glutamate decarboxylase

Summary

Summary: A pyridoxal-phosphate protein that catalyzes the alpha-decarboxylation of L-glutamic acid to form gamma-aminobutyric acid and carbon dioxide. The enzyme is found in bacteria and in invertebrate and vertebrate nervous systems. It is the rate-limiting enzyme in determining GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID levels in normal nervous tissues. The brain enzyme also acts on L-cysteate, L-cysteine sulfinate, and L-aspartate. EC 4.1.1.15.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Green fluorescent protein expression and colocalization with calretinin, parvalbumin, and somatostatin in the GAD67-GFP knock-in mouse
    Nobuaki Tamamaki
    Department of Morphological Brain Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606 8501, Japan
    J Comp Neurol 467:60-79. 2003
  2. pmc Local GABA circuit control of experience-dependent plasticity in developing visual cortex
    T K Hensch
    Laboratory for Neuronal Circuit Development, Brain Science Institute RIKEN, 2 1 Hirosawa, Wako Shi, Saitama 351 0198, Japan
    Science 282:1504-8. 1998
  3. ncbi Two genes encode distinct glutamate decarboxylases
    M G Erlander
    Neuroscience Program, University of California Los Angeles 90024
    Neuron 7:91-100. 1991
  4. ncbi A shared vesicular carrier allows synaptic corelease of GABA and glycine
    Sonja M Wojcik
    Department of Molecular Neurobiology, Max Planck Institute of Experimental Medicine, D 37075 Gottingen, Germany
    Neuron 50:575-87. 2006
  5. pmc Forebrain GABAergic projections from the dorsal raphe nucleus identified by using GAD67-GFP knock-in mice
    Sun Jung Bang
    Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative, and Pain Medicine, Children s Hospital Boston, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    J Comp Neurol 520:4157-67. 2012
  6. pmc Crystal structure and functional analysis of Escherichia coli glutamate decarboxylase
    Guido Capitani
    Biochemisches Institut der Universitat Zurich, Zurich CH 8057, Switzerland
    EMBO J 22:4027-37. 2003
  7. ncbi Purification and properties of L-Aspartate-alpha-decarboxylase, an enzyme that catalyzes the formation of beta-alanine in Escherichia coli
    J M Williamson
    J Biol Chem 254:8074-82. 1979
  8. pmc GAD67-mediated GABA synthesis and signaling regulate inhibitory synaptic innervation in the visual cortex
    Bidisha Chattopadhyaya
    Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, NY 11724, USA
    Neuron 54:889-903. 2007
  9. ncbi Human Stiff person syndrome IgG-containing high-titer anti-GAD65 autoantibodies induce motor dysfunction in rats
    Niels Hansen
    Department of Neurology, University of Wurzburg, Josef Schneider Strasse 11, 97080 Wurzburg, Germany
    Exp Neurol 239:202-9. 2013
  10. ncbi Evidence for in vivo primed and expanded autoreactive T cells as a specific feature of patients with type 1 diabetes
    Paolo Monti
    Telethon Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation Center for Beta Cell Replacement, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy
    J Immunol 179:5785-92. 2007

Detail Information

Publications330 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Green fluorescent protein expression and colocalization with calretinin, parvalbumin, and somatostatin in the GAD67-GFP knock-in mouse
    Nobuaki Tamamaki
    Department of Morphological Brain Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606 8501, Japan
    J Comp Neurol 467:60-79. 2003
    ..4% of the GFP-positive cells. They accounted for 6.5% in layer I. In accord with unidentified GFP-positive cells, many medium-sized spherical somata emitting intense GFP fluorescence were observed in layer I...
  2. pmc Local GABA circuit control of experience-dependent plasticity in developing visual cortex
    T K Hensch
    Laboratory for Neuronal Circuit Development, Brain Science Institute RIKEN, 2 1 Hirosawa, Wako Shi, Saitama 351 0198, Japan
    Science 282:1504-8. 1998
    ..Specific networks of inhibitory interneurons intrinsic to visual cortex may detect perturbations in sensory input to drive experience-dependent plasticity during development...
  3. ncbi Two genes encode distinct glutamate decarboxylases
    M G Erlander
    Neuroscience Program, University of California Los Angeles 90024
    Neuron 7:91-100. 1991
    ..The brain contains two forms of the GABA synthetic enzyme glutamate decarboxylase (GAD), which differ in molecular size, amino acid sequence, antigenicity, cellular and subcellular ..
  4. ncbi A shared vesicular carrier allows synaptic corelease of GABA and glycine
    Sonja M Wojcik
    Department of Molecular Neurobiology, Max Planck Institute of Experimental Medicine, D 37075 Gottingen, Germany
    Neuron 50:575-87. 2006
    ..Since GABA and glycine compete for vesicular uptake, these data point to a close association of Viaat with GABA-synthesizing enzymes as a key factor in specifying GABAergic neuronal phenotypes...
  5. pmc Forebrain GABAergic projections from the dorsal raphe nucleus identified by using GAD67-GFP knock-in mice
    Sun Jung Bang
    Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative, and Pain Medicine, Children s Hospital Boston, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    J Comp Neurol 520:4157-67. 2012
    ..J. Comp. Neurol. 520:4157-4167, 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc...
  6. pmc Crystal structure and functional analysis of Escherichia coli glutamate decarboxylase
    Guido Capitani
    Biochemisches Institut der Universitat Zurich, Zurich CH 8057, Switzerland
    EMBO J 22:4027-37. 2003
    b>Glutamate decarboxylase is a vitamin B6-dependent enzyme, which catalyses the decarboxylation of glutamate to gamma-aminobutyrate...
  7. ncbi Purification and properties of L-Aspartate-alpha-decarboxylase, an enzyme that catalyzes the formation of beta-alanine in Escherichia coli
    J M Williamson
    J Biol Chem 254:8074-82. 1979
    ..coli W) and in a spontaneous revertant of the mutant...
  8. pmc GAD67-mediated GABA synthesis and signaling regulate inhibitory synaptic innervation in the visual cortex
    Bidisha Chattopadhyaya
    Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, NY 11724, USA
    Neuron 54:889-903. 2007
    ..Since intracellular GABA levels are modulated by neuronal activity, our results implicate GAD67-mediated GABA synthesis in activity-dependent regulation of inhibitory innervation patterns...
  9. ncbi Human Stiff person syndrome IgG-containing high-titer anti-GAD65 autoantibodies induce motor dysfunction in rats
    Niels Hansen
    Department of Neurology, University of Wurzburg, Josef Schneider Strasse 11, 97080 Wurzburg, Germany
    Exp Neurol 239:202-9. 2013
    ..The majority of patients have high-titer autoantibodies (ab) against glutamate decarboxylase (GAD65)...
  10. ncbi Evidence for in vivo primed and expanded autoreactive T cells as a specific feature of patients with type 1 diabetes
    Paolo Monti
    Telethon Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation Center for Beta Cell Replacement, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy
    J Immunol 179:5785-92. 2007
    ..Prior selection of these cells is possible and is a way to identify diabetes-relevant target Ags and epitopes...
  11. ncbi Rapid critical period induction by tonic inhibition in visual cortex
    Youichi Iwai
    Laboratory for Neuronal Circuit Development, The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research RIKEN Brain Science Institute, Saitama 351 0198, Japan
    J Neurosci 23:6695-702. 2003
    ..Thus, enhanced tonic signaling through GABA(A) receptors rapidly creates a milieu for plasticity within neocortex capable of triggering a critical period for ocular dominance independent of visual experience itself...
  12. pmc Pancreatic islet autoantibodies as predictors of type 1 diabetes in the Diabetes Prevention Trial-Type 1
    Tihamer Orban
    Joslin Diabetes Center, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Diabetes Care 32:2269-74. 2009
    ..Thus, we studied the extent to which specific autoantibodies are predictive of type 1 diabetes...
  13. ncbi Glutamate decarboxylase-dependent acid resistance in orally acquired bacteria: function, distribution and biomedical implications of the gadBC operon
    Daniela De Biase
    Istituto Pasteur Fondazione Cenci Bolognetti, Dipartimento di Scienze e Biotecnologie Medico Chirurgiche, Sapienza Universita di Roma, 04100, Latina, Italy
    Mol Microbiol 86:770-86. 2012
    ..GDAR requires the activity of glutamate decarboxylase (GadB), an intracellular PLP-dependent enzyme which performs a proton-consuming decarboxylation reaction, ..
  14. ncbi Decreased glutamic acid decarboxylase(67) mRNA expression in multiple brain areas of patients with schizophrenia and mood disorders
    Mia Thompson
    Stanley Laboratory of Brain Research, Rockville, MD 20850, USA
    J Psychiatr Res 43:970-7. 2009
    ..The resulting decrease in inhibitory tone across multiple brain areas may contribute to the psychotic behavior observed in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder...
  15. pmc Escherichia coli L-aspartate-alpha-decarboxylase: preprotein processing and observation of reaction intermediates by electrospray mass spectrometry
    M K Ramjee
    Department of Plant Sciences, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EA, U K
    Biochem J 323:661-9. 1997
    ..57 s-1 respectively. ESMS was also used to observe substrate and product adducts trapped on the pyruvoyl group by sodium cyanoborohydride treatment...
  16. pmc Beta-alanine synthesis in Escherichia coli
    J E Cronan
    J Bacteriol 141:1291-7. 1980
    ..Therefore, the enzyme functions in the biosynthesis of the beta-alanine moiety of pantothenate. The genetic lesion in these mutants is closely linked to the other pantothenate (pan) loci of E. coli K-12...
  17. ncbi GABAergic dysfunction in schizophrenia and mood disorders as reflected by decreased levels of glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 and 67 kDa and Reelin proteins in cerebellum
    S Hossein Fatemi
    Department of Psychiatry, Division of Neuroscience Research, University of Minnesota Medical School, MMC 392, 420 Delaware Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    Schizophr Res 72:109-22. 2005
    ..We hypothesized that levels of GAD and Reelin would be altered in cerebellum of subjects with schizophrenia and mood disorders differentially vs. controls...
  18. ncbi Interneuron migration from basal forebrain to neocortex: dependence on Dlx genes
    S A Anderson
    Nina Ireland Laboratory of Developmental Neurobiology, Center for Neurobiology and Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry, University of California at San Francisco, CA 94143 0984, USA
    Science 278:474-6. 1997
    ..Finally, mice lacking the homeodomain proteins DLX-1 and DLX-2 show no detectable cell migration from the subcortical telencephalon to the neocortex and also have few GABA-expressing cells in the neocortex...
  19. ncbi Clinical and genetic characteristics of type 2 diabetes with and without GAD antibodies
    T Tuomi
    Department of Endocrinology, Lund University, Sweden
    Diabetes 48:150-7. 1999
    ..Further, we propose that LADA be defined as GADab positivity (>5 relative units) in patients older than 35 years at onset of type 2 diabetes...
  20. ncbi Antibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase define a form of limbic encephalitis
    Michael P Malter
    Department of Epileptology, University of Bonn Medical Center, Bonn, Germany
    Ann Neurol 67:470-8. 2010
    ..We studied a cohort of patients with recent-onset temporal lobe epilepsy caused by LE to test for GAD antibody positivity and response to immunotherapies...
  21. ncbi Expression of a glutamate decarboxylase homologue is required for normal oxidative stress tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    S T Coleman
    Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
    J Biol Chem 276:244-50. 2001
    ..In this work, we identify a Saccharomyces cerevisiae homologue of the GABA-producing enzyme glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) that is required for normal oxidative stress tolerance...
  22. pmc Response features of parvalbumin-expressing interneurons suggest precise roles for subtypes of inhibition in visual cortex
    Caroline A Runyan
    Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences and Picower Institute for Learning and Memory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
    Neuron 67:847-57. 2010
    ..These results suggest that subsets of parvalbumin interneurons are components of specific cortical networks and that perisomatic inhibition contributes to the generation of precise response properties...
  23. ncbi Two forms of the gamma-aminobutyric acid synthetic enzyme glutamate decarboxylase have distinct intraneuronal distributions and cofactor interactions
    D L Kaufman
    Department of Biology, University of California, Los Angeles 90024 1606
    J Neurochem 56:720-3. 1991
    b>Glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) catalyzes the production of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), a major inhibitory neurotransmitter. The mammalian brain contains two forms of GAD, with Mrs of 67,000 and 65,000 (GAD67 and GAD65)...
  24. pmc Epilepsy in mice deficient in the 65-kDa isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase
    S F Kash
    Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 94:14060-5. 1997
    ..acid (GABA), the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain, is synthesized by two glutamate decarboxylase isoforms, GAD65 and GAD67...
  25. pmc Increased anxiety and altered responses to anxiolytics in mice deficient in the 65-kDa isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase
    S F Kash
    Departments of Medicine and Microbiology Immunology, and Hormone Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96:1698-703. 1999
    The larger isoform of the enzyme glutamate decarboxylase, GAD67, synthesizes >90% of basal levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brain...
  26. ncbi Expression of plasma membrane GABA transporters but not of the vesicular GABA transporter in dentate granule cells after kainic acid seizures
    Gunther Sperk
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria
    Hippocampus 13:806-15. 2003
    Kainic acid-induced seizures cause a marked increase in the expression of glutamate decarboxylase 67 (GAD67) in granule cells of the dentate gyrus...
  27. ncbi Regulation of exocytosis from single visualized GABAergic boutons in hippocampal slices
    Darrin H Brager
    Department of Physiology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA
    J Neurosci 23:10475-86. 2003
    ..These features advance the understanding of the regulation of synapses and networks by presynaptic inhibition...
  28. ncbi Selective alterations in prefrontal cortical GABA neurotransmission in schizophrenia: a novel target for the treatment of working memory dysfunction
    David A Lewis
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh, 3811 O Hara Street, W1651 BST, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 174:143-50. 2004
    ....
  29. ncbi Characterization of GABAergic neurons in hippocampal cell cultures
    D L Benson
    Department of Neuroscience, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville 22908
    J Neurocytol 23:279-95. 1994
    ..Thus many of the features that distinguish GABAergic neurons in culture are reminiscent of the characteristics that distinguish GABAergic neurons in situ...
  30. ncbi Spectrum of neurological syndromes associated with glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies: diagnostic clues for this association
    Albert Saiz
    Service of Neurology, Hospital Clinic and Institut d Investigació Biomèdica August Pi i Sunyer IDIBAPS, Barcelona, Spain
    Brain 131:2553-63. 2008
    ..Lastly, in patients who develop neurological syndromes that suggest a PNS, the finding of GAD-ab does not rule out this possibility and appropriate studies should be done to confirm an underlying cancer...
  31. ncbi Seroconversion to multiple islet autoantibodies and risk of progression to diabetes in children
    Anette G Ziegler
    Institute of Diabetes Research, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, and Forschergruppe Diabetes, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universitat Munchen, Ingolstaedter Landstraße 1, Neuherberg, Germany 85764
    JAMA 309:2473-9. 2013
    ..Type 1 diabetes usually has a preclinical phase identified by circulating islet autoantibodies, but the rate of progression to diabetes after seroconversion to islet autoantibodies is uncertain...
  32. ncbi High titer of autoantibodies to GAD identifies a specific phenotype of adult-onset autoimmune diabetes
    Raffaella Buzzetti
    Department of Clinical Sciences, La Sapienza University, Rome, Italy
    Diabetes Care 30:932-8. 2007
    ..The aim of the present study was to define heterogeneity of adult-onset autoimmune diabetes based on characterization of GAD antibodies (GADAs)...
  33. ncbi Fluorescent labeling of both GABAergic and glycinergic neurons in vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT)-venus transgenic mouse
    Y Wang
    Department of Genetic and Behavioral Neuroscience, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi 371 8511, Japan
    Neuroscience 164:1031-43. 2009
    ..The glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) 67-GFP knock-in mouse has been widely used for the identification of GABAergic neurons, but their ..
  34. ncbi GABAergic inhibition regulates developmental synapse elimination in the cerebellum
    Hisako Nakayama
    Department of Neurophysiology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113 0033, Japan
    Neuron 74:384-96. 2012
    ....
  35. pmc Glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 and 67 expression in the lateral septum is up-regulated in association with the postpartum period in mice
    Changjiu Zhao
    Department of Zoology, University of Wisconsin Madison, 1117 West Johnson Street, Madison, WI 53706, USA
    Brain Res 1470:35-44. 2012
    ..Given that rostral LS contains GABA neurons that are projection neurons or local interneurons, it still needs to be determined whether the function of elevated GABA is for local or distant action or both...
  36. pmc Heterogeneity of altered cytokine levels across the clinical spectrum of diabetes in China
    Yufei Xiang
    Institute of Metabolism and Endocrinology, The Second Xiangya Hospital and the Diabetes Center, Metabolic Syndrome Research Center, Key Laboratory of Diabetes Immunology, Ministry of Education, Central South University, Changsha, China
    Diabetes Care 34:1639-41. 2011
    ..To determine the relationship between selected cytokines and diabetes in Chinese subjects...
  37. ncbi Chronic stress induces changes in the structure of interneurons and in the expression of molecules related to neuronal structural plasticity and inhibitory neurotransmission in the amygdala of adult mice
    Javier Gilabert-Juan
    Neurobiology Unit and Program in Basic and Applied Neurosciences, Cell Biology Dpt, Universitat de Valencia, Spain
    Exp Neurol 232:33-40. 2011
    ..The addition of PSA to NCAM by St8SiaII may be involved in these changes...
  38. pmc Harmonization of glutamic acid decarboxylase and islet antigen-2 autoantibody assays for national institute of diabetes and digestive and kidney diseases consortia
    Ezio Bonifacio
    Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft Center for Regenerative Therapies, 01307 Dresden, Germany
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 95:3360-7. 2010
    ..A harmonization program was established to increase comparability of results within and among these studies...
  39. ncbi Sequence and expression of glutamic acid decarboxylase isoforms in the developing zebrafish
    S C Martin
    Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston University Medical Center Hospital, Massachusetts 02118, USA
    J Comp Neurol 396:253-66. 1998
    ..The zebrafish GAD65 and GAD67 are present in identified neurons in the forebrain, midbrain, hindbrain, and spinal cord, and they catalyze the production of GABA in the developing embryo...
  40. ncbi Support for involvement of glutamate decarboxylase 1 and neuropeptide Y in anxiety susceptibility
    Jonas Donner
    Research Programs Unit, Molecular Neurology, Biomedicum Helsinki, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
    Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 159:316-27. 2012
    ..The most significant evidence for association was observed in glutamate decarboxylase 1 (GAD1) with phobias (P = 0.0005)...
  41. pmc Characterization of the intracellular glutamate decarboxylase system: analysis of its function, transcription, and role in the acid resistance of various strains of Listeria monocytogenes
    Kimon Andreas G Karatzas
    Bacterial Stress Response Group, Microbiology, School of Natural Sciences, National University of Ireland, Galway, Galway, Ireland
    Appl Environ Microbiol 78:3571-9. 2012
    The glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) system is important for the acid resistance of Listeria monocytogenes...
  42. pmc Role of glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 in regulating cortical parvalbumin and GABA membrane transporter 1 expression: implications for schizophrenia
    Allison A Curley
    Department of Psychiatry, W1653 Biomedical Science Tower, 200 Lothrop St University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    Neurobiol Dis 50:179-86. 2013
    ..Together, these findings suggest that the correlated decrements in cortical GAD67, PV and GAT1 mRNAs in schizophrenia may be a common consequence of some other upstream factor...
  43. ncbi Establishment of an immortalized GABAergic neuronal progenitor cell line from embryonic ventral mesencephalon in the rat
    Beibei Wang
    Beijing Institute for Neuroscience, Capital Medical University, Beijing Center of Neural Regeneration and Repair, Key Laboratory of Neurodegenerative diseases of Ministry of Education of China, Beijing 100069, China
    Brain Res 1210:63-75. 2008
    ..these cells exhibited functional GABAergic neuron properties, as evidenced by the expression of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) as well as the synthesis and release of the neurotransmitter GABA in a calcium-dependent manner...
  44. pmc Two distinct mechanisms target GAD67 to vesicular pathways and presynaptic clusters
    Jamil Kanaani
    Diabetes Center, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    J Cell Biol 190:911-25. 2010
    ..Thus two distinct mechanisms target the constitutively active GAD67 to presynaptic clusters to facilitate accumulation of GABA for rapid delivery into synapses...
  45. pmc DNA-methyltransferase 1 mRNA is selectively overexpressed in telencephalic GABAergic interneurons of schizophrenia brains
    M Veldic
    Psychiatric Institute, Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine, University of Illinois, 1601 West Taylor Street, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:348-53. 2004
    ....
  46. ncbi GABA and GABA receptors in the central nervous system and other organs
    Masahito Watanabe
    Anatomy Department, Osaka Medical College, Takatsuki, Japan
    Int Rev Cytol 213:1-47. 2002
    ..GABA is synthesized primarily from glutamate by glutamate decarboxylase (GAD), but alternative pathways may be important under certain situations...
  47. pmc Structural constraints on protein self-processing in L-aspartate-alpha-decarboxylase
    Florian Schmitzberger
    Department of Biochemistry, 80 Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1GA, UK
    EMBO J 22:6193-204. 2003
    ....
  48. ncbi GABAergic nature of hypothalamic leptin target neurones in the ventromedial arcuate nucleus
    M L Ovesjö
    Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, SE 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden
    J Neuroendocrinol 13:505-16. 2001
    ..However, mechanisms other than transcriptional regulation for leptin to influence arcuate GABA neurones may exist...
  49. pmc Altered GABA transmission in a mouse model of increased trait anxiety
    R O Tasan
    Department of Pharmacology, Medical University Innsbruck, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria
    Neuroscience 183:71-80. 2011
    ..Ultimately these mechanisms may lead to the compensatory activation of GABA transmission, as indicated by the increased expression of GAD65/67 in HAB mice...
  50. ncbi Crystal structure of aspartate decarboxylase at 2.2 A resolution provides evidence for an ester in protein self-processing
    A Albert
    Department of Biochemistry, Cambridge, UK
    Nat Struct Biol 5:289-93. 1998
    ..The ester is an intermediate in the autocatalytic self-processing leading to formation of the pyruvoyl group. This unprecedented structure provides novel insights into the general phenomenon of protein processing...
  51. ncbi A novel mechanism for GABA synthesis and packaging into synaptic vesicles
    Chandana Buddhala
    Department of Basic Science, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL 33431, United States
    Neurochem Int 55:9-12. 2009
    ....
  52. pmc GAD65-reactive T cells are activated in patients with autoimmune type 1a diabetes
    Vissia Viglietta
    Laboratory of Molecular Immunology, Center for Neurologic Diseases, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    J Clin Invest 109:895-903. 2002
    ....
  53. ncbi Comparative study of GAD65-specific CD4+ T cells in healthy and type 1 diabetic subjects
    Nancy A Danke
    Benaroya Research Institute at Virginia Mason, 1201 Ninth Avenue, Seattle, WA 98101, USA
    J Autoimmun 25:303-11. 2005
    ....
  54. ncbi Parvalbumin, calbindin, or calretinin in cortically projecting and GABAergic, cholinergic, or glutamatergic basal forebrain neurons of the rat
    Ivana Gritti
    Dipartimento di Scienze Cliniche L Sacco, Universita degli Studi di Milano, 20157 Milan, Italy
    J Comp Neurol 458:11-31. 2003
    ....
  55. ncbi Subthalamic GAD gene therapy in a Parkinson's disease rat model
    Jia Luo
    Functional Genomics and Translational Neuroscience Laboratory, Department of Molecular Medicine and Pathology, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand
    Science 298:425-9. 2002
    ..This strategy suggests that there is plasticity between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission in the mammalian brain that could be exploited for therapeutic benefit...
  56. ncbi Use-dependent modulation of inhibitory capacity in the feline lumbar spinal cord
    Niranjala J K Tillakaratne
    Department of Physiological Science, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 1761, USA
    J Neurosci 22:3130-43. 2002
    ..This modulation is specific to the motor task that is performed repetitively and is closely linked to the ability of the animal to perform a specific motor task...
  57. pmc Proopiomelanocortin expression in both GABA and glutamate neurons
    Shane T Hentges
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523 1617, USA
    J Neurosci 29:13684-90. 2009
    ..GABAergic and glutamatergic POMC neurons may mediate distinct aspects of POMC neuron function, including the regulation of energy homeostasis...
  58. ncbi On the pathogenicity of autoantigen-specific T-cell receptors
    Amanda R Burton
    Department of Immunology, St Jude Children s Research Hospital, 332 N Lauderdale, Memphis, TN 38105 2794, USA
    Diabetes 57:1321-30. 2008
    ..The relative contribution of T-cells specific for different autoantigens is largely unknown because relatively few have been assessed in vivo...
  59. ncbi Immunohistochemical localization of GAD67-expressing neurons and processes in the rat brainstem: subregional distribution in the nucleus tractus solitarius
    Angelina Y Fong
    Department of Physiology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan 48201, USA
    J Comp Neurol 493:274-90. 2005
    ..Furthermore, the reported heterogeneous distribution of GAD67-ir in the NTS suggests differential inhibitory modulation of sensory processing...
  60. pmc Glutamate uptake triggers transporter-mediated GABA release from astrocytes
    László Héja
    Department of Neurochemistry, Institute of Biomolecular Chemistry, Chemical Research Center, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, Hungary
    PLoS ONE 4:e7153. 2009
    ....
  61. ncbi Ectopic expression of the Dlx genes induces glutamic acid decarboxylase and Dlx expression
    Thorsten Stühmer
    Nina Ireland Laboratory of Developmental Neurobiology, Department of Psychiatry, LPPI, University of California at San Francisco, 401 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94143 0984, USA
    Development 129:245-52. 2002
    ..We also used this method to show cross-regulation between different Dlx family members. We find that Dlx2 can induce Dlx5 expression, and that Dlx1, Dlx2 and Dlx5 can induce expression from a Dlx5/6-lacZ enhancer/"reporter construct...
  62. ncbi GadE (YhiE) activates glutamate decarboxylase-dependent acid resistance in Escherichia coli K-12
    Zhuo Ma
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of South Alabama College of Medicine, Mobile, AL 36688, USA
    Mol Microbiol 49:1309-20. 2003
    ..Constitutive expression of GadE removes most pH control over the glutamate decarboxylase and antiporter genes. The small amount of remaining pH control is governed by GadX and W...
  63. ncbi Neurochemical and anatomical identification of fast- and slow-firing neurones in the rat dorsal raphe nucleus using juxtacellular labelling methods in vivo
    K A Allers
    University Department of Pharmacology, Mansfield Road, Oxford, UK OX1 3QT
    Neuroscience 122:193-204. 2003
    ..The electrophysiological and morphological properties of these neurones suggest a novel function involving co-ordination between GABA and 5-HT neurones dispersed across DRN subregions...
  64. ncbi Development of spontaneous mouth/tongue movement and related neural activity, and their repression in fetal mice lacking glutamate decarboxylase 67
    Naoko Tsunekawa
    Obata Research Unit, RIKEN Brain Science Institute, Hirosawa 2 1, Wako Shi, Saitama 351 0198, Japan
    Eur J Neurosci 21:173-8. 2005
    ..acid (GABA) in the generation of fetal movement was assessed using mice lacking GABA-synthesizing glutamate decarboxylase 67 (GAD67)...
  65. pmc In psychosis, cortical interneurons overexpress DNA-methyltransferase 1
    Marin Veldic
    Psychiatric Institute, Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine, University of Illinois, 1601 West Taylor Street, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:2152-7. 2005
    ..Interestingly, the DNMT1 increase failed to occur when patients with psychosis received a combination of valproate and APS treatment but not APS monotherapy...
  66. ncbi Molecular and cellular mechanisms of altered GAD1/GAD67 expression in schizophrenia and related disorders
    Schahram Akbarian
    Department of Psychiatry, Brudnick Neuropsychiatric Research Institute, University of Massachusetts Medical School, 303 Belmont Street, Worcester, 01604, USA
    Brain Res Rev 52:293-304. 2006
    ..We propose an integrative model, with multiple molecular and cellular mechanisms contributing to transcriptional dysregulation of GAD67 and cortical dysfunction in psychosis...
  67. pmc Stringent specificity in the construction of a GABAergic presynaptic inhibitory circuit
    J Nicholas Betley
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Kavli Institute of Brain Science, Departments of Neuroscience, Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Cell 139:161-74. 2009
    ..The organization of a GABAergic circuit that mediates presynaptic inhibition in the mammalian CNS is therefore controlled by a stringent program of sensory recognition and signaling...
  68. pmc GAD1 mRNA expression and DNA methylation in prefrontal cortex of subjects with schizophrenia
    Hsien Sung Huang
    Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 2:e809. 2007
    ..includes changes in GABAergic mRNAs, including decreased expression of GAD1, encoding the 67 kDa glutamate decarboxylase (GAD67) GABA synthesis enzyme. The underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear...
  69. ncbi Differential gene expression in migrating cortical interneurons during mouse forebrain development
    Clare Faux
    Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom
    J Comp Neurol 518:1232-48. 2010
    ..of GABAergic cells by fluorescence-activated cell sorting of cortex and GE from embryonic brains of glutamate decarboxylase 67 (GAD67)-green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic mice...
  70. ncbi The mood stabilizer valproic acid stimulates GABA neurogenesis from rat forebrain stem cells
    Pascal Laeng
    Gene Discovery, Psychiatric Genomics, Inc, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20878, USA
    J Neurochem 91:238-51. 2004
    ....
  71. ncbi Age-related loss of the GABA synthetic enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase in rat primary auditory cortex
    L L Ling
    Department of Pharmacology, Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, Springfield, 62794, USA
    Neuroscience 132:1103-13. 2005
    ..An age-related loss of normal adult GABA neurotransmission in AI would likely alter temporal coding properties and could contribute to the loss in speech understanding observed in the elderly...
  72. pmc Escherichia coli has two homologous glutamate decarboxylase genes that map to distinct loci
    D K Smith
    Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada
    J Bacteriol 174:5820-6. 1992
    Degenerate oligonucleotides based on the published Escherichia coli glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) protein sequence were used in a polymerase chain reaction to generate a DNA probe for the E. coli GAD structural gene...
  73. ncbi Experience and activity-dependent maturation of perisomatic GABAergic innervation in primary visual cortex during a postnatal critical period
    Bidisha Chattopadhyaya
    Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, New York 11724, USA
    J Neurosci 24:9598-611. 2004
    ....
  74. ncbi A 12-year prospective study of the relationship between islet antibodies and beta-cell function at and after the diagnosis in patients with adult-onset diabetes
    Henrik Borg
    Department of Endocrinology, Lund University, Malmo University Hospital, Malmo, Sweden
    Diabetes 51:1754-62. 2002
    ..After diagnosis, GADA persisted in most patients, whereas ICA development in patients who were antibody negative at diagnosis indicated decreasing beta-cell function...
  75. pmc Age of islet autoantibody appearance and mean levels of insulin, but not GAD or IA-2 autoantibodies, predict age of diagnosis of type 1 diabetes: diabetes autoimmunity study in the young
    Andrea K Steck
    Barbara Davis Center for Childhood Diabetes, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, Colorado, USA
    Diabetes Care 34:1397-9. 2011
    ..We evaluated predictors of progression to diabetes in children with high-risk HLA genotypes and persistent islet autoantibodies...
  76. ncbi Safety and tolerability of gene therapy with an adeno-associated virus (AAV) borne GAD gene for Parkinson's disease: an open label, phase I trial
    Michael G Kaplitt
    Department of Neurological Surgery, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY, USA
    Lancet 369:2097-105. 2007
    ..We aimed to measure the safety, tolerability, and potential efficacy of transfer of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) gene with adeno-associated virus (AAV) into the subthalamic nucleus of patients with Parkinson's disease...
  77. ncbi Are GAD65 and GAD67 associated with specific pools of GABA in brain?
    D L Martin
    Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany 12201 0509, USA
    Perspect Dev Neurobiol 5:119-29. 1998
    ..An interesting issue is the extent to which the two major forms of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD65 and GAD67) are specialized to synthesize GABA for these pools...
  78. ncbi Neurotransmitter properties of spinal interneurons in embryonic and larval zebrafish
    Shin Ichi Higashijima
    Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York 11794 5230, USA
    J Comp Neurol 480:19-37. 2004
    ..Our approach allowed us to define the likely transmitter phenotypes of most of the known classes of spinal interneurons. These data provide a foundation for understanding the functional organization of the spinal networks in zebrafish...
  79. ncbi A heterozygous deletion in the glutamate decarboxylase 67 gene enhances maternal and fetal stress vulnerability
    Taku Uchida
    Department of Physiology, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, 1 20 1 Handayama, Hamamatsu 431 3192, Japan
    Neurosci Res 69:276-82. 2011
    Both down-regulation of glutamate decarboxylase 67 (GAD67) and maternal exposure to severe stress during pregnancy can increase the risk of schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders in the offspring...
  80. pmc Characterization of GABAergic neurons in rapid-eye-movement sleep controlling regions of the brainstem reticular formation in GAD67-green fluorescent protein knock-in mice
    Ritchie E Brown
    In Vitro Neurophysiology Section, Laboratory of Neuroscience, Harvard Medical School and VA Boston Healthcare System, 940 Belmont Street, Research 151 C, Brockton, MA 02301, USA
    Eur J Neurosci 27:352-63. 2008
    ..Orexinergic suppression of REM during waking is probably mediated in part via excitation of acetylcholine-inhibited GABAergic neurons...
  81. pmc Control of acid resistance in Escherichia coli
    M P Castanie-Cornet
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of South Alabama College of Medicine, Mobile, Alabama 36688, USA
    J Bacteriol 181:3525-35. 1999
    ..The third AR system required glutamate for protection at pH 2.5, one of two genes encoding glutamate decarboxylase (gadA or gadB), and the gene encoding the putative glutamate:gamma-aminobutyric acid antiporter (gadC)...
  82. ncbi Diabetes classification: grey zones, sound and smoke: Action LADA 1
    R D G Leslie
    Institute of Cell and Molecular Science, University of London, London, UK
    Diabetes Metab Res Rev 24:511-9. 2008
    ..This article discusses the nature of disease classification in general, and KPD and LADA in particular, emphasizing the potential value and pitfalls in classifying diabetes and suggesting a need for more research in this area...
  83. ncbi Robust production of gamma-amino butyric acid using recombinant Corynebacterium glutamicum expressing glutamate decarboxylase from Escherichia coli
    Chihiro Takahashi
    Department of Chemical Science and Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kobe University, 1 1 Rokkodaicho, Nada Ku, Kobe 657 8501, Japan
    Enzyme Microb Technol 51:171-6. 2012
    ..GABA from glucose using the recombinant Corynebacterium glutamicum strain GAD, which expresses GadB, a glutamate decarboxylase encoded by the gadB gene of Escherichia coli W3110. As confirmed by HPLC analysis, GABA fermentation by C...
  84. ncbi Proliferative effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid on the gastric cancer cell line are associated with extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 activation
    Kentaro Maemura
    Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Division of Basic Medicine I, Osaka Medical College, Takatsuki, Osaka 569 8686, Japan
    J Gastroenterol Hepatol 24:688-96. 2009
    ..We previously reported that GABA participates in chondrocyte proliferation. In the present study, we investigated the effects of GABA on the proliferation of a gastric cancer cell line, KATO III...
  85. ncbi Neurochemical characterization of pathways expressing plasma membrane monoamine transporter in the rat brain
    V Vialou
    INSERM, U513, Faculte de Medecine, Creteil, F 94010 France Université Paris XII, Creteil, France
    Neuroscience 144:616-22. 2007
    ..Taken together, our observations support a role for PMAT in monoamine uptake in cholinergic neurons...
  86. ncbi Crystal structure of the schiff base intermediate prior to decarboxylation in the catalytic cycle of aspartate alpha-decarboxylase
    Byung Il Lee
    Department of Chemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 151 742, South Korea
    J Mol Biol 340:1-7. 2004
    ..Thus our study provides direct structural evidence for the reaction mechanism of ADC...
  87. pmc Stereological estimates of the basal forebrain cell population in the rat, including neurons containing choline acetyltransferase, glutamic acid decarboxylase or phosphate-activated glutaminase and colocalizing vesicular glutamate transporters
    I Gritti
    Dipartimento di Scienze Cliniche Luigi Sacco, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Via Giovan Battista Grassi 74, Milan, Italy 20157
    Neuroscience 143:1051-64. 2006
    ....
  88. pmc Genetic modulation of GABA levels in the anterior cingulate cortex by GAD1 and COMT
    Stefano Marenco
    Clinical Brain Disorders Branch, GCAP, IRP, NIMH, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 35:1708-17. 2010
    ..The directionality of the effects, however, is inconsistent with earlier evidence of decreased GABA activity in schizophrenia...
  89. pmc Human stiff-person syndrome IgG induces anxious behavior in rats
    Christian Geis
    Department of Neurology, University of Wurzburg, Wurzburg, Germany
    PLoS ONE 6:e16775. 2011
    ..Most patients have high-titer antibodies against glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) 65. The pathogenic role of these autoantibodies is unclear.
  90. ncbi Effects of glutamate decarboxylase and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporter on the bioconversion of GABA in engineered Escherichia coli
    Tam Dinh Le Vo
    School of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering, University of Ulsan, Nam Gu, Ulsan, Korea
    Bioprocess Biosyst Eng 35:645-50. 2012
    ..GABA can be biosynthesized through the decarboxylation of L: -glutamate by glutamate decarboxylase. In this study, the effects of glutamate decarboxylase (gadA, gadB), glutamate/GABA antiporter (gadC) and ..
  91. pmc Antigen-based therapy with glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) vaccine in patients with recent-onset type 1 diabetes: a randomised double-blind trial
    DIANE K WHERRETT
    Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada
    Lancet 378:319-27. 2011
    ..We aimed to assess whether immunisation with GAD formulated with aluminum hydroxide (GAD-alum) would preserve insulin production in recent-onset type 1 diabetes...
  92. ncbi Finding GAD: early detection of beta-cell injury
    Simon A Hinke
    Vollum Institute, Oregon Health and Science University MRB322 L 474, 3181 Southwest Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, OR 97239, USA
    Endocrinology 148:4568-71. 2007
  93. ncbi A population-based association study of glutamate decarboxylase 1 as a candidate gene for autism
    Henriette Nørmølle Buttenschøn
    Centre for Psychiatric Research, Aarhus University Hospital, Risskov, Denmark
    J Neural Transm 116:381-8. 2009
    ..The glutamate decarboxylase gene 1 (GAD1) located within chromosome 2q31 encodes the enzyme, GAD67, catalyzing the production of ..
  94. ncbi New neurons in the vestibular nuclei complex after unilateral vestibular neurectomy in the adult cat
    Brahim Tighilet
    UMR 6149 Neurobiologie Intégrative et Adaptative Pôle 3C, Comportement, Cerveau, Cognition, Centre de St Charles, Case B, 3 Place Victor Hugo, 13331 Marseille Cedex 3, France
    Eur J Neurosci 25:47-58. 2007
    ..We show that most of the newly generated neurons have a GABAergic phenotype [glutamate decarboxylase (GAD)-67/BrdU-immunoreactive cells]...
  95. ncbi Glucagon-like peptide-1 stimulates GABA formation by pancreatic beta-cells at the level of glutamate decarboxylase
    Chen Wang
    Diabetes Research Center, Brussels Free University VUB, Laarbeeklaan 103, B 1090 Brussels, Belgium
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 292:E1201-6. 2007
    Pancreatic beta-cells are the major extraneural site of glutamate decarboxylase expression (GAD)...
  96. pmc Decreased glutamic acid decarboxylase mRNA expression in prefrontal cortex in Parkinson's disease
    Amélie C Lanoue
    Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, 02118, USA
    Exp Neurol 226:207-17. 2010
    ..Altogether, the results support the possibility that GABAergic neurotransmission is impaired in the DLPFC in PD, an effect that may be involved in some of the behavioral deficits associated with the disease...
  97. ncbi GAD65 is essential for synthesis of GABA destined for tonic inhibition regulating epileptiform activity
    Anne B Walls
    Department of Neuroscience, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway
    J Neurochem 115:1398-408. 2010
    GABA is synthesized from glutamate by glutamate decarboxylase (GAD), which exists in two isoforms, that is, GAD65 and GAD67...
  98. pmc Excitation-transcription coupling via calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase/ERK1/2 signaling mediates the coordinate induction of VGLUT2 and Narp triggered by a prolonged increase in glutamatergic synaptic activity
    Sukhjeevan Doyle
    Neuroscience Center of Excellence, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, Louisiana 70112, USA
    J Biol Chem 285:14366-76. 2010
    ..two determinants of inhibitory synaptic strength, the neuronal activity-regulated pentraxin (Narp), and glutamate decarboxylase (GAD65)...
  99. ncbi Escherichia coli acid resistance: cAMP receptor protein and a 20 bp cis-acting sequence control pH and stationary phase expression of the gadA and gadBC glutamate decarboxylase genes
    M P Castanie-Cornet
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of South Alabama College of Medicine, Mobile, AL 36688, USA
    Microbiology 147:709-15. 2001
    ..Three proteins associated with glutamate-dependent acid resistance have been identified. They are glutamate decarboxylase (encompassing two isozymes encoded by gadA and gadB) and a putative glutamate:gamma-amino butyric acid ..
  100. ncbi Distinct neurochemical and functional properties of GAD67-containing 5-HT neurons in the rat dorsal raphe nucleus
    Hiroki Shikanai
    Department of Neuropharmacology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo 060 8638, Japan
    J Neurosci 32:14415-26. 2012
    ..These findings indicate that 5-HT/GAD67 neurons constitute a unique neuronal population with distinctive neurochemical and electrophysiological properties and high responsiveness to innocuous stressor...
  101. ncbi Protein phosphorylation of human brain glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD)65 and GAD67 and its physiological implications
    Jianning Wei
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, Florida 33431, USA
    Biochemistry 43:6182-9. 2004
    ..Furthermore, mutation of T91 to aspartic acid or glutamic acid mimics the effect of phosphorylation. A model depicting the effect of phosphorylation on GAD activity upon neuronal stimulation is also proposed...

Research Grants63

  1. Modeling schizophrenia gamma deficits using cell-specific RNAi knockdown of GAD67
    RITCHIE EDWARD BROWN; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ....
  2. Mechanisms of Peripheral Induction of T-Cell Tolerance
    MATTHEW FRANKLIN MESCHER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The approach described in this application could lead to new methods for diagnosing diabetes and monitoring immunotherapy. ..
  3. Adult Neurogenesis: Regulation By Sleep
    DENNIS J MCGINTY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..By linking antidepressant treatment, sustained sleep, and adult neurogenesis, proposed work could provide a specific neurochemical rationale for development of treatment protocols which include management of sleep disorders. ..
  4. Nicotinic receptor stimulation and epigenetic regulation of GABAergic function.
    Alessandro Guidotti; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  5. Variations in Hormones During Menopause: Effects on Cognitive and Brain Aging
    Heather A Bimonte-Nelson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This work will yield insight into cognitive effects of the menopause transition, variations in menopause type and HTs, and related mechanisms. ..
  6. Exosome-induced innate and antigen-specific immune responses in Type 1 Diabetes
    Yang D Dai; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We will use EXO as a vehicle for activating DC and delivering antigens. We anticipate that EXO can upregulate Slc11a1 function in DC and thus promote induction of the disease-causing Th1 cells. ..
  7. PLASTICITY IN THE AGING OLFACTORY SYSTEM
    John W Cave; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This proposal will significantly advance the mechanistic understanding of both OB DA neuronal differentiation and the generation of neuronal phenotypic diversity. ..
  8. OVARIAN HORMONE REGULATION OF LHRH BIOSYNTHESIS
    Sandra L Petersen; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Finally, the results of these studies may provide key insights into how E2 regulates such diverse functions as sex-specific neurodevelopment, neuroprotection and neurodegeneration ..
  9. The Functional Maturation of Inhibitory Interneurons
    MATTHEW LAZARUS; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  10. Consequences of In Vivo Neocortical GAD67 Downregulation
    Karoly Mirnics; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The proposed studies will focus on the consequences of in vivo downregulation of GAD67 in specific cortical interneuronal subpopulations, and relate them to the postmortem findings in the brains of subjects with schizophrenia. ..
  11. Analysis of peripheral tolerance in vivo
    MARC KEVIN JENKINS; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These experiments could set the stage for future clinical trials to determine if self p:MHCII tetramer-based cell enrichment can be used as a tool for early diagnosis of diabetes or to monitor the efficacy of immunotherapy. ..
  12. PGC-1alpha and GABAergic Dysfunction in Huntington Disease
    Rita Marie Cowell; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These studies will test whether transcriptional pathways that control mitochondrial function and calcium homeostasis in interneurons have potential as targets for treatment of patients with HD. ..
  13. Nigrostriatal Dopamine Function
    JAMES TEPPER; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..These neurons also express glutamate decarboxylase, the enzyme responsible for the synthesis of GABA and a common marker for GABAergic neurons...
  14. Diabetes and Persistent Organic Pollutants
    MARY ELLEN TURYK; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..It is important to find out if exposure to persistent pollutants is related to the development of diabetes because most of the population is exposed to small amounts of these chemicals. ..
  15. T regulatory cells in type I diabetes
    Habib Zaghouani; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Understanding how Tregs arise and suppress T1D could yield information useful for prevention and reversal of the disease. ..
  16. HIV and NRTI's-induced painful pathogenic mechanisms and gene therapy
    Shuanglin Hao; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This study may help us understand the mechanism of pain better so that we can find a novel way to reduce pain. ..
  17. Epitope sepcificity relates to GAD65-specific regulation of pathogenesis
    Yang D Dai; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  18. Reversal of Autoimmune Diabetes
    Habib Zaghouani; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Understanding the mechanism by which antigen-specific therapy leads to suppression of pancreatic inflammation and formation of healthy islets should yield significant information relevant to the development of approaches against T1D. ..
  19. Developmental Trajectories of Prefrontal Cortical GABA Neurons and Schizophrenia
    Gil D Hoftman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  20. NEUROCHEMICALS IN HYPOTHALAMIC SIGNALING AFTER COITUS
    K Y Pau; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..Aim 3b will determine if electrical lesions of the nPGi and/or nPH prevent either the postcoital expression of LC cFos protein, TH/NET mRNAs or the LH surge. These studies may provide information on neurologically related infertility. ..
  21. A Common Glial-Neuronal Progenitor in Postnatal Brain
    Vittorio Gallo; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..abstract_text> ..
  22. High throughput Point-of-Care assays for diabetes auto-antibody detection
    KUMAR SUBRAMANIAN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  23. Cortical Excitatory-Inhibitory Balance in Schizophrenia
    David A Lewis; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Thus, the proposed studies directly address NIMH Strategic Plan initiatives to use an understanding of neural circuitry and plasticity to develop novel therapies. ..
  24. MECHANISMS & INHIBITORS OF PYRIDOXAL-DEPENDENT ENZYMES
    DAVID METZLER; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..cytosolic aspartate aminotransferase of pig hearts (AspAT), tryptophanase of Escherichia coli and glutamate decarboxylase of E. coli...
  25. STUDIES OF NEURONAL AND GLIAL GLUTAMATE DECARBOXYLASES
    Jang Yen Wu; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..in the synthesis of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glycine, aspartate/glutamate, and taurine, namely L-glutamate decarboxylase (GAD), serine transhydroxymethylase (serine-THM), cysteinesulfinic and cyteic acids decarboxylase (CSAD/..
  26. IMMUNE MONITORING OF ANTIGEN SPECIFIC THERAPY
    David Hafler; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ....
  27. Type 1 Diabetes TrialNet: Toronto Clinical Centre
    DIANE K WHERRETT; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Preserved endogenous insulin secretion has been found to be associated with reduced of rates of the diabetes complications of hypoglycemia, nephropathy and retinopathy. ..
  28. PATHOGENESIS AND PREVENTION OF IDDM
    Hugh McDevitt; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..These studies will rely on the same techniques used by Drs. Chien and Davis to trace the development of islet cell specific T cells in the NOD mouse. ..
  29. VACCINIA VIRUS VACCINE FOR TYPE 1 DIABETES
    William Langridge; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Genes encoding proinsulin (INS) and glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) autoantigens fused to a cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) receptor IJgand in an rVV expression vector ..
  30. Regulation of GABAergic Neuron Differentiation
    Brian Condie; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..These studies are focused on the embryonic expression and regulation of the mammalian glutamate decarboxylase genes, Gad1 and Gad2, and the gene encoding the vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT, also known as the ..
  31. CHARACTERIZATION OF A NEURON-SPECIFIC PHOSPHOPROTEIN
    Samuel Gandy; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..ARPP-40 will be compared with that of known neural antigens such as tyrosine hydroxylase, synapsin I, and glutamate decarboxylase. ARPP-40 holoprotein and peptide fragments will be examined for activity as a phosphatase inhibitor, a ..
  32. REGULATION OF GAD PROTEIN LEVELS AND GENE EXPRESSION
    Karin Rimvall; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..The long-term goal of these investigations is to determine how GABA synthesis is regulated by glutamate decarboxylase )GAD)...
  33. REGULATION OF GABA BIOSYNTHESIS IN THE BRAIN
    Jang Yen Wu; Fiscal Year: 2003
    L-Glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) is the enzyme involved in the synthesis of GABA, a major inhibitory neurotransmitter. There are two well characterized GAD isoforms in the brain, namely, GAD65 and GAD67 [(Erlander and Tobin, 1991)]...
  34. Prevention of Type I Diabetes Mellitus using a Cell Vac*
    Nick Giannoukakis; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ....
  35. HYPOGLYCEMIA-ASSOCIATED AUTONOMIC FAILURE AND THE BRAIN
    Nancy Tkacs; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The research plan, candidate, and environment are well-suited for an ongoing career in fundamental diabetes research. ..
  36. PLASTICITY--GAD GENE EXPRESSION IN BASAL GANGLIA
    Marie Francoise Chesselet; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ....
  37. Immune Tolerance Against Type I Diabetes in Mice
    Habib Zaghouani; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The NOD mouse, which develops spontaneous T1D, as well as mutant NOD strains, will be the animal model of choice for these investigations. ..
  38. MULTILPLE AUTOANTIGENS OF PRETYPE I DM
    George Eisenbarth; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..3) Finish the sequencing of the PM-1 molecule and with PM-1, carboxypeptidase H and synaptophysin analyze the relationship of autoantibodies to these peptides and restricted ICA and disease progression. ..
  39. VIRUS ENCODED MIMITOPE PROCESSING IN AUTOIMMUNE DIABETES
    David Serreze; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..These studies will provide insights to the basic mechanisms by which beta cell antigens are presented to autoreactive T lymphocytes in IDDM, and how these processes may be influenced by a Coxsackie viral infection. ..
  40. BASAL GANGLIA GABA-DOPAMINE INTERACTIONS
    James Bennett; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ....
  41. ROLE OF GABAERGIC NEURONS IN AUTONOMIC NUCLEI
    BANG HWANG; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..Electron microscopic immunocytochemistry, high performance liquid chromatography, radiometric assay (for glutamate decarboxylase, GAD), radioimmunoassay (for detecting VP contents), in situ hybridization (for studying VP mRNA), and ..
  42. Prevention of Type 1 Diabetes with MMP Inhibitors
    David Bleich; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..We anticipate that these studies will give us supporting data to initiate a human trial to treat pre-type 1 diabetic patients with a broad-spectrum MMP inhibitor. ..
  43. Autoantigen delivery to induce tolerance in diabetic ra*
    William Osborne; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..The overall goal of this application is the development of a gene therapy method of tolerance induction that can be applied to patients with type 1 diabetes and their high risk relatives, and may be applied to other autoimmune diseases. ..
  44. GAD65 PEPTIDES BOUND TO IDDM-ASSOCIATED MHC PROTEINS
    JACK STROMINGER; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..These studies may help both in understanding the dual roles of HLA-DR and HLA-DQ proteins in the genesis of this disease, and in defining peptides that might be useful in induction of tolerance in at-risk subjects. ..
  45. Preservation of Beta Cells by Glutamate Decarboxylase
    Diane Wherrett; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The primary analysis will test the difference in proportion of subjects and controls with FPIR below 1st percentile for age, using a two-sided Chi Square test with continuity correction. ..
  46. IMMUNOPATHOLOGY OF BETA CELL AUTOANTIGENS
    Steinunn Baekkeskov; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..abstract_text> ..
  47. PEPTIDE EPITOPES PRESENTED IN AUTOIMMUNE DIABETES
    Samuel Wilson; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..The candidate plans to use this system as a generalized model for antigen processing and presentation. ..
  48. GENE DELIVERY TO THE CNS TO MODULATE EPILEPSY
    Samuel Rabkin; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ....
  49. AUTOIMMUNE T AND B CELL RESPONSES IN TYPE 1 DIABETES
    Grete Sonderstrup; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..The combined urine and human studies should permit the design of an HLA genotype specific immunotherapy for the prevention of immunotherapy for the prevention of type I diabetes mellitus. ..
  50. EARLY EXPERIENCE AND ADULT CORTICAL PLASTICITY
    JAMES MCCASLAND; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..The procedure combines a high-resolution 2-deoxyglucose (2DG) technique, immunostaining for glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) and other antigens, and extensively automated data collection and analysis...
  51. Sustained Blood Pressure Reduction After Drug Withdrawal
    CURTIS KOST; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Results from these studies will provide insight into the role of the GABAergic system in the sustained antihypertensive effect of early transient inhibition of the RAS in SHR. ..
  52. DNA Immunizations with GAD65 to Induce Tolerance
    PENELOPE MOREL; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..abstract_text> ..
  53. Epidemiology of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
    Richard Donahue; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..A better understanding of the etiology of type 2 and a better definition of the "at risk" phenotype can provide health benefits for the millions at risk for acquiring DM. ..
  54. SEXUAL DIMORPHISMS IN NEUROTRANSMISSION
    Amos Fleischmann; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..and glutamate release? (5) Are the developmentally based sex differences in ovarian steroid regulation of GABA and/or glutamate transmission correlated with sex differences in ovarian steroid induction of female reproductive behavior?..
  55. GAD65 release in autoimmune diabetes
    STEVEN CHESSLER; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..
  56. CONNECTIONS OF EXTRAGENICULATE VISUAL PATHWAYS
    Joseph Weber; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..Detailed data regarding important midbrain visual centers such as the pretectum will, in turn, reveal something about their role in vision as well as overall brain function...
  57. THE NEUROPHARMACOLOGY OF SPECIFIC ENZYME INACTIVATORS
    Robert Rando; Fiscal Year: 1980
    ..apply these inhibitors to an in vitro and in vivo study of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transaminase, glutamate decarboxylase and DOPA decarboxylase and cysteine sulfinate decarboxylase...
  58. DIABETES PREVENTION TRIAL-IDDM (DPT-1)
    James Hendricks; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..The three year pilot study will lead to a competitive application for more comprehensive long term intervention trials, if warranted by the results of these studies. ..
  59. Multiplex Microarray for the Detection of Pre-Type 1 Diabetes Autoantibodies
    ZUHEIR AWDEH; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..This should allow for the identification of at risk individuals and thus provide a valuable resource for T1D prevention studies. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  60. GAD RELEASE FROM BETA CELLS IN TYPE 1 DIABETES
    STEVEN CHESSLER; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..
  61. DO SEIZURES DISRUPT CORTICAL GENE EXPRESSION
    Kenneth Mack; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..The results of these studies extend our current understanding of both the changes in transcriptional activity that occur after physiological neuronal stimulation, as well as the effects of seizure activity on these pathways. ..
  62. GENE REGULATION IN CEREBELLUM DEVELOPMENT
    Allan Tobin; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..3. To identify cis regulatory sequences responsible for the cell type specific expression of the GAD gene and of genes whose expression responds to changes in cellular environment in the developing cerebellum...
  63. ANTIGAD MAB POLYMER CONJUGATES FOR DIABETES TREATMENT
    Sung Wan Kim; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..These compounds will be compared and correlated to the previous results to produce an optimal molecule for the prevention of diabetes in NOD mice. ..