choline o acetyltransferase

Summary

Summary: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetylcholine from acetyl-CoA and choline. EC 2.3.1.6.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Cholinergic basal forebrain neurons burst with theta during waking and paradoxical sleep
    Maan Gee Lee
    Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3A 2B4
    J Neurosci 25:4365-9. 2005
  2. ncbi Acetylcholine synthesis by choline acetyltransferase of a peripheral type as demonstrated in adult rat dorsal root ganglion
    Jean Pierre Bellier
    Molecular Neuroscience Research Center, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Shiga, Japan
    J Neurochem 101:1607-18. 2007
  3. ncbi The biological role of non-neuronal acetylcholine in plants and humans
    I Wessler
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Mainz, Germany
    Jpn J Pharmacol 85:2-10. 2001
  4. ncbi Parvalbumin, calbindin, or calretinin in cortically projecting and GABAergic, cholinergic, or glutamatergic basal forebrain neurons of the rat
    Ivana Gritti
    Dipartimento di Scienze Cliniche L Sacco, Universita degli Studi di Milano, 20157 Milan, Italy
    J Comp Neurol 458:11-31. 2003
  5. ncbi Acetylcholine is synthesized by and acts as an autocrine growth factor for small cell lung carcinoma
    Pingfang Song
    Department of Pathology, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon 97239, USA
    Cancer Res 63:214-21. 2003
  6. ncbi Regulation of the cholinergic gene locus by the repressor element-1 silencing transcription factor/neuron restrictive silencer factor (REST/NRSF)
    Masahito Shimojo
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, University of Kentucky, Chandler Medical Center, Lexington, KY 40536 0298, USA
    Life Sci 74:2213-25. 2004
  7. ncbi Gene expression of mouse choline acetyltransferase. Alternative splicing and identification of a highly active promoter region
    H Misawa
    Department of Molecular Neurobiology, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute for Neuroscience, Japan
    J Biol Chem 267:20392-9. 1992
  8. ncbi Acetylcholinesterase knockouts establish central cholinergic pathways and can use butyrylcholinesterase to hydrolyze acetylcholine
    M M Mesulam
    Cognitive Neurology and Alzheimer s Disease Center, Department of Neurology, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
    Neuroscience 110:627-39. 2002
  9. ncbi Evidence for glutamate, in addition to acetylcholine and GABA, neurotransmitter synthesis in basal forebrain neurons projecting to the entorhinal cortex
    I D Manns
    Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, McGill University, Montreal Neurological Institute, 3801 University Street, Montreal, QC, Canada H3A 2B4
    Neuroscience 107:249-63. 2001
  10. ncbi BAC transgenic mice express enhanced green fluorescent protein in central and peripheral cholinergic neurons
    Yvonne N Tallini
    Biomedical Science Department, College of Veterinary Medicine, Ithaca, New York, USA
    Physiol Genomics 27:391-7. 2006

Research Grants

Detail Information

Publications193 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Cholinergic basal forebrain neurons burst with theta during waking and paradoxical sleep
    Maan Gee Lee
    Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3A 2B4
    J Neurosci 25:4365-9. 2005
    ..Through their maximal firing and rhythmic theta discharge during active waking and paradoxical sleep, the cholinergic neurons can thus modulate the cortex to promote activation along with plasticity during these two states...
  2. ncbi Acetylcholine synthesis by choline acetyltransferase of a peripheral type as demonstrated in adult rat dorsal root ganglion
    Jean Pierre Bellier
    Molecular Neuroscience Research Center, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Shiga, Japan
    J Neurochem 101:1607-18. 2007
    ..Thus pChAT provides a new window on the role of neuronal acetylcholine...
  3. ncbi The biological role of non-neuronal acetylcholine in plants and humans
    I Wessler
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Mainz, Germany
    Jpn J Pharmacol 85:2-10. 2001
    ....
  4. ncbi Parvalbumin, calbindin, or calretinin in cortically projecting and GABAergic, cholinergic, or glutamatergic basal forebrain neurons of the rat
    Ivana Gritti
    Dipartimento di Scienze Cliniche L Sacco, Universita degli Studi di Milano, 20157 Milan, Italy
    J Comp Neurol 458:11-31. 2003
    ....
  5. ncbi Acetylcholine is synthesized by and acts as an autocrine growth factor for small cell lung carcinoma
    Pingfang Song
    Department of Pathology, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon 97239, USA
    Cancer Res 63:214-21. 2003
    ..These findings demonstrate that SCLC can synthesize, secrete, and degrade ACh and that released ACh stimulates SCLC cell growth. Identification of this new autocrine loop provides a potential new target for therapeutic intervention...
  6. ncbi Regulation of the cholinergic gene locus by the repressor element-1 silencing transcription factor/neuron restrictive silencer factor (REST/NRSF)
    Masahito Shimojo
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, University of Kentucky, Chandler Medical Center, Lexington, KY 40536 0298, USA
    Life Sci 74:2213-25. 2004
    ..Protein kinase A regulation of the cholinergic gene locus in PC 12 cells can thus be attributed, at least in part, to increased synthesis of REST4, which in turn derepresses the repressor activity of REST/NRSF...
  7. ncbi Gene expression of mouse choline acetyltransferase. Alternative splicing and identification of a highly active promoter region
    H Misawa
    Department of Molecular Neurobiology, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute for Neuroscience, Japan
    J Biol Chem 267:20392-9. 1992
    ..Possible mechanisms that would explain this observation are discussed...
  8. ncbi Acetylcholinesterase knockouts establish central cholinergic pathways and can use butyrylcholinesterase to hydrolyze acetylcholine
    M M Mesulam
    Cognitive Neurology and Alzheimer s Disease Center, Department of Neurology, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
    Neuroscience 110:627-39. 2002
    ..The inhibition of butyrylcholinesterase may therefore provide a desirable feature of cholinergic therapies, including those aimed at treating Alzheimer's disease...
  9. ncbi Evidence for glutamate, in addition to acetylcholine and GABA, neurotransmitter synthesis in basal forebrain neurons projecting to the entorhinal cortex
    I D Manns
    Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, McGill University, Montreal Neurological Institute, 3801 University Street, Montreal, QC, Canada H3A 2B4
    Neuroscience 107:249-63. 2001
    ..Accordingly, as either co-transmitter or primary transmitter within basalocortical afferents, glutamate could have the capacity to modulate the entorhinal cortex and promote its role in memory...
  10. ncbi BAC transgenic mice express enhanced green fluorescent protein in central and peripheral cholinergic neurons
    Yvonne N Tallini
    Biomedical Science Department, College of Veterinary Medicine, Ithaca, New York, USA
    Physiol Genomics 27:391-7. 2006
    ..Moreover, this genetic strategy allows the selective expression and conditional inactivation of genes of interest in cholinergic nerves of the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system...
  11. ncbi Functional identification of a vesicular acetylcholine transporter and its expression from a "cholinergic" gene locus
    J D Erickson
    Section on Molecular Neuroscience, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892
    J Biol Chem 269:21929-32. 1994
    ....
  12. ncbi Innervation of rat iris by trigeminal and ciliary neurons expressing pChAT, a novel splice variant of choline acetyltransferase
    Osamu Yasuhara
    Molecular Neuroscience Research Center, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu 520 2192, Japan
    J Comp Neurol 472:232-45. 2004
    ..Here, we provide evidence that iridial pChAT nerves are composed of postganglionic parasympathetic efferents from the ciliary ganglion and, more interestingly, somatic sensory afferents of the trigeminal ophthalmic nerve...
  13. ncbi Molecular characterization of the family of choline transporter-like proteins and their splice variants
    E Traiffort
    Institut de Neurobiologie Alfred Fessard IFR 2118 CNRS, Laboratoire de Neurobiologie Cellulaire et Moleculaire, UPR 9040, Gif sur Yvette, France
    J Neurochem 92:1116-25. 2005
    ..These findings suggest specific roles for CTL1 splice variants in both neuronal and oligodendrocyte physiology...
  14. ncbi A protein encoded by an alternative splice variant of choline acetyltransferase mRNA is localized preferentially in peripheral nerve cells and fibers
    I Tooyama
    Neuroanatomny Unit, Molecular Neuroscience Research Center, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Japan
    J Chem Neuroanat 17:217-26. 2000
    ....
  15. ncbi The non-neuronal cholinergic system in humans: expression, function and pathophysiology
    Ignaz Wessler
    Institute of Pharmacology, University of Mainz, Obere Zahlbacher Str 67, D 55101 Mainz, Germany
    Life Sci 72:2055-61. 2003
    ..In conclusion, it is time to revise the role of acetylcholine in humans. Its biological and pathobiological roles have to be elucidated in more detail and possibly, new therapeutical targets may become available...
  16. ncbi Modulation of cholinergic systems by manganese
    Yoram Finkelstein
    Unit and Service of Neurology and Toxicology, Shaare Zedek Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel
    Neurotoxicology 28:1003-14. 2007
    ..These observations highlight the importance of studying the role of the CNS cholinergic systems in manganese-mediated neurotoxicity...
  17. ncbi Morphological characterization of electrophysiologically and immunohistochemically identified basal forebrain cholinergic and neuropeptide Y-containing neurons
    Alvaro Duque
    Department of Neurobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510, USA
    Brain Struct Funct 212:55-73. 2007
    ..The presence of local axon collaterals in both cholinergic and NPY neurons indicates that the BF is not a mere conduit for various brainstem inputs to the cortex, but a site where substantial local processing must take place...
  18. pmc Kinesin-II is required for axonal transport of choline acetyltransferase in Drosophila
    K Ray
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 0683, USA
    J Cell Biol 147:507-18. 1999
    ..Furthermore, the data lead to the conclusion that the cargo transport requirements of different classes of neurons may lead to upregulation of specific pathways of axonal transport...
  19. ncbi Low voltage-activated calcium and fast tetrodotoxin-resistant sodium currents define subtypes of cholinergic and noncholinergic neurons in rat basal forebrain
    Sun Ho Han
    Department of Medical Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Medicine, Texas A and M University System Health Science Center, 1114 TAMU, College Station, TX 77843 1114, USA
    Brain Res Mol Brain Res 134:226-38. 2005
    ..These results suggest novel features of subtypes of cholinergic and noncholinergic neurons within the BF that may provide new insights for understanding normal BF function...
  20. ncbi Urocortin 1-containing neurons in the human Edinger-Westphal nucleus
    A E Ryabinin
    Department of Behavioral Neuroscience, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, 97239, USA
    Neuroscience 134:1317-23. 2005
    ....
  21. ncbi Urocortin 1 distribution in mouse brain is strain-dependent
    A Z Weitemier
    Department of Behavioral Neuroscience, Orego Health and Science University, Portland, OR 97239, USA
    Neuroscience 132:729-40. 2005
    ..We show that the urocortin 1-positive neurons of this brain area form a separate population of cells that we propose to be called the non-preganglionic Edinger-Westphal nucleus...
  22. ncbi Inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase attenuate nerve growth factor-mediated increases in choline acetyltransferase expression in PC12 cells
    Bettina E Kalisch
    Department of Physiology, University of Western Ontario, and The John P Robarts Research Institute, London, Ontario, Canada
    J Neurochem 81:624-35. 2002
    ..The present study indicates that NO may be involved in the modulation of signal transduction pathways by which NGF leads to increased ChAT gene expression in PC12 cells...
  23. ncbi Acetylcholine is an autocrine or paracrine hormone synthesized and secreted by airway bronchial epithelial cells
    Becky J Proskocil
    Division of Neuroscience, Oregon National Primate Research Center, 505 Northwest 185th Avenue, Beaverton, Oregon 97006, USA
    Endocrinology 145:2498-506. 2004
    ..This pathway may also explain some of the effects of nicotine on fetal development and also provides additional mechanisms by which smoking affects lung cancer growth and development...
  24. ncbi Down-regulation of the non-neuronal acetylcholine synthesis and release machinery in acute allergic airway inflammation of rat and mouse
    Katrin S Lips
    Institute for Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Giessen Lung Center, Justus Liebig University, Giessen, Germany
    Life Sci 80:2263-9. 2007
    ....
  25. ncbi Regulation of choline acetyltransferase/lacZ fusion gene expression in putative cholinergic neurons of Drosophila melanogaster
    T Kitamoto
    Division of Neurosciences, Beckman Research Institute of the City of Hope, Duarte, California 91010, USA
    J Neurobiol 28:70-81. 1995
    ..With these constructs, however, strong ectopic expression was also observed in several non-neuronal tissues...
  26. ncbi Induction and maintenance of the neuronal cholinergic phenotype in the central nervous system by BMP-9
    I Lopez-Coviella
    Department of Psychiatry and Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02118, USA
    Science 289:313-6. 2000
    ..Although certain other BMPs also up-regulated the cholinergic phenotype in vitro, they were less effective than BMP-9. These data indicate that BMP-9 is a differentiating factor for cholinergic central nervous system neurons...
  27. ncbi Localization of choline acetyltransferase-expressing neurons in the larval visual system of Drosophila melanogaster
    K Yasuyama
    Division of Neurosciences, Beckman Research Institute of the City of Hope, Duarte, CA 91010, USA
    Cell Tissue Res 282:193-202. 1995
    ..Our observations indicate that acetylcholine may be a neurotransmitter in the larval photoreceptor cells as well as in a first-order interneuron in the larval visual system of Drosophila melanogaster...
  28. pmc Fetal chlorpyrifos exposure: adverse effects on brain cell development and cholinergic biomarkers emerge postnatally and continue into adolescence and adulthood
    Dan Qiao
    Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 111:536-44. 2003
    ..The present findings indicate a wide window of vulnerability of cholinergic systems to CPF, extending from prenatal through postnatal periods, occurring independently of adverse effects on general cellular neurotoxicity...
  29. ncbi Increased acetylcholine levels in skin biopsies of patients with atopic dermatitis
    Ignaz Wessler
    Institute of Pharmacology, University of Mainz, Obere Zahlbacher Str 67, D 55101 Mainz, Germany
    Life Sci 72:2169-72. 2003
    ..The present study demonstrates the widespread expression of ChAT protein in the vast majority of human skin cells. Tissue levels of acetylcholine are greatly (14-fold) enhanced in the superficial 2 mm skin of AD patients...
  30. ncbi Aberrant patterning of neuromuscular synapses in choline acetyltransferase-deficient mice
    Eugene P Brandon
    Laboratory of Genetics and Peptide Biology Laboratories, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    J Neurosci 23:539-49. 2003
    ..These results indicate that ChAT is uniquely essential for the patterning and formation of mammalian neuromuscular synapses...
  31. ncbi Chlorpyrifos exposure during neurulation: cholinergic synaptic dysfunction and cellular alterations in brain regions at adolescence and adulthood
    Dan Qiao
    Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Box 3813 DUMC Rm c162, LSRC Building Research Drive, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Brain Res Dev Brain Res 148:43-52. 2004
    ....
  32. ncbi Mice lacking specific nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits exhibit dramatically altered spontaneous activity patterns and reveal a limited role for retinal waves in forming ON and OFF circuits in the inner retina
    A Bansal
    Synapse Formation and Function Unit, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Howard Hughes Medical Institute National Institutes of Health Research Scholars Program, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    J Neurosci 20:7672-81. 2000
    ..These results indicate that retinal waves mediated by nAChRs are involved in, but not required for, the development of neural circuits that define the ON and OFF sublamina of the inner plexiform layer...
  33. pmc Screening for developmental neurotoxicity using PC12 cells: comparisons of organophosphates with a carbamate, an organochlorine, and divalent nickel
    Theodore A Slotkin
    Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 115:93-101. 2007
    ..In light of the large number of chemicals that are potential developmental neurotoxicants, there is a need to develop rapid screening techniques...
  34. ncbi Expression of muscarinic receptor types in the primate ovary and evidence for nonneuronal acetylcholine synthesis
    S Fritz
    Anatomisches Institut, Technische Universitat Munchen, D 80802 München, Germany
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 86:349-54. 2001
    ..We propose that ACh may serve as an as yet unrecognized factor involved in the complex regulation of ovarian function in the primate, e.g. regulation of cell proliferation or progesterone production...
  35. ncbi Changes in cholinergic function in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of rat exposed to ethanol and acetaldehyde
    M Jamal
    Department of Forensic Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, 1750 1, Ikenobe, Miki, Kita, Kagawa 761 0793, Japan
    Neuroscience 144:232-8. 2007
    ....
  36. ncbi Dysfunction of the non-neuronal cholinergic system in the airways and blood cells of patients with cystic fibrosis
    Ignaz Wessler
    Institute of Pathology, Univ Hospital, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Langenbeckstr 1, D 55101 Mainz, Germany
    Life Sci 80:2253-8. 2007
    ....
  37. ncbi Administration of keratinocyte growth factor down-regulates the pulmonary capacity of acetylcholine production
    Veronika Grau
    Laboratory of Experimental Surgery, Department of General and Thoracic Surgery, University of Giessen Lung Center, Justus Liebig University Giessen, Rudolf Buchheim Str 7, D 35385 Giessen, Germany
    Int J Biochem Cell Biol 39:1955-63. 2007
    ....
  38. pmc Chlorpyrifos affects phenotypic outcomes in a model of mammalian neurodevelopment: critical stages targeting differentiation in PC12 cells
    Ruth R Jameson
    Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 114:667-72. 2006
    ....
  39. ncbi The place of choline acetyltransferase activity measurement in the "cholinergic hypothesis" of neurodegenerative diseases
    Antonio Contestabile
    Department of Biology, University of Bologna, Via Selmi 3, Bologna 40126, Italy
    Neurochem Res 33:318-27. 2008
    ....
  40. ncbi Perioculomotor cell groups in monkey and man defined by their histochemical and functional properties: reappraisal of the Edinger-Westphal nucleus
    Anja K Horn
    Institute of Anatomy, Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, D 80336 Munich, Germany
    J Comp Neurol 507:1317-35. 2008
    ..The present results form the basis for addressing the appropriate functional cell groups in correlative clinicopathological studies...
  41. pmc Discharge profiles of identified GABAergic in comparison to cholinergic and putative glutamatergic basal forebrain neurons across the sleep-wake cycle
    Oum Kaltoum Hassani
    Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Quebec, Canada
    J Neurosci 29:11828-40. 2009
    ..GABAergic neurons would thus play similar or reciprocal roles to other cholinergic and glutamatergic BF neurons in regulating cortical activity and muscle tone along with behavior across sleep-wake states...
  42. ncbi BDNF and CNTF regulate cholinergic properties of sympathetic neurons through independent mechanisms
    John D Slonimsky
    Department of Biology, Volen Center for Complex Systems, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA 02454, USA
    Mol Cell Neurosci 23:648-60. 2003
    ..The results of this study indicate that BDNF and CNTF, acting through independent pathways, modulate NE and ACh cotransmission to regulate the level of sympathetic excitation or inhibition of cardiac myocytes...
  43. ncbi M3 muscarinic receptor antagonists inhibit small cell lung carcinoma growth and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation induced by acetylcholine secretion
    Pingfang Song
    Division of Neuroscience, Oregon National Primate Research Center, Oregon Health and Science University, Beaverton, Oregon 97006, USA
    Cancer Res 67:3936-44. 2007
    ..These findings suggest that M3R antagonists may be useful adjuvants for treatment of SCLC and, potentially, other cancers...
  44. ncbi Adenoviral gene transfer of hepatocyte growth factor prevents death of injured adult motoneurons after peripheral nerve avulsion
    Yuichi Hayashi
    Department of Molecular Neuropathology, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute for Neuroscience, Tokyo Metropolitan Organization for Medical Research, 2 6 Musashidai, Fuchu, Tokyo 183 8526, Japan
    Brain Res 1111:187-95. 2006
    ..These results indicate that HGF may prevent the degeneration of motoneurons in adult humans with motoneuron injury and motor neuron diseases...
  45. ncbi Labeled lines in the retinotectal system: markers for retinorecipient sublaminae and the retinal ganglion cell subsets that innervate them
    Masahito Yamagata
    Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Washington University Medical School, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Mol Cell Neurosci 33:296-310. 2006
    ..Our results define laminar-specified circuits from retina to brain and support a model in which RGCs transmit information from multiple sources to single central laminae, where it can be integrated...
  46. ncbi Gabaergic neurons with alpha2-adrenergic receptors in basal forebrain and preoptic area express c-Fos during sleep
    M Modirrousta
    Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, 3801 University Street, Room 897, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3A 2B4
    Neuroscience 129:803-10. 2004
    ....
  47. ncbi Effects of repeated oral postnatal exposure to chlorpyrifos on cholinergic neurochemistry in developing rats
    Jason R Richardson
    Center for Environmental Health Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, Mississippi 39762, USA
    Toxicol Sci 84:352-9. 2005
    ..In addition, the long-term reduction of brain ChE activity observed following repeated postnatal exposure to CPS is attributable to permanent inactivation or "aging" of the enzyme...
  48. ncbi Ovarian acetylcholine and muscarinic receptors: hints of a novel intrinsic ovarian regulatory system
    Artur Mayerhofer
    Anatomisches Institut der Universität München, D 80802 München, Germany
    Microsc Res Tech 59:503-8. 2002
    ..Thus, our results outline first details of an unexpected intraovarian, non-neuronal cholinergic system, and suggest that it may be involved in the regulation of cell proliferation in the ovary...
  49. ncbi Expression of lynx1 in developing lung and its modulation by prenatal nicotine exposure
    Harmanjatinder S Sekhon
    Division of Neuroscience, Oregon National Primate Research Center, Oregon Health and Science University, 97006, USA
    Cell Tissue Res 320:287-97. 2005
    ..Thus, lynx1 is co-expressed with nAChR in the lung. Alteration of lynx1 levels is a potential new mechanism by which nicotine affects lung development...
  50. ncbi Partial cloning and expression of mRNA coding choline acetyltransferase in the spinal cord of the goldfish, Carassius auratus
    Soon Ju Moon
    Laboratory of Fish Physiology, Graduate School of Biosphere Sciences, Hiroshima University, Higashi Hiroshima 739 8528, Japan
    Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol 141:253-60. 2005
    ..In the cord, putative presynaptic sympathetic neurons were also labeled...
  51. ncbi Expression of the cholinergic gene locus in the rat placenta
    Uwe Pfeil
    Institute for Anatomy and Cell Biology, Justus Liebig University, Aulweg 123, 35385 Giessen, Germany
    Histochem Cell Biol 122:121-30. 2004
    ..While ChAT is nearly ubiquitously expressed in rat placenta, VAChT immunoreactivity is localised cell type specifically, implying that both vesicular and non-vesicular ACh release machineries prevail in placental cell types...
  52. ncbi A novel untranslated 'exon H' of the human choline acetyltransferase gene in placenta
    I Robert
    Laboratoire de Genetique Moleculaire des Eucaryotes, CNRS, Biologie Moléculaire et de Génie Génétique, INSERM, Institut de Chimie Biologique, Faculte de Medecine, Strasbourg, France
    J Neurochem 79:9-16. 2001
    ..These data may be possibly explained by the presence of a placenta specific promoter in the ChAT gene, which might be the proximal promoter P1...
  53. pmc Choline acetyltransferase mutations cause myasthenic syndrome associated with episodic apnea in humans
    K Ohno
    Department of Neurology and Neuromuscular Research Laboratory, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:2017-22. 2001
    ....
  54. ncbi Acetylcholine synthesis and quantal release reconstituted by transfection of mediatophore and choline acetyltranferase cDNAs
    A Bloc
    Pharmacologie, Centre Medical Universitaire, Geneve, Switzerland
    Eur J Neurosci 11:1523-34. 1999
    ....
  55. ncbi Hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene regulation by exercise and the medial septum
    Nicole C Berchtold
    Institute for Brain Aging and Dementia, University of California, Irvine, California, 92697 4540, USA
    J Neurosci Res 68:511-21. 2002
    ..These results are discussed in relation to their implications for aging and Alzheimer's disease...
  56. ncbi Kinesin-2 differentially regulates the anterograde axonal transports of acetylcholinesterase and choline acetyltransferase in Drosophila
    Rehan Baqri
    Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400 005, India
    J Neurobiol 66:378-92. 2006
    ..Altogether, these suggest that kinesin-2 independently transports AChE and ChAT within the same axon. It also implies that cargo availability could regulate the rate and frequency of transports by kinesin motors...
  57. ncbi Acetylcholine and choline dynamics provide early and late markers of traumatic brain injury
    Oscar U Scremin
    Veterans Affairs Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, Research Service, Los Angeles, CA 90073, USA
    Brain Res 1124:155-66. 2006
    ..Choline acetyltransferase activity was reduced in the impact center region but not affected in the adjacent and contralateral regions or by craniotomy...
  58. ncbi Selective immunolesions of cholinergic neurons in mice: effects on neuroanatomy, neurochemistry, and behavior
    J Berger-Sweeney
    Department of Biological Sciences, Wellesley College, Wellesley, Massachusetts 02481, USA
    J Neurosci 21:8164-73. 2001
    ....
  59. ncbi Stimuli that induce a cholinergic neuronal phenotype of NG108-15 cells upregulate ChAT and VAChT mRNAs but fail to increase VAChT protein
    V Dolezal
    Institute of Physiology, CAS, Prague, Czech Republic
    Brain Res Bull 54:363-73. 2001
    ....
  60. ncbi Persistent cholinergic presynaptic deficits after neonatal chlorpyrifos exposure
    T A Slotkin
    Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, Box 3813 DUMC, Duke University Medical Center, 27710, Durham, NC, USA
    Brain Res 902:229-43. 2001
    ..The effects are likely to contribute to gender-selective alterations in behavioral performance that persist or emerge long after the termination of exposure and well after the restoration of cholinesterase activity...
  61. ncbi Effects of sex hormones, forskolin, and nicotine on choline acetyltransferase activity in human isolated placenta
    Ignaz Wessler
    Department of Pharmacology, Universitat Mainz, Obere Zahlbacher Strasse 67, 55101 Mainz, Germany
    Neurochem Res 28:489-92. 2003
    ..The risks of maternal smoking during pregnancy cannot be attributed to an effect of nicotine on placental ChAT activity. Differences in the regulation of ChAT appear to exist between neuronal and nonneuronal cells...
  62. ncbi Protective effects of betaxolol in eyes with kainic acid-induced neuronal death
    Eun Woo Cheon
    Division of Food Science, Jinju International University, 270 San Sangmun ri Munsan eup, Jinju, Kyungnam 660 759, South Korea
    Brain Res 1069:75-85. 2006
    ..The present study suggests that topically applied betaxolol has neuroprotective effect on the retinal cell damage due to KA-induced neurotoxicity...
  63. ncbi Re-growth of catecholaminergic fibers and protection of cholinergic spinal cord neurons in spinal repaired rats
    Yu Shang Lee
    Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, University of California, Irvine, USA
    Eur J Neurosci 23:693-702. 2006
    ....
  64. ncbi Improved detection of fluorogold-labeled neurons in long-term studies
    Mahnaz Akhavan
    Department of Neurology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, 710 Westwood Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095 1769, USA
    J Neurosci Methods 152:156-62. 2006
    ..We conclude that FG-labeling is a useful tool to determine neuronal counts in long-term studies, but should be used cautiously for neuronal size measurements...
  65. ncbi Selective cholinergic lesions in the rat nucleus basalis magnocellularis with limited damage in the medial septum specifically alter attention performance in the five-choice serial reaction time task
    H Harati
    Laboratoire d Imagerie et de Neurosciences Cognitives UMR 7191, Universite Louis Pasteur, CNRS, Institut Fédérératif de Recherche 37 de Neurosciences, GDR 2905 du CNRS, 12 rue Goethe, F 67000 Strasbourg, France
    Neuroscience 153:72-83. 2008
    ..Discrepancies with previously reported results are discussed in terms of differences in lesion extent/specificity and training levels...
  66. ncbi Cholinergic modulation of vibrissal receptive fields in trigeminal nuclei
    Elena Timofeeva
    Centre de Recherche Universite Laval Robert Giffard, Quebec City, Quebec, G1J 2G3, Canada
    J Neurosci 25:9135-43. 2005
    ....
  67. ncbi Characterization of medial septal glutamatergic neurons and their projection to the hippocampus
    Luis V Colom
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Texas at Brownsville Texas Southmost College, Brownsville, Texas
    Synapse 58:151-64. 2005
    ..Thus, the septo-hippocampal projection needs to be reconsidered as a three neurotransmitter pathway...
  68. ncbi Extensive immunolesions of basal forebrain cholinergic system impair offspring recognition in sheep
    G Ferreira
    Laboratoire de Comportement Animal, Station PRC, , 37380 Nouzilly, France
    Neuroscience 106:103-16. 2001
    ..However, since only extensive lesions affect performance, this indicates that the basal forebrain cholinergic system possesses substantial reserve capacity to sustain cognitive functions...
  69. ncbi GABAB and CB1 cannabinoid receptor expression identifies two types of septal cholinergic neurons
    Gábor Nyiri
    Institute of Experimental Medicine, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, 1083, Szigony u 43, Hungary
    Eur J Neurosci 21:3034-42. 2005
    ..The results also suggest that cholinergic transmission in the hippocampus is fine-tuned by endocannabinoid signalling...
  70. ncbi Cholinergic and noncholinergic brainstem neurons expressing Fos after paradoxical (REM) sleep deprivation and recovery
    Laure Verret
    CNRS UMR 5167, Institut Fédératif des Neurosciences de Lyon IFR 19, Faculté de médecine RTH Laennec, 7, Rue Guillaume Paradin, 69372 Lyon Cedex 08, France
    Eur J Neurosci 21:2488-504. 2005
    ..Altogether, our results open a new avenue of research to identify the specific role of the populations of neurons revealed, their interrelations and their neurochemical identity...
  71. ncbi Expression of high affinity choline transporter during mouse development in vivo and its upregulation by NGF and BMP-4 in vitro
    Brygida Berse
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, 715 Albany Street, Room L 808C, Boston, MA 02118, USA
    Brain Res Dev Brain Res 157:132-40. 2005
    ..The effect of NGF was dependent on the PI3K signaling, as it was abolished by the PI3K inhibitor LY294002. This result indicates that some of the signals regulating other cholinergic-specific genes also control CHT expression...
  72. ncbi Endogenous nicotinic cholinergic activity regulates dopamine release in the striatum
    F M Zhou
    Division of Neuroscience, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030-3498, USA
    Nat Neurosci 4:1224-9. 2001
    ..The results offer new perspectives when considering nicotine addiction and the high prevalence of smoking in schizophrenics...
  73. ncbi Effect of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor blockade on plasticity of frontal cortex after cholinergic deafferentation in rat
    J E Garrett
    Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA
    Neuroscience 140:57-66. 2006
    ..Thus, N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor blockade prevented both GluR1 and spine density upregulation following cholinergic deafferentation, suggesting that these effects are N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor-mediated...
  74. ncbi Effects of hypocretin-saporin injections into the medial septum on sleep and hippocampal theta
    D Gerashchenko
    West Roxbury VA Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, 1400 VFW Parkway, West Roxbury, MA 02132, USA
    Brain Res 913:106-15. 2001
    ..In this way, hypocretin, which is implicated in feeding, energy metabolism and wakefulness, serves to influence cognitive processes critical for the animal's survival...
  75. ncbi Knockdown of the L3/Lhx8 gene suppresses cholinergic differentiation of murine embryonic stem cell-derived spheres
    Takayuki Manabe
    Department of 2nd Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijyo cho, Kasihara City, Nara 634 8521, Japan
    Int J Dev Neurosci 26:249-52. 2008
    ..These results strongly suggest that L3/Lhx8 is a key factor for cholinergic differentiation of murine ES cell-derived spheres and is involved in basal forebrain development...
  76. ncbi Origins of spinal cholinergic pathways in amphibians demonstrated by retrograde transport and choline acetyltransferase immunohistochemistry
    Jesus M Lopez
    Department of Cell Biology, Faculty of Biology, University Complutense, 28040 Madrid, Spain
    Neurosci Lett 425:73-7. 2007
    ....
  77. ncbi Antidepressant effects of Soyo-san on Immobilization stress in ovariectomized female rats
    Jin Kyung Oh
    Department of Oriental Medical Science, Graduate School of East West Medical Science, Kyung Hee University, 1 Seochon ri, Kiheung eup, Youngin shi, Kyungji do 449 701, South Korea
    Biol Pharm Bull 30:1422-6. 2007
    ..05, respectively). The serum level of corticosterone in the SOY group was significantly lower than that in the control group (p<0.05). These results suggest that Soyo-san might prove to be an effective antidepressant agent...
  78. ncbi Identification and kainic acid-induced up-regulation of low-affinity p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) in the nigral dopamine neurons of adult rats
    Yan Qin Wang
    Institute of Neurosciences, The Fourth Military Medical University, 17 Changle West Road, Xi an 710032, PR China
    Neurochem Int 53:56-62. 2008
    ....
  79. ncbi Human and monkey cholinergic neurons visualized in paraffin-embedded tissues by immunoreactivity for VAChT, the vesicular acetylcholine transporter
    M K Schafer
    Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Philipps University, Marburg, FRG
    J Mol Neurosci 6:225-35. 1995
    ..VAChT-positive cell bodies, presumably corresponding to cholinergic sympathetic sudomotor neurons, were a significant fraction of the total principal cell population in monkey and human thoracic sympathetic ganglia...
  80. ncbi Rescue of rat anterior horn neurons after spinal cord injury by retrograde transfection of adenovirus vector carrying brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene
    Hideaki Nakajima
    Division of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation Medicine, Department of Surgery, University of Fukui Faculty of Medical Sciences, Fukui, Japan
    J Neurotrauma 24:703-12. 2007
    ..Our results suggest that in vivo targeted retrograde AdV-BDNF-gene delivery may enhance neuronal survival following traumatic injury of the spinal cord...
  81. ncbi Hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons have a cholinergic phenotype
    Björn Meister
    Department of Neuroscience, The Retzius Laboratory, Karolinska Institutet, SE 17177 Stockholm, Sweden
    Eur J Neurosci 24:2731-40. 2006
    ..The results indicate a role for ACh in control of energy balance, mediating the effects of peripheral hormones such as leptin and insulin...
  82. pmc Stereological estimates of the basal forebrain cell population in the rat, including neurons containing choline acetyltransferase, glutamic acid decarboxylase or phosphate-activated glutaminase and colocalizing vesicular glutamate transporters
    I Gritti
    Dipartimento di Scienze Cliniche Luigi Sacco, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Via Giovan Battista Grassi 74, Milan, Italy 20157
    Neuroscience 143:1051-64. 2006
    ....
  83. ncbi Nerve growth factor and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor restore the cholinergic neuronal phenotype in organotypic brain slices of the basal nucleus of Meynert
    C Weis
    Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital Innsbruck, Anichstr. 35, A-6020, Innsbruck, Austria
    Neuroscience 102:129-38. 2001
    ..In conclusion, it is shown that, in the axotomized organotypic slice model, the number of cholinergic neurons is decreased, but can be partly restored by nerve growth factor and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor...
  84. ncbi Role of cholinergic mossy fibers in medial vestibular and prepositus hypoglossal nuclei in vestibular compensation
    M Fukushima
    Department of Otolaryngology, Osaka University Medical School, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, 565-0871, Japan
    Neuroscience 102:159-66. 2001
    ....
  85. ncbi Effects of neonatal handling on the basal forebrain cholinergic system of adult male and female rats
    S Pondiki
    Laboratory of Biology Biochemistry, Faculty of Nursing, School of Health Sciences, University of Athens, Athens, Greece
    Neuroscience 142:305-14. 2006
    ....
  86. ncbi Aging causes partial loss of basal forebrain but no loss of pontine reticular cholinergic neurons
    Karen A Baskerville
    Department of Neuroscience, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, Florida 32224, USA
    Neuroreport 17:1819-23. 2006
    ..This selective loss of cholinergic neurons may, in part, account for the cognitive deficits observed in aging and, considering previous findings in this model, may be related to oxidative stress...
  87. ncbi Distinct subpopulations of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) containing sympathetic preganglionic neurons in spontaneously hypertensive and Wistar-Kyoto rats
    Kellysan Powers-Martin
    Division of Health Sciences, Murdoch University, Perth 6150, WA, Australia
    J Comp Neurol 497:566-74. 2006
    ..These results suggest that cGMP is a key signaling molecule in SPN, and that a reduced number of NOS neurons in the SHR may play a role in the increase in sympathetic tone associated with hypertension in these animals...
  88. ncbi The cholinergic innervation develops early and rapidly in the rat cerebral cortex: a quantitative immunocytochemical study
    N Mechawar
    , and Centre de Recherche en Sciences Neurologiques, , , P.O. Box 6128, Succursale Centre-Ville, H3C 3J7, Montreal, QC, Canada
    Neuroscience 108:555-67. 2001
    ....
  89. ncbi Postnatal development of the cholinergic innervation in the dorsal hippocampus of rat: Quantitative light and electron microscopic immunocytochemical study
    Nicolas Aznavour
    Departement de pathologie et biologie cellulaire, Centre de Recherche en Sciences Neurologiques, Faculte de Medecine, Universite de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada
    J Comp Neurol 486:61-75. 2005
    ..They emphasize the remarkable growth capacities of individual ACh neurons and substantiate a role for diffuse transmission by ACh during hippocampal development...
  90. ncbi Beta-amyloid-induced inflammation and cholinergic hypofunction in the rat brain in vivo: involvement of the p38MAPK pathway
    Maria Grazia Giovannini
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Florence, Viale Pieraccini 6, 50139 Florence, Italy
    Neurobiol Dis 11:257-74. 2002
    ..We show here for the first time in vivo the pivotal role played by the p38MAPK microglial signal transduction pathway in the inflammatory response to the Abeta(1-42) deposit...
  91. ncbi Does the release of acetylcholine in septal slices originate from intrinsic cholinergic neurons bearing p75(NTR) receptors? A study using 192 IgG-saporin lesions in rats
    A Birthelmer
    Institut für Experimentelle und Klinische Pharmakologie und Toxikologie der Universität Freiburg, Neuropharmakologisches Labor, Hansastrasse 9A, D 79104 Freiburg, Germany
    Neuroscience 122:1059-71. 2003
    ..These data also suggest that the MS and the DBB may be the target of extrinsic cholinergic innervation that does not bear p75(NTR) receptors...
  92. ncbi Age-dependent changes in axonal transport and cellular distribution of Tau 1 in the rat basal forebrain neurons
    Grazyna Niewiadomska
    Department of Neurophysiology, Nencki Institute, 3 Pasteur St, 02 093 Warsaw, Poland
    Neuroreport 14:1701-6. 2003
    ..The findings demonstrate that in aged rats reduced retrograde labeling of BF neurons coincide with lower expression of cholinergic markers and is accompanied by altered cellular distribution of Tau 1...
  93. ncbi Basal forebrain cholinergic system is involved in rapid nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced plasticity in the barrel cortex of adult rats
    Neal Prakash
    Departments of Neurobiology and Behavior, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 4550, USA
    J Neurophysiol 91:424-37. 2004
    ....
  94. ncbi Localization of dopamine D2 receptors on cholinergic interneurons of the dorsal striatum and nucleus accumbens of the rat
    Adriana A Alcantara
    Institute for Neuroscience, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA
    Brain Res 986:22-9. 2003
    ....
  95. ncbi Evidence that toxicity of lipopolysaccharide upon cholinergic basal forebrain neurons requires the presence of glial cells in vitro
    Carla Weis
    Laboratory of Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital Innsbruck, A 6020 Innsbruck, Austria
    Brain Res Bull 58:91-8. 2002
    ..Our results suggest that lipopolysaccharide-induced degeneration of both microtubule-associated protein-2-like immunoreactive as well as specific killing of cholinergic forebrain neurons in vitro are mediated by glial cells...
  96. ncbi Nerve growth factor prevents cell death and induces hypertrophy of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons in rats withdrawn from prolonged ethanol intake
    A Cadete-Leite
    Department of Anatomy, Porto Medical School, Alameda Prof Hernani Monteiro, 4200 319, Porto, Portugal
    Neuroscience 119:1055-69. 2003
    ....
  97. ncbi Tumor necrosis factor-alpha triggers cell death of sensitized potassium chloride-stimulated cholinergic neurons
    Birgit Zassler
    Laboratory of Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital Innsbruck, Anichstr 35, Austria
    Brain Res Mol Brain Res 113:78-85. 2003
    ..Cortical overactivation combined with an increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines may contribute to the cell death observed in Alzheimer's disease and ageing...
  98. ncbi Immunohistochemical characterisation of cholinergic neurons in the anterior pelvic ganglion of the male pig
    Jerzy Kaleczyc
    Department of Animal Anatomy, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Warmia and Mazury, Olsztyn Kortowo II, Poland
    Folia Histochem Cytobiol 41:65-72. 2003
    ....
  99. ncbi Rivastigmine antagonizes deficits in prepulse inhibition induced by selective immunolesioning of cholinergic neurons in nucleus basalis magnocellularis
    M Ballmaier
    Division of Pharmacology, Department of Biomedical Sciences and Biotechnologies, Brescia University Medical School, Via Valsabbina 19, 25123 Brescia, Italy
    Neuroscience 114:91-8. 2002
    ....
  100. ncbi Expression of a splice variant of choline acetyltransferase in magnocellular neurons of the tuberomammillary nucleus of rat
    H Kanayama
    Molecular Neuroscience Research Center, Shiga University of Medical Science, Seta tsukinowa cho, Otsu, 520 2192, Shiga, Japan
    Neuroscience 118:243-51. 2003
    ..The results raise the possibility that some of the known diverse projection areas of this nucleus may have a cholinergic component...
  101. ncbi Long-term plastic changes in galanin innervation in the rat basal forebrain
    I Hartonian
    Department of Biological Sciences, California State University, 5151 State University Drive, Los Angeles, CA 90032, USA
    Neuroscience 115:787-95. 2002
    ..Our model can be useful to test the role that galanin plays in the regulation of acetylcholine and the efficacy of galanin inhibitors as potential therapeutic interventions in Alzheimer's disease...

Research Grants65

  1. ACETYL COA SYNTHETASE AND ACETATE UPTAKE
    Paul Carroll; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ....
  2. MECHANISMS OF CHLORPYRIFOS DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICITY
    Theodore Slotkin; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Molecular mechanisms of developmental neurotoxicity can be determined and linked to eventual alterations in behavioral performance. ..
  3. Fetal & Adolescent Nicotine Effects on CNS 5HT Systems
    Theodore Slotkin; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..abstract_text> ..
  4. DRUGS AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE ADRENERGIC NERVOUS SYSTEM
    Theodore Slotkin; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ....
  5. TRAINING IN AGE-RELATED NEURODEGENERATIVE DISEASES
    Elliott Mufson; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Finally the program will provide a broad-base of knowledge on neurodegenerative disorders as well as other instruction important for enhancing the interpersonal and professional skills of our trainees. ..
  6. Estrogenic-cholinergic interactions in memory modulation
    KARYN FRICK; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..
  7. Hormone and enrichment effects on memory in aging mice
    KARYN FRICK; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Elucidation of these issues may ultimately lead to the development of safer and more effective treatments to prevent cognitive decline and dementia in women ..
  8. "Nicotine: Potential therapies and possible pitfalls"
    Russell Brown; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Additionally, we plan a final roundtable discussion with all speakers to discuss the commonalities of the positive effects, underlying mechanisms, and adverse effects of nicotine as a potential therapy. ..
  9. NEUROTROPHIN CONTROL OF REM SLEEP
    Jack Yamuy; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..This concerted set of experiments will be critical in elucidating the role that neurotrophins play in the control of REM sleep. ..
  10. Neuro-Immune Interactions in Developing Airways
    Gary Larsen; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..These studies of developmental airway biology in mammalian species allow definition of neuro-immune mechanisms that may have relevance to events that occur in infants and small children. ..
  11. Ethanol Driven Neuroadaptation of Cholinergic Interneur
    ADRIANA ALCANTARA; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..
  12. The Role of Acetylcholine Dysfunction in Diencephalic Amnesia
    Lisa M Savage; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Such experiments are critical to understanding the role of acetylcholine dysfunction in amnesia and thus the development of pharmacotherapeutics. ..
  13. Signaling pathways directing cholinergic gene expression
    Brygida Berse; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Additionally, the importance of subcellular localization of TrkA for its action on cholinergic gene expression will be examined. ..
  14. Neuroimaging of Genetically-Defined Incipient CJD
    Isak Prohovnik; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  15. DYSKINESIAS IN LENTI-GDNF TREATED PARKINSONIAN MONKEYS
    Jeffrey Kordower; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..This application will determine whether potent dopaminergic gene therapies influence dyskinesias in the best animal model of PD. ..
  16. CaMKI, Apoptosis and Cholinergic Neurons in Aging and AD
    Changiz Geula; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..They will also form the basis of more comprehensive future studies aimed at determining the causes and effects of the alterations of the above genes. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  17. Two-Photon Microscopy for Biomedical Research
    BENJAMIN REESE; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Acquisition of this 2-photon microscope will therefore enhance the diverse efforts of a number of investigators at UCSB in pursuit of their NIH-funded research objectives. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  18. Cell Type-Specific Gene Delivery in Mammalian Retina
    Vijay Sarthy; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  19. Muscarinic agonists for neurological disorders
    William Messer; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The studies outlined here will provide new approaches for the treatment of neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. ..
  20. Mechanisms of neurotrophin-improved cognition in aging
    ANN CHARLOTTE GRANHOLM BENTLEY; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  21. Clonidine Treatment for Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome
    Estelle Gauda; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  22. ROLE OF PROTEASOMAL DYSFUNCTION IN PARKINSON'S DISEASE
    KEVIN MCNAUGHT; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..These studies will test our hypothesis that inadequate proteasomal function underlies both vulnerability and degeneration of the SNc in sporadic Parkinson's disease. ..
  23. Muller Cell Role in Retinal Diseases
    Vijay P Sarthy; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..abstract_text> ..
  24. Cotinine for Cognitive Impairment in Neurological and Neuropsychiatric Disorders
    Alvin V Terry; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The partly translational design of the study will provide results leading to eventual clinical trials with cotinine or a relevant analog. ..
  25. GENE EXPRESSION IN NERVOUS TISSUE
    Bruce S McEwen; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..abstract_text> ..
  26. Neuroplasticity and the carotid body
    Estelle Gauda; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..abstract_text> ..
  27. Molecular Target(s) for Interruption of HBV Infection
    Jisu Li; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..We hope these studies will contribute to the understanding of the early events of hepadnavirus infection and may lead to the development of novel antiviral strategies for prevention of HBV induced liver cancer. ..
  28. Amygdala NPY, anxiety phenotypes and alcohol consumption
    MARLENE WILSON; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  29. Isolation and Characterization of Cholinesterases From Plaques and Tangles
    Changiz Geula; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  30. NEUROBIOLOGICAL MECHANISMS OF DRUG REINFORCEMENT
    James Smith; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..abstract_text> ..
  31. MBRS SCORE Program at the Univ of Texas-Brownsville
    LUIS COLOM; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Furthermore, the success of this application will contribute to the development of internal collaborations and the necessary scientific environment to develop successful R01 applications in the near future. ..
  32. Neurology of Attention and Neglect-A Network Approach
    Marek Marsel Mesulam; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..The results of these experiments will help to understand the neurological bases of spatial attention and may lead to more rational treatments of hemispatial neglect. ..
  33. DUAL ENZYME-BASED MICROBIOSENSOR TO MEASURE ATP RELEASE FROM THE CAROTID BODY
    Estelle Gauda; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..This grant proposes to develop a microbiosensor to measure the release of ATP from the carotid body to understand how the newborn develops an adequate breathing response to changes in oxygen concentration. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  34. Mutant Gene Identification in the Dystonic Rat
    Mark leDoux; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Patients with dystonia will be screened for mutations in the human homologue. These proposed studies will likely increase our understanding of both dystonia and olivocerebellar motor systems. ..
  35. Female Reproductive Organs and Their Innervation.
    RAYMOND PAPKA; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Finally, knowledge of estrogen responsive sensory neurons has important implications for understanding neuropathic pain syndromes influenced by estrogen levels. ..
  36. Molecular Foundations of the Myoclonus-Dystonia Syndrome
    Mark leDoux; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..We hypothesize that epsilon sarcoglycan co-localizes with GABA receptors opposite GABAergic terminals in the central nervous system. ..
  37. LSM 510 Confocal Microscope
    Robert Gibbs; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Acquisition of the requested instrument will eliminate this problem, and will provide the School of Pharmacy with a greatly needed resource. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  38. NEUROANATOMICAL SUBSTRATES OF ALCOHOL-INDUCED AMNESIA
    Andrey Ryabinin; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..Taken together, these studies will provide valuable insight at several levels of analysis of alcohol~s action on cognitive functions and eventually allow to start understanding of the mechanisms involved in alcohol-induced amnesia. ..
  39. EYELID SENSORIMOTOR NETWORKS
    Mark leDoux; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..abstract_text> ..
  40. BASAL GANGLIA CIRCUITRY IMMEDIATE EARLY GENE EXPRESSION
    David Wirtshafter; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Other studies will examine the effects of lesions within the basal ganglia on the IEG expression induced by systemic administration of dopaminergic drugs. ..
  41. DHEAS, SULFATASE INHIBITION & COGNITION IN LESIONED RATS
    David Johnson; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Hippocampal levels of the neurotransmitters, ACh, glutamate and GABA as well as acetylcholinesterase activity in the basal forebrain will be determined. ..
  42. ROLE OF BASAL GANGLIA IN SONG LEARNING OF OSCINE BIRDS
    MICHAEL FARRIES; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..This research may ultimately contribute to the understanding and treatment of learning deficits in humans and diseases affecting the basal ganglia. ..
  43. NEUROBIOLOGICAL MECHANISMS OF ALCOHOL DRINKING
    James Smith; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..The proposed experiments will hopefully add significant new information to our understanding of the processes underlying alcohol abuse. ..
  44. Behavioral Genetics and Toxic Response
    Edward Levin; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ....
  45. International meeting Neural Transplantation and Repair
    ANN CHARLOTTE GRANHOLM BENTLEY; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..In addition, previous statistics demonstrate that we have favored women and minorities in the past (33% of the travel award recipients for this years' meeting were women, and women serve on all the committees in our organization). ..
  46. IN SITU LIGATION FOR DETECTION OF SPECIFIC DNA DAMAGE
    David Baskin; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..It, therefore, can be used in molecular and cell biology research, as well as by clinicians in many fields, including pathology oncology, cardiology and the clinical neurosciences. ..
  47. SPINAL CORD REPAIR WITH HUMAN UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD CELLS
    Samuel Saporta; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..abstract_text> ..
  48. Auditory Cortex: Regional Pathology In Schizophrenia
    Robert Sweet; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..abstract_text> ..
  49. TETRAHYDROISOQUINOLINES AND PARKINSON'S DISEASE
    Mark leDoux; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Evolution may have not provided neurons with mechanisms to prevent accumulation of these by-products of normal metabolism and, as a consequence, susceptible neuronal populations may slowly undergo apoptotic death in the elderly. ..
  50. Antipsychotics: Temporal Effects on Cognitive Function
    Alvin Terry; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..unreadable] [unreadable]..
  51. Nicotinic-Antipsychotic Drug Interactions and Cognition
    Edward Levin; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  52. Cholinergic modulation of IEG expression
    ANN POWER; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Experiment III will investigate which signaling cascades (e.g., protein kinases) are involved in effects of mR activation on memory and immediate early gene expression. ..
  53. Methylphenidate & gene expression in the rat brain.
    JOAN BAIZER; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..
  54. The Lateral Septum, Urocortin and Alcohol
    ADAM WEITEMIER; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Findings of this proposal will provide an important contribution to work highlighting the importance of stress- and anxiety-modulating neuropeptide systems in the regulation of alcohol-related behaviors. ..
  55. Role of Nonclassical Transmitters in Cardiac Ganglia
    Donald Hoover; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..
  56. A New Tool for Targeted Antisense Knockdown in Brain
    Robert Gibbs; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..This will be the first time that a targeted antisense knockdown approach will have been developed and used to selectively regulate gene expression within an identified subpopulation of neurons in the adult brain. ..
  57. Mechanisms Underlying the Cognitive Function of Sleep
    Subimal Datta; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ....
  58. Adolescence: A Sensitive Period for Nicotine Addiction
    Edward Levin; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable]..
  59. CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OF RETINAL MULLER CELLS
    Vijay Sarthy; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..The importance of studying Muller cells is emphasized by their involvement in many human retinal diseases leading to blindness. ..
  60. Leak potassium channels in striatal cholinergic neurons
    ALLISON BERG; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Finally, I confirm my findings using a mouse model in which TASK-3 is conditionally deleted (Specific Aim 3). ..
  61. Statistical methods in smoking cessation research
    Daniel Heitjan; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..It is anticipated, however, that the resulting methods will be applicable more broadly to clinical research on outcomes that experience alternating periods of relapse and remission. ..
  62. CALBINDIN AND CHOLINERGIC NEURONS IN AGING AND AD
    Changiz Geula; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ....
  63. Marine Toxin Impacts on Neurobehavioral Function
    Edward Levin; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The forum will provide an opportunity for methodological and theoretical issues to be integrated in the context of each talk as well as in a discussion session at the end of the symposium. ..
  64. NEUROTRANSMITTER TRANSPORTERS IN THE RETINA
    Vijay Sarthy; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ....