xanthine dehydrogenase

Summary

Summary: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of xanthine in the presence of NAD+ to form urate and NADH. It acts also on a variety of other purines and aldehydes. EC 1.1.1.204.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Phosphorylation of xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase in hypoxia
    U S Kayyali
    Department of Medicine, Pulmonary and Critical Care Division, Tupper Research Institute, New England Medical Center and Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02111, USA
    J Biol Chem 276:14359-65. 2001
  2. pmc Crystal structures of bovine milk xanthine dehydrogenase and xanthine oxidase: structure-based mechanism of conversion
    C Enroth
    Ontario Cancer Institute Princess Margaret Hospital, Division of Molecular and Structural Biology, 610 University Avenue, Toronto, ON, Canada M5G 2M9
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97:10723-8. 2000
  3. ncbi Selectivity of febuxostat, a novel non-purine inhibitor of xanthine oxidase/xanthine dehydrogenase
    Yasuhiro Takano
    Pharmaceutical Development Research Laboratories, Teijin Institute for Bio Medical Research, Teijin Pharma Limited, 4 3 2, Asahigaoka Hino, Tokyo 191 8512, Japan
    Life Sci 76:1835-47. 2005
  4. ncbi An extremely potent inhibitor of xanthine oxidoreductase. Crystal structure of the enzyme-inhibitor complex and mechanism of inhibition
    Ken Okamoto
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Nippon Medical School, 1 1 5 Sendagi, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113 0022, Japan
    J Biol Chem 278:1848-55. 2003
  5. ncbi Comparison of oxygen radical generation from the reductive activation of doxorubicin, streptonigrin, and menadione by xanthine oxidase and xanthine dehydrogenase
    S B Yee
    Department of Nutrition and Biochemistry Graduate Program, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada 89557 0132, USA
    Arch Biochem Biophys 347:235-41. 1997
  6. pmc Xanthine oxidoreductase depletion induces renal interstitial fibrosis through aberrant lipid and purine accumulation in renal tubules
    Toshio Ohtsubo
    Department of Medicine and Clinical Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Maidashi 3 1 1, Higashi ku, Fukuoka, Japan
    Hypertension 54:868-76. 2009
  7. pmc Xanthine oxidoreductase promotes the inflammatory state of mononuclear phagocytes through effects on chemokine expression, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} sumoylation, and HIF-1{alpha}
    Sophie Gibbings
    Division of Pulmonary Sciences, Division of Pulmonary Sciences, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, Colorado 80045, USA
    J Biol Chem 286:961-75. 2011
  8. pmc Nitrite confers protection against myocardial infarction: role of xanthine oxidoreductase, NADPH oxidase and K(ATP) channels
    John E Baker
    Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA
    J Mol Cell Cardiol 43:437-44. 2007
  9. ncbi Nitrite-derived nitric oxide protects the rat kidney against ischemia/reperfusion injury in vivo: role for xanthine oxidoreductase
    Pinpat Tripatara
    Centre for Experimental Medicine and Nephrology and Critical Care, William Harvey Research Institute, St Bartholomew s and the Royal London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, Charterhouse Square, London, EC1M 6BQ, UK
    J Am Soc Nephrol 18:570-80. 2007
  10. ncbi A mammalian functional nitrate reductase that regulates nitrite and nitric oxide homeostasis
    Emmelie A Jansson
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Nanna Svartz vag 2, SE 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden
    Nat Chem Biol 4:411-7. 2008

Research Grants

  1. Pain and Hypoxia in Premature Neonates
    DANILYN MAG AKAT ANGELES; Fiscal Year: 2012
  2. A model of kidney stone disease using D. melanogaster
    Marshall Stoller; Fiscal Year: 2013
  3. STRUCTURAL STUDIES ON EUKARYOTIC MOCO CONTAINING ENZYMES
    Caroline Kisker; Fiscal Year: 2003
  4. INTESTINAL ISCHEMIA--ROLE OF OXYGEN RADICALS
    D Granger; Fiscal Year: 1992
  5. TRANSCAPILLARY FLUID EXCHANGE IN SKELETAL MUSCLE
    RONALD KORTHUIS; Fiscal Year: 1993
  6. The Mechanism of Milk Lipid Secretion
    Ian Mather; Fiscal Year: 2009
  7. POPULATION GENETICS OF XANTHINE DEHYDROGENASE EXPRESSION
    KAZUO HIRAIZUMI; Fiscal Year: 1990
  8. OXIDANT PRODUCTION BY ENDOTHELIAL CELL XANTHINE OXIDASE
    Lance Terada; Fiscal Year: 1999
  9. MOLYBDENUM AND THE MOLYBDENUM COFACTOR IN HEALTH
    K Rajagopalan; Fiscal Year: 2003
  10. XANTHINE OXIDASE-MEDIATED INJURY IN ISCHEMIC LIVER
    Julio Turrens; Fiscal Year: 1990

Detail Information

Publications227 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Phosphorylation of xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase in hypoxia
    U S Kayyali
    Department of Medicine, Pulmonary and Critical Care Division, Tupper Research Institute, New England Medical Center and Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02111, USA
    J Biol Chem 276:14359-65. 2001
    ..The expression of XO and its precursor xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) is regulated at pre- and posttranslational levels by agents such as lipopolysaccharide and hypoxia...
  2. pmc Crystal structures of bovine milk xanthine dehydrogenase and xanthine oxidase: structure-based mechanism of conversion
    C Enroth
    Ontario Cancer Institute Princess Margaret Hospital, Division of Molecular and Structural Biology, 610 University Avenue, Toronto, ON, Canada M5G 2M9
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97:10723-8. 2000
    ..which catalyze the last two steps in the formation of urate, are synthesized as the dehydrogenase form xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) but can be readily converted to the oxidase form xanthine oxidase (XO) by oxidation of sulfhydryl ..
  3. ncbi Selectivity of febuxostat, a novel non-purine inhibitor of xanthine oxidase/xanthine dehydrogenase
    Yasuhiro Takano
    Pharmaceutical Development Research Laboratories, Teijin Institute for Bio Medical Research, Teijin Pharma Limited, 4 3 2, Asahigaoka Hino, Tokyo 191 8512, Japan
    Life Sci 76:1835-47. 2005
    ..These results demonstrate that febuxostat is a potent non-purine, selective inhibitor of XO, and could be useful for the treatment of hyperuricemia and gout...
  4. ncbi An extremely potent inhibitor of xanthine oxidoreductase. Crystal structure of the enzyme-inhibitor complex and mechanism of inhibition
    Ken Okamoto
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Nippon Medical School, 1 1 5 Sendagi, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113 0022, Japan
    J Biol Chem 278:1848-55. 2003
    ..The crystal structure of the active sulfo-form of milk xanthine dehydrogenase complexed with TEI-6720 and determined at 2...
  5. ncbi Comparison of oxygen radical generation from the reductive activation of doxorubicin, streptonigrin, and menadione by xanthine oxidase and xanthine dehydrogenase
    S B Yee
    Department of Nutrition and Biochemistry Graduate Program, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada 89557 0132, USA
    Arch Biochem Biophys 347:235-41. 1997
    ..Xanthine oxidase (EC 1.1.3.22; XO) and xanthine dehydrogenase (EC 1. 1.1.204; XDH) are two enzymes capable of the reductive activation of antineoplastic agents...
  6. pmc Xanthine oxidoreductase depletion induces renal interstitial fibrosis through aberrant lipid and purine accumulation in renal tubules
    Toshio Ohtsubo
    Department of Medicine and Clinical Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Maidashi 3 1 1, Higashi ku, Fukuoka, Japan
    Hypertension 54:868-76. 2009
    ....
  7. pmc Xanthine oxidoreductase promotes the inflammatory state of mononuclear phagocytes through effects on chemokine expression, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} sumoylation, and HIF-1{alpha}
    Sophie Gibbings
    Division of Pulmonary Sciences, Division of Pulmonary Sciences, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, Colorado 80045, USA
    J Biol Chem 286:961-75. 2011
    ....
  8. pmc Nitrite confers protection against myocardial infarction: role of xanthine oxidoreductase, NADPH oxidase and K(ATP) channels
    John E Baker
    Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA
    J Mol Cell Cardiol 43:437-44. 2007
    ..and the molybdenum site of xanthine oxidoreductase and was associated with an increase in activity of xanthine dehydrogenase and xanthine oxidase during ischemia...
  9. ncbi Nitrite-derived nitric oxide protects the rat kidney against ischemia/reperfusion injury in vivo: role for xanthine oxidoreductase
    Pinpat Tripatara
    Centre for Experimental Medicine and Nephrology and Critical Care, William Harvey Research Institute, St Bartholomew s and the Royal London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, Charterhouse Square, London, EC1M 6BQ, UK
    J Am Soc Nephrol 18:570-80. 2007
    ..These observations suggest that nitrite therapy might prove beneficial in protecting kidney function and integrity during periods of I/R such as those encountered in renal transplantation...
  10. ncbi A mammalian functional nitrate reductase that regulates nitrite and nitric oxide homeostasis
    Emmelie A Jansson
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Nanna Svartz vag 2, SE 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden
    Nat Chem Biol 4:411-7. 2008
    ..Our findings suggest a role for mammalian nitrate reduction in regulation of nitrite and NO homeostasis...
  11. ncbi The role of the [2Fe-2s] cluster centers in xanthine oxidoreductase
    T Nishino
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Nippon Medical School, Tokyo, Japan
    J Inorg Biochem 82:43-9. 2000
    Xanthine oxidoreductases (XOR), xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH, EC1.1.1.204) and xanthine oxidase (XO, EC1.2.3.2), are the best-studied molybdenum-containing iron-sulfur flavoproteins...
  12. ncbi Xanthine oxidoreductase: a journey from purine metabolism to cardiovascular excitation-contraction coupling
    Amit Agarwal
    Department of Pharmaceutical Technology Biotechnology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Punjab, India
    Crit Rev Biotechnol 31:264-80. 2011
    ..In this review, various physiological and pathophysiological functional aspects of XOR and its association with various forms of cancer are discussed in detail...
  13. ncbi FYX-051: a novel and potent hybrid-type inhibitor of xanthine oxidoreductase
    Koji Matsumoto
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Nippon Medical School, 1 1 5 Sendagi, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113 8602, Japan
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 336:95-103. 2011
    ..FYX-051 showed a potent and long-lasting hypouricemic effect in a rat model of potassium oxonate-induced hyperuricemia, and it seems to be a promising candidate for the clinical treatment of hyperuricemia...
  14. pmc Sequential activation of JAKs, STATs and xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase by hypoxia in lung microvascular endothelial cells
    Guansong Wang
    Institute of Respiratory Diseases, Xinqiao Hospital of Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400037, PR China
    Int J Biochem Cell Biol 40:461-70. 2008
    b>Xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase (XDH/XO) is associated with various pathological conditions related to the endothelial injury. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the activation of XDH/XO by hypoxia remains largely unknown...
  15. ncbi The mobA gene is required for assimilatory and respiratory nitrate reduction but not xanthine dehydrogenase activity in Pseudomonas aeruginosa
    Chris Noriega
    Department of Biology, University of Dayton, Dayton, OH 45469, USA
    Curr Microbiol 51:419-24. 2005
    ..The mobA mutant was deficient in both assimilatory and respiratory nitrate reductase activities, whereas xanthine dehydrogenase activity remained unaffected. Thus, P...
  16. ncbi The conversion from the dehydrogenase type to the oxidase type of rat liver xanthine dehydrogenase by modification of cysteine residues with fluorodinitrobenzene
    T Nishino
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Nippon Medical School, 1 1 5 Sendagi, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113, Japan
    J Biol Chem 272:29859-64. 1997
    When rat liver xanthine dehydrogenase was incubated with fluorodinitrobenzene (FDNB) at pH 8...
  17. ncbi Mutational analysis of the xanthine dehydrogenase gene in a Turkish family with autosomal recessive classical xanthinuria
    Faysal Gok
    Department of Pediatric Nephrology, Gulhane Military Medical School, Ankara, Turkey
    Nephrol Dial Transplant 18:2278-83. 2003
    Classical xanthinuria is classified into two categories: type I, deficient only in xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) activity; and type II, deficient in both XDH and aldehyde oxidase...
  18. ncbi Mammalian xanthine oxidoreductase - mechanism of transition from xanthine dehydrogenase to xanthine oxidase
    Tomoko Nishino
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Nippon Medical School, Tokyo, Japan
    FEBS J 275:3278-89. 2008
    ..Mammalian xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) can be converted to xanthine oxidase (XO), which produces both superoxide anion and hydrogen ..
  19. pmc Purine catabolism in Escherichia coli and function of xanthine dehydrogenase in purine salvage
    H Xi
    Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75083 0688, USA
    J Bacteriol 182:5332-41. 2000
    ..one eliminated (14)CO(2) production from [(14)C]adenine, which implies that its product is necessary for xanthine dehydrogenase activity. We changed the name of this gene to xdhA...
  20. pmc Xanthine oxidoreductase and cardiovascular disease: molecular mechanisms and pathophysiological implications
    Cristine E Berry
    The Johns Hopkins Hospital School of Medicine, Cardiology Division, 600 N Wolfe Street, Carnegie 568, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA
    J Physiol 555:589-606. 2004
    ..iron-sulphur centres, and FAD as cofactors and has two interconvertible forms, xanthine oxidase and xanthine dehydrogenase, which transfer electrons from xanthine to oxygen and NAD(+), respectively, yielding superoxide, hydrogen ..
  21. pmc Nitrite-generated NO circumvents dysregulated arginine/NOS signaling to protect against intimal hyperplasia in Sprague-Dawley rats
    Matthew J Alef
    Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA
    J Clin Invest 121:1646-56. 2011
    ..The vasoprotective effects of nitrite were counteracted by inhibition of XOR. These data illustrate the importance of nitrite-generated NO as an endogenous adaptive response and as a pathway that can be harnessed for therapeutic benefit...
  22. ncbi Molybdenum-containing hydroxylases
    Russ Hille
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, The Ohio State University, 333 Hamilton Hall, 1645 Neil Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
    Arch Biochem Biophys 433:107-16. 2005
    ..The present minireview summarizes recent mechanistic and structure/function studies of members of this large and growing family of enzymes...
  23. pmc Identification of two mutations in human xanthine dehydrogenase gene responsible for classical type I xanthinuria
    K Ichida
    Second Department of Medicine, The Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo 105
    J Clin Invest 99:2391-7. 1997
    Hereditary xanthinuria is classified into three categories. Classical xanthinuria type I lacks only xanthine dehydrogenase activity, while type II and molybdenum cofactor deficiency also lack one or two additional enzyme activities...
  24. ncbi Identification of a Rhodobacter capsulatus L-cysteine desulfurase that sulfurates the molybdenum cofactor when bound to XdhC and before its insertion into xanthine dehydrogenase
    Meina Neumann
    Department of Proteinanalytics, Institute of Biochemistry and Biology, University of Potsdam, 14476 Potsdam, Germany
    Biochemistry 46:9586-95. 2007
    The molybdenum cofactor (Moco) containing enzymes aldehyde oxidase and xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) require for activity a sulfuration step that inserts a terminal sulfur ligand into Moco...
  25. pmc The crystal structure of xanthine oxidoreductase during catalysis: implications for reaction mechanism and enzyme inhibition
    Ken Okamoto
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Nippon Medical School, 1 1 5 Sendagi, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113 8602, Japan
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:7931-6. 2004
    ..A water molecule usually seen in the active site of the enzyme is absent in the present structure, which probably accounts for the stability of this intermediate toward ligand displacement by hydroxide...
  26. ncbi Mechanism of the conversion of xanthine dehydrogenase to xanthine oxidase: identification of the two cysteine disulfide bonds and crystal structure of a non-convertible rat liver xanthine dehydrogenase mutant
    Tomoko Nishino
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Nippon Medical School, 1 1 5 Sendagi, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113 8602, Japan
    J Biol Chem 280:24888-94. 2005
    Mammalian xanthine dehydrogenase can be converted to xanthine oxidase by modification of cysteine residues or by proteolysis of the enzyme polypeptide chain...
  27. ncbi Nitrite-derived nitric oxide by xanthine oxidoreductase protects the liver against ischemia-reperfusion injury
    Ping Lu
    Department of General Surgery, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022, China
    Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int 4:350-5. 2005
    ..For its minute amounts and active reactivity, NO can not be detected directly in real time in vivo by this time. We have to prove the above hypothesis indirectly...
  28. ncbi Cellular distribution, metabolism and regulation of the xanthine oxidoreductase enzyme system
    C A Pritsos
    Department of Nutrition, Center for Environmental Sciences and Engineering, MS 199, University of Nevada, Reno, NV 89557, USA
    Chem Biol Interact 129:195-208. 2000
    Xanthine oxidase (EC 1.1.3.22) and xanthine dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1. 204) are both members of the molybdenum hydroxylase flavoprotein family and represent different forms of the same gene product...
  29. ncbi Enhanced xanthine oxidoreductase expression and tissue nitrate reduction in germ free mice
    Liyue Huang
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, S 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden
    Nitric Oxide 22:191-5. 2010
    ..Future studies will reveal if this represents a compensatory functional response to uphold nitrite homeostasis in the absence of commensal bacteria...
  30. pmc Nitrates and nitrites in the treatment of ischemic cardiac disease
    Vaughn E Nossaman
    Department of Pharmacology, Tulane University Medical Center, New Orleans, LA 70112 2699, USA
    Cardiol Rev 18:190-7. 2010
    ..We review what is presently known about the use of nitrates and nitrites including the historical, current, and potential uses of these agents, and their mechanisms of action...
  31. pmc Xanthine dehydrogenase is transported to the Drosophila eye
    A G Reaume
    Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of Connecticut, Storrs 06268
    Genetics 123:503-9. 1989
    The rosy (ry) locus in Drosophila melanogaster codes for the enzyme xanthine dehydrogenase. Mutants that have no enzyme activity are characterized by a brownish eye color phenotype reflecting a deficiency in the red eye pigment...
  32. ncbi Purification of the bovine xanthine oxidoreductase from milk fat globule membranes and cloning of complementary deoxyribonucleic acid
    L Berglund
    Protein Chemistry Laboratory, University of Aarhus, Denmark
    J Dairy Sci 79:198-204. 1996
    ..The identity between the amino acid sequence of the bovine xanthine oxidoreductase and xanthine oxidoreductase from mammalian species was 86 to 90%...
  33. ncbi Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-mediated induction of xanthine oxidase/xanthine dehydrogenase activity by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin
    K Sugihara
    Institute of Pharmaceutical Science, Department of Anatomy, Hiroshima University School of Medicine, Kasumi 1-2-3, Minami-ku, Hiroshima, 734-8551, Japan
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 281:1093-9. 2001
    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), an environmental contaminant, induced xanthine oxidase and xanthine dehydrogenase (XO/XDH) activities, in addition to ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase and methoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase activities in ..
  34. ncbi Molecular cloning of a cDNA coding for feline liver xanthine dehydrogenase
    S Tsuchida
    Division of Veterinary Surgery, Nippon Veterinary and Animal Science University, Musashino, Tokyo, Japan
    J Vet Med Sci 63:353-5. 2001
    A cDNA coding for feline liver xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH, EC 1.1.204) was amplified by RT-PCR and cloned for determining the sequence. The clones contained an open reading frame of 4002 base pairs encoding 1333 amino acid residues...
  35. ncbi The control of aldehyde oxidase and xanthine dehydrogenase activities and CRM levels by the mal locus in Drosophila melanogaster
    M M Bentley
    Can J Genet Cytol 24:11-7. 1982
    The effects of five new mal alleles on aldehyde oxidase (AO) and xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) activities and CRM levels in Drosophila melanogaster are described...
  36. ncbi Crystal structures of urate bound form of xanthine oxidoreductase: substrate orientation and structure of the key reaction intermediate
    Ken Okamoto
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Nippon Medical School, 1 1 5 Sendagi, Bunkyou ku, Tokyo 113 8602, Japan
    J Am Chem Soc 132:17080-3. 2010
    ..7 Å and of the reduced bovine milk enzyme at 2.1 Å, the latter representing a reaction intermediate. The results clearly indicate the catalytically relevant binding mode of the substrate xanthine...
  37. pmc Molecular cloning of a cDNA coding for mouse liver xanthine dehydrogenase. Regulation of its transcript by interferons in vivo
    M Terao
    Molecular Biology Unit, Centro Daniela e Catullo Borgomainerio, Milano, Italy
    Biochem J 283:863-70. 1992
    The cDNA coding for xanthine dehydrogenase (XD) is isolated from mouse liver mRNA by cross-hybridization with a DNA fragment of the Drosophila melanogaster homologue...
  38. pmc A selenium-dependent xanthine dehydrogenase triggers biofilm proliferation in Enterococcus faecalis through oxidant production
    Milan Srivastava
    4000 Central Florida Blvd, Bldg 20, Room 124, Orlando, FL 32816 2364, USA
    J Bacteriol 193:1643-52. 2011
    ..b>Xanthine dehydrogenase activity correlates with the presence of this labile selenoprotein complex and is absent in a selD or an ..
  39. ncbi Molecular cloning and characterization of the human xanthine dehydrogenase gene (XDH)
    P Xu
    Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Occupational Pulmonary Medicine, University of Utah and VA Medical Center, Salt Lake City, Utah, 84132, USA
    Genomics 34:173-80. 1996
    b>Xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH, EC 1.1.1...
  40. ncbi Identification of a xanthinuria type I case with mutations of xanthine dehydrogenase in an Afghan child
    Makiko Nakamura
    Department of Pathophysiology, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1432 1 Horinouchi, Hachiouji Shi, Tokyo 192 0392, Japan
    Clin Chim Acta 414:158-60. 2012
    Xanthinuria due to xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) deficiency is a rare genetic disorder characterized by hypouricemia and the accumulation of xanthine in the urine...
  41. ncbi Proteolytic conversion of xanthine dehydrogenase from the NAD-dependent type to the O2-dependent type. Amino acid sequence of rat liver xanthine dehydrogenase and identification of the cleavage sites of the enzyme protein during irreversible conversion by
    Y Amaya
    Department of Biochemistry, Yokohama City University School of Medicine, Japan
    J Biol Chem 265:14170-5. 1990
    The primary structure of rat liver xanthine dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.204) was determined by sequence analysis of cDNA and purified enzyme...
  42. ncbi Novel mutations in xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase cause severe hypouricemia: biochemical and molecular genetic analysis in two Czech families with xanthinuria type I
    Blanka Stiburkova
    Institute of Inherited Metabolic Disorders, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague and General University Hospital in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic
    Clin Chim Acta 413:93-9. 2012
    ..The article describes the clinical, biochemical, enzymological and molecular genetics findings in two patients from two families with xanthinuria type I...
  43. ncbi Xanthine urolithiasis in a cat: a case report and evaluation of a candidate gene for xanthine dehydrogenase
    Shuichi Tsuchida
    Division of Comparative Cellular Biology, Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University, Tokyo, Japan
    J Feline Med Surg 9:503-8. 2007
    ..responsible for deficiency of enzyme activity in purine degradation pathway, the allele composition of xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) gene (one of the candidate genes for hereditary xanthinuria) was evaluated...
  44. ncbi Xanthine dehydrogenase and aldehyde oxidase impact plant hormone homeostasis and affect fruit size in 'Hass' avocado
    Nicky J Taylor
    Research Centre for Plant Growth and Development, University of Natal Pietermaritzburg, Scottsville, South Africa
    J Plant Res 117:121-30. 2004
    The contribution of xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH, EC 1.1.1.204) to fruit size was investigated using the normal and small-fruit variants of Persea americana Mill. cv. 'Hass'...
  45. ncbi Increased serum level of xanthine oxidoreductase in liver transplanted patients
    M G Battelli
    Department of Experimental Pathology, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy
    J Biol Regul Homeost Agents 25:77-84. 2011
    ..We report the elevation of serum XOR during the three weeks following LT for the first time, as well as the influence of the graft reperfusion technique on XOR serum levels...
  46. ncbi Purification and characterization of multiple forms of rat liver xanthine oxidoreductase expressed in baculovirus-insect cell system
    Tomoko Nishino
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Nippon Medical School, Sendagi, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113 8602, Japan
    J Biochem 132:597-606. 2002
    ....
  47. pmc Cloning and expression in vitro of human xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase
    M Saksela
    Children s Hospital, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
    Biochem J 315:235-9. 1996
    To study the expression of human xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase (hXDH/XO), we cloned the cDNA covering its complete coding sequence and characterized it by translation in vitro in rabbit reticulocyte lysates and by transient expression in ..
  48. pmc Mechanism of Substrate and Inhibitor Binding of Rhodobacter capsulatus Xanthine Dehydrogenase
    Uwe Dietzel
    Rudolf Virchow Center for Experimental Biomedicine, Institute for Structural Biology, University of Wurzburg, Versbacher Strasse 9, 97078 Wurzburg, Germany
    J Biol Chem 284:8768-76. 2009
    Rhodobacter capsulatus xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) is an (alphabeta)(2) heterotetrameric cytoplasmic enzyme that resembles eukaryotic xanthine oxidoreductases in respect to both amino acid sequence and structural fold...
  49. ncbi Associations of hypertension and its complications with variations in the xanthine dehydrogenase gene
    Jin Yang
    Division of Hypertension and Nephrology, National Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Japan
    Hypertens Res 31:931-40. 2008
    ..Hyperuricemia and oxidative stress participate in the pathophysiology of hypertension and its complications. Xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) produces urate and, in its oxidase isoform, reactive oxygen species...
  50. ncbi Mechanism of inhibition of xanthine oxidoreductase by allopurinol: crystal structure of reduced bovine milk xanthine oxidoreductase bound with oxipurinol
    Ken Okamoto
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Nippon Medical School, Tokyo, Japan
    Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids 27:888-93. 2008
    ..We discuss possible differences in the hypouricemic effect of inhibitors, including allopurinol and newly developed inhibitors, based on their mode of binding in the crystal structures...
  51. ncbi Structural and conformational analysis of the oxidase to dehydrogenase conversion of xanthine oxidoreductase
    James L McManaman
    Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, Colorado 80262, USA
    J Biol Chem 277:21261-8. 2002
    ..Conformational changes within this region in turn appear to play a critical role in the interconversion between the XD and XO forms of the enzyme...
  52. ncbi Mapping of the gene for human xanthine dehydrogenase (oxidase) (XDH) to band p23 of chromosome 2
    S Minoshima
    Department of Molecular Biology, Keio University School of Medicine, Japan
    Cytogenet Cell Genet 68:52-3. 1995
  53. ncbi Molecular cloning, tissue expression of human xanthine dehydrogenase
    P Xu
    Department of Medicine, University of Utah, Salt Lake City
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 199:998-1004. 1994
    b>Xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH, EC 1.1.1...
  54. ncbi Effects of antirheumatic gold compounds on the conversion of xanthine dehydrogenase to oxidase in rabbit liver cytosol in vitro
    Satoru Sakuma
    Department of Hygienic Chemistry, Osaka University of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 4 20 1, Nasahara, Takatsuki, Osaka 569 1094, Japan
    Life Sci 75:1211-8. 2004
    Effects of auranofin (AUR), aurothioglucose (AuTG) and aurothiomalate (AuTM) on the conversion of xanthine dehydrogenase (XD) to oxidase (XO) in the cytosolic fraction from rabbit liver were examined...
  55. ncbi Disulfide S-monoxides convert xanthine dehydrogenase into oxidase in rat liver cytosol more potently than their respective disulfides
    Satoru Sakuma
    Department of Physiological Chemistry, Osaka University of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 4 20 1 Nasahara, Takatsuki, Osaka 569 1094, Japan
    Biol Pharm Bull 31:1013-6. 2008
    Xanthine oxidase (XO)/xanthine dehydrogenase (XD) oxidizes oxypurines to uric acid, with only the XO form producing reactive oxygen species...
  56. ncbi Properties of xanthine dehydrogenase variants from rosy mutant strains of Drosophila melanogaster and their relevance to the enzyme's structure and mechanism
    W A Doyle
    School of Biological Sciences, University of Sussex, Brighton, UK
    Eur J Biochem 239:782-95. 1996
    b>Xanthine dehydrogenase, a molybdenum, iron-sulfur flavoenzyme encoded in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster by the rosy gene, has been characterised both from the wild-type and mutant files...
  57. ncbi Effects of Biota orientalis extract and its flavonoid constituents, quercetin and rutin on serum uric acid levels in oxonate-induced mice and xanthine dehydrogenase and xanthine oxidase activities in mouse liver
    Ji Xiao Zhu
    Institute of Functional Biomolecule, State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing, PR China
    J Ethnopharmacol 93:133-40. 2004
    ..and rutin, when tested in vivo on mouse liver homogenates, elicited significant inhibitory actions on the xanthine dehydrogenase/xanthine oxidase (XDH/XO) activities...
  58. ncbi The RNAi-mediated silencing of xanthine dehydrogenase impairs growth and fertility and accelerates leaf senescence in transgenic Arabidopsis plants
    Ayami Nakagawa
    Department of Mathematical and Life Sciences, Graduate School of Science, Hiroshima University, 1 3 1 Kagamiyama, Higashi Hiroshima, 739 8526 Japan
    Plant Cell Physiol 48:1484-95. 2007
    b>Xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) is a ubiquitous enzyme involved in purine metabolism which catalyzes the oxidation of hypoxanthine and xanthine to uric acid...
  59. ncbi Crystal structures of the active and alloxanthine-inhibited forms of xanthine dehydrogenase from Rhodobacter capsulatus
    James J Truglio
    Department of Pharmacological Sciences, Center for Structural Biology, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA
    Structure 10:115-25. 2002
    b>Xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH), a complex molybdo/iron-sulfur/flavoprotein, catalyzes the oxidation of hypoxanthine to xanthine followed by oxidation of xanthine to uric acid with concomitant reduction of NAD+. The 2...
  60. ncbi Gene expression in Drosophila: post-translational modification of aldehyde oxidase and xanthine dehydrogenase
    V Finnerty
    Mol Gen Genet 172:37-43. 1979
    Maroon-like homozygotes are completely deficient for xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) and aldehyde oxidase (AO), however, ma-l is not a structural locus for either enzyme...
  61. pmc Protein conformational gating of enzymatic activity in xanthine oxidoreductase
    Hiroshi Ishikita
    Career Path Promotion Unit for Young Life Scientists, Kyoto University, 202 Building E, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto 606 8501, Japan
    J Am Chem Soc 134:999-1009. 2012
    In mammals, xanthine oxidoreductase can exist as xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) and xanthine oxidase (XO). The two enzymes possess common redox active cofactors, which form an electron transfer (ET) pathway terminated by a flavin cofactor...
  62. ncbi Phylogeny and molecular evolution of the Drosophila hydei subgroup (Drosophila repleta group) inferred from the Xanthine dehydrogenase gene
    Tomás Morán
    Grup de Biologia Evolutiva, Departament de Genetica i de Microbiologia, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra Barcelona, Spain
    Mol Phylogenet Evol 36:695-705. 2005
    ..To evaluate the molecular phylogeny of this subgroup, we analyzed 2085 bp of coding sequence of the Xanthine dehydrogenase gene in six available species of the hydei subgroup, with Drosophila buzzatii and Drosophila mulleri as an ..
  63. ncbi Factors involved in the assembly of a functional molybdopyranopterin center in recombinant Comamonas acidovorans xanthine dehydrogenase
    Nikolai V Ivanov
    Department of Chemistry, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Eur J Biochem 270:4744-54. 2003
    Previous work from this laboratory has shown that the spectral and functional properties of a prokaryotic xanthine dehydrogenase from Comamonas acidovorans show some similarities to those of the well-characterized eukaryotic enzymes ..
  64. ncbi Xanthine dehydrogenase from Drosophila melanogaster: purification and properties of the wild-type enzyme and of a variant lacking iron-sulfur centers
    R K Hughes
    Biochemistry Laboratory, School of Biological Sciences, University of Sussex, Brighton, U K
    Biochemistry 31:3073-83. 1992
    b>Xanthine dehydrogenase has been purified to homogeneity by conventional procedures from the wild-type strain of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, as well as from a rosy mutant strain (E89----K, ry5231) known to carry a point mutation ..
  65. ncbi Nitrite potently inhibits hypoxic and inflammatory pulmonary arterial hypertension and smooth muscle proliferation via xanthine oxidoreductase-dependent nitric oxide generation
    Brian S Zuckerbraun
    Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    Circulation 121:98-109. 2010
    ..Considering the fact that nitric oxide exhibits vasoprotective properties, we examined the effects of nitrite on experimental pulmonary arterial hypertension...
  66. pmc cDNA cloning, characterization, and tissue-specific expression of human xanthine dehydrogenase/xanthine oxidase
    R M Wright
    Webb Waring Institute for Biomedical Research, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver 80262 0059
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 90:10690-4. 1993
    We isolated cDNAs encoding xanthine dehydrogenase (XD; xanthine:NAD+ oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.204) from a human liver cDNA library...
  67. ncbi The mechanism of assembly and cofactor insertion into Rhodobacter capsulatus xanthine dehydrogenase
    Silvia Schumann
    Universitat Potsdam, Institut für Biochemie and Biologie, Karl Liebknecht Strasse 24 25, Potsdam 14476, Germany
    J Biol Chem 283:16602-11. 2008
    Rhodobacter capsulatus xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) is a molybdo-flavoprotein that is highly homologous to the homodimeric mammalian xanthine oxidoreductase...
  68. ncbi Prognostic value of xanthine oxidoreductase expression in patients with non-small cell lung cancer
    Anthony W Kim
    Section of Thoracic Surgery, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, United States
    Lung Cancer 71:186-90. 2011
    ..Lack of XOR expression is associated with unfavorable clinical outcomes. The objective of this study was to correlate XOR expression with prognosis in surgically resected non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)...
  69. pmc Contribution of xanthine oxidoreductase to mammary epithelial and breast cancer cell differentiation in part modulates inhibitor of differentiation-1
    Mehdi A Fini
    Webb Waring Center, Department of Medicine, University of Colorado Denver, Campus Box C 322, 12850 East Montview Boulevard, Aurora, CO 80045, USA
    Mol Cancer Res 9:1242-54. 2011
    ....
  70. ncbi Vascular responses to nitrite are mediated by xanthine oxidoreductase and mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase in the rat
    Neel H Golwala
    Department of Pharmacology, Tulane University Medical Center, New Orleans, LA 70112 2699, USA
    Can J Physiol Pharmacol 87:1095-101. 2009
    ....
  71. ncbi Xanthine oxidoreductase is a regulator of adipogenesis and PPARgamma activity
    Kevin J Cheung
    Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Cell Metab 5:115-28. 2007
    ..Our results identify XOR as a potential therapeutic target for metabolic abnormalities beyond hyperuricemia...
  72. ncbi The role of active site glutamate residues in catalysis of Rhodobacter capsulatus xanthine dehydrogenase
    Silke Leimkuhler
    Department of Plant Biology, Technical University Braunschweig, 38023 Braunschweig, Germany
    J Biol Chem 279:40437-44. 2004
    b>Xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) from the bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus catalyzes the hydroxylation of xanthine to uric acid with NAD+ as the electron acceptor. R...
  73. ncbi A Chinese herbal medicine Ermiao wan reduces serum uric acid level and inhibits liver xanthine dehydrogenase and xanthine oxidase in mice
    Ling Dong Kong
    State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Institute of Functional Biomolecule, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, People s Republic of China
    J Ethnopharmacol 93:325-30. 2004
    ..Ermiao wan and phellodendri cortex were found to have in vivo relatively inhibitory effects on mouse liver xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) and xanthine oxidase (XO) activities at the same dose described above...
  74. ncbi Identification of a new point mutation in the human xanthine dehydrogenase gene responsible for a case of classical type I xanthinuria
    N Sakamoto
    Department of Internal Medicine, Harima Hospital of Ishikawajima harima Heavy Industries, Health Insurance Society, Aioi, Hyogo, Japan
    Hum Genet 108:279-83. 2001
    ..This changed codon 149 from CGC (Arg) to TGC (Cys), a finding that has not been previously reported in patients with classical xanthinuria type I...
  75. pmc The rosy locus in Drosophila melanogaster: xanthine dehydrogenase and eye pigments
    A G Reaume
    Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of Connecticut, Storrs 06269 2131
    Genetics 129:1099-109. 1991
    The rosy gene in Drosophila melanogaster codes for the enzyme xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH). Mutants that have no enzyme activity are characterized by a brownish eye color phenotype reflecting a deficiency in the red eye pigment...
  76. ncbi Inactivation of xanthine oxidoreductase is associated with increased joint swelling and nitrotyrosine formation in acute antigen-induced arthritis
    R Klocke
    Department of Pharmacy and Pharmacology Schoolfor Health, University of Bath, UK
    Clin Exp Rheumatol 23:345-50. 2005
    ..We hypothesized that inactivation of XOR would protect against antigen-induced arthritis (AIA) and decrease nitrotyrosine formation...
  77. ncbi Characterization of xanthine dehydrogenase from the anaerobic bacterium Veillonella atypica and identification of a molybdopterin-cytosine-dinucleotide-containing molybdenum cofactor
    L Gremer
    Lehrstuhl fur Mikrobiologie, Universitat Bayreuth, Germany
    Eur J Biochem 238:862-6. 1996
    The molybdenum-containing iron-sulfur flavoprotein xanthine dehydrogenase from the anaerobic bacterium Veillonella atypica has been purified approximately 800-fold with a yield of approximately 40% and a specific activity of approximately ..
  78. ncbi Recombinant Rhodobacter capsulatus xanthine dehydrogenase, a useful model system for the characterization of protein variants leading to xanthinuria I in humans
    Silke Leimkuhler
    Department of Plant Biology, Technical University Braunschweig, 38023 Braunschweig, Germany
    J Biol Chem 278:20802-11. 2003
    Rhodobacter capsulatus xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) forms an (alphabeta)2 heterotetramer and is highly homologous to homodimeric eukaryotic XDHs. The crystal structures of bovine XDH and R...
  79. pmc Convergent neofunctionalization by positive Darwinian selection after ancient recurrent duplications of the xanthine dehydrogenase gene
    Francisco Rodriguez-Trelles
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 2525, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:13413-7. 2003
    ..Aldehyde oxidase (Ao) and xanthine dehydrogenase (Xdh) genes encode two complex members of the xanthine oxidase family of molybdo-flavoenzymes that carry ..
  80. ncbi Cloning and molecular characterization of hxA, the gene coding for the xanthine dehydrogenase (purine hydroxylase I) of Aspergillus nidulans
    A Glatigny
    Institut de Genetique et Microbiologie, Unité Associtée au CNRS 1354, Universite Paris Sud, Centre d Orsay, France
    J Biol Chem 270:3534-50. 1995
    We have cloned and sequenced the hxA gene coding for the xanthine dehydrogenase (purine hydroxylase I) of Aspergillus nidulans. The gene codes for a polypeptide of 1363 amino acids...
  81. ncbi RNA interference-mediated suppression of xanthine dehydrogenase reveals the role of purine metabolism in drought tolerance in Arabidopsis
    Shunsuke Watanabe
    Department of Mathematical and Life Sciences, Graduate School of Science, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, Japan
    FEBS Lett 584:1181-6. 2010
    We have previously demonstrated that RNA interference-mediated suppression of xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH), the rate-limiting enzyme in purine degradation, causes defects in the normal growth and development of Arabidopsis thaliana...
  82. ncbi ABA3 is a molybdenum cofactor sulfurase required for activation of aldehyde oxidase and xanthine dehydrogenase in Arabidopsis thaliana
    F Bittner
    Botanical Institute, Technical University of Braunschweig, 38023 Braunschweig, Germany
    J Biol Chem 276:40381-4. 2001
    ..locus aba3 is involved in this step leading to activation of the molybdenum enzymes aldehyde oxidase and xanthine dehydrogenase. Here we report the cloning of the aba3 gene from Arabidopsis thaliana and the biochemical ..
  83. ncbi Administration of procyanidins from grape seeds reduces serum uric acid levels and decreases hepatic xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase activities in oxonate-treated mice
    Ying Wang
    Institute of Functional Biomolecule, State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing, China
    Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 94:232-7. 2004
    ..on serum uric acid levels in a model of hyperuricaemia in mice pretreated with oxonate, as well as the xanthine dehydrogenase and xanthine oxidase activities in mouse liver in vivo...
  84. ncbi Xanthine oxidase and xanthine dehydrogenase inhibition by the procyanidin-rich French maritime pine bark extract, pycnogenol: a protein binding effect
    Hadi Moini
    Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California at Berkeley, 94720 3200, USA
    Adv Exp Med Biol 505:141-9. 2002
  85. ncbi Binding of sulfurated molybdenum cofactor to the C-terminal domain of ABA3 from Arabidopsis thaliana provides insight into the mechanism of molybdenum cofactor sulfuration
    Silke Wollers
    Department of Plant Biology and Department of Environmental Geology, Technical University of Braunschweig, Humboldtstrasse 1, Braunschweig, Germany
    J Biol Chem 283:9642-50. 2008
    ..ABA3 from Arabidopsis thaliana is needed for post-translational activation of aldehyde oxidase and xanthine dehydrogenase by transferring a sulfur atom to the desulfo-molybdenum cofactor of these enzymes...
  86. ncbi Effects of cassia oil on serum and hepatic uric acid levels in oxonate-induced mice and xanthine dehydrogenase and xanthine oxidase activities in mouse liver
    X Zhao
    State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Institute of Functional Biomolecule, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing, PR China
    J Ethnopharmacol 103:357-65. 2006
    ..cassia using hyperuricemic mice induced by potassium oxonate, and its inhibitory actions against liver xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) and xanthine oxidase (XOD) activities...
  87. ncbi Tandem orientation of duplicated xanthine dehydrogenase genes from Arabidopsis thaliana: differential gene expression and enzyme activities
    Christine Hesberg
    Department of Plant Biology, Technical University of Braunschweig, 38023 Braunschweig, Germany
    J Biol Chem 279:13547-54. 2004
    b>Xanthine dehydrogenase from the plant Arabidopsis thaliana was analyzed on molecular and biochemical levels. Whereas most other organisms appear to own only one gene for xanthine dehydrogenase A...
  88. ncbi The role of arginine 310 in catalysis and substrate specificity in xanthine dehydrogenase from Rhodobacter capsulatus
    James M Pauff
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA
    J Biol Chem 282:12785-90. 2007
    The rapid reaction kinetics of wild-type xanthine dehydrogenase from Rhodobacter capsulatus and variants at Arg-310 in the active site have been characterized for a variety of purine substrates...
  89. ncbi Cloning and tissue expression of 6-pyruvoyl tetrahydropterin synthase and xanthine dehydrogenase from Poecilia reticulata
    Jin Ben
    Department of Biological Sciences, National University of Singapore, 14 Science Drive 4, Singapore 117543, Republic of Singapore
    Mar Biotechnol (NY) 5:568-78. 2003
    ..The cDNA for xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) was cloned from the Yellow Tail variety, and consists of an open reading frame of 1331 amino acids...
  90. ncbi The effect of chromosomal position on the expression of the Drosophila xanthine dehydrogenase gene
    A C Spradling
    Cell 34:47-57. 1983
    ..X-linked rosy insertions were expressed on average 1.6 times more activity in males than in females. Hence the gene acquires at least partial dosage compensation upon insertion into the X chromosome...
  91. ncbi Mutation of human molybdenum cofactor sulfurase gene is responsible for classical xanthinuria type II
    K Ichida
    Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Department of Internal Medicine, Jikei University School of Medicine, 3 25 8 Nishishimbashi, Minato ku, Tokyo, 105 8461, Japan
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 282:1194-200. 2001
    ..ma-l gene was suggested to encode an enzyme for sulfuration of the desulfo molybdenum cofactor for xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) and aldehyde oxidase (AO)...
  92. pmc Conversion of xanthine dehydrogenase to xanthine oxidase as a possible marker for hypoxia in tumours and normal tissues
    R F Anderson
    Cancer Research Campaign Gray Laboratory, Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood, Middlesex, UK
    Br J Cancer 60:193-7. 1989
    The enzyme activities of endogenous xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) and xanthine oxidase (XO) have been measured in 10 different types of mouse tumour and seven normal tissues...
  93. ncbi Rhodobacter capsulatus XdhC is involved in molybdenum cofactor binding and insertion into xanthine dehydrogenase
    Meina Neumann
    Department of Proteinanalytics, Institute of Biochemistry and Biology, University of Potsdam, 14476 Potsdam, Germany
    J Biol Chem 281:15701-8. 2006
    Rhodobacter capsulatus xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) is a cytoplasmic enzyme with an (alphabeta)2 heterodimeric structure that is highly identical to homodimeric eukaryotic xanthine oxidoreductases...
  94. pmc Molecular characterization of human xanthine oxidoreductase: the enzyme is grossly deficient in molybdenum and substantially deficient in iron-sulphur centres
    Benjamin L J Godber
    Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY, UK
    Biochem J 388:501-8. 2005
    ..g. in secretion) equal in importance to its catalytic function as an enzyme...
  95. ncbi Mammalian aldehyde oxidases: genetics, evolution and biochemistry
    E Garattini
    Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Via La Masa 19, Milan, Italy
    Cell Mol Life Sci 65:1019-48. 2008
    ..The present article provides an overview of the current knowledge of genetics, evolution, structure, enzymology, tissue distribution and regulation of mammalian aldehyde oxidases...
  96. ncbi Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of febuxostat (TMX-67), a non-purine selective inhibitor of xanthine oxidase/xanthine dehydrogenase (NPSIXO) in patients with gout and/or hyperuricemia
    K Komoriya
    Teijin Ltd, Tokyo, Japan
    Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids 23:1119-22. 2004
    ..The results show that a 6-week treatment with febuxostat is safe and well-tolerated in the target patient population for this drug...
  97. ncbi A reappraisal of xanthine dehydrogenase and oxidase in hypoxic reperfusion injury: the role of NADH as an electron donor
    Z Zhang
    Bone and Joint Research Unit, St Bartholomew s and the Royal London School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of London, UK
    Free Radic Res 28:151-64. 1998
    ..we have employed native gel electrophoresis together with activity staining to investigate the role human xanthine dehydrogenase (XD) and XO in hypoxic reperfusion injury...
  98. ncbi Xanthine dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas putida 86: specificity, oxidation-reduction potentials of its redox-active centers, and first EPR characterization
    K Parschat
    AG Mikrobiologie, , Germany
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1544:151-65. 2001
    b>Xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) from Pseudomonas putida 86, which was induced 65-fold by growth on hypoxanthine, was purified to homogeneity...
  99. pmc Gene silencing in phlebotomine sand flies: Xanthine dehydrogenase knock down by dsRNA microinjections
    Mauricio R Sant'Anna
    Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke Place, Liverpool, UK
    Insect Biochem Mol Biol 38:652-60. 2008
    ..Blood-fed adult females digest large amounts of protein, and xanthine dehydrogenase is thought to be a key enzyme involved in protein catabolism through the production of urate...
  100. ncbi Cloning of the cDNA encoding human xanthine dehydrogenase (oxidase): structural analysis of the protein and chromosomal location of the gene
    K Ichida
    Department of Biochemistry, Yokohama City University School of Medicine, Japan
    Gene 133:279-84. 1993
    The primary structure of human xanthine dehydrogenase (hXDH) was determined by cloning and sequence analysis of the cDNAs encoding the enzyme...
  101. ncbi Irreversible conversion of xanthine dehydrogenase into xanthine oxidase by a mitochondrial protease
    M Saksela
    Hospital for Children and Adolescents, Research Laboratory, University of Helsinki, Finland
    FEBS Lett 443:117-20. 1999
    Irreversible conversion of xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) to its oxygen free radical producing oxidase (XO) form occurs through an uncharacterized proteolytic process, which was studied in human liver...

Research Grants23

  1. Pain and Hypoxia in Premature Neonates
    DANILYN MAG AKAT ANGELES; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Oxidative stress will be quantified by measuring plasma levels of xanthine oxidase (XO), xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH), and allantoin using gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy...
  2. A model of kidney stone disease using D. melanogaster
    Marshall Stoller; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We have also found that inhibition of xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) in D...
  3. STRUCTURAL STUDIES ON EUKARYOTIC MOCO CONTAINING ENZYMES
    Caroline Kisker; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Sulfite oxidase and xanthine dehydrogenase are key members of two of these four families...
  4. INTESTINAL ISCHEMIA--ROLE OF OXYGEN RADICALS
    D Granger; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..Our working hypothesis is that ischemia triggers the conversion of xanthine dehydrogenase to the oxy-radical producing xanthine oxidase...
  5. TRANSCAPILLARY FLUID EXCHANGE IN SKELETAL MUSCLE
    RONALD KORTHUIS; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..Our working hypothesis is that ischemia (4 hours inflow occlusion) results in the conversion of xanthine dehydrogenase to the oxy-radical producing xanthine oxidase...
  6. The Mechanism of Milk Lipid Secretion
    Ian Mather; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..In this proposed work, the potential role of the milk proteins, butyrophilin (Btnlat) and xanthine dehydrogenase/ oxidase (Xdh), in the secretion of milk-lipid droplets will be studied...
  7. POPULATION GENETICS OF XANTHINE DEHYDROGENASE EXPRESSION
    KAZUO HIRAIZUMI; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..population genetics study on gene regulation to evaluate this hypothesis, using as a model the rosy-xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) system in Drosophila melanogaster...
  8. OXIDANT PRODUCTION BY ENDOTHELIAL CELL XANTHINE OXIDASE
    Lance Terada; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..The overall goal is to provide a critical understanding of the factors which determine expression of human endothelial cells XO-XDH, and identify physiologic perturbations which accompany selective changes in cellular XO-XDH levels. ..
  9. MOLYBDENUM AND THE MOLYBDENUM COFACTOR IN HEALTH
    K Rajagopalan; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..molecule termed molybdopterin, is a common component of the three human molybdoenzymes sulfite oxidase, xanthine dehydrogenase and aldehyde oxidase...
  10. XANTHINE OXIDASE-MEDIATED INJURY IN ISCHEMIC LIVER
    Julio Turrens; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..It has been proposed that xanthine oxidase is generated in ischemic tissues by conversion of native xanthine dehydrogenase, which produces is critical to the damage process...
  11. Crystal Structure Determination of Molybdate Transporter
    PAMELA LUM; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The human molybdoenzymes sulfite oxidase, xanthine dehydrogenase, and aldehyde oxidase catalyze a variety of oxidation/reduction reactions during human development...
  12. TOXICOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF CA2+-ACTIVATED PROTEOLYSIS
    JOHN BABSON; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..The conversion of xanthine dehydrogenase to xanthine oxidase and the aberrant expression of beta-adrenergic receptors are two possible mechanisms ..
  13. GENETIC STUDIES IN DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER
    ARTHUR CHOVNICK; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..The rosy locus of Drosophila melanogaster, which codes for enzyme, xanthine dehydrogenase continues to be our major model experimental system...
  14. ROSY LOCUS IN DROSOPHILA--ORGANIZATION AND EXPRESSION
    ARTHUR CHOVNICK; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..The rosy locus of Drosophila melanogaster, which codes for the enzyme xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) is our chosen model system...
  15. REGULATORY ELEMENTS OF THE DROSOPHILA WHITE GENE
    Vincenzo Pirrotta; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..This will be done using DNA segments from white placed in front of the xanthine dehydrogenase gene...
  16. LACTATIONAL EFFECTORS OF TRIACYLGLYCEROL MOBILIZATION
    JAMES MCMANAMAN; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  17. Old Westbury Neuroscience Research Institute MIDARP
    George Stefano; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..abstract_text> ..
  18. Natural variation in Drosophila female postmating traits
    DAVID BEGUN; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..abstract_text> ..
  19. REDOX ACTIVITY OF THE PULMONARY ENDOTHELIAL SURFACE
    MARILYN MERKER; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ....
  20. CHRONIC HYPOXIA AND RESISTANCE TO MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA
    John E Baker; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The results of these studies are expected to have an impact on our understanding of the biology of Tpo in heart and may lead to the development of new therapeutics for the treatment of myocardial infarction. ..
  21. Radiation injury to the heart
    John E Baker; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..1 ..
  22. Lung cancer chemoprevention and tocopheryl succinate
    Richard Wright; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The overall goal of this work is that it may contribute to an eventual reduction in the incidence or severity of human lung cancers. ..
  23. GENETICS AND INTERMITTENT MYOCARDIAL HYPOXIA
    John Baker; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ....