chitin synthase

Summary

Summary: An enzyme that converts UDP glucosamine into chitin and UDP. EC 2.4.1.16.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Chitin synthase 1 gene and its two alternative splicing variants from two sap-sucking insects, Nilaparvata lugens and Laodelphax striatellus (Hemiptera: Delphacidae)
    Ying Wang
    State Key Laboratory of Rice Biology and Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Agricultural Entomology, Institute of Insect Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, PR China
    Insect Biochem Mol Biol 42:637-46. 2012
  2. ncbi Chitin metabolism in insects: structure, function and regulation of chitin synthases and chitinases
    Hans Merzendorfer
    Department of Biology Chemistry, University of Osnabruck, 49069 Osnabruck, Germany
    J Exp Biol 206:4393-412. 2003
  3. ncbi Chitosan/double-stranded RNA nanoparticle-mediated RNA interference to silence chitin synthase genes through larval feeding in the African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
    X Zhang
    Department of Entomology and Arthropod Genomics Center, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA
    Insect Mol Biol 19:683-93. 2010
  4. ncbi Silencing of two alternative splicing-derived mRNA variants of chitin synthase 1 gene by RNAi is lethal to the oriental migratory locust, Locusta migratoria manilensis (Meyen)
    Jianzhen Zhang
    Research Institute of Applied Biology, Shanxi University, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030006, China
    Insect Biochem Mol Biol 40:824-33. 2010
  5. ncbi Chitin synthase genes in Manduca sexta: characterization of a gut-specific transcript and differential tissue expression of alternately spliced mRNAs during development
    David G Hogenkamp
    Department of Biochemistry, Kansas State University, 104 Willard Hall, Manhattan, Kansas 66506, USA
    Insect Biochem Mol Biol 35:529-40. 2005
  6. pmc Mitotic exit kinase Dbf2 directly phosphorylates chitin synthase Chs2 to regulate cytokinesis in budding yeast
    Younghoon Oh
    Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Mol Biol Cell 23:2445-56. 2012
  7. pmc Myosin-5, kinesin-1 and myosin-17 cooperate in secretion of fungal chitin synthase
    Martin Schuster
    Department of Biosciences, University of Exeter, Exeter, UK
    EMBO J 31:214-27. 2012
  8. ncbi Targeted localization of Inn1, Cyk3 and Chs2 by the mitotic-exit network regulates cytokinesis in budding yeast
    Franz Meitinger
    German Cancer Research Centre, DKFZ ZMBH Alliance, Molecular Biology of Centrosomes and Cilia Unit, Im Neuenheimer Feld 581, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
    J Cell Sci 123:1851-61. 2010
  9. ncbi A novel alternative splicing site of class A chitin synthase from the insect Ostrinia furnacalis - gene organization, expression pattern and physiological significance
    Mingbo Qu
    Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, China
    Insect Biochem Mol Biol 41:923-31. 2011
  10. pmc Role of Inn1 and its interactions with Hof1 and Cyk3 in promoting cleavage furrow and septum formation in S. cerevisiae
    Ryuichi Nishihama
    Department of Genetics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    J Cell Biol 185:995-1012. 2009

Research Grants

  1. BRP-39/YKL-40 in Th2 Inflammation and Asthma
    Jack A Elias; Fiscal Year: 2013
  2. A NOVEL SCREEN FOR ANTIFUNGALS THAT TARGET CHITOSAN BIOSYNTHESIS
    Jennifer K Lodge; Fiscal Year: 2012
  3. Mechanisms of Cytokinesis in Yeast
    Erfei Bi; Fiscal Year: 2013
  4. Chitosan in Cryptococcus
    Jennifer K Lodge; Fiscal Year: 2011
  5. Nikkomycin Z Treatment for Coccidioidomycosis
    John Galgiani; Fiscal Year: 2006
  6. CHITIN BIOSYNTHESIS AND THE MOSQUITO PERITROPHIC MATRIX
    Bruce Christensen; Fiscal Year: 2007
  7. NUCLEOTIDE DONORS AFFECTING GLYCOSYLATION PATHWAYS
    Ajit Varki; Fiscal Year: 2003
  8. GLYCOSYLTRANSFERASE INHIBITORS AS ANTIFUNGAL AGENTS
    Nathaniel Finney; Fiscal Year: 2003
  9. MEMBRANE FUNCTION DURING GERMINATION OF CANDIDA ALBICANS
    RONALD CIHLAR; Fiscal Year: 1990
  10. Embryogenesis and Larval Morphogenesis in Filariae
    Juliet Fuhrman; Fiscal Year: 2002

Detail Information

Publications237 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Chitin synthase 1 gene and its two alternative splicing variants from two sap-sucking insects, Nilaparvata lugens and Laodelphax striatellus (Hemiptera: Delphacidae)
    Ying Wang
    State Key Laboratory of Rice Biology and Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Agricultural Entomology, Institute of Insect Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, PR China
    Insect Biochem Mol Biol 42:637-46. 2012
    b>Chitin synthase (CHS) is an enzyme that is required for chitin formation in insect cuticles and other tissues...
  2. ncbi Chitin metabolism in insects: structure, function and regulation of chitin synthases and chitinases
    Hans Merzendorfer
    Department of Biology Chemistry, University of Osnabruck, 49069 Osnabruck, Germany
    J Exp Biol 206:4393-412. 2003
    ..In this review, we will summarize recent advances in understanding chitin synthesis and its degradation in insects...
  3. ncbi Chitosan/double-stranded RNA nanoparticle-mediated RNA interference to silence chitin synthase genes through larval feeding in the African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
    X Zhang
    Department of Entomology and Arthropod Genomics Center, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA
    Insect Mol Biol 19:683-93. 2010
    The purpose of this study was to examine whether the expression of two chitin synthase genes, AgCHS1 and AgCHS2, can be repressed by chitosan/AgCHS dsRNA-based nanoparticles through larval feeding in Anopheles gambiae...
  4. ncbi Silencing of two alternative splicing-derived mRNA variants of chitin synthase 1 gene by RNAi is lethal to the oriental migratory locust, Locusta migratoria manilensis (Meyen)
    Jianzhen Zhang
    Research Institute of Applied Biology, Shanxi University, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030006, China
    Insect Biochem Mol Biol 40:824-33. 2010
    ..We characterized two alternative splicing-derived variants of chitin synthase 1 gene (LmCHS1) from the oriental migratory locust, Locusta migratoria manilensis (Meyen)...
  5. ncbi Chitin synthase genes in Manduca sexta: characterization of a gut-specific transcript and differential tissue expression of alternately spliced mRNAs during development
    David G Hogenkamp
    Department of Biochemistry, Kansas State University, 104 Willard Hall, Manhattan, Kansas 66506, USA
    Insect Biochem Mol Biol 35:529-40. 2005
    Chitin, the linear homopolymer of beta-1,4-linked N-acetylglucosamine, is produced by the enzyme chitin synthase (CHS)...
  6. pmc Mitotic exit kinase Dbf2 directly phosphorylates chitin synthase Chs2 to regulate cytokinesis in budding yeast
    Younghoon Oh
    Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Mol Biol Cell 23:2445-56. 2012
    ..the primary septum (PS), a functional equivalent of animal ECM, is synthesized during cytokinesis by the chitin synthase Chs2...
  7. pmc Myosin-5, kinesin-1 and myosin-17 cooperate in secretion of fungal chitin synthase
    Martin Schuster
    Department of Biosciences, University of Exeter, Exeter, UK
    EMBO J 31:214-27. 2012
    ..Thus, kinesin-1, myosin-5 and dynein mediate bi-directional motility, whereas myosin-17 introduces a symmetry break that allows polarized secretion...
  8. ncbi Targeted localization of Inn1, Cyk3 and Chs2 by the mitotic-exit network regulates cytokinesis in budding yeast
    Franz Meitinger
    German Cancer Research Centre, DKFZ ZMBH Alliance, Molecular Biology of Centrosomes and Cilia Unit, Im Neuenheimer Feld 581, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
    J Cell Sci 123:1851-61. 2010
    ..In addition, we found that the chitin synthase Chs2 did not efficiently localize at the bud neck in the absence of MEN activity...
  9. ncbi A novel alternative splicing site of class A chitin synthase from the insect Ostrinia furnacalis - gene organization, expression pattern and physiological significance
    Mingbo Qu
    Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, China
    Insect Biochem Mol Biol 41:923-31. 2011
    Insect chitin synthase A (CHSA) catalyzes chitin biosynthesis in tissues that develop from ectoderm...
  10. pmc Role of Inn1 and its interactions with Hof1 and Cyk3 in promoting cleavage furrow and septum formation in S. cerevisiae
    Ryuichi Nishihama
    Department of Genetics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    J Cell Biol 185:995-1012. 2009
    ..In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, new membrane, the chitin synthase Chs2 (which forms the primary septum [PS]), and the protein Inn1 are all delivered to the division site upon ..
  11. ncbi The Tribolium chitin synthase genes TcCHS1 and TcCHS2 are specialized for synthesis of epidermal cuticle and midgut peritrophic matrix
    Y Arakane
    USDA ARS Grain Marketing and Production Research Center, Manhattan, KS 66502, USA
    Insect Mol Biol 14:453-63. 2005
    Functional analysis of the two chitin synthase genes, TcCHS1 and TcCHS2, in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, revealed unique and complementary roles for each gene...
  12. ncbi The cellular basis of chitin synthesis in fungi and insects: common principles and differences
    Hans Merzendorfer
    University of Osnabruck, Faculty of Biology and Chemistry, Department of Animal Physiology, Barbarastrasse 11, 49076 Osnabruck, Germany
    Eur J Cell Biol 90:759-69. 2011
    ..The underlying biosynthetic machinery is highly conserved and involves several enzymes, of which the chitin synthase is the key enzyme. This membrane integral glycosyltransferase catalyzes the polymerization reaction...
  13. ncbi The gene, expression pattern and subcellular localization of chitin synthase B from the insect Ostrinia furnacalis
    Mingbo Qu
    Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, China
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 404:302-7. 2011
    ..The essential component in PM is chitin and its synthesis is catalyzed by Class B chitin synthase (CHSB), which plays a unique role in chitin-containing organisms and thus represents a potential target for ..
  14. pmc Different chitin synthase genes are required for various developmental and plant infection processes in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae
    Ling An Kong
    State Key Laboratory of Agrobiotechnology, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China
    PLoS Pathog 8:e1002526. 2012
    ..Plant pathogenic fungi normally have multiple chitin synthase genes...
  15. pmc Characterization of a chitin synthase encoding gene and effect of diflubenzuron in soybean aphid, Aphis glycines
    Raman Bansal
    Department of Entomology, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, The Ohio State University, Wooster, OH 44691, USA
    Int J Biol Sci 8:1323-34. 2012
    ..We identified the cDNA of chitin synthase gene (CHS) in Aphis glycines, the soybean aphid, which is a serious pest of soybean...
  16. pmc Identification, mRNA expression, and functional analysis of chitin synthase 1 gene and its two alternative splicing variants in oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis
    Wen Jia Yang
    Key Laboratory of Entomology and Pest Control Engineering, College of Plant Protection, Southwest University, Chongqing 400716, P R China
    Int J Biol Sci 9:331-42. 2013
    Two alternative splicing variants of chitin synthase 1 gene (BdCHS1) were cloned and characterized from the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)...
  17. ncbi Chitin synthases are required for survival, fecundity and egg hatch in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum
    Yasuyuki Arakane
    Department of Biochemistry, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506 3702, USA
    Insect Biochem Mol Biol 38:959-62. 2008
    The synthesis of chitin, the beta-1,4-linked polymer of N-acetylglucosamine, is catalyzed by chitin synthase (CHS)...
  18. ncbi Characterization of two chitin synthase genes of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, and alternate exon usage in one of the genes during development
    Yasuyuki Arakane
    Grain Marketing and Production Research Center, ARS USDA, 1515 College Avenue, Manhattan, KS 66502, USA
    Insect Biochem Mol Biol 34:291-304. 2004
    Two chitin synthase (CHS) genes of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, were sequenced and their transcription patterns during development examined. By screening a BAC library of genomic DNA from T...
  19. ncbi Spatial coordination of cytokinetic events by compartmentalization of the cell cortex
    Jeroen Dobbelaere
    Institute of Biochemistry, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, ETH Honggerberg, 8093 Zurich, Switzerland
    Science 305:393-6. 2004
    ..In turn, such factors were required for actomyosin ring function and membrane abscission. Thus, a specialized cortical compartment ensures the spatial coordination of cytokinetic events...
  20. pmc Developmental control of a lepidopteran pest Spodoptera exigua by ingestion of bacteria expressing dsRNA of a non-midgut gene
    Honggang Tian
    State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat Sen University, Guangzhou, China
    PLoS ONE 4:e6225. 2009
    ..However, it is still unknown whether phenotypic silencing of genes not expressed in the midgut occurs after ingestion of insect dsRNA...
  21. ncbi Characterization of a midgut-specific chitin synthase gene (LmCHS2) responsible for biosynthesis of chitin of peritrophic matrix in Locusta migratoria
    Xiaojian Liu
    Research Institute of Applied Biology, Shanxi University, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030006, China
    Insect Biochem Mol Biol 42:902-10. 2012
    Chitin, an essential component of peritrophic matrix (PM), is produced by a series of biochemical reactions. Chitin synthase plays a crucial role in chitin polymerization in chitin biosynthetic pathway...
  22. ncbi Fusarium verticillioides chitin synthases CHS5 and CHS7 are required for normal growth and pathogenicity
    Troy M Larson
    Bacterial Foodborne Pathogens and Mycology Research Unit, Agricultural Research Service, U S Department of Agriculture, Peoria, IL 61604 3999, USA
    Curr Genet 57:177-89. 2011
    ..We identified eight putative chitin synthase (CHS) genes in F...
  23. ncbi Insect chitin synthase cDNA sequence, gene organization and expression
    R L Tellam
    Molecular Animal Genetics Centre, CSIRO Tropical Agriculture, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia
    Eur J Biochem 267:6025-43. 2000
    ..Feeding larvae of the insect Lucilia cuprina on the fungal chitin synthase competitive inhibitor, nikkomycin Z resulted in strong concentration-dependent mortality of the larvae (LD50 =..
  24. pmc Embryonic desiccation resistance in Aedes aegypti: presumptive role of the chitinized serosal cuticle
    Gustavo Lazzaro Rezende
    Laboratório de Fisiologia e Controle de Artrópodes Vetores, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, FIOCRUZ and Laboratório de Entomologia, Instituto de Biologia do Exército, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
    BMC Dev Biol 8:82. 2008
    ..It has been argued that mosquito SC contains chitin as one of its components, however conclusive evidence is still missing...
  25. ncbi Evolution and phylogenetic relationships of chitin synthases from yeasts and fungi
    Jose Ruiz-Herrera
    Departamento de Ingeniería Genética, Unidad Irapuato, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Carretera Irapuato León, Gto Mexico
    FEMS Yeast Res 1:247-56. 2002
    ..Determination of different structural features in this region of Chs brought to light a noticeable conservation of secondary structure in the proteins...
  26. ncbi The Aspergillus fumigatus chsC and chsG genes encode class III chitin synthases with different functions
    E Mellado
    Department of Infectious Diseases and Bacteriology, Royal Postgraduate Medical School, Hammersmith Hospital, London, UK
    Mol Microbiol 20:667-79. 1996
    ..from the wild-type strain, but chsG- and chsC- chsG- strains have reduced colony radial growth rate and chitin synthase activity, conidiate poorly and produce highly branched hyphae...
  27. pmc Dependence of Chs2 ER export on dephosphorylation by cytoplasmic Cdc14 ensures that septum formation follows mitosis
    Cheen Fei Chin
    Department of Biochemistry, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore
    Mol Biol Cell 23:45-58. 2012
    ..In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, chitin synthase 2 (Chs2), which lays down the primary septum at the mother-daughter neck, also ensures proper actomyosin ring ..
  28. ncbi Evidence that a septin diffusion barrier is dispensable for cytokinesis in budding yeast
    Carsten Wloka
    Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 6058, USA
    Biol Chem 392:813-29. 2011
    ....
  29. ncbi An epidermis-specific chitin synthase CDNA in Choristoneura fumiferana: cloning, characterization, developmental and hormonal-regulated expression
    Dinakar R Ampasala
    Centre for Bioinformatics, School of Life Sciences, Pondicherry University, Pondicherry, India
    Arch Insect Biochem Physiol 76:83-96. 2011
    b>Chitin synthase catalyzes chitin synthesis in the exoskeleton, tracheal system and gut during insect development. A chitin synthase 1 (CfCHS1) cDNA was identified and cloned from the spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana...
  30. pmc Identification and characterization of two chitin synthase genes in African malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae
    Xin Zhang
    Department of Entomology, 123 Waters Hall, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA
    Insect Biochem Mol Biol 42:674-82. 2012
    b>Chitin synthase (CHS) represents an attractive target site for combating insect pests as insect growth and development are strictly dependent on precisely tuned chitin biosynthesis and this pathway is absent in humans and other ..
  31. ncbi Physiological significance of alternatively spliced exon combinations of the single-copy gene class A chitin synthase in the insect Ostrinia furnacalis (Lepidoptera)
    M Qu
    School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, China
    Insect Mol Biol 21:395-404. 2012
    Insect chitin synthase is an essential enzyme involved in chitin biosynthesis in insects. Chitin synthase A (CHSA) is expressed in different insect tissues during different developmental stages...
  32. pmc Arf1p, Chs5p and the ChAPs are required for export of specialized cargo from the Golgi
    Mark Trautwein
    Friedrich Miescher Laboratorium, Max Planck Gesellschaft, Tubingen, Germany
    EMBO J 25:943-54. 2006
    ..cerevisiae, the synthesis of chitin is temporally and spatially regulated through the transport of Chs3p (chitin synthase III) to the plasma membrane in the bud neck region...
  33. pmc The myosin motor domain of fungal chitin synthase V is dispensable for vesicle motility but required for virulence of the maize pathogen Ustilago maydis
    Steffi Treitschke
    School of Biosciences, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4QD, United Kingdom
    Plant Cell 22:2476-94. 2010
    ..They consist of a myosin motor domain fused to a membrane-spanning chitin synthase region that participates in fungal cell wall formation...
  34. ncbi The yeast clathrin adaptor protein complex 1 is required for the efficient retention of a subset of late Golgi membrane proteins
    Raphael H Valdivia
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    Dev Cell 2:283-94. 2002
    ..Here, we show that chitin synthase III (Chs3p), an enzyme involved in the assembly of the cell wall at the mother-bud junction, populates an ..
  35. pmc Genetic control of cuticle formation during embryonic development of Drosophila melanogaster
    Stephen Ostrowski
    Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Cell Biology, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208, USA
    Genetics 161:171-82. 2002
    ..We find that one of these genes, krotzkopf verkehrt (kkv), encodes the Drosophila chitin synthase enzyme and that a closely linked gene, knickkopf (knk), encodes a novel protein that shows genetic ..
  36. ncbi The chitin synthase genes chs-1 and chs-2 are essential for C. elegans development and responsible for chitin deposition in the eggshell and pharynx, respectively
    Yinhua Zhang
    New England Biolabs Inc, 240 County Road, Ipswich, MA 01938, USA
    Dev Biol 285:330-9. 2005
    ..Here, we determined the roles of chitin and the two predicted chitin synthase genes in Caenorhabditis elegans by chitin localization and gene disruption...
  37. ncbi Stage-specific expression of the chitin synthase DmeChSA and DmeChSB genes during the onset of Drosophila metamorphosis
    Mary Elizabeth Gagou
    Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Foundation for Research and Technology Hellas, 711 10 Heraklion, Crete, Greece
    Insect Biochem Mol Biol 32:141-6. 2002
    ..fungal chitin synthases and other processive beta-glycosyltransferases, we have identified the first insect chitin synthase genes, DmeChSA and DmeChSB (Database accession numbers: EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ A83122, A83126, AJ309488, AJ309489),..
  38. ncbi The chitin synthase involved in marine bivalve mollusk shell formation contains a myosin domain
    Ingrid M Weiss
    Universitat Regensburg, c o Lehrstuhl Biochemie 1, Universitätsstr 31, D 93055 Regensburg, Germany
    FEBS Lett 580:1846-52. 2006
    ..We cloned and characterized the chitin synthase of the marine bivalve mollusk Atrina rigida...
  39. pmc A chitin synthase and its regulator protein are critical for chitosan production and growth of the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans
    Isaac R Banks
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, 1402 S Grand Blvd, St Louis, MO 63104, USA
    Eukaryot Cell 4:1902-12. 2005
    ..C. neoformans has eight putative chitin synthases, and strains with any one chitin synthase deleted are viable at 30 degrees C. In addition, C...
  40. ncbi Effects of benzoylphenylurea on chitin synthesis and orientation in the cuticle of the Drosophila larva
    Umesh Gangishetti
    Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology, Tubingen, Germany
    Eur J Cell Biol 88:167-80. 2009
    ..It is produced by the glycosyltransferase chitin synthase at the apical plasma membrane of epidermal and tracheal cells...
  41. ncbi Genetic analysis of chs1+ and chs2+ encoding chitin synthases from Schizosaccharomyces pombe
    Yasuhiro Matsuo
    Department of Applied Bioscience and Biotechnology, Faculty of Life and Environmental Science, Shimane University, 1060 Nishikawatsu, Matsue 690 8504, Japan
    Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 68:1489-99. 2004
    ..pombe chs1+ or chs1+, indicating that both chs1+ and chs2+ in fact encode chitin synthase. The homothallic Deltachs1 strain formed abnormal asci that contained 1, 2, or 3 spores, while the Deltachs2 ..
  42. pmc Cell wall chitosaccharides are essential components and exposed patterns of the phytopathogenic oomycete Aphanomyces euteiches
    Ilham Badreddine
    UMR 5546, CNRS Université Paul Sabatier, 24 Chemin de Borde Rouge, BP 42617, Auzeville, F 31326 Castanet Tolosan, France
    Eukaryot Cell 7:1980-93. 2008
    ..Two putative chitin synthase (CHS) genes were identified by data mining of an A...
  43. ncbi CHS8-a fourth chitin synthase gene of Candida albicans contributes to in vitro chitin synthase activity, but is dispensable for growth
    Carol A Munro
    Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of Aberdeen, Institute of Medical Sciences, Foresterhill, Aberdeen AB25 2ZD, UK
    Fungal Genet Biol 40:146-58. 2003
    ..pathogenic fungus Candida albicans identified an open reading frame encoding a putative fourth member of the chitin synthase gene family...
  44. ncbi csmA, a gene encoding a class V chitin synthase with a myosin motor-like domain of Aspergillus nidulans, is translated as a single polypeptide and regulated in response to osmotic conditions
    Norio Takeshita
    Department of Biotechnology, The University of Tokyo, 1 1 1 Yayoi, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113 8657, Japan
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 298:103-9. 2002
    ..nidulans encodes a polypeptide that consists of an N-terminal myosin motor-like domain and a C-terminal chitin synthase domain...
  45. ncbi The class V chitin synthase gene csmA is crucial for the growth of the chsA chsC double mutant in Aspergillus nidulans
    Emi Yamada
    Department of Biotechnology, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
    Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 69:87-97. 2005
    ..These and other results suggest that the function of csmA is important for the maintenance of cell wall integrity and the polarized growth of the chsA chsC double mutant...
  46. ncbi Sesquiterpene furan compound CJ-01, a novel chitin synthase 2 inhibitor from Chloranthus japonicus SIEB
    Nam Hui Yim
    Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Daejeon 305 806, Korea
    Biol Pharm Bull 31:1041-4. 2008
    ..by monitoring the inhibitory activity of chitin synthase 2 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
  47. pmc Sorting signals that mediate traffic of chitin synthase III between the TGN/endosomes and to the plasma membrane in yeast
    Trevor L Starr
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, California, USA
    PLoS ONE 7:e46386. 2012
    Traffic of the integral yeast membrane protein chitin synthase III (Chs3p) from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to the cell surface and to and from the early endosomes (EE) requires active protein sorting decoded by a number of protein ..
  48. ncbi Mutational analysis of chitin synthase 2 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Identification of additional amino acid residues involved in its catalytic activity
    T Yabe
    Department of Mycology, Nippon Roche Research Center, Kanagawa, Japan
    Eur J Biochem 258:941-7. 1998
    ..in con2 are additional residues involved in catalysis, and hypothesise that Asp800 together with the previously identified Asp441 and Asp562 serve as polar residues necessary for the acid-based catalytic reaction of chitin synthase.
  49. ncbi Regulation of chitin synthesis in the larval midgut of Manduca sexta
    L Zimoch
    Department of Biology Chemistry, Division of Animal Physiology, University of Osnabruck, Barbarastr 11, D 49069 Osnabruck, Germany
    Insect Biochem Mol Biol 35:515-27. 2005
    ..Using anti-chitin synthase (CHS) antibodies, we previously demonstrated that in the midgut of Manduca sexta, CHS is expressed by two ..
  50. pmc Identification of GIG1, a GlcNAc-induced gene in Candida albicans needed for normal sensitivity to the chitin synthase inhibitor nikkomycin Z
    Angelo Gunasekera
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Stony Brook University, NY 11794 5222, USA
    Eukaryot Cell 9:1476-83. 2010
    ..Significantly, a gig1Δ mutant displayed increased resistance to nikkomycin Z, which inhibits chitin synthase from converting UDP-GlcNAc into cell wall chitin...
  51. ncbi Characterization of the chitin biosynthesis process as a compensatory mechanism in the fks1 mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    L J García-Rodriguez
    Instituto de Microbiologia Bioquimica, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas Universidad de Salamanca, 37007 Salamanca, Spain
    FEBS Lett 478:84-8. 2000
    ..in Saccharomyces cerevisiae induces a compensatory mechanism that is reflected in a significant increase in chitin synthase III (CSIII) activity, leading to high rates of chitin synthesis...
  52. ncbi Chitin synthase-deficient mutant of Fusarium oxysporum elicits tomato plant defence response and protects against wild-type infection
    Yolanda Pareja-Jaime
    Departamento de Genetica, Universidad de Cordoba, Edificio C5, Campus de Rabanales, 14071 Cordoba, Spain
    Mol Plant Pathol 11:479-93. 2010
    A mutant of the root pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, deficient in class V chitin synthase, has been shown previously to be nonvirulent...
  53. ncbi Cloning and characterization of a chitin synthase cDNA from the mosquito Aedes aegypti
    G H Ibrahim
    Department of Animal Health and Biomedical Sciences, 1656 Linden Drive, University of Wisconsin Madison, WI 53706, USA
    Insect Biochem Mol Biol 30:1213-22. 2000
    ..The final step of incorporation of GlcNAc into the chitin polymer is catalyzed by the enzyme chitin synthase [CS]...
  54. pmc Class I and class II chitin synthases are involved in septum formation in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans
    Masayuki Ichinomiya
    Department of Biotechnology, The University of Tokyo, 1 1 1 Yayoi, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113 8657, Japan
    Eukaryot Cell 4:1125-36. 2005
    ..Fluorescence of FLAG-ChsC, but not of HA-ChsA, was also observed at hyphal tips. These data indicate that ChsA and ChsC share overlapping roles in septum formation...
  55. ncbi Functional diversity of chitin synthases of Aspergillus nidulans in hyphal growth, conidiophore development and septum formation
    Hiroyuki Horiuchi
    Department of Biotechnology, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
    Med Mycol 47:S47-52. 2009
    ..Recent advances in genome sequence analyses have revealed that there are more than seven chitin synthase-encoding genes in the genome of filamentous ascomycete fungi...
  56. ncbi Sequences of cDNAs and expression of genes encoding chitin synthase and chitinase in the midgut of Spodoptera frugiperda
    Renata Bolognesi
    USDA ARS Grain Marketing and Production Research Center, Manhattan, KS 66502, USA
    Insect Biochem Mol Biol 35:1249-59. 2005
    ..and expression of genes encoding enzymes responsible for the synthesis and degradation of chitin, chitin synthase (SfCHSB) and chitinase (SfCHI), respectively, in the midgut of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda...
  57. pmc Specific protein targeting during cell differentiation: polarized localization of Fus1p during mating depends on Chs5p in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    Beatriz Santos
    Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology Department, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 8103, USA
    Eukaryot Cell 2:821-5. 2003
    ..Chs5p is a late-Golgi protein required for the polarized transport of the chitin synthase Chs3p to the membrane...
  58. pmc The exomer coat complex transports Fus1p to the plasma membrane via a novel plasma membrane sorting signal in yeast
    Robyn M Barfield
    Department of Molecular and Cell Biology and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, 94720, USA
    Mol Biol Cell 20:4985-96. 2009
    ..These defects are suppressed by disruption of AP-1. We suggest that IXTPK comprises a novel sorting signal that is recognized and bound by exomer leading to the capture of Fus1p into coated vesicles en route to the cell surface...
  59. ncbi Independent regulation of chitin synthase and chitinase activity in Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    Serena Selvaggini
    School of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Institute of Medical Sciences, Foresterhill, Aberdeen AB25 2ZD, UK
    Microbiology 150:921-8. 2004
    ..Accordingly, de novo chitin synthesis may involve coordinated regulation of members of the CHS chitin synthase and CHT chitinase gene families...
  60. pmc Traffic of chitin synthase 1 (CHS-1) to the Spitzenkörper and developing septa in hyphae of Neurospora crassa: actin dependence and evidence of distinct microvesicle populations
    Eddy Sánchez-León
    Department of Microbiology, Center for Scientific Research and Higher Education of Ensenada, San Ysidro, CA 92143 0222, USA
    Eukaryot Cell 10:683-95. 2011
    We describe the subcellular location of chitin synthase 1 (CHS-1), one of seven chitin synthases in Neurospora crassa...
  61. ncbi Gibberella zeae chitin synthase genes, GzCHS5 and GzCHS7, are required for hyphal growth, perithecia formation, and pathogenicity
    Jung Eun Kim
    Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, Centers for Fungal Pathogenesis and for Agricultural Biomaterials, Seoul National University, Seoul, 151 921, Korea
    Curr Genet 55:449-59. 2009
    ..Integration of the REMI vector resulted in disruption of GzCHS7 gene, which encodes a putative class VII chitin synthase with high similarity to Fusarium oxysporum ChsVb...
  62. ncbi Differential expression of the chsE gene encoding a chitin synthase of Aspergillus nidulans in response to developmental status and growth conditions
    Jeong Im Lee
    Department of Microbiology, School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305 764, Republic of Korea
    FEMS Microbiol Lett 249:121-9. 2005
    ..6M KCl or NaCl, but affected little by substituting glucose with sodium acetate. Consequently, chsE was shown to have a mode of expression distinct from those of the other chitin synthase genes, chsA, chsB and chsC.
  63. pmc Chs5/6 complex: a multiprotein complex that interacts with and conveys chitin synthase III from the trans-Golgi network to the cell surface
    Siraprapha Sanchatjate
    Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Barker Hall, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    Mol Biol Cell 17:4157-66. 2006
    ..cerevisiae, the polysaccharide chitin is deposited at the mother bud junction by an integral membrane enzyme, chitin synthase 3 (Chs3p)...
  64. ncbi MoCRZ1, a gene encoding a calcineurin-responsive transcription factor, regulates fungal growth and pathogenicity of Magnaporthe oryzae
    Jinhee Choi
    Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, Center for Fungal Genetic Resources, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea
    Fungal Genet Biol 46:243-54. 2009
    ..These results suggest that MoCRZ1 is a downstream regulator in Ca(2+)-dependent signaling for pathogenicity in M. oryzae, and its biochemical mechanisms are well conserved among fungal species...
  65. pmc Chitin synthesis in a gas1 mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    M H Valdivieso
    Departamento de Microbiología y Genética Instituto de Microbiología Bioquímica, Universidad de Salamanca CSIC, Campus Miguel de Unamuno, 37007 Salamanca, Spain
    J Bacteriol 182:4752-7. 2000
    ..In order to study the mechanism of the stress-related chitin synthesis, we tested chitin synthase I (CSI), CSII, and CSIII in vitro activities in the cell-wall-defective mutant gas1 delta...
  66. pmc CsmA, a class V chitin synthase with a myosin motor-like domain, is localized through direct interaction with the actin cytoskeleton in Aspergillus nidulans
    Norio Takeshita
    Department of Biotechnology, The University of Tokyo, Japan
    Mol Biol Cell 16:1961-70. 2005
    ..A class V chitin synthase, CsmA, which contains a myosin motor-like domain (MMD), is conserved among most filamentous fungi...
  67. ncbi Chitin synthesis in human pathogenic fungi
    C A Munro
    Deportment of Molecular and Cell Biology, Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, UK
    Med Mycol 39:41-53. 2001
    ..that the structural polysaccharide chitin is synthesized from a family of enzymes encoded by multiple CHS chitin synthase genes, and regulated by an array of ancillary gene products that influence CHS activation and localization...
  68. pmc Spitzenkorper localization and intracellular traffic of green fluorescent protein-labeled CHS-3 and CHS-6 chitin synthases in living hyphae of Neurospora crassa
    Meritxell Riquelme
    Department of Microbiology, Center for Scientific Research and Higher Education of Ensenada CICESE, San Ysidro, CA 92143 0222, USA
    Eukaryot Cell 6:1853-64. 2007
    ....
  69. ncbi Chitin synthesis as target for antifungal drugs
    J Ruiz-Herrera
    Departamento de Ingeniería Genética, Unidad Irapuato, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del I P N, Gto Mexico
    Curr Drug Targets Infect Disord 3:77-91. 2003
    ..This phenomenon is important to take into account for drug design. The most widely studied chitin synthase inhibitors are polyoxins and nikkomycins that probably bind to the catalytic site of chitin synthases...
  70. pmc The structure of mollusc larval shells formed in the presence of the chitin synthase inhibitor Nikkomycin Z
    Veronika Schönitzer
    Lehrstuhl Biochemie I, Universitat Regensburg, Universitatsstr, 31, 93053 Regensburg, Germany
    BMC Struct Biol 7:71. 2007
    ..Mollusc shell chitin is synthesized via a complex transmembrane chitin synthase with an intracellular myosin motor domain.
  71. ncbi Identification of chitin in the prismatic layer of the shell and a chitin synthase gene from the Japanese pearl oyster, Pinctada fucata
    Michio Suzuki
    Department of Applied Biological Chemistry, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo, Tokyo, Japan
    Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 71:1735-44. 2007
    ..Furthermore, we cloned a cDNA encoding chitin synthase (PfCHS1) that produces chitin, contributing to the formation of the framework for calcification in the shell.
  72. pmc Cell wall polysaccharide synthases are located in detergent-resistant membrane microdomains in oomycetes
    Anne Briolay
    UMR CNRS 5246 Organisation et Dynamique des Membranes Biologiques, Universite Lyon 1, 43 Boulevard du 11 Novembre 1918, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex, France
    Appl Environ Microbiol 75:1938-49. 2009
    ..The involvement of DRMs in the biosynthesis of major cell wall polysaccharides in eukaryotic microorganisms suggests a function of lipid rafts in hyphal morphogenesis and tip growth...
  73. ncbi Disruption of the Bcchs3a chitin synthase gene in Botrytis cinerea is responsible for altered adhesion and overstimulation of host plant immunity
    Delphine Arbelet
    UPMC University Paris 06, UMR217, Paris, France
    Mol Plant Microbe Interact 23:1324-34. 2010
    ..Previously, we reported the isolation and characterization of a mutant in class III chitin synthase, Bcchs3a, in the phytopathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea...
  74. pmc Class III chitin synthase ChsB of Aspergillus nidulans localizes at the sites of polarized cell wall synthesis and is required for conidial development
    Kazuharu Fukuda
    Department of Biotechnology, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113 8657, Japan
    Eukaryot Cell 8:945-56. 2009
    ..To address these issues, we characterized the deletion mutant of a class III chitin synthase-encoding gene of Aspergillus nidulans, chsB, and investigated ChsB localization in the hyphae and ..
  75. ncbi A chymotrypsin-like serine protease interacts with the chitin synthase from the midgut of the tobacco hornworm
    Gunnar Broehan
    Department of Biology Chemistry, University of Osnabruck, D 49069 Osnabruck, Germany
    J Exp Biol 210:3636-43. 2007
    ..chitin portion of the peritrophic matrix in the midgut of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta, is produced by chitin synthase 2 (CHS2), a transmembrane family II glycosyltransferase, located at the apical tips of brush border ..
  76. pmc Chitin synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae in response to supplementation of growth medium with glucosamine and cell wall stress
    Dorota A Bulik
    Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, School of Dental Medicine, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02118, USA
    Eukaryot Cell 2:886-900. 2003
    ..We conclude that Chs3p-dependent chitin synthesis in S. cerevisiae is regulated both by the levels of intermediates of the UDP-GlcNAc biosynthetic pathway and by an increase in the activity of the enzyme in the plasma membrane...
  77. ncbi Identification and characterization of a class III chitin synthase gene of Moniliophthora perniciosa, the fungus that causes witches' broom disease of cacao
    Catiane S Souza
    Laboratório de Pesquisa em Microbiologia LAPEM, Departamento de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana UEFS, Avenida Transnordestina, S N, Bairro Novo Horizonte, Feira de Santana, BA 44036 900, Brazil
    J Microbiol 47:431-40. 2009
    b>Chitin synthase (CHS) is a glucosyltransferase that converts UDP-N-acetylglucosamine into chitin, one of the main components of fungal cell wall. Class III chitin synthases act directly in the formation of the cell wall...
  78. ncbi Transmembrane myosin chitin synthase involved in mollusc shell formation produced in Dictyostelium is active
    Veronika Schönitzer
    INM Leibniz Institute for New Materials, Biomineralisation Group, Campus D2 2, D 66123 Saarbrucken, Germany
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 415:586-90. 2011
    ..Here we report the heterologous expression of the transmembrane myosin chitin synthase Ar-CS1 of the bivalve mollusc Atrina rigida (2286 amino acid residues, M.W...
  79. pmc Chs6p-dependent anterograde transport of Chs3p from the chitosome to the plasma membrane in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    M Ziman
    Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720, USA
    Mol Biol Cell 9:1565-76. 1998
    b>Chitin synthase III (CSIII), an enzyme required to form a chitin ring in the nascent division septum of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, may be transported to the cell surface in a regulated manner...
  80. pmc The syntaxin Tlg1p mediates trafficking of chitin synthase III to polarized growth sites in yeast
    J C Holthuis
    Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge CB2 2QH, United Kingdom
    Mol Biol Cell 9:3383-97. 1998
    ..In contrast, Tlg1p is required for the efficient localization of the catalytic subunit of chitin synthase III (Chs3p) to the bud neck, a process that involves endocytosis and polarized delivery of Chs3p...
  81. ncbi Different functions of the class I and class II chitin synthase genes, chsC and chsA, are revealed by repression of chsB expression in Aspergillus nidulans
    Masayuki Ichinomiya
    Department of Biotechnology, The University of Tokyo, 1 1 1 Yayoi, Bunkyo ku, Japan
    Curr Genet 42:51-8. 2002
    The filamentous fungus, Aspergillus nidulans, genome contains at least five chitin synthase-encoding genes. chsB is essential for normal hyphal growth. chsA and chsC are likely to be cooperatively required for hyphal wall integrity...
  82. ncbi Expression of asexual developmental regulator gene abaA is affected in the double mutants of classes I and II chitin synthase genes, chsC and chsA, of Aspergillus nidulans
    Masayuki Ichinomiya
    Department of Biotechnology, The University of Tokyo, 1 1 1 Yayoi, Bunkyo ku, 113 8657 Tokyo, Japan
    Curr Genet 48:171-83. 2005
    ..Based on these results and those previously presented, possible mechanisms involved in the conidiation defects are discussed...
  83. pmc Proliferation of intrahyphal hyphae caused by disruption of csmA, which encodes a class V chitin synthase with a myosin motor-like domain in Aspergillus nidulans
    H Horiuchi
    Department of Biotechnology, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113 8657, Japan
    J Bacteriol 181:3721-9. 1999
    ..csmA gene encodes a novel protein which consists of an N-terminal myosin motor-like domain and a C-terminal chitin synthase domain (M. Fujiwara, H. Horiuchi, A. Ohta, and M. Takagi, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 236:75-78, 1997)...
  84. ncbi Evidence that the Aspergillus nidulans class I and class II chitin synthase genes, chsC and chsA, share critical roles in hyphal wall integrity and conidiophore development
    M Fujiwara
    Department of Biotechnology, The University of Tokyo, Yayoi, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo, 113 8657, Japan
    J Biochem 127:359-66. 2000
    Although many chitin synthase genes have been identified in a broad range of fungal species, there have been only a few reports about their role in fungal morphogenesis...
  85. pmc Prenylation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Chs4p Affects Chitin Synthase III activity and chitin chain length
    Kariona A Grabińska
    Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, School of Dental Medicine, Boston University, 715 Albany Street, Evans 408, Boston, MA 02118, USA
    Eukaryot Cell 6:328-36. 2007
    ..was identified as a protein factor physically interacting with Chs3p, the catalytic subunit of chitin synthase III (CSIII), and is indispensable for its enzymatic activity in vivo...
  86. ncbi Repression of chsB expression reveals the functional importance of class IV chitin synthase gene chsD in hyphal growth and conidiation of Aspergillus nidulans
    Masayuki Ichinomiya
    Department of Biotechnology, The University of Tokyo, 1 1 1 Yayoi, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113 8657, Japan
    Microbiology 148:1335-47. 2002
    The functions of two previously identified chitin synthase genes in Aspergillus nidulans, chsB and chsD, were analysed...
  87. ncbi Inhibitory activity for chitin synthase II from Saccharomyces cerevisiae by tannins and related compounds
    E I Hwang
    Antibiotics Research Laboratory, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Yusung, Taejon, Korea
    Planta Med 67:501-4. 2001
    In the course of search for potent inhibitors of chitin synthase II from natural resources, seven tannins and related compounds were isolated from the aerial part of Euphorbia pekinensis and identified as gallic acid (1), methyl gallate (..
  88. ncbi Disruption of the chitin synthase gene CHS1 from Fusarium asiaticum results in an altered structure of cell walls and reduced virulence
    Yu Bin Xu
    Molecular Biotechnology Laboratory of Triticeae Crops, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, PR China
    Fungal Genet Biol 47:205-15. 2010
    ..In this study, a class I chitin synthase gene (CHS1) from Fusarium asiaticum, the predominant species of FHB pathogens on wheat in China, was ..
  89. ncbi Disruption of Botrytis cinerea class I chitin synthase gene Bcchs1 results in cell wall weakening and reduced virulence
    M C Soulié
    Laboratoire de Pathologie Végétale, UMR 217 INRA Paris VI INAP G, 16 rue Claude Bernard, 75005 Paris, France
    Fungal Genet Biol 40:38-46. 2003
    ..between cell wall integrity and pathogenicity of the fungus Botrytis cinerea, we have constructed chitin synthase mutants...
  90. ncbi Morphological changes of the filamentous fungus Mucor mucedo and inhibition of chitin synthase activity induced by anethole
    Masahiro Yutani
    Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University, 3 3 138 Sugimoto, Sumiyoshi ku, Osaka 558 8585, Japan
    Phytother Res 25:1707-13. 2011
    ..Furthermore, anethole dose-dependently inhibited chitin synthase (CHS) activity in permeabilized hyphae in an uncompetitive manner...
  91. ncbi Synthesis and evaluation of a C-glycosyl nucleoside as an inhibitor of chitin synthase
    J Xie
    Laboratoire de Chimie des Glucides, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, CNRS UMR 7613, 4 place Jussieu, F 75005 Paris, France
    Carbohydr Res 334:177-82. 2001
    ..The synthetic strategy relies on the consecutive coupling of nucleoside and amino C-glycosyl moieties with L-tartaric acid. However, this compound inhibited only weakly chitin synthase I, with an IC(50) value of 20 mM.
  92. ncbi Expression of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis CHS3 in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae chs3 null mutant demonstrates its functionality as a chitin synthase gene
    Laura Barreto
    Centro de Microbiologia y Biologia Celular, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas, Caracas, Venezuela
    Yeast 27:293-300. 2010
    ..Expression of P. brasiliensis CHS3 in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae chs3 null mutant enhanced calcofluor white staining in parallel to an increase in total chitin synthase activity and chitin content in its cell wall.
  93. pmc Chs7p, a new protein involved in the control of protein export from the endoplasmic reticulum that is specifically engaged in the regulation of chitin synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    J A Trilla
    Instituto de Microbiologia Bioquimica, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas Universidad de Salamanca and Departamento de Microbiología y Genética, Universidad de Salamanca 37007 Salamanca, Spain
    J Cell Biol 145:1153-63. 1999
    ..membrane protein located in the ER which is directly involved in chitin synthesis through the regulation of chitin synthase III (CSIII) activity...
  94. ncbi A chitin synthase with a myosin-like motor domain is essential for hyphal growth, appressorium differentiation, and pathogenicity of the maize anthracnose fungus Colletotrichum graminicola
    Stefan Werner
    Institute of Agricultural and Nutritional Sciences, Martin Luther Universitat Halle Wittenberg, Halle Saale, Germany
    Mol Plant Microbe Interact 20:1555-67. 2007
    ..Consequently, DeltaCgChsV mutants did not develop macroscopically visible anthracnose disease symptoms and, thus, were nonpathogenic...
  95. ncbi Class V chitin synthase determines pathogenesis in the vascular wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum and mediates resistance to plant defence compounds
    Martan P Madrid
    Departamento de Genetica, Universidad de Cordoba, Campus Rabanales C5, 14071 Cordoba, Spain
    Mol Microbiol 47:257-66. 2003
    ..Here, we demonstrate the requirement for a class V chitin synthase during host infection by the vascular wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum...
  96. pmc A Bni4-Glc7 phosphatase complex that recruits chitin synthase to the site of bud emergence
    Lukasz Kozubowski
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, Louisiana 71130, USA
    Mol Biol Cell 14:26-39. 2003
    Bni4 is a scaffold protein in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae that tethers chitin synthase III to the bud neck by interacting with septin neck filaments and with Chs4, a regulatory subunit of chitin synthase III...
  97. pmc A septin-based hierarchy of proteins required for localized deposition of chitin in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall
    D J Demarini
    Department of Biology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill 27599 3280, USA
    J Cell Biol 139:75-93. 1997
    ..The chitin ring seems to be formed largely or entirely by chitin synthase III, one of the three known chitin synthases in S. cerevisiae...
  98. ncbi Insect chitin synthases: a review
    Hans Merzendorfer
    Department of Biology Chemistry, Division of Animal Physiology, University of Osnabruck, Germany
    J Comp Physiol B 176:1-15. 2006
    ..composed of N-acetylglucosamines that are joined in a reaction catalyzed by the membrane-integral enzyme chitin synthase, a member of the family 2 of glycosyltransferases...
  99. pmc Attenuated virulence of chitin-deficient mutants of Candida albicans
    C E Bulawa
    Department of Molecular Biology, Myco Pharmaceuticals Inc, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 92:10570-4. 1995
    ..Chitin-deficient strains can colonize the organs of infected mice, suggesting that the reduced virulence of the mutants is not due to accelerated clearing...
  100. ncbi Proper ascospore maturation requires the chs1+ chitin synthase gene in Schizosaccharomyces pombe
    M Arellano
    Departamento de Microbiología y Genética Instituto de Microbiología Bioquímica, Universidad de Salamanca CSIC, Edificio Departamental, 37007 Salamanca, Spain
    Mol Microbiol 35:79-89. 2000
    ..pombe gene with similarity to class II chitin synthases, and have shown that it is responsible for chitin synthase activity present in cell extracts from this organism...
  101. ncbi Chitin synthase III requires Chs4p-dependent translocation of Chs3p into the plasma membrane
    Abigail Reyes
    Instituto de Microbiología Bioquímica and Departamento de Microbiología y Genética, CSIC Universidad de Salamanca, 37007 Salamanca, Spain
    J Cell Sci 120:1998-2009. 2007
    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Chs4p is required for chitin synthase III (CSIII) activity and hence for chitin synthesis. This protein is transported in vesicles in a polarized fashion independently of the other Chs proteins...

Research Grants16

  1. BRP-39/YKL-40 in Th2 Inflammation and Asthma
    Jack A Elias; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Chitin and chitin synthase do not exist in man. However, chitinases and chitinase-like proteins (C/CLP) have recently been appreciated...
  2. A NOVEL SCREEN FOR ANTIFUNGALS THAT TARGET CHITOSAN BIOSYNTHESIS
    Jennifer K Lodge; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The chitin that is deacetylated is primarily generated through the action of a single chitin synthase and a specific chitin synthase regulator, even though Cryptococcus encodes seven other synthases and two ..
  3. Mechanisms of Cytokinesis in Yeast
    Erfei Bi; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..a putative transglutaminase/protease Cyk3 on the ECM side, which, in turn, stimulates the activity of the chitin synthase Chs2 to promote PS formation at the division site...
  4. Chitosan in Cryptococcus
    Jennifer K Lodge; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..to chitosan production, and shown that only one of eight putative chitin synthases, and one of three putative chitin synthase regulators substantially impact chitosan levels...
  5. Nikkomycin Z Treatment for Coccidioidomycosis
    John Galgiani; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Nikkomycin Z is a chitin synthase inhibitor with its greatest in vitro activity against Coccidioides...
  6. CHITIN BIOSYNTHESIS AND THE MOSQUITO PERITROPHIC MATRIX
    Bruce Christensen; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..It now is known that glutamine synthetase (GS), glucosamine: fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase (GFAT) and chitin synthase (CS) play major roles in chitin synthesis in the midgut...
  7. NUCLEOTIDE DONORS AFFECTING GLYCOSYLATION PATHWAYS
    Ajit Varki; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..mutant cells with major blocs in glycan biosynthesis have altered levels of intracellular PAPS? Is fungal chitin synthase action in the intact cell affected by UDP-GlcNAc levels, and how does exogenous GlcNAc affect this level? How ..
  8. GLYCOSYLTRANSFERASE INHIBITORS AS ANTIFUNGAL AGENTS
    Nathaniel Finney; Fiscal Year: 2003
    DESCRIPTION: Chitin plays a crucial role in the physiology of the vast majority of infectious fungi. Chitin synthase (CS) is the enzyme responsible for chitin biosynthesis, and CS is thus a common denominator uniting these organisms...
  9. MEMBRANE FUNCTION DURING GERMINATION OF CANDIDA ALBICANS
    RONALD CIHLAR; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..Preliminary experiments have shown that both cerulenin and butyrate effectively block germination and inhibit chitin synthase activity in C...
  10. Embryogenesis and Larval Morphogenesis in Filariae
    Juliet Fuhrman; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..We have recently cloned the genes for chitin synthase from two different filarial parasites, and demonstrated expression in oocytes and early embryos...
  11. CHITIN SYNTHASE GENES FROM ASPERGILLUS
    PETER BORGIA; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..Fungal chitin synthesis is complex and requires multiple chitin synthase isozymes each of which is necessary for chitin synthesis at a specific cellular location or in a particular ..
  12. TOXOPLASMA BRADYZOITE CYST WALL STRUCTURE/BIOSYNTHESIS
    John Boothroyd; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..The second aim is to characterize and purify chitin synthase which is developmentally regulated enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of chitin...
  13. Acidic Mammalian Chitinase in IL-13 / Th2 Inflammation
    Zhou Zhu; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Interestingly, chitin and chitin synthase do not exist in man...
  14. GENETIC ANALYSIS OF PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE 1 IN YEAST
    Kelly Tatchell; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..tethered to the bud neck via Bni4p, a scaffold protein that also binds to septins and a regulatory subunit of chitin synthase Ill. We propose that PP1 negatively regulates the activity of chitin synthase...
  15. EVALUATION OF NIKKOMYCIN Z PHARMACOLOGY FOR TREATMENT OF UNCOMPLICATED COCCIDIODE
    David Nix; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Nikkomycin Z is a chitin synthase inhibitor with its greatest in vitro activity against Coccidioides...
  16. Wangiella: a model for dematiaceous fungal pathogens
    PAUL SZANISZLO; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..WdChs5p, a class V isozyme, requires considerable additional in-depth study, because it is the only single chitin synthase of this dematiaceous (melanized) agent of phaeohyphomycosis required for survival at 37[unreadable](3 and for ..