATM in Radiosensitivity of Gliomas
    Chandan Guha; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Finally, we demonstrated that the human hexokinase II (hHKII) promoter is induced 15-fold in GBM cells when compared to expression in cultured normal neurons and ..
  40. Involvement of Permeability Transition Pore in Developmental Alcohol Neurotoxicit
    MARIETA HEATON; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..speculate promotes apoptosis in cerebellum of P4 EtOH-exposed animals by binding and sequestering mitochondrial hexokinase, a glucose metabolizing enzyme...
  41. CHILDREN AT RISK: HIGH FIELD MRI OF STIMULANT EFFECTS
    Carl Anderson; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..studies show that cerebellar tissue has high metabolic demands for oxygen, Glu and glutamine (Gin), but low hexokinase activity. Thus, nicotine could developmentally alter cerebellar glia-neuron metabolic relationships...
  42. REDUCING DIABETIC CARDIOMYOPATHY: INCREASING GLYCOLYSIS
    Paul Epstein; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Transgenes for the GLUT 4 glucose transporter, yeast hexokinase, bisphosphatase deficient 2,6 phosphofructo-kinase/fructose-2,6 bisphosphatase and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate ..
  43. STRUCTURAL STUDY OF ENZYMIC PO3 TRANSFER--ACETATE KINASE
    MIRIAM HASSON; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Principles learned from the study of acetate kinase will be extended to other phosphotransferase, beginning with hexokinase. The proposed studies should provide an elucidation of the mechanism of acetate kinase, which will have ..
  44. REGULATORY ENZYMES OF GLYCOLYSIS AND GLUCONEOGENESIS
    HERBERT FROMM; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, an enzyme of gluconeogenesis subject to coordinate regulation by metabolites, and hexokinase isoforms I and II, enzymes that inhibit apoptosis through their association with mitochondria...
  45. IN VIVO STUDIES OF BRAIN GLYCOGEN IN HYPOGLYCEMIA
    Rolf Gruetter; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..as well as the acute increase in CBF is triggered when brain glucose concentrations approach the low Km of hexokinase. These aims will be achieved in rat brain using localized 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy and perfusion-based fMRI...
  46. Tumor FDG Kinetics in a 3-D Tissue Culture System
    Chin Ng; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Since the overexpression of glucose transporter and hexokinase isoforms are not expected to be the same for all carcinomas, FDG kinetics in these four NSCLCs should ..
  47. HEXOKINASE II--STRUCTURE, REGULATION AND FUNCTION
    DARYL GRANNER; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..This proposal includes studies designed to continue a comprehensive approach toward understanding how the hexokinase II gene (HKII) is regulated, how the structure of the protein relates to its function, and how HKII contributes ..
  48. THE MECHANISM OF RED CELL AGING-HEMOLYTIC ANEMIAS
    Sergio Piomelli; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..We will study in great detail two key enzymes of glycolysis - hexokinase and pyruvate kinase...
  49. Regulation of Cardiac Glucose Transporters
    MAUREEN CHARRON; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..GLUT4 null hearts also display increases in mitochondria, PCr:ATP, GSH, glycogen content and hexokinase II (HKII) activity which may provide cardioprotection...
  50. FDG PET IMAGING OF COLON CARCINOMA RESPONSE TO THERAPY
    Michael Graham; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..uptake value (SUV) and graphical analysis (Patlack method), along with glucose metabolic rate and k3 (hexokinase rate constant) using compartmental analysis with the Sokoloff/Phelps model...
  51. S1P, Rho and Akt signaling in cardiomyocyte survival
    JOAN BROWN; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The possibility that Akt interacts with and phosphorylates hexokinase II (HK-II) to regulate PT pore activity is specifically examined...
  52. ACUTE LUNG INJURY-MECHANISMS AND THERAPY
    James Crapo; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..project will test the hypothesis that adaptation to oxidant stress in the lung requires elevated expression of hexokinase (HK), a rate limiting step in glycolysis in the lung...
  53. DEVELOPMENT OF DRUG INHIBITORS OF SRC
    Victor Levin; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..will test the inhibitors against Src and a panel of other kinases (Yes, Bcr-Abl, Her2/neu, Csk, FGF-R, PKA, Lck, hexokinase, and lactate dehydrogenase) to document specificity...
  54. BIOENERGETIC AND CA2+ REGULATION OF MUSCLE IN FATIGUE
    Kenneth Campbell; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..reticulum changes in phosphoprotein formation and ATP binding in the sarcoplasmic ATPase, mitochondrial hexokinase binding, alterations in the activities of enzymes reducing oxygen free radical formation, and changes in the ..
  55. METABOLISM OF ISLETS OF LANGERHANS & HORMONE RELEASE
    Franz Matschinsky; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..tissue culture, quantitative histochemistry, enzymatic fluorimetry, radiometric micro assays for glucokinase and hexokinase and two-dimensional, high resolution SDS-PAGE of biosynthetically labeled proteins combined with computer image ..
  56. Tracking Stem cells with IMAGEtags
    Marit Nilsen Hamilton; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Although this is not likely to be a problem for cancer cells which generally express very high levels of hexokinase and glucose transporters for making ATP by glycolysis, stem cells are less robust and could be debilitated...
  57. Identification of Inhibitors of Trypanosoma Brucei Hexokinases
    James Morris; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Glycolysis is a promising target in the fight against T. brucei, as the pathway is essential. Inhibitors of hexokinase (TbHK), a key glycolytic enzyme, have been shown to be toxic to trypanosomes...
  58. Mechanisms to Induce Islet Proliferation
    PATRICK FUEGER; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..This award will be an instrumental component towards my ultimate goal of pursuing a career in diabetes research. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  59. MOLECULAR AND CHEMICAL DESCRIPTION OF CFTR FUNCTION
    Peter Pedersen; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The proposed studies are fundamental to understanding structure/function relationships within CFTR, to understanding the underlying basis of most cases of CF, and to developing new strategies to treat the disease. ..
  60. Cancer-Related Glycolytic Gene:Regulation and Targeting
    Peter Pedersen; Fiscal Year: 2008
    This application focuses on the regulation and targeting of the gene that encodes Type II hexokinase, a major player in the growth and pathogenesis of many cancers...
  61. CONTROL OF ENZYMATIC PHOSPHATE TRANSFER IN MITOCHONDRIA
    Peter Pedersen; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..These studies also have direct relevance to using nanotechnology in medicine as the ATP synthasome is comprised of 2 reversible nanomotors. ..
  62. Physiology of Malonyl-CoA in Muscle during Exercise
    WILLIAM WINDER; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..involved in contraction-induced stimulation of glucose uptake and control of expression of genes for GLUT4, hexokinase, and mitochondrial oxidative enzymes...