calcineurin

Summary

Summary: A calcium- and calmodulin-binding protein present in highest concentrations in the central nervous system. Calcineurin is composed of two subunits. A catalytic subunit, calcineurin A, and a regulatory subunit, calcineurin B, with molecular weights of about 60 kDa and 19 kDa, respectively. Calcineurin has been shown to dephosphorylate a number of phosphoproteins including histones, myosin light chain, and the regulatory subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. It is involved in the regulation of signal transduction and is the target of an important class of immunophilin-immunosuppressive drug complexes in T-lymphocytes that act by inhibiting T-cell activation.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Mediation of IGF-1-induced skeletal myotube hypertrophy by PI(3)K/Akt/mTOR and PI(3)K/Akt/GSK3 pathways
    C Rommel
    Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, 777 Old Saw Mill River Road, Tarrytown, NY 10591-6707, USA
    Nat Cell Biol 3:1009-13. 2001
  2. pmc Hsp90 governs dispersion and drug resistance of fungal biofilms
    Nicole Robbins
    Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    PLoS Pathog 7:e1002257. 2011
  3. ncbi miR-499 regulates mitochondrial dynamics by targeting calcineurin and dynamin-related protein-1
    Jian Xun Wang
    Division of Cardiovascular Research, National Key Laboratory of Biomembrane and Membrane Biotechnology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
    Nat Med 17:71-8. 2011
  4. ncbi Transcriptional regulation by calcium, calcineurin, and NFAT
    Patrick G Hogan
    The Center for Blood Research, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Genes Dev 17:2205-32. 2003
  5. ncbi A calcineurin-dependent transcriptional pathway for cardiac hypertrophy
    J D Molkentin
    Department of Molecular Biology and Oncology, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, 75225 9148, USA
    Cell 93:215-28. 1998
  6. pmc Dephosphorylation by calcineurin regulates translocation of Drp1 to mitochondria
    G M Cereghetti
    Dulbecco Telethon Institute, Padua, Italy
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:15803-8. 2008
  7. ncbi Hsp90 potentiates the rapid evolution of new traits: drug resistance in diverse fungi
    Leah E Cowen
    Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, 9 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA
    Science 309:2185-9. 2005
  8. ncbi Reduced exposure to calcineurin inhibitors in renal transplantation
    Henrik Ekberg
    Lund University, Malmo, Sweden
    N Engl J Med 357:2562-75. 2007
  9. pmc Reversible phosphorylation of Drp1 by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase and calcineurin regulates mitochondrial fission and cell death
    J Thomas Cribbs
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
    EMBO Rep 8:939-44. 2007
  10. ncbi Calcineurin: form and function
    F Rusnak
    Section of Hematology Research and Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA
    Physiol Rev 80:1483-521. 2000

Research Grants

  1. MOLECULAR STUDIES OF THE PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE CALCINEURIN
    WHYTE OWEN; Fiscal Year: 2002
  2. Signaling in Thymocyte Selection
    Gerald R Crabtree; Fiscal Year: 2010
  3. Targeting Galectin-3 with novel drugs for treatment of eczema
    Fu Tong Liu; Fiscal Year: 2010
  4. Inhibition of IkK to treat lethal Graft-vs.-Host Disease
    Patrick Flood; Fiscal Year: 2009
  5. Regulation of AKAP79 Postsynaptic Membrane Targeting
    MARK L DELL'ACQUA; Fiscal Year: 2012
  6. Novel Macrolide Th17 Inhibitors
    Jay K Kolls; Fiscal Year: 2012
  7. SFRP2 and NFAT are therapeutic targets in angiosarcoma
    NANCY K DEMORE; Fiscal Year: 2013
  8. Mechanism and functional role of AKAP79/150 in M current control and excitability
    Mark S Shapiro; Fiscal Year: 2010
  9. NFAT Signaling and Down Syndrome
    Gerald R Crabtree; Fiscal Year: 2012
  10. Molecular Mechanisms in Bone Resorption
    Steven A Lietman; Fiscal Year: 2013

Detail Information

Publications336 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Mediation of IGF-1-induced skeletal myotube hypertrophy by PI(3)K/Akt/mTOR and PI(3)K/Akt/GSK3 pathways
    C Rommel
    Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, 777 Old Saw Mill River Road, Tarrytown, NY 10591-6707, USA
    Nat Cell Biol 3:1009-13. 2001
    ..the signalling pathways by which IGF-1 promotes hypertrophy remain unclear, with roles suggested for both the calcineurin/NFAT (nuclear factor of activated T cells) pathway and the PtdIns-3-OH kinase (PI(3)K)/Akt pathway...
  2. pmc Hsp90 governs dispersion and drug resistance of fungal biofilms
    Nicole Robbins
    Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    PLoS Pathog 7:e1002257. 2011
    ..emergence and maintenance of drug resistance in planktonic conditions by stabilizing the protein phosphatase calcineurin and MAPK Mkc1. Hsp90 also regulates temperature-dependent C...
  3. ncbi miR-499 regulates mitochondrial dynamics by targeting calcineurin and dynamin-related protein-1
    Jian Xun Wang
    Division of Cardiovascular Research, National Key Laboratory of Biomembrane and Membrane Biotechnology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
    Nat Med 17:71-8. 2011
    ..We found that both the α- and β-isoforms of the calcineurin catalytic subunit are direct targets of miR-499 and that miR-499 inhibits cardiomyocyte apoptosis through its ..
  4. ncbi Transcriptional regulation by calcium, calcineurin, and NFAT
    Patrick G Hogan
    The Center for Blood Research, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Genes Dev 17:2205-32. 2003
  5. ncbi A calcineurin-dependent transcriptional pathway for cardiac hypertrophy
    J D Molkentin
    Department of Molecular Biology and Oncology, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, 75225 9148, USA
    Cell 93:215-28. 1998
    ..We show that cardiac hypertrophy is induced by the calcium-dependent phosphatase calcineurin, which dephosphorylates the transcription factor NF-AT3, enabling it to translocate to the nucleus...
  6. pmc Dephosphorylation by calcineurin regulates translocation of Drp1 to mitochondria
    G M Cereghetti
    Dulbecco Telethon Institute, Padua, Italy
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:15803-8. 2008
    ..Here, we show a role for calcineurin-dependent translocation of the profission dynamin related protein 1 (Drp1) to mitochondria in dysfunction-..
  7. ncbi Hsp90 potentiates the rapid evolution of new traits: drug resistance in diverse fungi
    Leah E Cowen
    Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, 9 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA
    Science 309:2185-9. 2005
    ..During selection in a human host, drug resistance that was initially Hsp90-dependent evolved toward independence. Thus, Hsp90 can act in diverse ways to couple environmental contingency to the emergence and fixation of new traits...
  8. ncbi Reduced exposure to calcineurin inhibitors in renal transplantation
    Henrik Ekberg
    Lund University, Malmo, Sweden
    N Engl J Med 357:2562-75. 2007
    ..Immunosuppressive regimens with the fewest possible toxic effects are desirable for transplant recipients. This study evaluated the efficacy and relative toxic effects of four immunosuppressive regimens...
  9. pmc Reversible phosphorylation of Drp1 by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase and calcineurin regulates mitochondrial fission and cell death
    J Thomas Cribbs
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
    EMBO Rep 8:939-44. 2007
    ..Ser 656 is phosphorylated by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase and dephosphorylated by calcineurin, and its phosphorylation state is controlled by sympathetic tone, calcium levels and cell viability...
  10. ncbi Calcineurin: form and function
    F Rusnak
    Section of Hematology Research and Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA
    Physiol Rev 80:1483-521. 2000
    b>Calcineurin is a eukaryotic Ca(2+)- and calmodulin-dependent serine/threonine protein phosphatase...
  11. pmc PKC signaling regulates drug resistance of the fungal pathogen Candida albicans via circuitry comprised of Mkc1, calcineurin, and Hsp90
    Shantelle L LaFayette
    Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    PLoS Pathog 6:e1001069. 2010
    ..Strikingly, inhibition of Pkc1 phenocopied inhibition of the molecular chaperone Hsp90 or its client protein calcineurin. PKC signaling was required for calcineurin activation in response to drug exposure in S. cerevisiae...
  12. ncbi MicroRNA-199b targets the nuclear kinase Dyrk1a in an auto-amplification loop promoting calcineurin/NFAT signalling
    Paula A da Costa Martins
    Hubrecht Institute, Royal Netherlands Academy of Sciences, PO Box 85164, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Nat Cell Biol 12:1220-7. 2010
    ..Increasing evidence implicates miRs in myocardial disease processes. Here we show that miR-199b is a direct calcineurin/NFAT target gene that increases in expression in mouse and human heart failure, and targets the nuclear NFAT ..
  13. ncbi Comparative genomics of MAP kinase and calcium-calcineurin signalling components in plant and human pathogenic fungi
    Nicolas Rispail
    Departamento de Genetica, Universidad de Cordoba, Cordoba, Spain
    Fungal Genet Biol 46:287-98. 2009
    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades and the calcium-calcineurin pathway control fundamental aspects of fungal growth, development and reproduction...
  14. ncbi Harnessing calcineurin as a novel anti-infective agent against invasive fungal infections
    William J Steinbach
    Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    Nat Rev Microbiol 5:418-30. 2007
    ..b>Calcineurin inhibition is currently used to exert effective immunosuppression following organ transplantation and in ..
  15. ncbi Aβ₁₋₄₂-RAGE interaction disrupts tight junctions of the blood-brain barrier via Ca²⁺-calcineurin signaling
    Sun Young Kook
    Department of Biochemistry and Biomedical Sciences, Seoul National University, College of Medicine, Seoul 110 799, Korea
    J Neurosci 32:8845-54. 2012
    ..Neutralizing antibodies against RAGE and inhibitors of calcineurin and MMPs prevented Aβ₁₋₄₂-induced changes in ZO-1, suggesting that Aβ-RAGE interactions alter TJ ..
  16. pmc Calcineurin controls drug tolerance, hyphal growth, and virulence in Candida dubliniensis
    Ying Lien Chen
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Eukaryot Cell 10:803-19. 2011
    ..dubliniensis infection is common and constitutes a significant therapeutic challenge. The calcineurin inhibitor FK506 exhibits synergistic fungicidal activity with azoles or echinocandins in the fungal pathogens C...
  17. ncbi The CREB coactivator TORC2 functions as a calcium- and cAMP-sensitive coincidence detector
    Robert A Screaton
    Peptide Biology Laboratories, Salk Institute for Biological Studies, 10010 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Cell 119:61-74. 2004
    ..This module consists of the calcium-regulated phosphatase calcineurin and the Ser/Thr kinase SIK2, both of which associate with TORC2...
  18. pmc Lifespan extension induced by AMPK and calcineurin is mediated by CRTC-1 and CREB
    William Mair
    The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    Nature 470:404-8. 2011
    Activating AMPK or inactivating calcineurin slows ageing in Caenorhabditis elegans and both have been implicated as therapeutic targets for age-related pathology in mammals...
  19. pmc Conditional calcineurin knockout mice exhibit multiple abnormal behaviors related to schizophrenia
    Tsuyoshi Miyakawa
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, The Picower Center for Learning and Memory and RIKEN Massachusetts Institute of Technology Neuroscience Research Center, Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:8987-92. 2003
    b>Calcineurin (CN), a calcium- and calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase, plays a significant role in the central nervous system...
  20. pmc Muscle expression of a local Igf-1 isoform protects motor neurons in an ALS mouse model
    Gabriella Dobrowolny
    Department of Histology and Medical Embryology, CE BEMM and Interuniversity Institute of Myology, University of Rome La Sapienza, 14 00161 Rome, Italy
    J Cell Biol 168:193-9. 2005
    ..maintained muscle integrity and enhanced satellite cell activity in SOD1(G93A) transgenic mice, inducing calcineurin-mediated regenerative pathways...
  21. ncbi Novel cardiac apoptotic pathway: the dephosphorylation of apoptosis repressor with caspase recruitment domain by calcineurin
    Wei Qi Tan
    Division of Cardiovascular Research, National Key Laboratory of Biomembrane and Membrane Biotechnology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080, China
    Circulation 118:2268-76. 2008
    ..Whether the occurrence of apoptosis is related to the loss of protection by ARC under pathological conditions remains unknown...
  22. ncbi Everolimus-based, calcineurin-inhibitor-free regimen in recipients of de-novo kidney transplants: an open-label, randomised, controlled trial
    Klemens Budde
    Department of Nephrology, Charite University, Berlin, Germany
    Lancet 377:837-47. 2011
    Non-nephrotoxic immunosuppressive strategies that allow reduction of calcineurin-inhibitor exposure without compromising safety or efficacy remain a goal in kidney transplantation...
  23. pmc Calcineurin is essential for survival during membrane stress in Candida albicans
    M Cristina Cruz
    Department of Genetics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    EMBO J 21:546-59. 2002
    The immunosuppressants cyclosporin A (CsA) and FK506 inhibit the protein phosphatase calcineurin and block T-cell activation and transplant rejection. Calcineurin is conserved in microorganisms and plays a general role in stress survival...
  24. ncbi Conversion from calcineurin inhibitors to sirolimus maintenance therapy in renal allograft recipients: 24-month efficacy and safety results from the CONVERT trial
    Francesco P Schena
    Renal, Dialysis and Transplant Unit, Department of Emergency and Organ Transplant, University of Bari, Bari, Italy
    Transplantation 87:233-42. 2009
    The efficacy and safety of converting maintenance renal transplant recipients from calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) to sirolimus (SRL) was evaluated.
  25. ncbi Calcineurin inhibitor nephrotoxicity
    Maarten Naesens
    Department of Nephrology and Renal Transplantation, University Hospitals Leuven, Herestraat 49, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 4:481-508. 2009
    The use of the calcineurin inhibitors cyclosporine and tacrolimus led to major advances in the field of transplantation, with excellent short-term outcome...
  26. pmc Synergistic effect of calcineurin inhibitors and fluconazole against Candida albicans biofilms
    Priya Uppuluri
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 52:1127-32. 2008
    b>Calcineurin is a Ca2+-calmodulin-activated serine/threonine-specific protein phosphatase that governs multiple aspects of fungal physiology, including cation homeostasis, morphogenesis, antifungal drug susceptibility, and virulence...
  27. ncbi Class II histone deacetylases act as signal-responsive repressors of cardiac hypertrophy
    Chun Li Zhang
    Department of Molecular Biology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 6000 Harry Hines Boulevard, Dallas 75390, USA
    Cell 110:479-88. 2002
    ..Thus, class II HDACs act as signal-responsive suppressors of the transcriptional program governing cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure...
  28. pmc Amyloid beta induces the morphological neurodegenerative triad of spine loss, dendritic simplification, and neuritic dystrophies through calcineurin activation
    Hai Yan Wu
    Department of Neurology Alzheimer s Disease Research Laboratory, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, Massachusetts 02129, USA
    J Neurosci 30:2636-49. 2010
    ..We show that soluble Abeta oligomers lead to activation of the calcium-dependent phosphatase calcineurin (CaN) (PP2B), which in turn activates the transcriptional factor nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT)...
  29. pmc Inhibition of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T-cell function by calcineurin-dependent interleukin-2 production
    Robert Zeiser
    Center for Clinical Science Research, Division of Bone Marrow Transplantation, Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Blood 108:390-9. 2006
    ..of Treg and FoxP3 expression within this population was lowest in conjunction with CSA, suggesting that calcineurin-dependent interleukin 2 (IL-2) production is critically required for Treg cells in vivo...
  30. ncbi Mechanotransduction, PROX1, and FOXC2 cooperate to control connexin37 and calcineurin during lymphatic-valve formation
    Amélie Sabine
    Division of Experimental Oncology, Multidisciplinary Oncology Center, University Hospital of Lausanne, Switzerland
    Dev Cell 22:430-45. 2012
    ..PROX1, FOXC2, and flow coordinately control expression of the gap junction protein connexin37 and activation of calcineurin/NFAT signaling...
  31. ncbi In smooth muscle, FK506-binding protein modulates IP3 receptor-evoked Ca2+ release by mTOR and calcineurin
    Debbi MacMillan
    Institute of Biomedical and Life Sciences, Neuroscience and Biomedical Systems, West Medical Building, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8QQ, UK
    J Cell Sci 118:5443-51. 2005
    ..as the 12 kDa FK506-binding protein (FKBP12), either directly or indirectly by inhibition of the phosphatase calcineurin. Here, we report that, in addition to calcineurin, FKPBs modulate release through the mammalian target of ..
  32. ncbi Identification of calcineurin as a key signalling enzyme in T-lymphocyte activation
    N A Clipstone
    Beckman Center for Molecular and Genetic Medicine, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, California 94305
    Nature 357:695-7. 1992
    ..11 for review). The Ca2+/calmodulin-regulated phosphatase calcineurin is a major target of drug-isomerase complexes in vitro...
  33. pmc Calcineurin is required for pseudohyphal growth, virulence, and drug resistance in Candida lusitaniae
    Jing Zhang
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, USA
    PLoS ONE 7:e44192. 2012
    ..We investigated the role of the calcium-activated protein phosphatase calcineurin in several virulence attributes of C...
  34. ncbi Simvastatin inducing PC3 prostate cancer cell necrosis mediated by calcineurin and mitochondrial dysfunction
    Kívia A P Oliveira
    Departamento de Patologia Clinica, Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas, Universidade Estadual de Campinas UNICAMP, Sao Paulo, Brazil
    J Bioenerg Biomembr 40:307-14. 2008
    ..induced principally apoptosis, which was prevented by mevalonic acid but not by cyclosporin A, the inhibitor of calcineurin and mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT)...
  35. ncbi Glucose-induced calcium influx in budding yeast involves a novel calcium transport system and can activate calcineurin
    Silvia Groppi
    Dep Biotechnology and Biosciences, University of Milano Bicocca, Milan, Italy
    Cell Calcium 49:376-86. 2011
    ..GIC transport is fully functional in conditions when calcineurin is active, a serine/threonine specificity phosphatase involved in the regulation of calcium homeostasis and in ..
  36. pmc Calcium input frequency, duration and amplitude differentially modulate the relative activation of calcineurin and CaMKII
    Lu Li
    EMBL European Bioinformatics Institute, Hinxton, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 7:e43810. 2012
    ..Calcium input activates both calcineurin and Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) at all frequencies, but increased frequencies shift ..
  37. pmc Calcineurin acts through the CRZ1/TCN1-encoded transcription factor to regulate gene expression in yeast
    A M Stathopoulos
    Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 5020, USA
    Genes Dev 11:3432-44. 1997
    b>Calcineurin is a conserved Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase that plays a critical role in Ca2+ signaling...
  38. pmc Loss of Apm1, the micro1 subunit of the clathrin-associated adaptor-protein-1 complex, causes distinct phenotypes and synthetic lethality with calcineurin deletion in fission yeast
    Ayako Kita
    Division of Molecular Pharmacology and Pharmacogenomics, Department of Genome Sciences, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe 650 0017, Japan
    Mol Biol Cell 15:2920-31. 2004
    b>Calcineurin is a highly conserved regulator of Ca(2+) signaling in eukaryotes. In fission yeast, calcineurin is not essential for viability but is required for cytokinesis and Cl(-) homeostasis...
  39. ncbi Transcription factors of the NFAT family: regulation and function
    A Rao
    Center for Blood Research, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Annu Rev Immunol 15:707-47. 1997
    ..The activity of NFAT proteins is tightly regulated by the calcium/calmodulin-dependent phosphatase calcineurin, a primary target for inhibition by cyclosporin A and FK506...
  40. ncbi CRZ1, a target of the calcineurin pathway in Candida albicans
    Mahir Karababa
    Institute of Microbiology, University Hospital Lausanne, CH 1011 Lausanne, Switzerland
    Mol Microbiol 59:1429-51. 2006
    b>Calcineurin is a major player in calcium-dependent signal transduction pathways of eukaryotes. Calcineurin acts on transcription factors (e.g...
  41. ncbi Functional characterization of the Aspergillus fumigatus calcineurin
    Márcia Eliana da Silva Ferreira
    Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Brazil
    Fungal Genet Biol 44:219-30. 2007
    ..in eukaryotic cells are the Ca(2+)-binding protein calmodulin and the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent phosphatase calcineurin. Calcineurin is a heterodimer that consists of a catalytic subunit A and a Ca(2+)/calmodulin binding unit...
  42. ncbi Ca2+-induced apoptosis through calcineurin dephosphorylation of BAD
    H G Wang
    The Burnham Institute, 10901 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Science 284:339-43. 1999
    The Ca2+-activated protein phosphatase calcineurin induces apoptosis, but the mechanism is unknown...
  43. pmc Reversibility of adverse, calcineurin-dependent cardiac remodeling
    JEFF M BERRY
    Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, 75390 8573, USA
    Circ Res 109:407-17. 2011
    Studies to dissect the role of calcineurin in pathological cardiac remodeling have relied heavily on murine models, in which genetic gain- and loss-of-function manipulations are initiated at or before birth...
  44. ncbi Effect of sirolimus on calcineurin inhibitor-induced nephrotoxicity using renal expression of KLOTHO, an antiaging gene
    Dong He Han
    Department of Internal Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea
    Transplantation 90:135-41. 2010
    The aim of this study was to observe the effect of sirolimus (SRL) on calcineurin inhibitor (CNI)-induced nephrotoxicity in the aging process by using renal expression of KLOTHO, an antiaging gene. METHODS...
  45. ncbi Sirolimus for calcineurin inhibitors in organ transplantation: contra
    Paolo Cravedi
    Mario Negri Institute for Pharmacological Research, Bergamo Unit of Nephrology, Azienda Ospedaliera Ospedali Riuniti, Bergamo, Italy
    Kidney Int 78:1068-74. 2010
    ..agent inhibiting the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) proposed as a non-nephrotoxic alternative to calcineurin inhibitors for the prevention of acute rejection in renal transplantation...
  46. ncbi Lipopolysaccharide induces cellular hypertrophy through calcineurin/NFAT-3 signaling pathway in H9c2 myocardiac cells
    Chung Jung Liu
    Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan
    Mol Cell Biochem 313:167-78. 2008
    ..inhibitors including U0126 (ERK1/2 inhibitor), SB203580 (p38 MAPK inhibitor), SP600125 (JNK1/2 inhibitor), CsA (calcineurin inhibitor), FK506 (calcineurin inhibitor), and QNZ (NFkappaB inhibitor), LPS-induced hypertrophic ..
  47. ncbi Adipocytes produce aldosterone through calcineurin-dependent signaling pathways: implications in diabetes mellitus-associated obesity and vascular dysfunction
    Ana M Briones
    Kidney Research Centre, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, and Division of Nephrology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
    Hypertension 59:1069-78. 2012
    ..Ang II effects were blunted by an Ang II type 1 receptor antagonist (candesartan) and inhibitors of calcineurin (cyclosporine A and FK506) and nuclear factor of activated T-cells (VIVIT)...
  48. pmc The Ca2+/calcineurin-dependent signaling pathway in the gray mold Botrytis cinerea: the role of calcipressin in modulating calcineurin activity
    Karin Harren
    Westfalische Wilhelms Universitat Munster, Institute of Biology and Biotechnology of Plants, Munster, Germany
    PLoS ONE 7:e41761. 2012
    ..Bcg1 of a heterotrimeric G protein is an upstream activator of the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent phosphatase calcineurin. In this study we focused on the functional characterization of the catalytic subunit of calcineurin (BcCnA) ..
  49. ncbi Calcineurin/NFAT coupling participates in pathological, but not physiological, cardiac hypertrophy
    Benjamin J Wilkins
    Division of Molecular Cardiovascular Biology, Department of Pediatrics, Children s Hospital Medical Center, 3333 Burnet Ave, Cincinnati, Ohio 45229 3039, USA
    Circ Res 94:110-8. 2004
    b>Calcineurin (PP2B) is a calcium/calmodulin-activated, serine-threonine phosphatase that transmits signals to the nucleus through the dephosphorylation and translocation of nuclear factor of activated T cell (NFAT) transcription factors...
  50. ncbi P43-dependent mitochondrial activity regulates myoblast differentiation and slow myosin isoform expression by control of Calcineurin expression
    Pascal Seyer
    UMR 866 Différenciation Cellulaire et Croissance INRA UMI UMII, Unité d Endocrinologie Cellulaire, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique INRA, 2 place Viala, 34060 Montpellier Cedex 1, France
    Exp Cell Res 317:2059-71. 2011
    ..In this study we provide evidence of the involvement of Calcineurin in this regulation...
  51. pmc A calcineurin docking motif (LXVP) in dynamin-related protein 1 contributes to mitochondrial fragmentation and ischemic neuronal injury
    Andrew M Slupe
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
    J Biol Chem 288:12353-65. 2013
    ..by a mitochondrial protein phosphatase 2A isoform and the calcium-calmodulin-dependent phosphatase calcineurin (CaN) activates Drp1...
  52. pmc Balance of calcineurin Aα and CDK5 activities sets release probability at nerve terminals
    Sung Hyun Kim
    Department of Biochemistry, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York 10065, USA
    J Neurosci 33:8937-50. 2013
    ..We show that the balance of enzymatic activities of the α isoform of the phosphatase calcineurin (CNAα) and the kinase cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) has a dramatic influence over single action potential (..
  53. ncbi Nonlinear decoding and asymmetric representation of neuronal input information by CaMKIIα and calcineurin
    Hajime Fujii
    Department of Neurochemistry, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7 3 1 Hongo, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113 0033, Japan
    Cell Rep 3:978-87. 2013
    ..we developed a dual fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) imaging platform and recorded CaMKIIα and calcineurin activities in hippocampal neurons while varying glutamate uncaging frequencies...
  54. ncbi Mitochondrial fusion directs cardiomyocyte differentiation via calcineurin and Notch signaling
    Atsuko Kasahara
    Department of Cell Physiology and Metabolism, University of Geneva, 1206 Geneva, Switzerland
    Science 342:734-7. 2013
    ..protein, serum response factor, GATA4, and myocyte enhancer factor 2, linked to increased Ca(2+)-dependent calcineurin activity and Notch1 signaling that impaired ESC differentiation...
  55. pmc Homocysteine induces apoptosis of rat hippocampal neurons by inhibiting 14-3-3ε expression and activating calcineurin
    Jing Wang
    Department of Neurology, Shanghai Tongji University Affiliated Tenth People s Hospital, Shanghai, China
    PLoS ONE 7:e48247. 2012
    ..This study shows that Hcy inhibits expression of 14-3-3ε and activates calcineurin in rat hippocampal neurons in a dose-dependent manner...
  56. ncbi Sequential alterations in Akt, GSK3β, and calcineurin signalling in the mouse left ventricle after thoracic aortic constriction
    Miresta Prévilon
    INSERM and Université Paris Diderot, UMR 698, 46 rue Henri Huchard, Paris, France
    Can J Physiol Pharmacol 88:1093-101. 2010
    ..We studied the activation of protein kinase B (Akt/PKB), glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3β), and calcineurin (Cn) at 3, 7, 15, 30, and 60 days following transverse aortic constriction (TAC) in 4-week-old mice...
  57. pmc The Ca2+-dependent phosphatase calcineurin controls the formation of the Carma1-Bcl10-Malt1 complex during T cell receptor-induced NF-kappaB activation
    Lysann Palkowitsch
    Institute of Physiological Chemistry, University of Ulm, Albert Einstein Allee 11, 89081 Ulm, Germany
    J Biol Chem 286:7522-34. 2011
    ..enzyme involved in the regulation of NF-AT and NF-κB signaling pathways is the protein phosphatase calcineurin. However, in contrast to NF-AT, which is directly dephosphorylated by calcineurin, the molecular basis of the ..
  58. ncbi Calcineurin is activated in diabetes and is required for glomerular hypertrophy and ECM accumulation
    Jennifer L Gooch
    South Texas Veterans Health Care Administration, Audie Murphy Memorial Hospital, San Antonio 78284 3900, USA
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 284:F144-54. 2003
    ..Previously, we showed that calcineurin phosphatase is required for hypertrophy and ECM synthesis in cultured mesangial cells...
  59. pmc Calcineurin regulates bone formation by the osteoblast
    Li Sun
    Bone Program and Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:17130-5. 2005
    ..tacrolimus (FK506), inhibit the activity of a ubiquitously expressed Ca(2+)/calmodulin-sensitive phosphatase, calcineurin. Because both drugs also cause profound bone loss in humans and in animal models, we explored whether ..
  60. pmc Calcineurin target CrzA regulates conidial germination, hyphal growth, and pathogenesis of Aspergillus fumigatus
    Robert A Cramer
    Duke University Medical Center, Box 3499, Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Eukaryot Cell 7:1085-97. 2008
    The calcineurin pathway is a critical signal transduction pathway in fungi that mediates growth, morphology, stress responses, and pathogenicity...
  61. pmc Calcineurin signaling and membrane lipid homeostasis regulates iron mediated multidrug resistance mechanisms in Candida albicans
    Saif Hameed
    School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India
    PLoS ONE 6:e18684. 2011
    ..Our transcriptome data revealed a link between calcineurin signaling and iron homeostasis...
  62. ncbi Sotrastaurin, a novel small molecule inhibiting protein-kinase C: randomized phase II study in renal transplant recipients
    S Friman
    Transplant Institute, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Goteborg, Sweden
    Am J Transplant 11:1444-55. 2011
    Sotrastaurin, a selective protein-kinase-C inhibitor, blocks early T-cell activation through a calcineurin-independent mechanism...
  63. pmc Balanced interactions of calcineurin with AKAP79 regulate Ca2+-calcineurin-NFAT signaling
    Huiming Li
    Immune Disease Institute and Program in Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Children s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Nat Struct Mol Biol 19:337-45. 2012
    In hippocampal neurons, the scaffold protein AKAP79 recruits the phosphatase calcineurin to L-type Ca(2+) channels and couples Ca(2+) influx to activation of calcineurin and of its substrate, the transcription factor NFAT...
  64. ncbi Calcineurin is required for sclerotial development and pathogenicity of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in an oxalic acid-independent manner
    A Harel
    Department of Plant Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Quality Sciences, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot 76100, Israel
    Mol Plant Microbe Interact 19:682-93. 2006
    ..b>Calcineurin, a Ser/Thr phosphatase linked to several signal-transduction pathways, plays a key role in the regulation of ..
  65. ncbi Calcineurin is an antagonist to PKA protein phosphorylation required for postmating filamentation and virulence, while PP2A is required for viability in Ustilago maydis
    John D Egan
    Department of Plant Pathology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 7274, USA
    Mol Plant Microbe Interact 22:1293-301. 2009
    ..A reverse genetics approach to mutate the catalytic subunits of calcineurin (CN, protein phosphatase [PP]2B) and PP2A in U. maydis was employed...
  66. pmc Antimicrobial peptide MUC7 12-mer activates the calcium/calcineurin pathway in Candida albicans
    Maciej Lis
    Department of Oral Biology, University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, Buffalo, New York 14214, USA
    FEMS Yeast Res 10:579-86. 2010
    ..the total of 531 genes, whose expression was elevated in response to the peptide, are regulated by the calcium/calcineurin signalling pathway...
  67. ncbi Truncation and activation of calcineurin A by calpain I in Alzheimer disease brain
    Fei Liu
    Department of Neurochemistry, New York State Institute for Basic Research in Developmental Disabilities, Staten Island, 10314, USA
    J Biol Chem 280:37755-62. 2005
    ..Here we studied the activation of two major Ca(2+)-regulated brain proteins, calpain and calcineurin, in AD brain. We found that calpain I is activated, which in turn cleaves and activates calcineurin in AD brain...
  68. pmc Cryptococcus neoformans in organ transplant recipients: impact of calcineurin-inhibitor agents on mortality
    Nina Singh
    University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA 15240, USA
    J Infect Dis 195:756-64. 2007
    ..028), fungemia (P=.006), and disseminated infection (P=.035) and was lower in those receiving a calcineurin-inhibitor agent (P=.003)...
  69. pmc Calcineurin inactivation leads to decreased responsiveness to LPS in macrophages and dendritic cells and protects against LPS-induced toxicity in vivo
    Charay Jennings
    Department of Pathology, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, California 94305 5020, USA
    Innate Immun 15:109-20. 2009
    ..Our laboratory has previously shown that calcineurin, a phosphatase known for its activation of T cells via NFAT, negatively regulates the TLR pathway in ..
  70. pmc Calcineurin (CN) activation promotes apoptosis of glomerular podocytes both in vitro and in vivo
    Liming Wang
    Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Duke University, Durham Veterans Affairs Medical Centers, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    Mol Endocrinol 25:1376-86. 2011
    To determine the role of Gq signaling and calcineurin (CN) activation in promoting apoptosis of glomerular podocytes, constitutively active Gq [Gq(+)] or CN [CN(+)] proteins were introduced into cultured podocytes using protein ..
  71. pmc Prokineticin-1 (PROK1) modulates interleukin (IL)-11 expression via prokineticin receptor 1 (PROKR1) and the calcineurin/NFAT signalling pathway
    Ian H Cook
    Medical Research Council, Human Reproductive Sciences Unit, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH16 4TJ, UK
    Mol Hum Reprod 16:158-69. 2010
    ..induces the expression of IL-11 in PROKR1 Ishikawa cells and first trimester decidua via the calcium-calcineurin signalling pathway in a guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G(q/11)), extracellular signal-regulated kinases, ..
  72. ncbi Affinity-driven peptide selection of an NFAT inhibitor more selective than cyclosporin A
    J Aramburu
    Department of Pathology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Science 285:2129-33. 1999
    ..of activated T cells (NFAT)-dependent genes is critically dependent on interaction between the phosphatase calcineurin and the transcription factor NFAT...
  73. ncbi Regulation of F-actin stability in dendritic spines by glutamate receptors and calcineurin
    S Halpain
    Department of Cell Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    J Neurosci 18:9835-44. 1998
    ..with an actin stabilizing compound or by an antagonist of the calcium-dependent protein phosphatase calcineurin. Immunoreactivity for calcineurin was enriched at synapses together with F-actin...
  74. pmc Calcineurin regulates innate antifungal immunity in neutrophils
    Matthew B Greenblatt
    Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    J Exp Med 207:923-31. 2010
    Patients taking immunosuppressive drugs, like cyclosporine A (CsA), that inhibit calcineurin are highly susceptible to disseminated fungal infections, although it is unclear how these drugs suppress resistance to these opportunistic ..
  75. pmc Calcineurin controls growth, morphology, and pathogenicity in Aspergillus fumigatus
    William J Steinbach
    Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Box 3499, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    Eukaryot Cell 5:1091-103. 2006
    b>Calcineurin is implicated in a myriad of human diseases as well as homeostasis and virulence in several major human pathogenic microorganisms...
  76. ncbi Reciprocal repression between microRNA-133 and calcineurin regulates cardiac hypertrophy: a novel mechanism for progressive cardiac hypertrophy
    De Li Dong
    Department of Pharmacology, Harbin Medical University, Baojian Rd 157, Harbin 150081, Heilongjiang Province, People s Republic of China
    Hypertension 55:946-52. 2010
    Cardiac hypertrophy involves a remodeling process of the heart in response to diverse pathological stimuli. Both calcineurin/nuclear factor of activated T cells pathway and microRNA-133 (miR-133) have been shown to play a critical role ..
  77. pmc Atrogin-1/muscle atrophy F-box inhibits calcineurin-dependent cardiac hypertrophy by participating in an SCF ubiquitin ligase complex
    Hui Hua Li
    Carolina Cardiovascular Biology Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC 27599 7126, USA
    J Clin Invest 114:1058-71. 2004
    b>Calcineurin, which binds to the Z-disc in cardiomyocytes via alpha-actinin, promotes cardiac hypertrophy in response to numerous pathologic stimuli...
  78. ncbi X-ray structure of calcineurin inhibited by the immunophilin-immunosuppressant FKBP12-FK506 complex
    J P Griffith
    Vertex Pharmaceuticals, Incorporated, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 4211, USA
    Cell 82:507-22. 1995
    The X-ray structure of the ternary complex of a calcineurin A fragment, calcineurin B, FKBP12, and the immunosuppressant drug FK506 (also known as tacrolimus) has been determined at 2...
  79. pmc Interaction of calcineurin with substrates and targeting proteins
    Huiming Li
    Immune Disease Institute and Program in Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Children s Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Trends Cell Biol 21:91-103. 2011
    b>Calcineurin is a calcium activated protein phosphatase with a major role in calcium signaling in diverse cells and organs and clinical importance as the target of the immunosuppressive drugs cyclosporin A and tacrolimus (FK506)...
  80. pmc Essential role of calcineurin in response to endoplasmic reticulum stress
    Myriam Bonilla
    Department of Biology, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 N Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA
    EMBO J 21:2343-53. 2002
    ..However, activation of the Ca2+ channel, calmodulin, calcineurin and other factors was necessary for long-term survival of cells undergoing ER stress...
  81. pmc Hsp90 governs echinocandin resistance in the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans via calcineurin
    Sheena D Singh
    Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    PLoS Pathog 5:e1000532. 2009
    ..is to enable crucial cellular responses to the membrane stress exerted by azoles via the client protein calcineurin. Here, we demonstrate that Hsp90 governs cellular circuitry required for resistance to the only new class of ..
  82. ncbi An essential role of the nuclear factor of activated T cells in the regulation of the expression of the cyclooxygenase-2 gene in human T lymphocytes
    M A Iniguez
    Centro de Biologia Molecular, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, E 28049 Madrid, Spain
    J Biol Chem 275:23627-35. 2000
    ..This induction was abrogated by inhibition of calcineurin phosphatase with the immunosuppressive drug cyclosporin A, whereas expression of an active calcineurin ..
  83. pmc Regulation of RCAN1 protein activity by Dyrk1A protein-mediated phosphorylation
    Min Su Jung
    Graduate Program in Neuroscience, Institute for Brain Science and Technology, First Research Group, Inje University, 633 146 Gaegeum 2 dong, Busanjin Gu, Busan 614 735, South Korea
    J Biol Chem 286:40401-12. 2011
    ..chromosome 21, namely dual specificity tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1A (Dyrk1A) and regulator of calcineurin 1 (RCAN1), have been implicated in some of the phenotypic characteristics of Down syndrome, including the early ..
  84. pmc CaMKII negatively regulates calcineurin-NFAT signaling in cardiac myocytes
    Scott M MacDonnell
    Department of Physiology, Cardiovascular Research Center, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19140, USA
    Circ Res 105:316-25. 2009
    ..Hypertrophic Ca(2+) binds to calmodulin (CaM) and activates the phosphatase calcineurin (Cn) and CaM kinase (CaMK)II...
  85. pmc Calcineurin/NFAT signaling is required for neuregulin-regulated Schwann cell differentiation
    Shih Chu Kao
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Science 323:651-4. 2009
    ..We find that mice lacking calcineurin B1 in the neural crest have defects in Schwann cell differentiation and myelination...
  86. ncbi Angiotensin II type 1 receptor-mediated upregulation of calcineurin activity underlies impairment of cardioprotective signaling in diabetic hearts
    Hiroyuki Hotta
    Second Department of Internal Medicine, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan
    Circ Res 106:129-32. 2010
    ..The diabetic heart is resistant to ischemic preconditioning because of diabetes-associated impairment of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt signaling. The mechanism by which PI3K-Akt signaling is impaired by diabetes remains unclear...
  87. pmc Calcineurin is essential for Candida albicans survival in serum and virulence
    Jill R Blankenship
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    Eukaryot Cell 2:422-30. 2003
    b>Calcineurin is a calcium-activated protein phosphatase that is the target of the immunosuppressants cyclosporin A and FK506. In T cells, calcineurin controls nuclear import of the NF-AT transcription factor and gene activation...
  88. pmc Autoantibody from women with preeclampsia induces soluble Fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 production via angiotensin type 1 receptor and calcineurin/nuclear factor of activated T-cells signaling
    Cissy Chenyi Zhou
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical School, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, West Midlands, United Kingdom
    Hypertension 51:1010-9. 2008
    ..Using FK506 or short-interfering RNA targeted to the calcineurin catalytic subunit mRNA, we determined that calcineurin/nuclear factor of activated T-cells signaling functions ..
  89. pmc Ergosterol biosynthesis inhibitors become fungicidal when combined with calcineurin inhibitors against Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, and Candida krusei
    Chiatogu Onyewu
    Departments of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 47:956-64. 2003
    ..We recently established that the protein phosphatase calcineurin allows survival of Candida albicans during the membrane stress exerted by azoles...
  90. pmc Angiotensin II regulates cellular immune responses through a calcineurin-dependent pathway
    C Nataraj
    Division of Nephrology, Duke University and Durham Veterans Affairs Medical Centers, Durham, North Carolina 27705, USA
    J Clin Invest 104:1693-701. 1999
    ..These actions require activation of calcineurin phosphatase...
  91. ncbi Good fungi gone bad: the corruption of calcineurin
    Deborah S Fox
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Bioessays 24:894-903. 2002
    b>Calcineurin is a Ca(2+)/calmodulin-activated protein phosphatase that is conserved in eukaryotes, from yeast to humans, and is the conserved target of the immunosuppressive drugs cyclosporin A (CsA) and FK506...
  92. ncbi Functional characterization of the Aspergillus fumigatus CRZ1 homologue, CrzA
    Frederico Marianetti Soriani
    Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão PretoUniversidade de São Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil
    Mol Microbiol 67:1274-91. 2008
    The protein phosphatase calcineurin is an important mediator connecting calcium-dependent signalling to various cellular responses in multiple organisms...
  93. pmc Prostaglandin F(2alpha)-F-prostanoid receptor regulates CXCL8 expression in endometrial adenocarcinoma cells via the calcium-calcineurin-NFAT pathway
    Kurt J Sales
    MRC Human Reproductive Sciences Unit, The Queen s Medical Research Institute, 47 Little France Crescent, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH16 4TJ, UK
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1793:1917-28. 2009
    ..interaction induces CXCL8 expression in endometrial adenocarcinoma cells via the protein kinase C-calcium-calcineurin-NFAT signaling pathway...
  94. ncbi Renal function, efficacy, and safety of sirolimus and mycophenolate mofetil after short-term calcineurin inhibitor-based quadruple therapy in de novo renal transplant patients: one-year analysis of a randomized multicenter trial
    Markus Guba
    Department of Surgery, Munich University Hospital, Campus Grosshadern, Munich, Germany
    Transplantation 90:175-83. 2010
    De novo sirolimus in calcineurin inhibitor-free regimens, although potentially useful to improve early renal function, are complicated by various drug-related side effects.
  95. ncbi The p53-induced gene-6 (proline oxidase) mediates apoptosis through a calcineurin-dependent pathway
    Armando Rivera
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Texas A and M University System Health Science Center, College Station, TX 77843 1114, USA
    J Biol Chem 280:29346-54. 2005
    ..oxidase is a downstream effector in p53-mediated activation of the calcium/calmodulin-dependent phosphatase calcineurin in lung, renal, colon, and ovarian carcinoma cells...
  96. ncbi Incidence and cost of new onset diabetes mellitus among U.S. wait-listed and transplanted renal allograft recipients
    Robert S Woodward
    Department of Health Management and Policy, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH, USA
    Am J Transplant 3:590-8. 2003
    ..regimens following renal transplantation and 2) whether the mode of dialysis pretransplant or the type of calcineurin inhibition used for maintenance immunosuppression affected either the incidence or cost of NODM...
  97. ncbi The DSCR1 (Adapt78) isoform 1 protein calcipressin 1 inhibits calcineurin and protects against acute calcium-mediated stress damage, including transient oxidative stress
    Gennady Ermak
    Ethel Percy Andrus Gerontology Center, and Division of Molecular and Computational Biology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089 0191, USA
    FASEB J 16:814-24. 2002
    ..antisense oligonucleotides to test the ability of the DSCR1 (Adapt78) protein product calcipressin 1 (a calcineurin inhibitor) to protect against oxidative stress and calcium stress...
  98. ncbi Allosteric regulation of the transcription factor NFAT1 by multiple phosphorylation sites: a mathematical analysis
    Carlos Salazar
    Theoretische Biophysik, Institut fur Biologie, Humboldt Universitat Berlin, Invalidenstrasse 42, D 10115 Berlin, Germany
    J Mol Biol 327:31-45. 2003
    NFAT transcription factors are activated through dephosphorylation by the phosphatase calcineurin. Experimental data show that 13 conserved phosphorylation sites conspire to control the transition between an inactive and an active ..
  99. pmc Calcineurin, a calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase, is involved in movement, fertility, egg laying, and growth in Caenorhabditis elegans
    Jaya Bandyopadhyay
    Department of Life Science, Kwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Korea
    Mol Biol Cell 13:3281-93. 2002
    b>Calcineurin is a Ca(2+)-calmodulin-dependent serine/threonine protein phosphatase that has been implicated in various signaling pathways...
  100. ncbi Calcineurin in reactive astrocytes plays a key role in the interplay between proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory signals
    Ana M Fernandez
    Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology, Cajal Institute, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Madrid, Spain
    J Neurosci 27:8745-56. 2007
    ..We now report that astrocytes modulate neuronal resilience to inflammatory insults through the phosphatase calcineurin. In quiescent astrocytes, inflammatory mediators such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) recruits ..
  101. pmc Calcineurin-dependent growth control in Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants lacking PMC1, a homolog of plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPases
    K W Cunningham
    Whitehead Institute, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge 02142
    J Cell Biol 124:351-63. 1994
    ..The growth inhibitory effect of added Ca2+ requires activation of calcineurin, a Ca2+ and calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase...

Research Grants74

  1. MOLECULAR STUDIES OF THE PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE CALCINEURIN
    WHYTE OWEN; Fiscal Year: 2002
    b>Calcineurin is a Ca - and calmodulin-regulated protein serine/threonine phosphatase and an important component of eukaryotic signal transduction pathways, e.g...
  2. Signaling in Thymocyte Selection
    Gerald R Crabtree; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..activation signaling pathway requiring positive selection appears to arise when early signaling by calcineurin leads to a brief selection when signaling by calcineurin leads to period of ERK hypersensitivity allowing ..
  3. Targeting Galectin-3 with novel drugs for treatment of eczema
    Fu Tong Liu; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Current therapies include topical application of glucocorticoids and calcineurin inhibitors (immunomodulators), and systemic treatment with glucocorticoids, immunosuppressants and calcineurin ..
  4. Inhibition of IkK to treat lethal Graft-vs.-Host Disease
    Patrick Flood; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Experiments are proposed to evaluate the combination of TLX1001 with the calcineurin inhibitor tacrolimus...
  5. Regulation of AKAP79 Postsynaptic Membrane Targeting
    MARK L DELL'ACQUA; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..In contrast, induction of long-term depression (LTD) leads to calcineurin-protein phosphatase 2B (CaN) mediated dephosphorylation of PKA phosphorylated GluR1, removal of AMPARs from ..
  6. Novel Macrolide Th17 Inhibitors
    Jay K Kolls; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..In this screen we included known compounds such as calcineurin inhibitors (Cyclosporine A), FK-506, and rapamycin, which are known suppressors of T-cell function...
  7. SFRP2 and NFAT are therapeutic targets in angiosarcoma
    NANCY K DEMORE; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..dependent on a dynamic import-export balance between the activity of the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent phosphatase, calcineurin, and the activity of serine/threonine kinases(20)...
  8. Mechanism and functional role of AKAP79/150 in M current control and excitability
    Mark S Shapiro; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..One such AKAP, AKAP79/150 interacts with protein kinase A, protein kinase C (PKC), calmodulin (CaM), calcineurin, and phosphatidylinositol 4,5- bisphosphate (PIP2), along with effectors such as M-type (KCNQ, Kv7) K+ channels ..
  9. NFAT Signaling and Down Syndrome
    Gerald R Crabtree; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Feedback loops within the Calcineurin/NFAT pathway produce extraordinary sensitivity to a 1...
  10. Molecular Mechanisms in Bone Resorption
    Steven A Lietman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The increase in intracellular calcium can activate calcineurin, which dephosphorylates NFATc1 and promotes its translocation to the nucleus leading to osteoclastogenesis...
  11. Dysfunctional PGC-1alpha expression in skeletal muscle during diabetes
    S Russ Price; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..during DM-related atrophy results from abnormal signaling through one or more pathways that are regulated by calcineurin (Cn), a calcium-activated serine/threonine phosphatase...
  12. Depot calcineurin inhibitors to prevent graft rejection
    Thomas J Smith; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The long term goal of this research is to reduce toxicity and graft rejection due to dosing problems with the calcineurin inhibitors by developing a sustained release subcutaneous injectable formulation of a calcineurin inhibitor...
  13. Developing a New Therapeutic for the Treatment of Invasive Aspergillosis
    Mitchell W Mutz; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..It has been well established that molecules targeting fungal calcineurin (FC) have extremely potent antifungal activity against a broad range of fungi...
  14. NFATc3 in chronic hypoxic pulmonary hypertension
    Laura V Gonzalez Bosc; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..myosin heavy chain promoters, and determine structural changes of the pulmonary vasculature on wild type +/- calcineurin/NFAT inhibitor and NFATc3 knockout mice exposed to normoxia and hypobaric CH...
  15. A Clinical Trial to Prevent New Onset Diabetes After Transplantation
    Akinlolu O Ojo; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..peripheral insulin resistance and hepatic gluconeogenesis;(3) direct beta-cell injury by the calcineurin inhibitor (cyclosporine or tacrolimus) and;(4) increased dietary caloric load secondary to the abrogation of ..
  16. L-arginine supplement for the prevention of calcineurin inhibitor nephrotoxicity
    W Ray Kim; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Post-LTx renal insufficiency is most commonly a result of long term exposure to calcineurin inhibitors, namely cyclosporine and tacrolimus, used to prevent and treat rejection...
  17. Dietary Regulation of Pancreatic Digestive Enzymes
    John A Williams; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We have shown this growth requires the calcium activated phosphates calcineurin and the mTOR pathway, and is accompanied by the activation of the MAP kinases, ERK and JNK, and the expression ..
  18. Molecular Mechanisms in Bone Resorption
    Steven A Lietman; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The increase in intracellular calcium can activate calcineurin, which dephosphorylates NFAT and promotes its translocation to the nucleus...
  19. Reciprocal Control of Ca2+ Channels by Anchored Protein Kinase A and Calcineurin
    William A Sather; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The scaffolding protein AKAP79 anchors both a regulating kinase (protein kinase A, PKA) and a phosphatase (calcineurin, CaN) to the channel...
  20. The role of NFAT in podocyte damage and proteinuric kidney disease
    ALEXIS JOANNA SLOAN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The calcium sensitive phosphatase calcineurin is activated in the presence of calcium, and our group has demostrated that constitutive activation of ..
  21. Modulating calcineurin signaling pathways in muscle
    Beverly A Rothermel; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..As a result, there is urgent need for new and more effective therapies. Calcineurin is a calcium-regulated protein phosphatase that promotes hypertrophic growth and remodeling of the heart under ..
  22. Mechanism and functional role of AKAP79/150 in M current control
    Mark S Shapiro; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..One such AKAP, AKAP79/150 interacts with protein kinase A, protein kinase C (PKC), calmodulin (CaM), calcineurin (CaN), ion channels such as M-type (KCNQ, Kv7) K+ channels, L-type Ca2+ channels and G protein-coupled ..
  23. Bc12 regulates osteoclast survival
    Junro Yamashita; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..In Aim 2, the role of Bcl2 in the regulation of calcineurin-nuclear factor of activated T-cell (NFAT) signaling in the progenitors (CD11b- cells) and its impact on ..
  24. Kinase/Phosphatase-mediated Mitochondrial Restructuring in Neuroprotection
    Stefan Strack; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Opposite PKA is the calcium-dependent protein phosphatase calcineurin (CaN), which dephosphorylates S656 to promote mitochondrial fragmentation...
  25. Inhibition of Stat3 and inflammatory cytokine production
    Lionel B Ivashkiv; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In addition, RBP-J suppressed activation of calcium- dependent calcineurin (Cn)-NFAT signaling that is associated with alternative differentiation into myeloid cells that are refractory ..
  26. Nature of mamalian Cutaneous Permeablilty Barrier
    Peter M Elias; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Because the current standard treatment of AD with glucocorticoids and calcineurin inhibitors is accompanied by significant side effects, alternate approaches, based upon correcting the primary ..
  27. Novel Antifungal Therapeutic Approaches
    Joseph Heitman; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Fungal homologs of calcineurin, cyclophilin, FKBP12, and Tor1 were identified, providing insight into biological roles and as conserved drug ..
  28. Phase 2 Study of Abatacept with Calcineurin Inhibition and Methotrexate for GVHD
    Leslie S Kean; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  29. Role of Ca2+/Calcineurin Signaling in S. cerevisiae
    Martha S Cyert; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Calcineurin (CN) is a highly conserved ser/thr protein phosphatase that is regulated by Ca2+ and calmodulin, and thus mediates Ca2+-dependent changes in phosphorylation in vivo...
  30. NFATs and Vascular Injury
    Gadiparthi N Rao; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Activation of calcineurin-NFAT signaling is required for both receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) and G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) ..
  31. Exercise Induced Biochemical and Anatomical Adaptations
    John O Holloszy; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..A fourth goal is to elucidate the role of calcineurin in the stimulation of mitochondrial biogenesis by exercise and by raising cytosolic Ca 2....
  32. Regulation of AKAP79 Postsynaptic Targeting and Signaling
    MARK L DELL'ACQUA; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..During LTD, the Ca2+-activated phosphatase calcineurin (CaN) dephosphorylates S845 and removes GluA1 via endocytosis...
  33. Kinase/Phosphatase-mediated Mitochondrial Restructuring in Neuroprotection
    Stefan Strack; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Opposite PKA is the calcium-dependent protein phosphatase calcineurin (CaN), which dephosphorylates S656 to promote mitochondrial fragmentation...
  34. Calcineurin's role in circadian regulation of cardiac function and remodeling
    Beverly A Rothermel; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..found evidence of large circadian oscillations in the activity of the calcium-activated protein phosphatase calcineurin in normal, healthy hearts...
  35. Cortical Synapses and Psychosis in AD
    Robert A Sweet; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..comparison to subjects with AD-P;3) Effectors of LTP (Kalirin7 and PAK1) are reduced, and an effector of LTD (Calcineurin) is elevated, in AD+P compared to AD-P subjects;and 4) increased MAPT aggregation is present in AD+P relative ..
  36. Predicting the burden of renal disease among liver transplant recipients
    Pratima Sharma; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..recipients have the second highest incidence of post-LT CRF despite the lower level of immunosuppression by calcineurin inhibitors, compared to heart and lung transplant recipients...
  37. Properties of Clca Channels in Vascular Myocytes
    Normand Leblanc; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..phosphorylation mechanisms involving calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) and serine/threonine phosphatases (Calcineurin and PP2A) of a Cl- channel activated by intracellular Ca2+ (ClCa ) in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells, ..
  38. Stat5b in Lymphomagenesis: Mechanistic and Therapeutic Implications
    John A Kelly; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Importantly, we have demonstrated the ability of Jak and calcineurin inhibitors to decrease proliferation of Stat5b TG thymocytes in vitro...
  39. Ryanodine receptor in cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure
    GERHARD W MEISSNER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of genes and proteins associated with class II histone deacetylase(HDAC)/myocyte enhancer factor- 2(MEF2) and calcineurin signaling pathways, and the homozygous mutant mice die within two weeks of birth...
  40. Cyclosporine in Interstitial Cystitis: Efficacy, Safety and Mechanism of Action
    Daniel Shoskes; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..While CyA is an immunosuppressive drug, it's target of action, calcineurin, is also present in neural cells suggesting that the effect of CyA on the symptoms of IC may be neurally ..
  41. Calcium-dependent Regulation of Smooth Muscle Phenotype
    BRIAN WAMHOFF; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..However, sphingosine-1-phosphate, not VGCC activation alone, also mediates SMGX through calcineurin and enrichment of NFAT2, a Ca-activated transcription factor, within CArG promoter elements of intact chromatin...
  42. Novel Roles of Intracrine Angiotensin II in Proximal Tubule Cells
    Jia Zhuo; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..the activities of NHE-3 in AP membranes via the activation of PLC/Ca2+/PKC[unreadable]/[unreadable]2 and calcineurin/NF-[unreadable]B signaling pathways...
  43. NFAT and MEF-2 Choreograph Bladder Wall Remodeling Following Partial Outlet Obstr
    STEPHEN ANTHONY ZDERIC; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This proposal focuses on the role of the calcineurin pathway and its associated transcription factors the Nuclear Factor of Activated T Cells (NFAT) and Myocyte ..
  44. Signal transduction and gene induction in lymphocytes
    Anjana Rao; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In T cells, store- operated Ca2+ influx through the STIM-ORAI pathway triggers the phosphatase calcineurin, which dephos- phorylates NFAT and promotes its nuclear translocation...
  45. The role of Nox2 in CNI-induced renal fibrosis
    Arjang Djamali; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..success of solid organ transplantation in past 20 years, long-term kidney outcomes have been limited by chronic calcineurin inhibitor (CNI)-mediated fibrosis...
  46. Calcium Sensing Proteins in Depression
    Yogesh Dwivedi; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..trisphosphate receptors, CREB, neuronal apoptotic inhibitory protein, CaM kinase II, CaM kinase IV, and calcineurin;3) the expression and/or functional characteristics of these target proteins...
  47. Renal and Cardiovascular Events in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease
    Akinlolu O Ojo; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..initial immunosuppressive regimen to evaluate the safety and efficacy of 14-day delayed introduction of calcineurin inhibitor therapy. During the period of mentorship, Dr...
  48. The Role of DRP-1 and Mitochondrial Fission in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension
    Stephen L Archer; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..cytosolic calcium in PAH also promotes DRP-1-mediated fission by: a) activation of calmodulin kinase and b) calcineurin-mediated dephosphorylation of an inhibitory form of DRP- 1 (Phos-Ser637)...
  49. Targeting CCR7 for the Prevention/Treatment of GvHD
    JONATHAN STUART SERODY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..studies will determine if our lead compounds can treat ongoing acute GvHD, can enhance the function of calcineurin inhibitors, and do not impact on the ability of regulatory T cells to prevent acute and chronic GvHD...
  50. The Role of Calcium Signaling in Stem Cell Quiescence
    Gozde Yucel; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..By contrast, while recent data supports the Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) and calcineurin/NFAT pathways in maintaining quiescence, the higher order mechanisms of cycle timing remain poorly understood...
  51. AKAP Regulation of Neuronal L-type Calcium Channel Signaling to the Nucleus
    MARK L DELL'ACQUA; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..and anchors the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and Ca2+-calmodulin (CaM)-activated protein phosphatase-2B (calcineurin;CaN), as an essential regulator of neuronal LTCC currents and NFAT activation...
  52. Muscle-Specific Nutritional Adaptations to Catabolic States
    S Russ Price; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Studies in Aim 2 will determine if higher atrogin-1 levels increase the degradation of calcineurin (CaN), a key phosphatase in muscle cells...
  53. Calcineurin Inhibitor Minimization And Foxp3+ Tregs Post-Transplant
    WAYNE WILLIAM contact HANCOCK; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Our studies of the effects of immunosuppression on regulatory T cells may revolutionize immunosuppressive therapy post- transplant and decrease patient morbidity and graft dysfunction long-term. ..
  54. Systems Biology for Studies of Cognition in Down Syndrome
    Katheleen Gardiner; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..of mouse models, we hypothesize that the cognitive deficits in DS are caused by perturbations in MAPK, PI3K and calcineurin pathways and NMDA and GABAA receptor (NMDAR, GABRA) function...
  55. A Structural Approach for Treating Drug Resistant Fungal Pathogens
    Mitchell W Mutz; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..A number of in vitro and in vivo studies have established that molecules which inhibit the fungal protein, calcineurin, are highly synergistic with several important classes of antifungal therapeutics including triazoles and ..
  56. In Vivo Assessment of Calcineurin Inhibitor Toxicity in Children
    Joshua M Thurman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Chronic calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) are toxic to the kidney and cause vascular endothelial dysfunction...
  57. Regulation of DRP1-Mediated Mitochondrial Fragmentation in Ischemic Brain Injury
    Andrew Slupe; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..long term goal is to characterize the regulatory interaction between the calcium-dependent protein phosphates calcineurin (CaN) and Drp1...
  58. Manipulation of Immune Responsiveness after Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation
    ROBERT JON SOIFFER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..in a lymphopenic milieu early after allo- HCT can safely induce GVL responses despite concurrent treatment with calcineurin inhibitors...
  59. Regulation of Facultative Islet Growth and Development by Calcineurin and NFAT
    Seung K Kim; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..NFAT) proteins are transcription factors whose activation is regulated by intercellular signals, and by calcineurin, a calcium- dependent phosphatase...
  60. A Combination Therapy Approach to Treating Drug Resistant Fungal Infections
    Mitchell W Mutz; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..A number of in vitro and in vivo studies have established that molecules which inhibit the fungal protein, calcineurin, are highly synergistic with several important classes of antifungal therapeutics including triazoles and ..
  61. Ca2+ Regulation in Chronic Hypoxic Pulmonary Hypertention
    JAMES SK SHAM; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..as well as vascular remodeling in hypoxic pulmonary hypertension;in part through the activation of calcineurin/NFAT pathway...
  62. Protein Phosphatase Inhibitor-1 and vascular smooth muscle cell function
    Lahouaria Hadri; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..I-1), which is activated by PKA phosphorylation and inhibited by protein phosphatase PP2A and PP2B (calcineurin)...
  63. Role of calcineurin in store-operated calcium entry of pulmonary endothelium
    AUDREY ANNE VASAUSKAS; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Th identity and contribution of the phosphatase regulating phosphorylation status of TRPC4 are unknown. Calcineurin (CN) is a calcium/calmodulin activated serine-threonine phosphatase...
  64. Sustained release calcineurin inhibitors for the prevention of graft rejection
    Thomas Smith; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The long term goal of this research is to reduce toxicity and graft rejection due to dosing problems with the calcineurin inhibitors by developing sustained release subcutaneous injectable formulations for the drugs tacrolimus and ..
  65. Genetics of mating and fruiting in Cryptococcus neoformans
    Joseph Heitman; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..As one paradigmatic example, the Ca2+ activated phosphatase calcineurin was demonstrated to govern a signaling cascade enabling growth at mammalian body temperature and virulence...
  66. Attenuation of denervation atrophy by nandrolone: molecular mechanisms
    Christopher Cardozo; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..RCAN2 is expressed at high levels in skeletal muscle, where it inhibits calcineurin, a protein phosphatase involved in muscle hypertrophy by activating the transcription factor NFAT...
  67. INTEGRINS AND PMN MOTILITY
    WILLIAM HENDEY; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..Vn) substrate is regulated by the changes in intracellular calcium and calmodulin-dependent phosphatase, Calcineurin, via a Vn (vitronectin) receptor, that is, alphavbeta3, the alphav being an isoform unique to PMNs...
  68. CENTER FOR CNS INJURY STUDIES
    Mitchell Chesler; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..We propose to study the role of calcineurin in spinal cord injury...
  69. CALCINEURIN REGULATION BY MEMBRANE PHOSPHOLIPIDS
    BRIAN PERRINO; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..objectives of this project are to characterize the regulation and physiological roles of membrane-associated calcineurin. In brain, the equal distribution of calcineurin between the membrane and cytosol, and regulation of several ..
  70. Cell wall biogenesis in Cryptococcus neoformans
    Deborah Fox; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..neoformans. As a result of these screens, the highly conserved phosphatase calcineurin has been identified as a potential central regulator of cell wall synthesis in this pathogen, as perturbation ..
  71. Molecular study of calcium channels in fungal pathogens.
    ANGELA GELLI; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..A possible working model would state that calcineurin is activated by an increase in cytosolic calcium levels and calmodulin in response to signals specific to the ..
  72. The Role of NFATc1 and Calcineurin in Bone Remodeling
    Mone Zaidi; Fiscal Year: 2007
    unreadable] DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Calcineurin is a Ca2+/calmodulin activated phosphatase that couples Ca 2+ pulses to gene transcription...
  73. NEURAL MECHANISMS OF CYCLOSPORINE-INDUCED HYPERTENSION
    Ronald Victor; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..containing synapsins, a family of vesicle-associated phosphoproteins that constitute putative substrates for calcineurin. In double knock out mice lacking synapsins I and II, renal sensory endings were normally developed but they ..
  74. Effects of Immunosuppressants on Cell Metabolism
    Uwe Christians; Fiscal Year: 2006
    unreadable] DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The calcineurin inhibitors, (CIs) cyclosporinen, and tacrolimus are the basis of most immunosuppressive protocols after organ transplantation...