muramidase

Summary

Summary: A basic enzyme that is present in saliva, tears, egg white, and many animal fluids. It functions as an antibacterial agent. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-linkages between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in peptidoglycan and between N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in chitodextrin. EC 3.2.1.17.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Lysozymes in the animal kingdom
    Lien Callewaert
    Laboratory of Food Microbiology and Leuven Food Science and Nutrition Research Center, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 22, B 3001 Leuven, Belgium
    J Biosci 35:127-60. 2010
  2. ncbi Likelihood ratio tests for detecting positive selection and application to primate lysozyme evolution
    Z Yang
    Department of Biology, University College, London, United Kingdom
    Mol Biol Evol 15:568-73. 1998
  3. ncbi Conditional gene targeting in macrophages and granulocytes using LysMcre mice
    B E Clausen
    Institute for Genetics, University of Cologne, Germany
    Transgenic Res 8:265-77. 1999
  4. ncbi Estimating disease resistance in insects: phenoloxidase and lysozyme-like activity and disease resistance in the cricket Gryllus texensis
    Shelley A Adamo
    Department of Psychology, Dalhousie University, 1355 Oxford Street, Halifax, NS, Canada B3H 4J1
    J Insect Physiol 50:209-16. 2004
  5. ncbi Why are pathogenic staphylococci so lysozyme resistant? The peptidoglycan O-acetyltransferase OatA is the major determinant for lysozyme resistance of Staphylococcus aureus
    Agnieszka Bera
    Microbial Genetics, University of Tubingen, D 72076 Tubingen, Auf der Morgenstelle, Germany
    Mol Microbiol 55:778-87. 2005
  6. ncbi Lysozyme amyloidogenesis is accelerated by specific nicking and fragmentation but decelerated by intact protein binding and conversion
    Rajesh Mishra
    IFM Department of Chemistry, Linkoping University, SE 581 83 Linkoping, Sweden
    J Mol Biol 366:1029-44. 2007
  7. pmc Native-state stability determines the extent of degradation relative to secretion of protein variants from Pichia pastoris
    Graham Whyteside
    School of Biology, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 6:e22692. 2011
  8. pmc Influence of wall teichoic acid on lysozyme resistance in Staphylococcus aureus
    Agnieszka Bera
    Microbial Genetics, University of Tubingen, 72076 Tubingen, Germany
    J Bacteriol 189:280-3. 2007
  9. ncbi Catalysis by hen egg-white lysozyme proceeds via a covalent intermediate
    D J Vocadlo
    Protein Engineering Network of Centres of Excellence and the Department of Chemistry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z1, Canada
    Nature 412:835-8. 2001
  10. ncbi Human lysozyme gene mutations cause hereditary systemic amyloidosis
    M B Pepys
    Department of Medicine, Royal Postgraduate Medical School, Hammersmith Hospital, London, UK
    Nature 362:553-7. 1993

Research Grants

Detail Information

Publications278 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Lysozymes in the animal kingdom
    Lien Callewaert
    Laboratory of Food Microbiology and Leuven Food Science and Nutrition Research Center, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 22, B 3001 Leuven, Belgium
    J Biosci 35:127-60. 2010
    ..Regarding their biological role, the widely recognized function of lysozymes is their contribution to antibacterial defence but, additionally, some lysozymes (belonging to different types) are known to function as digestive enzymes...
  2. ncbi Likelihood ratio tests for detecting positive selection and application to primate lysozyme evolution
    Z Yang
    Department of Biology, University College, London, United Kingdom
    Mol Biol Evol 15:568-73. 1998
    ..The likelihood analysis thus confirmed most, but not all, conclusions Messier and Stewart reached using reconstructed ancestral sequences to estimate synonymous and nonsynonymous rates for different lineages...
  3. ncbi Conditional gene targeting in macrophages and granulocytes using LysMcre mice
    B E Clausen
    Institute for Genetics, University of Cologne, Germany
    Transgenic Res 8:265-77. 1999
    ..In contrast, no significant deletion was observed in tail DNA or purified T and B cells. Taken together, LysMcre mice allow for both specific and highly efficient Cre-mediated deletion of loxP-flanked target genes in myeloid cells...
  4. ncbi Estimating disease resistance in insects: phenoloxidase and lysozyme-like activity and disease resistance in the cricket Gryllus texensis
    Shelley A Adamo
    Department of Psychology, Dalhousie University, 1355 Oxford Street, Halifax, NS, Canada B3H 4J1
    J Insect Physiol 50:209-16. 2004
    ..03, chi 2=7.8, p=0.005). Because of the complexity of the immune system, empirical tests of the relationship between assays of immunity and resistance to a range of actual pathogens are important for correctly interpreting these measures...
  5. ncbi Why are pathogenic staphylococci so lysozyme resistant? The peptidoglycan O-acetyltransferase OatA is the major determinant for lysozyme resistance of Staphylococcus aureus
    Agnieszka Bera
    Microbial Genetics, University of Tubingen, D 72076 Tubingen, Auf der Morgenstelle, Germany
    Mol Microbiol 55:778-87. 2005
    ..We identified the first bacterial peptidoglycan-specific O-acetyltransferase in S. aureus and showed that OatA, an integral membrane protein, is the molecular basis for the high lysozyme resistance in staphylococci...
  6. ncbi Lysozyme amyloidogenesis is accelerated by specific nicking and fragmentation but decelerated by intact protein binding and conversion
    Rajesh Mishra
    IFM Department of Chemistry, Linkoping University, SE 581 83 Linkoping, Sweden
    J Mol Biol 366:1029-44. 2007
    ....
  7. pmc Native-state stability determines the extent of degradation relative to secretion of protein variants from Pichia pastoris
    Graham Whyteside
    School of Biology, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 6:e22692. 2011
    ..We discuss the secretion of proteins in relation to lysozyme amyloidosis, in particular, and optimised protein secretion, in general...
  8. pmc Influence of wall teichoic acid on lysozyme resistance in Staphylococcus aureus
    Agnieszka Bera
    Microbial Genetics, University of Tubingen, 72076 Tubingen, Germany
    J Bacteriol 189:280-3. 2007
    ..Here we show that modifications in PG by O acetylation, wall teichoic acid, and a high degree of cross-linking contribute to this resistance...
  9. ncbi Catalysis by hen egg-white lysozyme proceeds via a covalent intermediate
    D J Vocadlo
    Protein Engineering Network of Centres of Excellence and the Department of Chemistry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z1, Canada
    Nature 412:835-8. 2001
    ..We formulate a general catalytic mechanism for all retaining beta-glycosidases that includes substrate distortion, formation of a covalent intermediate, and the electrophilic migration of C1 along the reaction coordinate...
  10. ncbi Human lysozyme gene mutations cause hereditary systemic amyloidosis
    M B Pepys
    Department of Medicine, Royal Postgraduate Medical School, Hammersmith Hospital, London, UK
    Nature 362:553-7. 1993
    ....
  11. pmc A critical role for peptidoglycan N-deacetylation in Listeria evasion from the host innate immune system
    Ivo G Boneca
    Unité de Pathogénie Bactérienne des Muqueuses, Institut Pasteur, 75724 Paris, France
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:997-1002. 2007
    ..The presence of deacetylase genes in other pathogenic bacteria indicates that PG N-deacetylation could be a general mechanism used by bacteria to evade the host innate immune system...
  12. ncbi Synergistic action of Galleria mellonella apolipophorin III and lysozyme against Gram-negative bacteria
    Agnieszka Zdybicka-Barabas
    Department of Immunobiology, Maria Curie Sklodowska University, Lublin, Poland
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1828:1449-56. 2013
    ..It was found that the muramidase activity of G. mellonella lysozyme considerably increased in the presence of apoLp-III...
  13. ncbi Codon-substitution models for detecting molecular adaptation at individual sites along specific lineages
    Ziheng Yang
    Galton Laboratory, Department of Biology, University College London
    Mol Biol Evol 19:908-17. 2002
    ..Additional tests on several data sets suggest that the new models may be useful in detecting positive selection after gene duplication in gene family evolution...
  14. ncbi Sequence characterization and expression patterns of defensin and lysozyme encoding genes from the gut of the reduviid bug Triatoma brasiliensis
    C A C Araújo
    Department of Special Zoology, Ruhr University, D 44780 Bochum, Germany
    Insect Biochem Mol Biol 36:547-60. 2006
    ..Comparing the levels in unfed fifth instars and up to 15 days after feeding, a strong def1 induction was evident in the fat body at 15 days after feeding and in the stomach a maximum level of def1 and lys1 at 5 days after feeding...
  15. ncbi Molecular characterization, phylogeny, and expression of c-type and g-type lysozymes in brill (Scophthalmus rhombus)
    Rosa M Jiménez-Cantizano
    IFAPA Centro El Toruño, Consejería de Innovación Ciencia y Empresa, Junta de Andalucia, Molecular Biology Laboratory, Camino Tiro de pichón s n, 11500 El Puerto de Santa Maria, Cadiz, Spain
    Fish Shellfish Immunol 25:57-65. 2008
    ..In contrast, no induction was observed for c-type lysozyme. All these data suggest that g-type lysozyme is involved in the response against bacterial infections, whereas c-type lysozyme may also play a role in digestion...
  16. pmc Thermally induced fibrillar aggregation of hen egg white lysozyme
    Luben N Arnaudov
    Laboratory of Physical Chemistry and Colloid Science, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands
    Biophys J 88:515-26. 2005
    ..These fibrils have a coiled structure with a periodicity of approximately 30 nm and show characteristic defects after every four or five turns...
  17. ncbi Indispensable structure of solution additives to prevent inactivation of lysozyme for heating and refolding
    Tsuneyoshi Matsuoka
    Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
    Biotechnol Prog 25:1515-24. 2009
    ..These data also support the fact that arginine (Arg) and Arg derivatives are versatile additives for both misfolding processes...
  18. pmc Structural relationships in the lysozyme superfamily: significant evidence for glycoside hydrolase signature motifs
    Alexandre Wohlkonig
    Structural Biology Brussels and Molecular and Cellular Interactions, VIB, Brussels, Belgium
    PLoS ONE 5:e15388. 2010
    ..A particular group of such glycoside hydrolase enzymes share some common features in their three-dimensional structure and in their molecular mechanism, forming the lysozyme superfamily...
  19. ncbi The formation of amyloid fibrils from proteins in the lysozyme family
    Adam J Trexler
    Department of Chemistry, McDaniel College, 2 College Hill, Westminster MD 21157, USA
    Curr Protein Pept Sci 8:537-57. 2007
    ..The goal is to identify similarities and differences within the family, examine general misfolding / aggregation principles, and identify key areas of importance for future work on the fibril formation of these proteins...
  20. ncbi GPCR engineering yields high-resolution structural insights into beta2-adrenergic receptor function
    Daniel M Rosenbaum
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Science 318:1266-73. 2007
    ..Amino acids known to regulate receptor function are linked through packing interactions and a network of hydrogen bonds, suggesting a conformational pathway from the ligand-binding pocket to regions that interact with G proteins...
  21. ncbi Characterization and function of kuruma shrimp lysozyme possessing lytic activity against Vibrio species
    Sonomi Hikima
    Laboratory of Genetics and Biochemistry, Department of Aquatic Biosciences, Tokyo University of Fisheries, 4 5 7 Konan, Tokyo 108 8477, Minato, Japan
    Gene 316:187-95. 2003
    ....
  22. ncbi 13C and 15N NMR study of the hydration response of T4 lysozyme and alphaB-crystallin internal dynamics
    A Krushelnitsky
    Kazan Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Kazan, Russia
    J Phys Chem B 113:10022-34. 2009
    ..This motion was attributed to the restricted librations of the protein as a whole...
  23. ncbi Zwitteration as an alternative to PEGylation
    Zaki G Estephan
    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida 32306, United States
    Langmuir 27:6794-800. 2011
    ....
  24. pmc Local cooperativity in an amyloidogenic state of human lysozyme observed at atomic resolution
    Anne Dhulesia
    Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, UK
    J Am Chem Soc 132:15580-8. 2010
    ..Together, these results present a coherent picture at atomic resolution of the initial events underlying amyloid formation by a globular protein...
  25. pmc Characterization of bioactive recombinant human lysozyme expressed in milk of cloned transgenic cattle
    Bin Yang
    State Key Laboratory for Agrobiotechnology, China Agricultural University, Beijing, People s Republic of China
    PLoS ONE 6:e17593. 2011
    ..Lysozyme, a bactericidal protein that protects human infants from microbial infections, is highly expressed in human milk but is found in only trace amounts in cow milk...
  26. pmc O-Acetylation of peptidoglycan is required for proper cell separation and S-layer anchoring in Bacillus anthracis
    Maria Halima Laaberki
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032, USA
    J Biol Chem 286:5278-88. 2011
    ..of the MurNAc moiety of peptidoglycan is typically associated with bacterial resistance to lysozyme, a muramidase that serves as a central component of innate immunity...
  27. pmc Modifications to the peptidoglycan backbone help bacteria to establish infection
    Kimberly M Davis
    Department of Microbiology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, 3610 Hamilton Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104 6076, USA
    Infect Immun 79:562-70. 2011
    ..One of the main antimicrobials present on mucosal surfaces is lysozyme, a muramidase that hydrolyzes the peptidoglycan backbone of bacteria...
  28. ncbi Hereditary renal amyloidosis caused by a new variant lysozyme W64R in a French family
    Sophie Valleix
    Laboratoire de Biochimie et Biologie Moleculaire, Hopital Cochin, Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris AP HP et INSERM EMI 00 05, Paris, France
    Kidney Int 61:907-12. 2002
    ..Five proteins--transthyretin, fibrinogen alpha-A chain, apolipoprotein AI, lysozyme, apolipoprotein AII, cystatin C and gelsolin--can be associated with hereditary amyloidosis involving the kidney...
  29. pmc Detection of functional modes in protein dynamics
    Jochen S Hub
    Computational Biomolecular Dynamics Group, Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Gottingen, Germany
    PLoS Comput Biol 5:e1000480. 2009
    ..The new approach is illustrated using a number of biomolecules, including a polyalanine-helix, T4 lysozyme, Trp-cage, and leucine-binding protein...
  30. ncbi Insertion of enhanced green fluorescent protein into the lysozyme gene creates mice with green fluorescent granulocytes and macrophages
    N Faust
    Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, USA
    Blood 96:719-26. 2000
    ..Mice with an inactivation of both copies of the lys gene developed normally and were fertile. (Blood. 2000;96:719-726)..
  31. pmc Lysozyme enhances renal excretion of advanced glycation endproducts in vivo and suppresses adverse age-mediated cellular effects in vitro: a potential AGE sequestration therapy for diabetic nephropathy?
    F Zheng
    Division of Experimental Diabetes and Aging, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029 6574, USA
    Mol Med 7:737-47. 2001
    ....
  32. ncbi Goose-type lysozyme gene of the chicken: sequence, genomic organization and expression reveals major differences to chicken-type lysozyme gene
    T Nakano
    European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Heidelberg, Germany
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1090:273-6. 1991
    ..In addition, goose-type lysozyme displays an overlapping but different tissue expression pattern in chickens than chicken-type lysozyme...
  33. pmc The presence of peptidoglycan O-acetyltransferase in various staphylococcal species correlates with lysozyme resistance and pathogenicity
    Agnieszka Bera
    Microbial Genetics, University of Tubingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 28, D 72076 Tubingen, Germany
    Infect Immun 74:4598-604. 2006
    ..arlettae). In all lysozyme-sensitive species, the analyzed PG was de-O-acetylated. When we transformed the oatA gene from lysozyme-resistant S. aureus into S. carnosus, the corresponding transformants also became lysozyme resistant...
  34. pmc Bound water molecules and conformational stabilization help mediate an antigen-antibody association
    T N Bhat
    Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Unité Associée 359, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 91:1089-93. 1994
    ..Thus, the main forces stabilizing the complex arise from antigen-antibody hydrogen bonding, van der Waals interactions, enthalpy of hydration, and conformational stabilization rather than solvent entropy (hydrophobic) effects...
  35. ncbi 'Tissue surrogates' as a model for archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues
    Carol B Fowler
    Department of Biophysics, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rockville, MD 20850, USA
    Lab Invest 87:836-46. 2007
    ....
  36. ncbi Human lysozyme expressed in the mammary gland of transgenic dairy goats can inhibit the growth of bacteria that cause mastitis and the cold-spoilage of milk
    Elizabeth A Maga
    Department of Animal Science, University of California Davis, Davis, California 95616, USA
    Foodborne Pathog Dis 3:384-92. 2006
    ..In vivo, milk from transgenic animals supported less bacterial growth than control milk. This transgenic model demonstrates the possibilities offered by genetic engineering to enhance the antimicrobial nature of milk and the udder...
  37. ncbi Reduced alpha-defensin expression is associated with inflammation and not NOD2 mutation status in ileal Crohn's disease
    L A Simms
    Inflammatory Bowel Disease Laboratory, Royal Brisbane and Women s Hospital Foundation, Brisbane, Australia
    Gut 57:903-10. 2008
    ..The aim of this study was to independently assess whether NOD2, alpha-defensins and Crohn's disease are linked...
  38. ncbi Production and processing of milk from transgenic goats expressing human lysozyme in the mammary gland
    E A Maga
    Department of Animal Science, University of California, Davis 95616, USA
    J Dairy Sci 89:518-24. 2006
    ..Milk from transgenic animals had a shorter rennet clotting time and increased curd strength. Milk of such nature may be of benefit to the producer by influencing udder health and milk processing...
  39. ncbi Prediction of aggregation-prone regions in structured proteins
    Gian Gaetano Tartaglia
    Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, Lensfield Road, Cambridge CB2 1EW, UK
    J Mol Biol 380:425-36. 2008
    ....
  40. pmc Dendritic cells induce peripheral T cell unresponsiveness under steady state conditions in vivo
    D Hawiger
    Laboratory of Molecular Immunology, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10021, USA
    J Exp Med 194:769-79. 2001
    ..We conclude that in the absence of additional stimuli DCs induce transient antigen-specific T cell activation followed by T cell deletion and unresponsiveness...
  41. pmc The 3D profile method for identifying fibril-forming segments of proteins
    Michael J Thompson
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:4074-8. 2006
    ..We see enrichment for positive predictions in a set of fibril-forming segments of amyloid proteins, and we illustrate the method with applications to proteins of interest in amyloid research...
  42. ncbi Bacterial immunity traded for sperm viability in male crickets
    Leigh W Simmons
    Evolutionary Biology Research Group, School of Animal Biology M092, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009, Australia
    Science 309:2031. 2005
    ..These data have implications for our understanding of sexual selection mechanisms and of reproductive costs in male longevity...
  43. ncbi Peptidoglycan N-acetylglucosamine deacetylation decreases autolysis in Lactococcus lactis
    Mickael Meyrand
    INRA, Unité de Biochimie Bactérienne, UR477, 78350 Jouy en Josas, France
    Microbiology 153:3275-85. 2007
    ..In conclusion, enzymic N-acetylglucosamine deacetylation protects peptidoglycan from hydrolysis by the major autolysin AcmA in L. lactis cells, and this leads to decreased cellular autolysis...
  44. ncbi Soluble oligomers from a non-disease related protein mimic Abeta-induced tau hyperphosphorylation and neurodegeneration
    Marcelo N N Vieira
    Programa de Bioquimica e Biofisica Celular, Instituto de Bioquimica Medica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
    J Neurochem 103:736-48. 2007
    ....
  45. ncbi Specificity of the innate immune system and diversity of C-type lectin domain (CTLD) proteins in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans
    Hinrich Schulenburg
    Department of Animal Evolutionary Ecology, Zoological Institute, University of Tuebingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 28, 72076 Tuebingen, Germany
    Immunobiology 213:237-50. 2008
    ..Taken together, our evaluation reveals high potential for immune specificity in C. elegans that may enhance the nematode's ability to fight off pathogens...
  46. ncbi Testing the paradigm that the denaturing effect of urea on protein stability is offset by methylamines at the physiological concentration ratio of 2:1 (urea:methylamines)
    Laishram Rajendrakumar Singh
    Department of Biosciences, Jamia Millia Islamia, Jamia Nagar, New Delhi 110 025, India
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1774:1555-62. 2007
    ..We show here that the molar concentration of a methylamine required to offset the denaturing effect of urea at a given concentration is different for different proteins...
  47. ncbi Identification and expression analysis of the g-type and c-type lysozymes in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus
    Xing Ye
    Pearl River Fisheries Research Institute, Key Laboratory of Tropical and Subtropical Fish Breeding and Cultivation, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, No 1 Xing Yu Road, Guangzhou, PR China
    Dev Comp Immunol 34:501-9. 2010
    ..These two types of lysozymes likely use different mechanisms to regulate their expressions...
  48. ncbi Effect of the structure of the denatured state of lysozyme on the aggregation reaction at the early stages of folding from the reduced form
    Takatoshi Ohkuri
    Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812 8582, Japan
    J Mol Biol 347:159-68. 2005
    ..Moreover, from the analysis of amyloid aggregation of the reduced lysozymes, it was suggested that the disruption of the residual structure in denatured state by W62G mutation deterred the formation of the amyloid fibrils of lysozyme...
  49. ncbi Protein crowding tunes protein stability
    Andrew C Miklos
    Department of Chemistry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA
    J Am Chem Soc 133:7116-20. 2011
    ..This competition results in tunable stability, which could impact our understanding of the spatial and temporal roles of proteins in living systems...
  50. ncbi Self-assembly of trehalose molecules on a lysozyme surface: the broken glass hypothesis
    Maxim V Fedorov
    Max Planck Institute for Mathematics in the Sciences, Inselstr 22 26, 04103 Leipzig, Germany
    Phys Chem Chem Phys 13:2294-9. 2011
    ..The results explain the apparent contradiction between different experimental and theoretical results for trehalose effects on proteins...
  51. ncbi Arginine controls heat-induced cluster-cluster aggregation of lysozyme at around the isoelectric point
    Shunsuke Tomita
    Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
    Biopolymers 95:695-701. 2011
    ..The data indicated that the solution additives that coexisted with proteins would affect the property of the formed product, such as morphology and mechanic strength...
  52. ncbi Identification and characterization of two novel lysozymes from Rhodnius prolixus, a vector of Chagas disease
    Raul J Ursic-Bedoya
    Department of Biological Sciences, Simon Fraser University, 8888 University Dr, Burnaby, BC, Canada V5A 1S6
    J Insect Physiol 54:593-603. 2008
    ..These data suggest a differential compartmentalized role of two closely related molecules; one for immunity in the hemocoel and the other for digestion in the midgut...
  53. ncbi Protection of blue shrimp (Litopenaeus stylirostris) against the White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) when injected with shrimp lysozyme
    Wei jun Mai
    Key Laboratory of Ecology and Environment Science in Guangdong Higher Education, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory for Healthy and Safe Aquaculture, College of Life Science, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631, China
    Fish Shellfish Immunol 28:727-33. 2010
    ..These results indicate that lysozyme is effective at blocking WSSV infection in L. stylirostris and that lysozyme modulates the cellular and humoral defense mechanisms after they are suppressed by the WSSV virus...
  54. ncbi ALys amyloidosis caused by compound heterozygosity in exon 2 (Thr70Asn) and exon 4 (Trp112Arg) of the lysozyme gene
    Christoph Rocken
    Institute of Pathology, Otto von Guericke University, Magdeburg, Germany
    Hum Mutat 27:119-20. 2006
    ..Interestingly, this form of ALys amyloidosis is also characterized by the occurrence of proteolytic fragments of lysozyme in the amyloid deposits...
  55. ncbi Activation of innate immunity by lysozyme fibrils is critically dependent on cross-β sheet structure
    Adelin Gustot
    Laboratory of Structure and Function of Biological Membranes, Universite Libre de Bruxelles ULB, Brussels, Belgium
    Cell Mol Life Sci 70:2999-3012. 2013
    ....
  56. ncbi Bacteriophage lytic enzymes: novel anti-infectives
    Vincent A Fischetti
    Laboratory of Bacterial Pathogenesis, Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Trends Microbiol 13:491-6. 2005
    ..Thus, lysins could be an effective anti-infective in an age of mounting antibiotic resistance...
  57. ncbi Urochordates carry multiple genes for goose-type lysozyme and no genes for chicken- or invertebrate-type lysozymes
    I W Nilsen
    Marine Biotechnology and Fish Health, Norwegian Institute of Fisheries and Aquaculture Research, 9291 Tromsø, Norway
    Cell Mol Life Sci 60:2210-8. 2003
    ..Multiple genes from each species may result from separate and lineage-specific duplications followed by functional specialisation...
  58. ncbi Hen lysozyme amyloid fibrils induce aggregation of erythrocytes and lipid vesicles
    Nitin Chaudhary
    Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology, Hyderabad, India
    Mol Cell Biochem 328:209-15. 2009
    ..The membrane activity of HEWL fibrils suggests that the interaction of lysozyme fibrils with cellular membranes could be a contributing factor under disease conditions...
  59. ncbi Ellagic acid, a new antiglycating agent: its inhibition of Nϵ-(carboxymethyl)lysine
    Puppala Muthenna
    Biochemistry Division, National Institute of Nutrition, Tarnaka, Hyderabad 500 604, India
    Biochem J 442:221-30. 2012
    ..These findings establish the antiglycating potential of EA and its in vivo utility in controlling AGE-mediated diabetic pathologies...
  60. ncbi Testing polyols' compatibility with Gibbs energy of stabilization of proteins under conditions in which they behave as compatible osmolytes
    Inamul Haque
    Department of Biosciences, Jamia Millia Islamia, Jamia Nagar, New Delhi 110 025, India
    FEBS Lett 579:3891-8. 2005
    ..0 and 25 degrees C...
  61. ncbi High-resolution X-ray analysis reveals binding of arginine to aromatic residues of lysozyme surface: implication of suppression of protein aggregation by arginine
    Len Ito
    Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute SPring 8, 1 1 1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679 5198, Japan
    Protein Eng Des Sel 24:269-74. 2011
    ..These changes might prevent intermolecular hydrophobic interactions by shielding hydrophobic regions of the lysozyme surface, resulting in an increase in protein solubility...
  62. ncbi A cold-active salmon goose-type lysozyme with high heat tolerance
    P Kyomuhendo
    Marine Biotechnology and Fish Health, Norwegian Institute of Fisheries and Aquaculture, P O Box 6122, N 9291 Tromsø, Norway
    Cell Mol Life Sci 64:2841-7. 2007
    ..The results point to a rapid reversal of inactivation, probably due to instant protein refolding...
  63. ncbi Identification of a bacterial inhibitor against g-type lysozyme
    L Vanderkelen
    Laboratory of Food Microbiology and Leuven Food Science and Nutrition Research Centre, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium
    Cell Mol Life Sci 68:1053-64. 2011
    ..coli to g-type lysozyme. The existence of inhibitors against all major types of animal lysozyme and their contribution to lysozyme tolerance suggest that lysozyme inhibitors may play a role in bacterial interactions with animal hosts...
  64. pmc A two-gene balance regulates Salmonella typhimurium tolerance in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans
    Elizabeth K Marsh
    School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, West Midlands, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 6:e16839. 2011
    ..elegans is further mediated by the reciprocal activity of lys-7 and the tyrosine kinase abl-1. Together this implies a greater complexity in C. elegans innate immune function than previously thought...
  65. ncbi Costs of resistance: genetic correlations and potential trade-offs in an insect immune system
    S C Cotter
    Institute of Biological Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling, UK
    J Evol Biol 17:421-9. 2004
    ..We speculate on a potential trade-off between defence against parasites and predators, mediated by larval colour, and its role in maintaining genetic variation in traits under natural selection...
  66. ncbi Identification of the core structure of lysozyme amyloid fibrils by proteolysis
    Erica Frare
    CRIBI Biotechnology Centre, University of Padua, Viale G Colombo 3, 35121 Padua, Italy
    J Mol Biol 361:551-61. 2006
    ..The majority of amyloid fibrils formed from lysozyme under the conditions used here contain a core structure involving some 50% of the polypeptide chain that is flanked by proteolytically accessible N and C-terminal regions...
  67. pmc Differences in electrostatic properties at antibody-antigen binding sites: implications for specificity and cross-reactivity
    Neeti Sinha
    Basic Research Laboratory, National Cancer Institute at Frederick, National Institutes of Health, Bldg 469, Frederick, MD 21702, USA
    Biophys J 83:2946-68. 2002
    ..In contrast, hydrophobic driven binding and low levels of electrostatic interactions are associated with conformational flexibility and cross-reactivity...
  68. ncbi Determination of lysozyme activities in a microplate format
    Yuan C Lee
    Department of Biology, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 N Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA
    Anal Biochem 310:223-4. 2002
  69. pmc Affinity transfer by CDR grafting on a nonimmunoglobulin scaffold
    Magali Nicaise
    Laboratoire de Modélisation et d Ingénierie des Protéines, UMR8619, Universite de Paris Sud, Bat 430, F 91405 Orsay cedex, France
    Protein Sci 13:1882-91. 2004
    ..The engineered NCS-CDR3 presents a structure similar to that of the wild-type NCS, and is stable and efficiently produced. ELISA, ITC, and SPR measurements demonstrated that the new NCS-CDR3 specifically bound lysozyme...
  70. ncbi Characterization of oligomeric species on the aggregation pathway of human lysozyme
    Erica Frare
    CRIBI Biotechnology Centre, University of Padua, Padua, Italy
    J Mol Biol 387:17-27. 2009
    ....
  71. ncbi Lysozyme: a model protein for amyloid research
    Rajaram Swaminathan
    Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati, Assam, India
    Adv Protein Chem Struct Biol 84:63-111. 2011
    ..The rich information available on lysozyme coupled with the multiple conditions that have been successful in inducing/inhibiting its aggregation in vitro makes lysozyme an ideal model protein to investigate amyloidogenesis...
  72. ncbi Formation of amyloid aggregates from human lysozyme and its disease-associated variants using hydrostatic pressure
    Fernanda G De Felice
    Departamento de Bioquimica Medica, Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21944 590, Brazil
    FASEB J 18:1099-101. 2004
    ....
  73. pmc Mutations of the Listeria monocytogenes peptidoglycan N-deacetylase and O-acetylase result in enhanced lysozyme sensitivity, bacteriolysis, and hyperinduction of innate immune pathways
    Chris S Rae
    Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 3202, USA
    Infect Immun 79:3596-606. 2011
    ..monocytogenes growth inhibition. This surprising observation suggests that extracellular lysozyme can access the macrophage cytosol and act on intracellular lysozyme-sensitive bacteria...
  74. ncbi The effect of protein-coated contact lenses on the adhesion and viability of gram negative bacteria
    Timothy J Williams
    Cooperative Research Centre for Eye Research and Technology, School of Optometry and Vision Science, Australia
    Curr Eye Res 27:227-35. 2003
    ..During contact lens wear, components of the tear film adsorb to the contact lens. This study aimed to investigate the effect of this conditioning film on the viability of bacteria...
  75. pmc Mutations affecting peptidoglycan acetylation in Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Neisseria meningitidis
    Joseph P Dillard
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Wisconsin Madison Medical School, 1300 University Avenue, 471A MSC, Madison, WI 53706, USA
    Infect Immun 73:5697-705. 2005
    ..Interestingly, the pacA mutant was more sensitive to EDTA, a compound known to trigger autolysis...
  76. ncbi Characterization and expression of HLysG2, a basic goose-type lysozyme from the human eye and testis
    Peng Huang
    State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China
    Mol Immunol 48:524-31. 2011
    ..Results indicated that HLysG2 is a potent antibacterial protein that may play a role in the innate immunity of the human eye...
  77. ncbi Lysozyme transgenic goats' milk influences gastrointestinal morphology in young pigs
    Dottie R Brundige
    Department of Animal Science, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    J Nutr 138:921-6. 2008
    ..These same benefits may occur in young children if they were to consume milk from hLZ-transgenic goats...
  78. ncbi Biochemistry. Signaling across the cell membrane
    Rama Ranganathan
    Green Center for Systems Biology and Department of Pharmacology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA
    Science 318:1253-4. 2007
  79. ncbi Molecular cloning and characterization of three novel lysozyme-like genes, predominantly expressed in the male reproductive system of humans, belonging to the c-type lysozyme/alpha-lactalbumin family
    Kexiong Zhang
    State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, Institute of Genetics, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, People s Republic of China
    Biol Reprod 73:1064-71. 2005
    ..23, 3p21.33, 17q11.2, and 17q12, respectively, and displayed a similar genomic structure. Our data suggest that these four lysozyme-like genes, which have arisen from a common progenitor gene, play a major role in human reproduction...
  80. ncbi SLLP1, a unique, intra-acrosomal, non-bacteriolytic, c lysozyme-like protein of human spermatozoa
    Arabinda Mandal
    Center for Research in Contraceptive and Reproductive Health, Department of Cell Biology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville 22908, USA
    Biol Reprod 68:1525-37. 2003
    ....
  81. ncbi Role of intermolecular forces in defining material properties of protein nanofibrils
    Tuomas P Knowles
    Nanoscience Centre, University of Cambridge, J J Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FF, UK
    Science 318:1900-3. 2007
    ..We elucidate the molecular origin of fibril material properties and show that the major contribution to their rigidity stems from a generic interbackbone hydrogen-bonding network that is modulated by variable side-chain interactions...
  82. pmc Characterization of expression, activity and role in antibacterial immunity of Anopheles gambiae lysozyme c-1
    Mayur K Kajla
    Department of Entomology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, USA
    Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol 155:201-9. 2010
    ..luteus thus suggesting that this protein plays an important role in antibacterial defense against selected bacteria...
  83. pmc Consumption of pasteurized human lysozyme transgenic goats' milk alters serum metabolite profile in young pigs
    Dottie R Brundige
    Department of Animal Science, Meyer Hall, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    Transgenic Res 19:563-74. 2010
    ..These results further support our hypothesis that consumption of hLZ-containing milk is beneficial to health...
  84. pmc Combining conformational flexibility and continuum electrostatics for calculating pK(a)s in proteins
    Roxana E Georgescu
    Department of Physics, City College of New York, New York 10031, USA
    Biophys J 83:1731-48. 2002
    ..Disallowing these motions changes the calculated pK(a)...
  85. pmc Predicting deleterious amino acid substitutions
    P C Ng
    Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington 98109, USA
    Genome Res 11:863-74. 2001
    ..may be used to identify plausible disease candidates among the SNPs that cause missense substitutions...
  86. ncbi The lysozyme locus in Drosophila melanogaster: different genes are expressed in midgut and salivary glands
    P Kylsten
    Department of Molecular Biology, Stockholm University, Sweden
    Mol Gen Genet 232:335-43. 1992
    ..The transcription units for both genes are very compact and they lack introns. Lysozyme D is unusual in that it is predicted to have an acidic isoelectric point whereas lysozyme P appears to be a typical basic lysozyme...
  87. ncbi Molecular cloning of an invertebrate goose-type lysozyme gene from Chlamys farreri, and lytic activity of the recombinant protein
    Jianmin Zhao
    Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 7 Nanhai Road, Qingdao 266071, PR China
    Mol Immunol 44:1198-208. 2007
    ..farreri...
  88. ncbi Full correlation analysis of conformational protein dynamics
    Oliver F Lange
    Department of Theoretical and Computational Biophysics, Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Am Fassberg 11, Göttingen 37077, Germany
    Proteins 70:1294-312. 2008
    ..In summary, FCA should provide improved collective degrees of freedom for dimension-reduced descriptions of macromolecular dynamics...
  89. pmc Amyloid protofibrils of lysozyme nucleate and grow via oligomer fusion
    Shannon E Hill
    Department of Physics, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida 33620 5700, USA
    Biophys J 96:3781-90. 2009
    ....
  90. ncbi B cells acquire antigen from target cells after synapse formation
    F D Batista
    Medical Research Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, UK
    Nature 411:489-94. 2001
    ..Synapse formation and antigen acquisition will probably enhance the activation of B cells at low antigen concentration, allow context-dependent antigen recognition and enhance the linking of B- and T-cell epitopes...
  91. pmc Lessons from the lysozyme of phage T4
    Walter A Baase
    Institute of Molecular Biology, 1229 University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon 97403 1229, USA
    Protein Sci 19:631-41. 2010
    ..Among the 43 space groups, P2(1)2(1)2(1) and P2(1) were observed most frequently, consistent with the prediction of Wukovitz and Yeates...
  92. ncbi Predicting the functional consequences of non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms: structure-based assessment of amino acid variation
    D Chasman
    Variagenics, 60 Hampshire Street, Cambridge, MA 02144, USA
    J Mol Biol 307:683-706. 2001
    ..This estimate suggests that a typical person will have about 6240-12,800 heterozygous loci that encode proteins with functional variation due to natural amino acid polymorphism...
  93. ncbi A relationship between antimicrobial peptide gene expression and capacity of a selected shrimp line to survive a Vibrio infection
    Julien de Lorgeril
    IFREMER, CNRS, Universite de Montpellier II, UMR 5119 Ecosystèmes Lagunaires, Place Eugene Bataillon, CC80, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5, France
    Mol Immunol 45:3438-45. 2008
    ....
  94. pmc A mutation in the Corynebacterium glutamicum ltsA gene causes susceptibility to lysozyme, temperature-sensitive growth, and L-glutamate production
    T Hirasawa
    Department of Bioengineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Nagatsuta, Midori ku, Yokohama 226 8501, Japan
    J Bacteriol 182:2696-701. 2000
    ..These results indicate that the ltsA gene encodes a novel glutamine-dependent amidotransferase that is involved in the mechanisms of formation of rigid cell wall structure and in the L-glutamate production of C. glutamicum...
  95. ncbi Molecular evolution of vertebrate goose-type lysozyme genes
    David M Irwin
    Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, Banting and Best Diabetes Centre, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, 100 College Street, M5G 1LG, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    J Mol Evol 56:234-42. 2003
    ..This observation suggests that the mammalian enzymes may have altered their biological function, as well...
  96. ncbi Hereditary renal amyloidosis associated with variant lysozyme in a large English family
    J D Gillmore
    Immunological Medicine Unit, Division of Medicine, ICSM, Hammersmith Hospital, London, UK
    Nephrol Dial Transplant 14:2639-44. 1999
    ..However, the clinical manifestations in these families, additional members of which have lately been identified, have not previously been reported in detail...
  97. ncbi SpxB regulates O-acetylation-dependent resistance of Lactococcus lactis peptidoglycan to hydrolysis
    Patrick Veiga
    Unité Bactéries Lactiques et Pathogènes Opportunistes, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, 78352 Jouy en Josas Cedex, France
    J Biol Chem 282:19342-54. 2007
    ..We suggest that the two-component system CesSR responds to this stress by inducing SpxB, thus favoring its interactions with RNA polymerase. Induction of PG O-acetylation by this cascade renders it resistant to hydrolysis...
  98. pmc Characterization of the structure and dynamics of amyloidogenic variants of human lysozyme by NMR spectroscopy
    A K Chamberlain
    Oxford Centre for Molecular Sciences, University of Oxford, New Chemistry Laboratory, Oxford OX1 3QT, UK
    Protein Sci 10:2525-30. 2001
    ..This finding indicates that it is the increased ability of the variants to access partially folded conformations, rather than intrinsic changes in their native state properties, that is the origin of their amyloidogenicity...
  99. ncbi Molecular cloning, expression and evolution of the Japanese flounder goose-type lysozyme gene, and the lytic activity of its recombinant protein
    J Hikima
    Laboratory of Genetics and Biochemistry, Department of Aquatic Biosciences, Tokyo University of Fisheries, Konan 4-5-7, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8477, Japan
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1520:35-44. 2001
    ..0 and 25 degrees C, possessed lytic activity against Micrococcus lysodeikticus and several fish pathogenic bacteria. This is the first report of a g-type lysozyme gene other than for reported avian species...
  100. ncbi Regulation of antiprotease and antimicrobial protein secretion by airway submucosal gland serous cells
    Nam Soo Joo
    Cystic Fibrosis Research Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 2130, USA
    J Biol Chem 279:38854-60. 2004
    ..Thus, Calu-3 cells secrete diverse proteins that in aggregate would be expected to suppress microbial growth, protect the airways from damage, and limit the activation of epithelial Na(+) channels via serine proteases...
  101. pmc The non-core regions of human lysozyme amyloid fibrils influence cytotoxicity
    Maria F Mossuto
    Institute for Research in Biomedicine, Barcelona, Spain
    J Mol Biol 402:783-96. 2010
    ..These findings indicate that protein aggregation can give rise to species with different degree of cytotoxicity due to intrinsic differences in their physicochemical properties...

Research Grants64

  1. Control of bacterial morphology and differentiation
    Yves V Brun; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The second aim is to determine how the muramidase SpmX is required for stalk synthesis in Asticcacaulis biprosthecum and directs its subcellular location...
  2. Pilus Assembly in Gram-Positive Bacteria
    Hung Ton That; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..and involve the side chain amino groups of pilin motif sequences to generate links between pilin subunits;iii) Muramidase treament releases pili into the medium;iv) Sortase and pilin genes with sorting signal and pilin motif are found ..
  3. BIOSYNTHESIS OF BACTERIAL CELL WALLS AND MEMBRANES
    GERALD SHOCKMAN; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..Included will be studies of the molecular mechanism of hydrolysis of PGs by muramidase-2 (E- 2)...
  4. Relationship between Bio and Psych Correlates of PTSD
    Rachel Yehuda; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..
  5. Psychobiology of PTSD: A Decade of Progress
    Rachel Yehuda; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..We also expect the conference to be attractive to educated lay individuals such as consumers, family members, advocates, and members of the press who are interested in tracking the development of knowledge in this area. ..
  6. Biology of Risk of PTSD in Holocaust Survivor Offspring
    Rachel Yehuda; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The subjects will be further subdivided so that there are 40 in each group with and without PTSD; half of each subgroup will have a current depressive disorder. Thus, we will recruit a total of 20 subjects in each of 12 subgroups. ..
  7. Genetics, Endocrinology and PTSD Risk in the Population
    Rachel Yehuda; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The development of models of prevention and treatment of PTSD can only occur following an understanding of individual risk factors and their interactions with event exposure. ..
  8. Proteomics of Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage
    Alexander Cole; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ....
  9. Retrocyclins: Circular Defensins Active Against HIV-1
    Alexander M Cole; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Availability of such agents, in the form of a cream or gel, would empower vulnerable sexual partners by providing them with an invisible, effective means of protection. ..
  10. CD8 + CD75s + regulatory T cells in anti-tumor immunity
    JAMES ZIMRING; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..These aims propose to investigate the role that negative regulatory T cells play in the establishment of immunological tolerance to tumor antigens and the fashion in which their elimination can result in tumor rejection. ..
  11. Nasal carriage of S. aureus: host-pathogen interactions
    Alexander M Cole; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..abstract_text> ..
  12. Alloimmunization to mHAs by RBC Transfusion
    JAMES ZIMRING; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..By analyzing transfusion patients at Emory, we will determine the extent to which females receiving leukoreduced RBC from male donors are immunized to H-Y antigens. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  13. Induction of Immunological Tolerance for Gene Therapy
    JAMES ZIMRING; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  14. The role of hemojuvelin in the regulation of iron metabolism
    Tomas Ganz; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable]..
  15. The role of Ach in CD8+ Cytolytic T cell development
    JAMES ZIMRING; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..
  16. THE ROLE OF INFLAMMATION IN ANEMIA OF THE ELDERLY
    Tomas Ganz; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This study is designed to find how inflammation causes anemia in the elderly and how the disease processes are changed by available treatments. ..
  17. Selective depletion of alloreactive T cells in BMT
    JAMES ZIMRING; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..In keeping with the stated purpose of this RFA, these studies represent the "development and application of cell engineering methods to predictably induce tolerance..." ..
  18. INNATE HOST DEFENSE IN THE HUMAN VAGINA
    Tomas Ganz; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..
  19. Human Defensins in Phagocytes and Epithelia
    Tomas Ganz; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..In the aggregate, these studies will expand our understanding of is ubiquitous and multifunctional family of human host defense peptides, this time also in their role as effectors of innate immunity in epithelia. ..
  20. LABELIT: Automated Diffraction Analysis for X-ray Crystallography
    Nicholas Sauter; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Our work will create software to allow X-ray crystallographers to perform this difficult experiment rapidly and efficiently. ..
  21. Synergism Between Influenza Virus and Pneumococcus
    Jonathan McCullers; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ....
  22. Feasibility and Pilot Efficacy of Flash-heated Breastmilk to Reduce Pediatric HIV
    Caroline Chantry; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  23. Lethal synergism between influenza and pneumococcus
    Jonathan McCullers; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ....
  24. Protein Structure by EPR Distance Determination and Molecular Modeling
    ERIC HUSTEDT; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..In general, the tools developed in this proposal will be applicable to a wide range of SDSL studies of protein structure, assembly, and functional dynamics in laboratories worldwide. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  25. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) Affects Immunity through PPAR-alpha.
    Margie Peden Adams; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The unimmunized and immunized experiments will be conducted to control for possible differences in response related to lymphocyte activation from the immunization. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  26. Mast Cells and IBD Pathogenesis
    LAURA HALE; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  27. PROTEIN STRUCTURE BY ANALYSIS OF SPIN LABEL INTERACTIONS
    ERIC HUSTEDT; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..abstract_text> ..
  28. Role of Lysozyme in Airways Host Defense
    Henry Akinbi; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..lysozyme plays an important role in killing of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in vivo and that muramidase might not be required for bacterial killing, but may be important in modulating inflammation...
  29. ELECTRIC INJURY--IMAGING OF THERMAL/NON-THERMAL ASPECTS
    Raphael Lee; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..abstract_text> ..
  30. FUNCTIONAL NEAR INFRARED IMAGING SYSTEM
    BENIAMINO BARBIERI; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Cognitive neuroscience; 3. Brain oxygenation monitoring during cardiac bypass surgery; 4. Sleep-apnea studies; 5. Attention deficit disorder investigations ..
  31. PROTEIN STRUCTURE BY ANALYSIS OF SPIN LABEL INTERACTIONS
    ERIC HUSTEDT; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..abstract_text> ..
  32. PROFILING AUTOANTIGENS IN UVEITIS
    Wei Li; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..These efforts will advance our understanding of the disease etiology and prognosis, and improve the diagnosis and therapy. ..
  33. Ketosis, Vascular Inflammation and Its Therapy in Type 1 Diabetic Patients
    Sushil K Jain; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The long-term goal is to understand the role of ketosis in CVD and to discover a relatively low-cost dietary supplement that could be used as an adjuvant therapy for CVD prevention in type 1 diabetes. ..
  34. In Vivo Characterization of Bacteria-mediated Extracellular Reduction of Chromium
    H Peter Lu; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ....
  35. Chemoprevention of IBD-Associated Colon Cancer
    Laura P Hale; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The proposed studies will further elucidate mechanisms that can lead to novel interventions to prevent IBD-associated colon cancers, providing great benefit to IBD patients and their families. ..
  36. Biopolymer Surfactants for Sealing Electroporated Membranes
    RAPHAEL CARL LEE; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Finally, we will conduct studies in parallel to determine if surfactant rescued cells manifest normal phenotype during proliferation or exhibit effects of mutations caused by unrepaired DMA. ..
  37. Elevated potassium ion in lacrimal fluid and the health of the ocular surface
    John Ubels; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..If the high potassium in tears is important for the health of the ocular surface, this information will be useful in the development of improved treatments for dry eye disease. ..
  38. Adjuvant Therapy for Vascular Inflammation in Diabetes
    Sushil Jain; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  39. Novel MRI Methods for Neuronal Loss and Iron Quantification in Parkinsons Disease
    Shalom Michaeli; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  40. Development & Applications of Knowledge-based Potentials
    Yaoqi Zhou; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The successful completion of the proposed studies will likely lead to a new generation of algorithms for more accurate structure determination. ..
  41. Analysis of Lacrimal Gland by Laser Microdissection
    John Ubels; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..abstract_text> ..
  42. Role of Lysozyme in Airways Host Defense
    Henry Akinbi; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..These studies will provide insight into the role of lysozyme in airway host defense and provide a preliminary assessment of the therapeutic potential of exogenously administered lysozyme. ..
  43. CHEMISTRY AND BIOCHEMISTRY OF GLYCOCONJUGATES
    YUAN LEE; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..These studies are significant from the evolutionary standpoint, since the occurrence of alpha-Gal in glycoproteins is rare in birds, and the responsible transferase seems to be different from that of mammals. ..
  44. Bioactivity and Vitamins in Flash-heated Breastmilk
    Caroline Chantry; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Information from these analyses will be used in linear programming to predict how the described changes in nutrient content of milk due to heating would affect the overall dietary needs of the child and the associated costs. ..
  45. 3rd Orthomyxoviruses Research Conference
    Jonathan McCullers; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The purpose of this proposal is to provide funds that will allow promising young investigators to interact with their peers and develop a commitment to this area of research. ..
  46. 2nd Orthomyxoviruses Research Conference
    Jonathan McCullers; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The purpose of this proposal is to provide funds that will allow promising young investigators to interact with their peers and develop a commitment to this area of research. ..
  47. Novel Oral Adjuvant for Dental Vaccines
    LAURA HALE; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..
  48. Bromelain as a Biologically-Based Therapy for IBD
    LAURA HALE; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..This research will thus strengthen the biomedical research knowledge base needed to inform the practice of complementary and alternative medicine. ..
  49. Bromelain Proteinase Activity in IBD
    LAURA HALE; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..They will thus strengthen the scientific knowledge base needed to inform the practice of complementary and alternative medicine. ..
  50. MECHANISMS OF ENZYMIC AND HYDRIDE TRANSFERS
    Gregory Petsko; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  51. Structure-based prediction of folding mechanism
    Yaoqi Zhou; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The analytic tools and computational methods developed in the proposal have the potential to be widely used by those who are interested in determining the preferred folding pathways. ..
  52. Acquisition of an electrospray TOF mass spectrometer
    IGOR KALTASHOV; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The operation of the instrument will be overseen by a Mass Spectrometry Advisory committee comprised of faculty members representing three academic departments and one interdisciplinary research center at UMass. ..
  53. Mapping the Binding Surfaces of Ras and Related GTPases
    Carla Mattos; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The goal is to provide key information for ligand design and discovery that is based on multiple structures that offer multiple perspectives. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  54. Pathogen-specific drug targets for weaponized bacteria
    Vincent Fischetti; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..In total, these efforts target central virulence factors in critical biowarfare pathogens. ..
  55. Mammalian Lactoferrin Receptors: Structure and Function
    Bo Lonnerdal; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Overall, our understanding of the physiological significance of Lf and its receptor will be increased. ..
  56. High Performance Computer System for Molecular Modeling
    Benoit Roux; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ....
  57. Innate immune resistance to intracellular bacterial pathogens
    RUSSELL VANCE; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Such knowledge should contribute to rational approaches to designing novel antibacterial therapies. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  58. Innate Immune Detection of Intracellular Pathogens
    RUSSELL VANCE; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ....
  59. SPECTROSCOPIC AND RELATED STUDIES ON LENS MEMBRANE LIPID
    Douglas Borchman; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..An understanding of these alterations will facilitate the development of therapies to prevent or perhaps even reverse these changes. ..
  60. Noninvasive biomarkers of proteolytic activity in CF
    Scott Sagel; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..In addition, he will actively participate and train in the Pediatric GCRC, and frequently interact with his sponsor, mentors, and collaborators. ..
  61. Structural analysis of the hepatitis C core protein
    Marc Allaire; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Altogether, the determination of the structure of the capsid will facilitate the development of research programs that aim to inhibit the assembly of the virus, a novel and very promising target for drug development. ..
  62. Ethanol Effects on Hepatic Proteolytic Systems
    TIANA CURRY MCCOY; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..