nicotinamide nucleotide adenylyltransferase

Summary

Summary: An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the transfer of the adenylyl moiety of ATP to the phosphoryl group of NMN to form NAD+ and pyrophosphate. The enzyme is found predominantly in the nuclei and catalyzes the final reaction in the major pathway for the biosynthesis of NAD in mammals. EC 2.7.7.1.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Neuroscience. NAD to the rescue
    Antonio Bedalov
    Clinical Research Division and J A Simon is in the Clinical Research and Human Biology Divisions, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA 98109, USA
    Science 305:954-5. 2004
  2. ncbi Increased nuclear NAD biosynthesis and SIRT1 activation prevent axonal degeneration
    Toshiyuki Araki
    Department of Pathology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    Science 305:1010-3. 2004
  3. pmc A local mechanism mediates NAD-dependent protection of axon degeneration
    Jing Wang
    Division of Neuroscience, Children s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    J Cell Biol 170:349-55. 2005
  4. pmc From genetic footprinting to antimicrobial drug targets: examples in cofactor biosynthetic pathways
    Svetlana Y Gerdes
    Integrated Genomics Inc, Chicago, Illinois 60612, USA
    J Bacteriol 184:4555-72. 2002
  5. ncbi Wallerian degeneration of injured axons and synapses is delayed by a Ube4b/Nmnat chimeric gene
    T G Mack
    Center for Molecular Medicine ZMMK and Institute for Genetics, University of Cologne, Zuelpicher Strasse 47, D 50674 Cologne, Germany
    Nat Neurosci 4:1199-206. 2001
  6. ncbi NAD(+) and axon degeneration revisited: Nmnat1 cannot substitute for Wld(S) to delay Wallerian degeneration
    L Conforti
    The Babraham Institute, Cambridge CB2 4AT, UK
    Cell Death Differ 14:116-27. 2007
  7. ncbi Structural characterization of a human cytosolic NMN/NaMN adenylyltransferase and implication in human NAD biosynthesis
    Xuejun Zhang
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390, USA
    J Biol Chem 278:13503-11. 2003
  8. ncbi Identification of a novel human nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase
    Nadia Raffaelli
    Dipartimento di Biotecnologie Agrarie ed Ambientali, Universita di Ancona, 60131 Ancona, Italy
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 297:835-40. 2002
  9. ncbi Structure of nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase: a key enzyme in NAD(+) biosynthesis
    I D'Angelo
    Department of Genetics and Microbiology A Buzzati Traverso, University of Pavia, Via Ferrata 1, 27100, Pavia, Italy
    Structure 8:993-1004. 2000
  10. ncbi Nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase expression in mitochondrial matrix delays Wallerian degeneration
    Naoki Yahata
    Department of Peripheral Nervous System Research, National Institute of Neuroscience, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira, Tokyo 187 8502, Japan
    J Neurosci 29:6276-84. 2009

Scientific Experts

Detail Information

Publications100

  1. ncbi Neuroscience. NAD to the rescue
    Antonio Bedalov
    Clinical Research Division and J A Simon is in the Clinical Research and Human Biology Divisions, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA 98109, USA
    Science 305:954-5. 2004
  2. ncbi Increased nuclear NAD biosynthesis and SIRT1 activation prevent axonal degeneration
    Toshiyuki Araki
    Department of Pathology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    Science 305:1010-3. 2004
    ..These findings suggest that novel therapeutic strategies directed at increasing the supply of NAD and/or Sir2 activation may be effective for treatment of diseases characterized by axonopathy and neurodegeneration...
  3. pmc A local mechanism mediates NAD-dependent protection of axon degeneration
    Jing Wang
    Division of Neuroscience, Children s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    J Cell Biol 170:349-55. 2005
    ..Furthermore, we provide evidence that such Nmnat1/NAD-mediated protection is primarily mediated by their effects on local bioenergetics. Together, our results suggest a novel molecular pathway for axon degeneration...
  4. pmc From genetic footprinting to antimicrobial drug targets: examples in cofactor biosynthetic pathways
    Svetlana Y Gerdes
    Integrated Genomics Inc, Chicago, Illinois 60612, USA
    J Bacteriol 184:4555-72. 2002
    ..Several drug targets within these pathways, including three distantly related adenylyltransferases (orthologs of the E. coli genes nadD, coaD, and ribF), are discussed in detail...
  5. ncbi Wallerian degeneration of injured axons and synapses is delayed by a Ube4b/Nmnat chimeric gene
    T G Mack
    Center for Molecular Medicine ZMMK and Institute for Genetics, University of Cologne, Zuelpicher Strasse 47, D 50674 Cologne, Germany
    Nat Neurosci 4:1199-206. 2001
    ..Nmnat enzyme activity, but not NAD+ content, was increased fourfold in WldS tissues. Thus, axon protection is likely to be mediated by altered ubiquitination or pyridine nucleotide metabolism...
  6. ncbi NAD(+) and axon degeneration revisited: Nmnat1 cannot substitute for Wld(S) to delay Wallerian degeneration
    L Conforti
    The Babraham Institute, Cambridge CB2 4AT, UK
    Cell Death Differ 14:116-27. 2007
    ..The full protective effect of Wld(S) requires more N-terminal sequences of the protein...
  7. ncbi Structural characterization of a human cytosolic NMN/NaMN adenylyltransferase and implication in human NAD biosynthesis
    Xuejun Zhang
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390, USA
    J Biol Chem 278:13503-11. 2003
    ..The characterization of the cytosolic human PNAT-3 provided compelling evidence that the final steps of NAD biosynthesis pathways may exist in mammalian cytoplasm and mitochondria, potentially contributing to their NAD/NADP pool...
  8. ncbi Identification of a novel human nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase
    Nadia Raffaelli
    Dipartimento di Biotecnologie Agrarie ed Ambientali, Universita di Ancona, 60131 Ancona, Italy
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 297:835-40. 2002
    ....
  9. ncbi Structure of nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase: a key enzyme in NAD(+) biosynthesis
    I D'Angelo
    Department of Genetics and Microbiology A Buzzati Traverso, University of Pavia, Via Ferrata 1, 27100, Pavia, Italy
    Structure 8:993-1004. 2000
    ..Given its vital role in cell life, the enzyme represents a possible target for the development of new antibacterial agents...
  10. ncbi Nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase expression in mitochondrial matrix delays Wallerian degeneration
    Naoki Yahata
    Department of Peripheral Nervous System Research, National Institute of Neuroscience, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira, Tokyo 187 8502, Japan
    J Neurosci 29:6276-84. 2009
    ..Alteration of mitochondrial function may constitute a novel tool for axonal protection, as well as a possible treatment of diseases involving axonopathy...
  11. ncbi Tracking in the Wlds--the hunting of the SIRT and the luring of the Draper
    Mike Fainzilber
    Department of Biological Chemistry, Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100 Rehovot, Israel
    Neuron 50:819-21. 2006
    ....
  12. ncbi Crystal structures of E. coli nicotinate mononucleotide adenylyltransferase and its complex with deamido-NAD
    Hong Zhang
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 5323 Harry Hines Boulevard, Dallas, TX 75390, USA
    Structure 10:69-79. 2002
    ..The bacterial NaMN adenylyltransferase structures described here provide a foundation for structure-based design of specific inhibitors that may have therapeutic potential...
  13. ncbi Stimulation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide biosynthetic pathways delays axonal degeneration after axotomy
    Yo Sasaki
    Department of Pathology, Hope Center for Neurological Disorders, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    J Neurosci 26:8484-91. 2006
    ..These results indicate that stimulation of NAD biosynthetic pathways via a variety of interventions may be useful in preventing or delaying axonal degeneration...
  14. pmc Transgenic mice expressing the Nmnat1 protein manifest robust delay in axonal degeneration in vivo
    Yo Sasaki
    Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    J Neurosci 29:6526-34. 2009
    ..These results highlight the importance of understanding the mechanism of Nmnat-mediated axonal protection for the development of new treatment strategies for neurological disorders...
  15. ncbi Insights into ligand binding and catalysis of a central step in NAD+ synthesis: structures of Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum NMN adenylyltransferase complexes
    V Saridakis
    Division of Molecular and Structural Biology, Ontario Cancer Institute, 610 University Avenue Toronto M5G 2M9, Ontario, Canada
    J Biol Chem 276:7225-32. 2001
    ..In addition, the role of the conserved (16)HXGH(19) active site motif in catalysis was probed by mutagenic, enzymatic and crystallographic techniques, including the characterization of an NMN(+)/SO4(2-) complex of mutant H19A NMNATase...
  16. pmc Wld S requires Nmnat1 enzymatic activity and N16-VCP interactions to suppress Wallerian degeneration
    Michelle A Avery
    Department of Neurobiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA
    J Cell Biol 184:501-13. 2009
    ..Thus, nuclear Nmnat activity does not appear to be essential for Wld(S)-like axon protection...
  17. ncbi Molecular cloning, chromosomal localization, tissue mRNA levels, bacterial expression, and enzymatic properties of human NMN adenylyltransferase
    M Emanuelli
    Istituti di Biochimica, Facolta di Medicina e Chirurgia, University of Ancona, Via Ranieri, 60100 Ancona, Italy
    J Biol Chem 276:406-12. 2001
    ..5 mg of recombinant enzyme/liter of culture medium. The molecular and kinetic properties of recombinant human NMN adenylyltransferase provide new directions for investigating metabolic pathways involving this enzyme...
  18. pmc NAD synthase NMNAT acts as a chaperone to protect against neurodegeneration
    R Grace Zhai
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Pharmacology, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, Florida 33136, USA
    Nature 452:887-91. 2008
    ..Our studies provide an entry point for understanding how normal neurons maintain activity, and offer clues for the common mechanisms underlying different neurodegenerative conditions...
  19. pmc Drosophila NMNAT maintains neural integrity independent of its NAD synthesis activity
    R Grace Zhai
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, United States of America
    PLoS Biol 4:e416. 2006
    ..Our data indicate an NAD-independent requirement of NMNAT for maintaining neuronal integrity that can be exploited to protect neurons from neuronal activity-induced degeneration by overexpression of the protein...
  20. pmc Nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyl transferase-mediated axonal protection requires enzymatic activity but not increased levels of neuronal nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide
    Yo Sasaki
    Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    J Neurosci 29:5525-35. 2009
    ..These results provide the possibility of a role for new Nmnat enzymatic activity in axonal protection in addition to NAD(+) synthesis...
  21. pmc The slow Wallerian degeneration protein, WldS, binds directly to VCP/p97 and partially redistributes it within the nucleus
    Heike Laser
    Institute for Genetics and Center for Molecular Medicine, University of Cologne, D 50674 Cologne, Germany
    Mol Biol Cell 17:1075-84. 2006
    ..We conclude that N-terminal sequences of Wld(S) protein influence the intranuclear location of both ubiquitin proteasome and NAD(+) synthesis machinery and that an evolutionary recent sequence mediates binding of mammalian Ube4b to VCP...
  22. pmc Wld S protein requires Nmnat activity and a short N-terminal sequence to protect axons in mice
    Laura Conforti
    Babraham Institute, Babraham Research Campus, Cambridge CB22 3AT, England, UK
    J Cell Biol 184:491-500. 2009
    ..Enzyme-dead Wld(S) is unable to delay Wallerian degeneration in mice. Thus, neither domain is effective without the function of the other. Wld(S) requires both of its components to protect axons from degeneration...
  23. ncbi Structural biology of enzymes involved in NAD and molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis
    Menico Rizzi
    DiSCAFF INFM, University of Piemonte Orientale, Via Bovio 6, 28100 Novara, Italy
    Curr Opin Struct Biol 12:709-20. 2002
    ..The recent progress made in the structural biology of enzymes involved in NAD and molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis presents a significant step toward these goals...
  24. ncbi Enzymology of NAD+ synthesis
    G Magni
    Istituto di Biochimica, Facolta di Medicina, Universita di Ancona, Italy
    Adv Enzymol Relat Areas Mol Biol 73:135-82, xi. 1999
    ....
  25. ncbi Structure of human NMN adenylyltransferase. A key nuclear enzyme for NAD homeostasis
    Silvia Garavaglia
    Department of Genetics and Microbiology A Buzzati Traverso, University of Pavia, Via Ferrata 1, 27100 Pavia, Italy
    J Biol Chem 277:8524-30. 2002
    ..Structural comparison of human and prokaryotic NMNATs may also lead to the rational design of highly selective antimicrobial drugs...
  26. pmc Age-dependent synapse withdrawal at axotomised neuromuscular junctions in Wld(s) mutant and Ube4b/Nmnat transgenic mice
    Thomas H Gillingwater
    Department of Neuroscience, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH8 9JZ, UK
    J Physiol 543:739-55. 2002
    ..Thus, Wld expression unmasks age-dependent, compartmentally organised programmes of synapse withdrawal and degeneration...
  27. ncbi Mutational, structural, and kinetic studies of the ATP-binding site of Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase
    Vivian Saridakis
    Molecular and Structural Biology, Ontario Cancer Institute, University Health Network, and the Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    J Biol Chem 278:34356-63. 2003
    ..3%, respectively, of WT NMNATase activity indicating that His-19 is a key catalytic group. Surprisingly, this H19A mutant displayed a novel and distinct mode of NAD+ binding when co-crystallized in the presence of NAD+ and SO42-...
  28. ncbi The cellular distribution of the Wld s chimeric protein and its constituent proteins in the CNS
    C Fang
    CNS Inflammation Group, Southampton Neuroscience Group, School of Biological Sciences, Biomedical Sciences Building, University of Southampton, Southampton SO16 7PX, UK
    Neuroscience 135:1107-18. 2005
    ..The increased Nmnat-1 activity in the nucleus of Wld s mice compared with wild-type mice seems to be a significant factor in the axon protection. It is not known whether the expression of the Nmnat-1 in the axon is significant...
  29. pmc A Ufd2/D4Cole1e chimeric protein and overexpression of Rbp7 in the slow Wallerian degeneration (WldS) mouse
    L Conforti
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Oxford, Mansfield Road, Oxford OX1 3QT, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97:11377-82. 2000
    ..However, it is undetectable on Northern blots of Wld(S) brain and seems unlikely to be the Wld gene. These data reveal both a candidate gene for Wld and the potential of the Wld(S) mutant for studies of ubiquitin and retinoid metabolism...
  30. pmc Nmnat delays axonal degeneration caused by mitochondrial and oxidative stress
    Craig Press
    Department of Pathology, Hope Center for Neurological Disorders, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    J Neurosci 28:4861-71. 2008
    ....
  31. pmc Identification of the Escherichia coli nicotinic acid mononucleotide adenylyltransferase gene
    R A Mehl
    Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA
    J Bacteriol 182:4372-4. 2000
    ..The rate of adenylation of nicotinate mononucleotide is at least 20 times faster than the rate of adenylation of nicotinamide mononucleotide...
  32. ncbi fusB is an allele of nadD, encoding nicotinate mononucleotide adenylyltransferase in Escherichia coli
    Martin Stancek
    Department of Microbiology, Stockholm University, S 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden
    Microbiology 149:2427-33. 2003
    ..This mutation was designated nadD74. Thus, a small decrease in NAD+ levels affects ability to grow on minimal medium at 42 degrees C, while a large decrease leads to a more pleiotropic phenotype...
  33. ncbi Characterization of recombinant human nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyl transferase (NMNAT), a nuclear enzyme essential for NAD synthesis
    M Schweiger
    Institut fur Biochemie, Freie Universitat Berlin, Thielallee 63, 14195 Berlin, Germany
    FEBS Lett 492:95-100. 2001
    ..Endogenous and recombinant NMNAT were phosphorylated in nuclear extracts in the presence of [gamma-(32)P]ATP. We propose that NMNAT's activity or interaction with nuclear proteins are likely to be modulated by phosphorylation...
  34. ncbi Structure of human nicotinamide/nicotinic acid mononucleotide adenylyltransferase. Basis for the dual substrate specificity and activation of the oncolytic agent tiazofurin
    Tianjun Zhou
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA
    J Biol Chem 277:13148-54. 2002
    ..The results from the analytical ultracentrifugation studies are consistent with the formation of a hexamer in solution under certain conditions...
  35. ncbi A subsystems-based approach to the identification of drug targets in bacterial pathogens
    Andrei L Osterman
    Burnham Institute for Medical Research, Infectious and Inflammatory Disease Center, La Jolla, California, USA
    Prog Drug Res 64:131, 133-70. 2007
    ..The whole process allows for a careful consideration of spectrum, drugability, biological rationale and the metabolic role of the specific target within the context of an integrated circuit within a specific metabolic pathway...
  36. ncbi Structure and function of nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase
    G Magni
    Istituto di Biotecnologie Biochimiche, Universita Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona, Italy
    Curr Med Chem 11:873-85. 2004
    ..The possibility that NMNAT may represent an interesting candidate as a target for the rational design of selective chemotherapeutic agents has been suggested...
  37. pmc Bifunctional NMN adenylyltransferase/ADP-ribose pyrophosphatase: structure and function in bacterial NAD metabolism
    Nian Huang
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA
    Structure 16:196-209. 2008
    ..The latter observation provided new insights into the ligand binding mode of ADPR-gated Ca2+ channel TRPM2...
  38. ncbi Radiation-induced PARP activation is enhanced through EGFR-ERK signaling
    Michael P Hagan
    Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298, USA
    J Cell Biochem 101:1384-93. 2007
    ..MEK inhibitor PD 184352 also reduced PARP activation and improved LNCaP survival following EGF and IR treatment. These data imply that PARP activation following exposure to ionizing radiation is enhanced through EGFR-ERK signaling...
  39. ncbi Enzymology of mammalian NAD metabolism in health and disease
    Giulio Magni
    Istituto di Biotecnologie Biochimiche, Universita Politecnica delle Marche, Via Ranieri 69, 60131 Ancona, Italy
    Front Biosci 13:6135-54. 2008
    ..Due to recent findings on nicotinamide riboside as a nutrient, its inclusion under "niacins" is proposed. Here, the enzymes involved in the de novo and reutilization pathways are overviewed...
  40. ncbi Enzymology of NAD+ homeostasis in man
    G Magni
    Istituto di Biotecnologie Biochimiche, Universita Politecnica delle Marche, Via Ranieri 69, 60131, Ancona, Italy
    Cell Mol Life Sci 61:19-34. 2004
    ....
  41. ncbi Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of human nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase (NMNAT)
    Erik Werner
    Crystallography Group, Max Delbruck Center for Molecular Medicine, Robert Rossle Strasse 10, D 13092 Berlin, Germany
    Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr 58:140-2. 2002
    ..5, c = 89.3 A, and diffract to a maximum resolution of 3.0 A. Packing considerations suggest a trimer or higher multimer to be present in the asymmetric unit of the crystal. Two archaeal homologues have been described to form hexamers...
  42. pmc Ribosylnicotinamide kinase domain of NadR protein: identification and implications in NAD biosynthesis
    Oleg V Kurnasov
    Integrated Genomics, Inc, Chicago, Illinois 60612, USA
    J Bacteriol 184:6906-17. 2002
    ..Both the pnuC and nadR genes were proven to be essential for the growth and survival of H. influenzae, thus implicating them as potential narrow-spectrum drug targets...
  43. ncbi Crystal structure of Haemophilus influenzae NadR protein. A bifunctional enzyme endowed with NMN adenyltransferase and ribosylnicotinimide kinase activities
    S Kumar Singh
    Department of Biochemistry and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390, USA
    J Biol Chem 277:33291-9. 2002
    ....
  44. pmc Analysis of Escherichia coli nicotinate mononucleotide adenylyltransferase mutants in vivo and in vitro
    Martin Stancek
    Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, S 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden
    BMC Biochem 6:16. 2005
    ..We have earlier made an initial characterization in vivo of two mutant enzymes, NadD72 and NadD74. Strains with either mutation have decreased intracellular levels of NAD+, especially for one of the alleles, nadD72...
  45. ncbi The antitumor drug, 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitroso-urea, inactivates human nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase
    M Emanuelli
    Istituto di Biochimica, Facolta di Medicina e Chirurgia, Universita di Ancona, Italy
    Biochem Pharmacol 49:575-9. 1995
    ..Incubation of BCNU-inactivated and dialysed NMN adenylyltransferase with dithiothreitol results in a partial recovery of the enzymatic activity...
  46. ncbi Subcellular compartmentation and differential catalytic properties of the three human nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase isoforms
    Felicitas Berger
    Freie Universitat Berlin, Institut fur Biochemie, Thielallee 63, 14195 Berlin, Germany
    J Biol Chem 280:36334-41. 2005
    ..Their existence appears to be consistent with important compartment-specific functions rather than to reflect simple functional redundance...
  47. ncbi The regulation of Escherichia coli glutamine synthetase revisited: role of 2-ketoglutarate in the regulation of glutamine synthetase adenylylation state
    P Jiang
    Department of Biological Chemistry, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor 48109 0606, USA
    Biochemistry 37:12802-10. 1998
    ..The possible biological implications of this regulatory arrangement are discussed...
  48. ncbi Rat liver mitochondria can synthesize nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide from nicotinamide mononucleotide and ATP via a putative matrix nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase
    M Barile
    Dipartimento di Biochimica e Biologia Molecolare, Universita di Bari, Italy
    Biochem Mol Biol Int 38:297-306. 1996
    ..C. 2.7.7.1.), inhibited by PPi, AMP and ADP-ribose. Some features of this enzyme, including the substrate, pH and temperature dependence were also investigated...
  49. ncbi Targeting NMNAT1 to axons and synapses transforms its neuroprotective potency in vivo
    Elisabetta Babetto
    The Babraham Institute, Laboratory of Molecular Signalling, Cambridge CB22 3AT, UK
    J Neurosci 30:13291-304. 2010
    ..We conclude that axonal targeting of NMNAT activity is both necessary and sufficient to delay Wallerian degeneration, and that promoting axonal and synaptic delivery greatly enhances the effectiveness...
  50. ncbi Human homologue of a gene mutated in the slow Wallerian degeneration (C57BL/Wld(s)) mouse
    F Shama Fernando
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Oxford, Mansfield Road, Oxford OX1 3QT, UK
    Gene 284:23-9. 2002
    ..We have also determined the intron/exon structure of the gene, which will facilitate the screening of these exons for mutations in human neurodegenerative disorders...
  51. ncbi Identification and characterization of YLR328W, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae structural gene encoding NMN adenylyltransferase. Expression and characterization of the recombinant enzyme
    M Emanuelli
    Istituto di Biochimica, Facolta di Medicina e Chirurgia, University of Ancona, Italy
    FEBS Lett 455:13-7. 1999
    ..Molecular and kinetic properties of recombinant NMN adenylyltransferase are reported and compared with those already known for the enzyme obtained from different sources...
  52. pmc Characterization of human brain nicotinamide 5'-mononucleotide adenylyltransferase-2 and expression in human pancreas
    Joel A Yalowitz
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Richard L Roudebush Veterans Affairs Medical Center 151, 1481 West Tenth Street, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA
    Biochem J 377:317-26. 2004
    ..These data suggest that the unique tissue-expression patterns of hNMNAT-2 reflect distinct functions for the isoforms in the regulation of NAD metabolism...
  53. ncbi Axon degeneration: Mechanisms and implications of a distinct program from cell death
    Tingting Yan
    Key Laboratory of Nutrition and Metabolism, Institute for Nutritional Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031, China Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031, China
    Neurochem Int 56:529-34. 2010
    ....
  54. ncbi Arabidopsis thaliana nicotinate/nicotinamide mononucleotide adenyltransferase (AtNMNAT) is required for pollen tube growth
    Shin Nosuke Hashida
    Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biosciences IMCB, The University of Tokyo, 1 1 1 Yayoi, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113 0032, Japan
    Plant J 49:694-703. 2007
    ..Our results suggest that metabolic fulfillment via the NAD pathway is indispensable for normal pollen growth and subsequent normal seed production...
  55. ncbi Pyridine dinucleotide biosynthesis in archaebacteria: presence of NMN adenylyltransferase in Sulfolobus solfataricus
    N Raffaelli
    Istituto di Biochimica, Facolta di Medicina e Chirurgia, Universita di Ancona, Italy
    FEBS Lett 355:233-6. 1994
    ..4. The Km values for ATP, NMN and nicotinic acid mononucleotide are 0.08 microM, 1.4 microM and 17 microM, respectively. The enzyme shows a remarkable degree of thermophilicity, with an activation energy of 95 kJ/mol...
  56. ncbi Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide based therapeutics
    L Chen
    Center for Drug Design, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA
    Curr Med Chem 15:650-70. 2008
    ..This review focuses on key representative opportunities for research in this area, which extends beyond the scope of this article...
  57. ncbi Efficient synthesis of benzamide riboside, a potential anticancer agent
    Laurent F Bonnac
    Center for Drug Design, University of Minnesota, 516 Delaware Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids 26:1249-53. 2007
    ..An efficient five step synthesis of benzamide riboside (BR) amenable for a large scale synthesis has been developed. It allows for extensive pre-clinical studies of BR as a potential anticancer agent...
  58. pmc A novel peroxiredoxin activity is located within the C-terminal end of Rhodospirillum rubrum adenylyltransferase
    Anders Jonsson
    Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Stockholm University, SE 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden
    J Bacteriol 190:434-7. 2008
    ..The combination of GlnE and AhpC/TSA domains within the same polypeptide constitutes a unique domain architecture that has not previously been identified among proteobacteria...
  59. ncbi Initial-rate kinetics of human NMN-adenylyltransferases: substrate and metal ion specificity, inhibition by products and multisubstrate analogues, and isozyme contributions to NAD+ biosynthesis
    Leonardo Sorci
    Istituto di Biotecnologie Biochimiche, Universita Politecnica delle Marche, Via Ranieri 67, 60131 Ancona, Italy
    Biochemistry 46:4912-22. 2007
    ..Distinctive differences in their substrate specificity and metal ion selectivity also permitted us to quantify individual isozyme contributions to NAD+ formation in human cell extracts...
  60. ncbi NAD(P) biosynthesis enzymes as potential targets for selective drug design
    G Magni
    Istituto di Biotecnologie Biochimiche, Universita Politecnica delle Marche, Via Ranieri 69, 60131 Ancona, Italy
    Curr Med Chem 16:1372-90. 2009
    ..The involvement of human NMNAT in neurodegenerative disorders and its role in neuroprotection is also discussed...
  61. pmc SAR studies for a new class of antibacterial NAD biosynthesis inhibitors
    Whitney Beysselance Moro
    Department of Chemistry, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 901 14th Street South, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
    J Comb Chem 11:617-25. 2009
    ..While only modest enhancements in the enzyme inhibition potency against NADs were observed, of significance was the observation that the antibacterial urea-sulfonamides more consistently inhibited NaMNAT...
  62. ncbi Studies of NAD kinase and NMN:ATP adenylyltransferase in Haemophilus influenzae
    A Denicola-Seoane
    Department of Biochemistry and Nutrition, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg 24061 0308
    J Gen Microbiol 136:425-30. 1990
    ..influenzae periplasmic nucleotide pyrophosphatase. The presence of an additional important pyridine nucleotide-dependent enzyme, NMN glycohydrolase, is also reported...
  63. ncbi Nicotinamide/nicotinic acid mononucleotide adenylyltransferase, new insights into an ancient enzyme
    Rong Grace Zhai
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Pharmacology, Neuroscience Center, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL 33136, USA
    Cell Mol Life Sci 66:2805-18. 2009
    ..The resultant wealth of biochemical data has built a robust framework upon which design of NMNAT activators, inhibitors or enzyme variants of potential medical interest can be based...
  64. pmc Complexes of bacterial nicotinate mononucleotide adenylyltransferase with inhibitors: implication for structure-based drug design and improvement
    Nian Huang
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 5323 Harry Hines Boulevard, Dallas, Texas 75390, USA
    J Med Chem 53:5229-39. 2010
    ....
  65. pmc Enzymes in the NAD+ salvage pathway regulate SIRT1 activity at target gene promoters
    Tong Zhang
    Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA
    J Biol Chem 284:20408-17. 2009
    ..This mechanism, in collaboration with NAMPT-dependent regulation of nuclear NAD(+) production, establishes an important pathway for transcription regulation by NAD(+)...
  66. pmc Endogenous Nmnat2 is an essential survival factor for maintenance of healthy axons
    Jonathan Gilley
    The Babraham Institute, Babraham Research Campus, Cambridge, UK
    PLoS Biol 8:e1000300. 2010
    ..Endogenous Nmnat2 represents an exciting new therapeutic target for axonal disorders...
  67. pmc Isoform-specific targeting and interaction domains in human nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferases
    Corinna Lau
    Department of Molecular Biology, University of Bergen, N 5008 Bergen, Norway
    J Biol Chem 285:18868-76. 2010
    ..Insertion of unique domains thus provides a yet unrecognized enzyme targeting mode, which has also been adapted to modulate subcellular NAD supply...
  68. ncbi Nicotinate/nicotinamide mononucleotide adenyltransferase-mediated regulation of NAD biosynthesis protects guard cells from reactive oxygen species in ABA-mediated stomatal movement in Arabidopsis
    Shin Nosuke Hashida
    Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biosciences, The University of Tokyo, 1 1 1 Yayoi, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113 0032, Japan
    J Exp Bot 61:3813-25. 2010
    ..In this study, it is demonstrated that NMNAT is essential for the maintenance of NAD homeostasis enabling sustainable stomatal movement...
  69. ncbi [Enzymatic synthesis of beta-NAD+ selectively marked with tritium at adenine and its use for determining the activity of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase]
    S I Shram
    Institute of Molecular Genetics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
    Prikl Biokhim Mikrobiol 35:638-46. 1999
    ..This method is based on the baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) enzyme nicotinamide nucleotide adenylyltransferase. Experimental conditions for a nearly complete conversion of labeled ATP to NAD were determined...
  70. ncbi The NAD biosynthesis pathway mediated by nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase regulates Sir2 activity in mammalian cells
    Javier R Revollo
    Department of Molecular Biology and Pharmacology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    J Biol Chem 279:50754-63. 2004
    ..These findings suggest that NAD biosynthesis mediated by Nampt regulates the function of Sir2alpha and thereby plays an important role in controlling various biological events in mammals...
  71. ncbi Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of nicotinic acid mononucleotide adenylyltransferase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa
    Hye Lee Kim
    Department of Chemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 151 742, South Korea
    Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr 60:948-9. 2004
    ..02, c = 109.80 A. The presence of one monomer in the asymmetric unit gives a reasonable V(M) of 2.15 A(3) Da(-1), with a solvent content of 42.7%...
  72. pmc The Escherichia coli NadR regulator is endowed with nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase activity
    N Raffaelli
    Istituto di Biochimica, Facolta di Medicina, Universita di Ancona, 60131 Ancona, Italy
    J Bacteriol 181:5509-11. 1999
    ..In addition to functionally specific DNA binding properties, the homogeneous recombinant protein catalyzes NAD synthesis from nicotinamide mononucleotide and ATP...
  73. ncbi The neuroprotective WldS gene regulates expression of PTTG1 and erythroid differentiation regulator 1-like gene in mice and human cells
    Thomas H Gillingwater
    Centre for Neuroscience Research, University of Edinburgh, 1 George Square, Edinburgh EH8 9JZ, UK
    Hum Mol Genet 15:625-35. 2006
    ..Targeting Wld(S)-induced gene expression may lead to novel therapies for neurodegeneration induced by trauma or by disease in humans...
  74. ncbi Identification of the archaeal NMN adenylytransferase gene
    N Raffaelli
    Istituto di Biochimica, Facolta di Medicina, Universita di Ancona, Italy
    Mol Cell Biochem 193:99-102. 1999
    ..jannaschii NMN adenylyltransferase gene. As far as we know from literature, this is the first report on the NMN adenylyltransferase gene...
  75. pmc A Bayesian method for identifying missing enzymes in predicted metabolic pathway databases
    Michelle L Green
    Bioinformatics Research Group, SRI International, 333 Ravenswood Ave, Menlo Park, CA 94025, USA
    BMC Bioinformatics 5:76. 2004
    ..If a protein has not been assigned a specific function during the annotation process, any reaction catalyzed by that protein will appear as a missing enzyme or pathway hole in a Pathway/Genome database...
  76. ncbi Crystal structure of nicotinic acid mononucleotide adenylyltransferase from Staphyloccocus aureus: structural basis for NaAD interaction in functional dimer
    Seungil Han
    Pfizer Inc Pfizer Global Research and Development, Eastern Point Road, Groton, CT 06340, USA
    J Mol Biol 360:814-25. 2006
    ..Taken together, these structural results provide a molecular basis for understanding the coupled activity and recognition specificity for S. aureus NaMNAT and for rational design of selective inhibitors...
  77. ncbi Crystal structure of human nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase in complex with NMN
    Erik Werner
    Crystallography Group, Max Delbruck Center for Molecular Medicine, Robert Rossle Str 10, D 13092, Berlin, Germany
    FEBS Lett 516:239-44. 2002
    ..Human NMNAT displays a different oligomerization compared to the archaeal enzyme. The protein-nicotinamide mononucleotide interaction pattern provides insight into ligand binding in the human enzyme...
  78. ncbi Identification of a critical site in Wld(s): essential for Nmnat enzyme activity and axon-protective function
    Haiqun Jia
    Institute for Nutritional Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031, PR China
    Neurosci Lett 413:46-51. 2007
    ..Therefore, we have identified a Phe residue that critical for both enzyme activity of Nmnat and the axon-protective function of Wld(s), and further confirmed that Nmnat1 enzyme activity is required in Wld(s) function...
  79. ncbi Modulation of cytotoxicity of benzamide riboside by expression of NMN adenylyltransferase
    Joel A Yalowitz
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Indiana University School of Medicine, 635 Barnhill Drive, MS4053, Indianapolis 46202 5122, USA
    Curr Med Chem 9:749-58. 2002
    ..Therefore, it can be concluded that IMPDH inhibitors directly inhibit PARP. Presumably, the shared IMP-NAD active site of IMPDH has a similar architecture to the NAD-binding pocket of PARP...
  80. ncbi Synthesis and biological evaluation of NAD analogs as human pyridine nucleotide adenylyltransferase inhibitors
    Palmarisa Franchetti
    Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Universita di Camerino, Camerino, Italy
    Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids 24:477-9. 2005
    ..Both dinucleotides resulted selective inhibitors against human NMNAT-3 isoenzyme...
  81. ncbi NAD+ metabolism in lymphocytes of patients affected by B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia
    V Polzonetti
    Dipartimento di Scienze Morfologiche e Biochimiche Comparate, University di Camerino, Italy
    Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol 17:1-6. 2004
    ....
  82. ncbi Protection of vincristine-induced neuropathy by WldS expression and the independence of the activity of Nmnat1
    Masashi Watanabe
    Department of Molecular Biochemistry, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, N15, W7 Kita ku, Sapporo 060 8638, Japan
    Neurosci Lett 411:228-32. 2007
    ..Taken together, Nmnat1 is considerably weaker than WldS for protection from toxic injury in vitro, suggesting that amino-terminal region of WldS is likely to be more significant for protection from axonal degeneration...
  83. pmc Targeting NAD biosynthesis in bacterial pathogens: Structure-based development of inhibitors of nicotinate mononucleotide adenylyltransferase NadD
    Leonardo Sorci
    Burnham Institute for Medical Research, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Chem Biol 16:849-61. 2009
    ..Most importantly, the results of this study help validate NadD as a target for the development of antibacterial agents with potential broad-spectrum activity...
  84. ncbi Unique expression pattern of human nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase isozymes in red blood cells
    M Di Stefano
    Dipartimento di Patologia Molecolare e Terapie Innovative, Sezione di Biochimica, Universita Politecnica delle Marche, Via Ranieri 69, 60131 Ancona, Italy
    Blood Cells Mol Dis 45:33-9. 2010
    ....
  85. ncbi Nmnat2 delays axon degeneration in superior cervical ganglia dependent on its NAD synthesis activity
    Tingting Yan
    Key Laboratory of Nutrition and Metabolism, Institute for Nutritional Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Shanghai, China
    Neurochem Int 56:101-6. 2010
    ..These findings provide new clues to further study the molecular mechanisms of axon degeneration and the related neurodegenerative diseases...
  86. ncbi Dinucleoside polyphosphate NAD analogs as potential NMN adenylyltransferase inhibitors. Synthesis and biological evaluation
    P Franchetti
    Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Camerino, Camerino, Italy
    Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids 22:865-8. 2003
    ..Compounds 1 and 2 proved to be selective inhibitors of microbial enzymes...
  87. ncbi Identification, characterization, and crystal structure of Bacillus subtilis nicotinic acid mononucleotide adenylyltransferase
    Andrea M Olland
    Wyeth Ayerst Research, Department of Biological Chemistry, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02140, USA
    J Biol Chem 277:3698-707. 2002
    ..Interactions of the nicotinic acid with backbone atoms indicate the structural basis for specificity...
  88. ncbi Identification and characterization of a second NMN adenylyltransferase gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    Monica Emanuelli
    Facolta di Medicina, Istituto di Biochimica, Universita di Ancona, Via Ranieri, 60100 Ancona, Italy
    Protein Expr Purif 27:357-64. 2003
    ..The N-terminal sequence of the purified recombinant yNMNAT-2 exactly corresponds to the predicted sequence. Molecular and kinetic properties of recombinant yNMNAT-2 are reported and compared with those already known for yNMNAT-1...
  89. ncbi Crystal structure of nicotinic acid mononucleotide adenylyltransferase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa in its Apo and substrate-complexed forms reveals a fully open conformation
    Hye Jin Yoon
    Department of Chemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 151 742, South Korea
    J Mol Biol 351:258-65. 2005
    ..We suggest that such a conformational change likely occurs only after both substrates are simultaneously bound in the active site...
  90. ncbi Enzymological characterization of the signal-transducing uridylyltransferase/uridylyl-removing enzyme (EC 2.7.7.59) of Escherichia coli and its interaction with the PII protein
    P Jiang
    Department of Biological Chemistry, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor 48109 0606, USA
    Biochemistry 37:12782-94. 1998
    ..Our kinetic data were consistent with the hypothesis that both transferase and uridylyl-removal reactions occurred at a single active center on the enzyme...
  91. pmc Characterization of nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase from thermophilic archaea
    N Raffaelli
    Istituto di Biochimica, Facolta di Medicina e Chirurgia, Universita di Ancona, Italy
    J Bacteriol 179:7718-23. 1997
    ..Molecular and kinetic properties of the enzymes from both archaea are reported and compared with those already known for the mesophilic eukaryotic NMN adenylyltransferase...
  92. ncbi Synechocystis sp. slr0787 protein is a novel bifunctional enzyme endowed with both nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase and 'Nudix' hydrolase activities
    N Raffaelli
    Istituto di Biochimica, Facolta di Medicina e Chirurgia, University of Ancona, Italy
    FEBS Lett 444:222-6. 1999
    ..Both activities have been characterized and compared to their archaeal counterparts...
  93. pmc Structure of nicotinic acid mononucleotide adenylyltransferase from Bacillus anthracis
    Shanyun Lu
    Center for Biophysical Sciences and Engineering, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294 4400, USA
    Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun 64:893-8. 2008
    ..Comparison of these and other less related bacterial NaMNAT structures support the presence of considerable conformational heterogeneity and flexibility in three loops surrounding the substrate-binding area...
  94. ncbi Nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase activity in human erythrocytes
    S Sestini
    Dipartimento di Biologia Molecolare, Universita di Siena, Italy
    Arch Biochem Biophys 302:206-11. 1993
    ..The partially purified preparation maintained its nicotinic acid adenylyltransferase activity. These findings are discussed in light of the regulation of NAD metabolism in human red blood cells...
  95. ncbi The NMN/NaMN adenylyltransferase (NMNAT) protein family
    Corinna Lau
    Department of Molecular Biology, University of Bergen, Thormohlensgate 55, N 5008 Bergen, Norway
    Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) 14:410-31. 2009
    ..This article intends to provide a comprehensive overview of the family of NMNATs and highlights some of the recently identified functional roles of these enzymes...
  96. pmc Regulation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 activity by the phosphorylation state of the nuclear NAD biosynthetic enzyme NMN adenylyl transferase 1
    Felicitas Berger
    Institute of Biochemistry, Free University Berlin, 14195 Berlin, Germany
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:3765-70. 2007
    ..We conclude that, depending on its state of phosphorylation, NMNAT-1 binds to activated, automodifying PARP-1 and thereby amplifies poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation...
  97. pmc Amyloid precursor protein cleavage-dependent and -independent axonal degeneration programs share a common nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase 1-sensitive pathway
    Bhupinder P S Vohra
    Department of Genetics, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    J Neurosci 30:13729-38. 2010
    ....
  98. pmc Kinetic and X-ray structural evidence for negative cooperativity in substrate binding to nicotinate mononucleotide adenylyltransferase (NMAT) from Bacillus anthracis
    Valerie C Sershon
    Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy and the Center for Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607, USA
    J Mol Biol 385:867-88. 2009
    ..anthracis NMAT substrate binding is a unique property that has not been observed in other prokaryotic NMAT enzymes. We propose that regulation of the NAD(P) biosynthetic pathway may occur, in part, at the reaction catalyzed by NMAT...
  99. ncbi Determination of NAD pyrophosphorylase activity in biological samples
    E Paulik
    Laboratory for Experimental Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis 46202 5200
    Anal Biochem 197:143-8. 1991
    ..The range of NAD produced during the assay was 2 to 200 microM. NAD pyrophosphorylase activities in the mononuclear cells of leukemic patients, human ovarian carcinoma cells, and rat liver were assayed...
  100. ncbi Axonal and cell body protection by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide in tumor necrosis factor-induced optic neuropathy
    Yasushi Kitaoka
    Department of Ophthalmology, St Marianna University School of Medicine, Kawasaki, Kanagawa, Japan
    J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 68:915-27. 2009
    ....

Research Grants10

  1. Crystallographic Analysis of NMN Adenylytransferases
    Hong Zhang; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..influenzae, and the crystallization trials are in progress. Elucidating the structures of NadR in its various ligand-bound forms and its complex with DNA will reveal how its conformation and function are modulated by both NAD and ATP. ..
  2. Crystallographic Analysis of GHMP kinases
    Hong Zhang; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ....
  3. Promoting axon regneration and functional recovery after spinal cord injury
    Zhigang He; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..We expect that these experiments will provide important insights into the therapeutic potential of manipulating mTOR pathway in promoting axon regrowth and functional recovery after spinal cord injury. ..
  4. Signaling mechanisms of axon regeneration by CNS myelin
    Zhigang He; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The second aim will investigate the downstream signaling mechanisms mediated by p75, TROY and perhaps other functionally similar molecules. The involvement of Lingo-1 in this receptor complex will be addressed in the third aim. ..
  5. Nogo receptor and its ligands in axon regeneration
    Zhigang He; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..These animal models will be used in this study to define the role of myelin inhibitors and other intrinsic and extrinsic factors in limiting the regeneration of different axonal tracts in vivo ..
  6. Signaling Mechanisms mediating effects of Semaphorin3A
    Zhigang He; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ....
  7. Semaphorins and Axon Regeneration in Spinal Cord Injury
    Zhigang He; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ....
  8. Targeting cofactor biosynthesis in biodefense pathogens
    Andrei Osterman; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..In addition to setting the stage for the development of new antibiotics, this study will impact our understanding of an important class of key biosynthetic enzymes in the vitamin/cofactor metabolism of bacterial pathogens. ..
  9. Genomics of Coenzyme Metabolism in Bacterial Pathogens
    Andrei L Osterman; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Accurate global mapping of the respective subsystems will provide us with a functional context for such targets and will contribute to the fundamental understanding of core metabolism in pathogens. ..