bungarotoxins

Summary

Summary: Neurotoxic proteins from the venom of the banded or Formosan krait (Bungarus multicinctus, an elapid snake). alpha-Bungarotoxin blocks nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and has been used to isolate and study them; beta- and gamma-bungarotoxins act presynaptically causing acetylcholine release and depletion. Both alpha and beta forms have been characterized, the alpha being similar to the large, long or Type II neurotoxins from other elapid venoms.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha7 subunit is an essential regulator of inflammation
    Hong Wang
    Laboratory of Biomedical Science, North Shore Long Island Jewish Research Institute, 350 Community Drive, Manhasset, New York 11030, USA
    Nature 421:384-8. 2003
  2. ncbi Human bronchial epithelial and endothelial cells express alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors
    Y Wang
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA
    Mol Pharmacol 60:1201-9. 2001
  3. ncbi Protein complexes in snake venom
    R Doley
    Protein Science Laboratory, Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, National University of Singapore, 10 Kent Ridge Crescent, Singapore 119260, Singapore
    Cell Mol Life Sci 66:2851-71. 2009
  4. ncbi A neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit (alpha 7) is developmentally regulated and forms a homo-oligomeric channel blocked by alpha-BTX
    S Couturier
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Geneva, Switzerland
    Neuron 5:847-56. 1990
  5. pmc Imaging of receptor trafficking by using alpha-bungarotoxin-binding-site-tagged receptors
    Yoko Sekine-Aizawa
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Neuroscience, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 725 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:17114-9. 2004
  6. pmc Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor is internalized via a Rac-dependent, dynamin-independent endocytic pathway
    Sudha Kumari
    National Centre for Biological Sciences, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Bangalore, India
    J Cell Biol 181:1179-93. 2008
  7. ncbi Rapid and reversible effects of activity on acetylcholine receptor density at the neuromuscular junction in vivo
    M Akaaboune
    Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Science 286:503-7. 1999
  8. ncbi Taiwan cobra chymotrypsin inhibitor: cloning, functional expression and gene organization
    Yun Ching Cheng
    Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Sun Yat Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1747:213-20. 2005
  9. ncbi Evaluating the suitability of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antibodies for standard immunodetection procedures
    N Moser
    Department II of Anatomy, Neuroanatomy, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany
    J Neurochem 102:479-92. 2007
  10. ncbi A glia-derived acetylcholine-binding protein that modulates synaptic transmission
    A B Smit
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Neurobiology, Research Institute Neurosciences Vrije Universiteit, Faculty of Biology, De Boelelaan 1087, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Nature 411:261-8. 2001

Detail Information

Publications219 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha7 subunit is an essential regulator of inflammation
    Hong Wang
    Laboratory of Biomedical Science, North Shore Long Island Jewish Research Institute, 350 Community Drive, Manhasset, New York 11030, USA
    Nature 421:384-8. 2003
    ..Thus, the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha7 subunit is essential for inhibiting cytokine synthesis by the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway...
  2. ncbi Human bronchial epithelial and endothelial cells express alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors
    Y Wang
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA
    Mol Pharmacol 60:1201-9. 2001
    ..The presence of alpha7 nAChRs in BEC and AEC suggests that some toxic effects of tobacco smoke could be mediated through these nicotine-sensitive receptors...
  3. ncbi Protein complexes in snake venom
    R Doley
    Protein Science Laboratory, Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, National University of Singapore, 10 Kent Ridge Crescent, Singapore 119260, Singapore
    Cell Mol Life Sci 66:2851-71. 2009
    ..Here, we describe the structure and function of various protein complexes of snake venoms and their role in snake venom toxicity...
  4. ncbi A neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit (alpha 7) is developmentally regulated and forms a homo-oligomeric channel blocked by alpha-BTX
    S Couturier
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Geneva, Switzerland
    Neuron 5:847-56. 1990
    ..A bacterial fusion protein encompassing residues 124-239 of alpha 7 binds labeled alpha-bungarotoxin. We conclude that alpha-bungarotoxin binding proteins in the vertebrate nervous system can function as nAChRs...
  5. pmc Imaging of receptor trafficking by using alpha-bungarotoxin-binding-site-tagged receptors
    Yoko Sekine-Aizawa
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Neuroscience, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 725 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:17114-9. 2004
    ..The BBS tag is a flexible approach for labeling membrane proteins and studying their dynamic trafficking...
  6. pmc Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor is internalized via a Rac-dependent, dynamin-independent endocytic pathway
    Sudha Kumari
    National Centre for Biological Sciences, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Bangalore, India
    J Cell Biol 181:1179-93. 2008
    ..This pathway may regulate AChR levels at ligand-gated synapses and in pathological conditions such as the autoimmune disease myasthenia gravis...
  7. ncbi Rapid and reversible effects of activity on acetylcholine receptor density at the neuromuscular junction in vivo
    M Akaaboune
    Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Science 286:503-7. 1999
    ..The rapid and reversible alterations in AChR density at the neuromuscular junction in vivo parallel changes thought to occur in the central nervous system at synapses undergoing potentiation and depression...
  8. ncbi Taiwan cobra chymotrypsin inhibitor: cloning, functional expression and gene organization
    Yun Ching Cheng
    Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Sun Yat Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1747:213-20. 2005
    ..atra chymotrypsin inhibitor and beta-bungarotoxin B1 chain genes was up to 83%. These findings strongly suggest that snake Kunitz/BPTI protease inhibitors and neurotoxic homologs may have originated from a common ancestor...
  9. ncbi Evaluating the suitability of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antibodies for standard immunodetection procedures
    N Moser
    Department II of Anatomy, Neuroanatomy, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany
    J Neurochem 102:479-92. 2007
    ..Thus, particular caution should be exerted with regards to the experimental approach used to visualize nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the brain...
  10. ncbi A glia-derived acetylcholine-binding protein that modulates synaptic transmission
    A B Smit
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Neurobiology, Research Institute Neurosciences Vrije Universiteit, Faculty of Biology, De Boelelaan 1087, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Nature 411:261-8. 2001
    ..We describe a molecular and cellular mechanism by which glial cells release AChBP in the synaptic cleft, and propose a model for how they actively regulate cholinergic transmission between neurons in the central nervous system...
  11. pmc Genetic organization of alpha-bungarotoxins from Bungarus multicinctus (Taiwan banded krait): evidence showing that the production of alpha-bungarotoxin isotoxins is not derived from edited mRNAs
    L Chang
    Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Sun Yat Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan
    Nucleic Acids Res 27:3970-5. 1999
    ....
  12. ncbi Molecular characterization of Dalpha6 and Dalpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits from Drosophila: formation of a high-affinity alpha-bungarotoxin binding site revealed by expression of subunit chimeras
    Stuart J Lansdell
    Department of Pharmacology, University College London, London, UK
    J Neurochem 90:479-89. 2004
    ..In addition to the formation of homomeric nAChR complexes, evidence has been obtained from both radioligand binding and co-immunoprecipitation studies for the co-assembly of Dalpha6 and Dalpha7 into heteromeric cell surface complexes...
  13. ncbi Crystal structure of the extracellular domain of nAChR alpha1 bound to alpha-bungarotoxin at 1.94 A resolution
    Cosma D Dellisanti
    Molecular and Computation Biology, University of Southern California, 1050 Childs Way, RIH201, Los Angeles, California 90089 2910, USA
    Nat Neurosci 10:953-62. 2007
    ..Our structural and functional studies show essential features of the nAChR and provide new insights into the gating mechanism...
  14. ncbi Induction by beta-bungarotoxin of apoptosis in cultured hippocampal neurons is mediated by Ca(2+)-dependent formation of reactive oxygen species
    Olena Shakhman
    Institut fur Biochemie, Emil Fischer Zentrum, Universitat Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany
    J Neurochem 87:598-608. 2003
    ....
  15. ncbi Influence of melatonin on the development of functional nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in cultured chick retinal cells
    L F S Sampaio
    Laboratório de Cronofarmacologia, Departamento de Fisiologia, Instituto de Biociencias, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Brasil
    Braz J Med Biol Res 38:603-13. 2005
    ..This common pattern of action on different cell models that express alpha-bungarotoxin-sensitive receptors probably reflects a more general mechanism of regulation of these receptors...
  16. ncbi Beta-bungarotoxin is a potent inducer of apoptosis in cultured rat neurons by receptor-mediated internalization
    M Herkert
    , Emil-Fischer-Zentrum, , Fahrstrasse 17, D-91054 Erlangen, Germany
    Eur J Neurosci 14:821-8. 2001
    ....
  17. ncbi Ultrastructural distribution of the alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit in rat hippocampus
    R Fabian-Fine
    Department of Biological Sciences, The Open University, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA, United Kingdom
    J Neurosci 21:7993-8003. 2001
    ..The widespread and substantial expression of alpha7 nAChRs at synapses in the hippocampus is consistent with an important role in mediating and/or modulating synaptic transmission, plasticity, and neurodegeneration...
  18. ncbi Sphingolipids are necessary for nicotinic acetylcholine receptor export in the early secretory pathway
    C J Baier
    UNESCO Chair of Biophysics and Molecular Neurobiology and Instituto de Investigaciones Bioquímicas de Bahía Blanca, Bahia Blanca, Argentina
    J Neurochem 101:1072-84. 2007
    ..On the basis of these effects we propose a 'chaperone-like' SL intervention at early stages of the AChR biosynthetic pathway, affecting both the efficiency of the assembly process and subsequent receptor trafficking to the cell surface...
  19. ncbi Neuronal nicotinic receptors: from structure to pathology
    C Gotti
    CNR, Institute of Neuroscience, Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology Section, Department of Medical Pharmacology and Center of Excellence on Neurodegenerative Diseases, University of Milan, Via Vanvitelli 32, 20129 Milan, Italy
    Prog Neurobiol 74:363-96. 2004
    ..Finally, the role of NAChRs in disease will be considered in some details...
  20. pmc Effects of chronic neonatal nicotine exposure on nicotinic acetylcholine receptor binding, cell death and morphology in hippocampus and cerebellum
    L Z Huang
    Department of Neuroscience and Experimental Therapeutics, College of Medicine, Texas A and M University System, 369 Reynolds Medical Building, College Station, TX 77843 1114, USA
    Neuroscience 146:1854-68. 2007
    ....
  21. ncbi Ric-3 promotes functional expression of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha7 subunit in mammalian cells
    Mark E Williams
    Merck Research Laboratories, San Diego, California 92121, USA
    J Biol Chem 280:1257-63. 2005
    ..Thus, ric-3 appears to be necessary for proper folding and/or assembly of alpha7 receptors in HEK293 cells...
  22. ncbi Functional properties of homomeric, human alpha 7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors heterologously expressed in the SH-EP1 human epithelial cell line
    Lingke Zhao
    Division of Neurology, Barrow Neurological Institute, 350 West Thomas Rd, Phoenix, AZ 85013 4496, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 305:1132-41. 2003
    ....
  23. ncbi Molecular cloning, functional properties, and distribution of rat brain alpha 7: a nicotinic cation channel highly permeable to calcium
    P Seguela
    Division of Neuroscience, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030
    J Neurosci 13:596-604. 1993
    ..These results imply that alpha 7-containing receptors may play a role in activating calcium-dependent mechanisms in specific neuronal populations of the adult rat limbic system...
  24. ncbi Properties of embryonic and adult muscle acetylcholine receptors transiently expressed in COS cells
    Y Gu
    Department of Physiology, University of California, San Francisco 94143 0444
    Neuron 5:147-57. 1990
    ..Thus, some, but not all, of the differences between AChRs at adult endplates and those in the extrasynaptic membrane can be explained by the difference in subunit composition of gamma- and epsilon-AChRs...
  25. pmc Some properties of human neuronal alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors fused to the green fluorescent protein
    Eleonora Palma
    Istituto Pasteur Fondazione Cenci Bolognetti and Dipartimento di Fisiologia Umana e Farmacologia, Universita di Roma La Sapienza, P le A Moro 5, I00185 Roma, Italy
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:3950-5. 2002
    ..We also conclude that fused genes do not necessarily recapitulate all of the properties of the original receptors. This fact must be borne close in mind whenever reporter genes are attached to proteins...
  26. ncbi Identification of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor recycling and its role in maintaining receptor density at the neuromuscular junction in vivo
    Emile Bruneau
    Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA
    J Neurosci 25:9949-59. 2005
    ..These results identify an activity-dependent AChR-recycling mechanism that enables the regulation of receptor density, which could lead to rapid alterations in synaptic efficacy...
  27. ncbi Photoactivatable alpha-conotoxins reveal contacts with all subunits as well as antagonist-induced rearrangements in the Torpedo californica acetylcholine receptor
    I Kasheverov
    Shemyakin-Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
    Eur J Biochem 268:3664-73. 2001
    ....
  28. ncbi Cholesterol depletion activates rapid internalization of submicron-sized acetylcholine receptor domains at the cell membrane
    V Borroni
    UNESCO Chair of Biophysics and Molecular Neurobiology and Instituto Invest Bioquímicas, Bahia Blanca, Argentina
    Mol Membr Biol 24:1-15. 2007
    ....
  29. ncbi Interaction of alpha-conotoxin ImII and its analogs with nicotinic receptors and acetylcholine-binding proteins: additional binding sites on Torpedo receptor
    Igor E Kasheverov
    Shemyakin Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
    J Neurochem 111:934-44. 2009
    ....
  30. ncbi AChR channel conversion and AChR-adjusted neuronal survival during embryonic development
    Pessah Yampolsky
    Max Planck Institute for Medical Research, Department of Cell Physiology, Jahnstrasse 29, D 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
    Mol Cell Neurosci 37:634-45. 2008
    ....
  31. ncbi Specific antivenom for Bungarus candidus
    Wirat Leeprasert
    Department of Medicine, Udonthani Hospital, Udonthani, Thailand
    J Med Assoc Thai 90:1467-76. 2007
    ..The present article is the first report on the clinical response to the specific antivenom for Bungarus candidus...
  32. ncbi Differences in alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor binding in motor symptomatic and asymptomatic MPTP-treated monkeys
    Jennifer M Kulak
    Department of Pathology, Thomas Jefferson University, 1020 Locust Street, 521 JAH, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA
    Brain Res 999:193-202. 2004
    ....
  33. ncbi Laminar distribution of nicotinic receptor subtypes in cortical regions in schizophrenia
    A Marutle
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Occupational Therapy and Elderly Care Research (NEUROTEC, Division of Molecular Neuropharmacology, Huddinge University Hospital, B84, S-141 86, Stockholm, Sweden
    J Chem Neuroanat 22:115-26. 2001
    ....
  34. ncbi Agonists cause endocytosis of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on cultured myotubes
    P A St John
    Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, The University of Arizona College of Medicine, Tucson, AZ 85724, USA
    J Neurobiol 49:212-23. 2001
    ..These results provide direct evidence that agonists, including the tobacco alkaloid nicotine, can cause substantial endocytosis of cell-surface nAChRs...
  35. ncbi Postsynaptic requirement for Abl kinases in assembly of the neuromuscular junction
    Alexander J Finn
    Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, Box 3813, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    Nat Neurosci 6:717-23. 2003
    ..Our findings suggest that Abl kinases provide the developing synapse with the kinase activity required for signal amplification and the intrinsic cytoskeletal regulatory capacity required for assembly and remodeling...
  36. ncbi Neurotransmitter acetylcholine negatively regulates neuromuscular synapse formation by a Cdk5-dependent mechanism
    Weichun Lin
    The Salk Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    Neuron 46:569-79. 2005
    ..Genetic elimination of Cdk5 or blocking ACh production prevents the dispersion of AChR clusters in agrin mutants. Therefore, we propose that ACh negatively regulates neuromuscular synapse formation through a Cdk5-dependent mechanism...
  37. ncbi Regional distribution of nicotinic receptor subunit mRNAs in human brain: comparison between Alzheimer and normal brain
    E Hellström-Lindahl
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Occupational Therapy and Elderly Care Research, Division of Molecular Neuropharmacology, Karolinska Institute, Huddinge University Hospital, S 14186 Huddinge, Sweden
    Brain Res Mol Brain Res 66:94-103. 1999
    ..The increased mRNA level of alpha7 previously found in lymphocytes, and now also in the hippocampus of AD patients, indicate that subunit specific changes in gene expression of nAChRs is associated with AD...
  38. ncbi alpha 7 nicotinic receptor transduces signals to phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase to block A beta-amyloid-induced neurotoxicity
    T Kihara
    Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606 8507, Japan
    J Biol Chem 276:13541-6. 2001
    ..These findings indicate that the alpha7 nicotinic receptor transduces signals to PI3K in a cascade, which ultimately contributes to a neuroprotective effect. This might form the basis of a new treatment for AD...
  39. ncbi Calcium-dependent maintenance of agrin-induced postsynaptic specializations
    L J Megeath
    Department of Neuroscience, Brown University, Box 1953, 190 Thayer Street, Providence, RI 02912, USA
    Neuroscience 122:659-68. 2003
    ..These findings suggest an avenue by which postsynaptic stability can be regulated by modification of intracellular signaling pathways that are distinct from those used during synapse formation...
  40. ncbi Molecular cloning of the major lethal toxins from two kraits (Bungarus flaviceps and Bungarus candidus)
    Ryohei Yanoshita
    Institute of Medicinal Chemistry, Hoshi University, Tokyo 142 8501, Japan
    Toxicon 47:416-24. 2006
    ..and enzymatically digested peptides revealed that the A and B chains were highly homologous to those of beta-bungarotoxins (beta-Bgts) from Bungarus multicinctus, respectively...
  41. ncbi Src-family kinases stabilize the neuromuscular synapse in vivo via protein interactions, phosphorylation, and cytoskeletal linkage of acetylcholine receptors
    Gayathri Sadasivam
    Department of Neurochemistry, Brain Research Institute, University of Zurich, CH 8057 Zurich, Switzerland
    J Neurosci 25:10479-93. 2005
    ..SFKs hold the postsynaptic apparatus together through stabilization of AChR-rapsyn interaction and AChR phosphorylation. In addition, SFKs control rapsyn levels and AChR-cytoskeletal linkage...
  42. ncbi Effects of alpha-erabutoxin, alpha-bungarotoxin, alpha-cobratoxin and fasciculin on the nicotine-evoked release of dopamine in the rat striatum in vivo
    F Dajas-Bailador
    Neurochemistry Division, Instituto de Investigaciones Biologicas Clemente Estable, Montevideo, Uruguay
    Neurochem Int 33:307-12. 1998
    ..This interaction of short neurotoxin polypeptides and presynaptic receptors may permit the further elucidation of the particular nicotinic receptor populations responsible for the modulation of striatal DA release...
  43. ncbi Muscarinic toxin-like proteins from Taiwan banded krait (Bungarus multicinctus) venom: purification, characterization and gene organization
    Charling Chung
    Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Sun Yat Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
    Biol Chem 383:1397-406. 2002
    ..These results suggest that BM8, BM14, neurotoxins and cardiotoxins may have originated from a common ancestor, and the evolution of snake venom proteins shows a tendency to diversify their functions...
  44. ncbi Metabolic cholesterol depletion hinders cell-surface trafficking of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor
    M F Pediconi
    Instituto de Investigaciones Bioquimicas de Bahia Blanca, CC 857, B8000FWB, Argentina
    Neuroscience 128:239-49. 2004
    ....
  45. ncbi Calcium-activated NO production plays a role in neuronal death induced by beta-bungarotoxin in primary cultures of cerebellar granular neurons
    Wen Pei Tseng
    Institute of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, No 1, Section 1, Jen Ai Road, 10043 Taipei, Taiwan
    Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 367:451-61. 2003
    ..This potent neurotoxin will be a useful tool for studying neurotoxic processes and using this model system will allow us to find neuroprotective agents...
  46. ncbi Resolution of isotoxins in the beta-bungarotoxin family
    C C Chu
    Institute of Biochemical Sciences, College of Science, National Taiwan University, Taipei
    J Chromatogr A 694:492-7. 1995
    ..Results of protein sequencing for P8, P9 and P11, the three main isotoxins, confirmed that they shared a common phospholipase A2 subunit, which was very similar to although not completely identical with the A1 chain reported previously...
  47. ncbi Ca2+ entry through plasma membrane IP3 receptors
    Olivier Dellis
    Department of Pharmacology, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge, CB2 1PD, UK
    Science 313:229-33. 2006
    ..IP(3)Rs are unusual among endoplasmic reticulum proteins in being also functionally expressed at the PM, where very few IP3Rs contribute substantially to the Ca2+ entry evoked by the BCR...
  48. ncbi A novel alpha-conotoxin, PeIA, cloned from Conus pergrandis, discriminates between rat alpha9alpha10 and alpha7 nicotinic cholinergic receptors
    J Michael McIntosh
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112, USA
    J Biol Chem 280:30107-12. 2005
    ..Alpha-conotoxin PeIA represents a novel probe to differentiate responses mediated either through alpha9alpha10 or alpha7 nAChRs in those tissues where both receptors are expressed...
  49. ncbi Isolation of the major lethal toxin in the venom of Bungarus flaviceps
    O Khow
    Queen Saovabha Memorial Institute, Thai Red Cross Society, 1871 Rama IV Road, 10330, Bangkok, Thailand
    Toxicon 40:463-9. 2002
    ..It is a basic protein consisting of two polypeptide chains having apparent molecular weights of 17 and 8 kDa, respectively. The toxin has PLA activity but is free of ACE activity...
  50. ncbi Divergence of genes encoding B chains of beta-bungarotoxins
    Yun Ching Cheng
    Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Sun Yat Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan, ROC
    Toxicon 47:322-9. 2006
    The structural organization of the genes encoding B2, B4, B5 and B6 chains of beta-bungarotoxins are reported in this study...
  51. ncbi Neuronal death signaling by beta-bungarotoxin through the activation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor and L-type calcium channel
    Wen Pei Tseng
    Institute of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, No 1, Section 1, Jen Ai Road, Taipei, Taiwan
    Biochem Pharmacol 65:131-42. 2003
    ..Therefore, we suggest that this polypeptide neurotoxin, as a result of its high potency and irreversible properties, is a useful tool to elucidate the mechanisms of neurodegenerative diseases...
  52. ncbi Three-finger alpha-neurotoxins and the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, forty years on
    Selvanayagam Nirthanan
    Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, National University of Singapore
    J Pharmacol Sci 94:1-17. 2004
    ..This review details the progress made towards achieving this goal...
  53. ncbi Activation of NMDA receptor partly involved in beta-bungarotoxin-induced neurotoxicity in cultured primary neurons
    Wen Pei Tseng
    Institute of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, No 1, Section 1, Jen Ai Road, Taipei 10043, Taiwan
    Neurochem Int 42:333-44. 2003
    ..This snake toxin is considered not only to be a useful tool for exploring the death-signaling pathway of neurotoxicity, but also provides a model for searching neuroprotective agents...
  54. ncbi Assessing the effects of the neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid in the cholinergic synapses of the stellate cells of the mouse cochlear nucleus using whole-cell patch-clamp recording
    Ramazan Bal
    Department of Biophysics, Firat University, Faculty of Medicine, Elazig, Turkey
    Neurotoxicology 31:113-20. 2010
    ..3+/-3.4 pA inward current (n=4). We conclude that exposure to IMI at concentrations >or=10 microM for <1 min can change the membrane properties of neurons that have nAChRs and, as a consequence, their function...
  55. ncbi Crystal structure of bucain, a three-fingered toxin from the venom of the Malayan krait (Bungarus candidus)
    M T Murakami
    Center of Structural and Molecular Biology, Department of Physics, IBILCE UNESP, Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP, Brazil
    Protein Pept Lett 16:1473-7. 2009
    ..10 A resolution and based on the molecular topology and hydrophobicity profile is structurally classified as a three-fingered alpha-neurotoxin possessing a positively charged AChR-binding site...
  56. ncbi Alpha-conotoxins ImI and ImII. Similar alpha 7 nicotinic receptor antagonists act at different sites
    Michael Ellison
    Department of Biology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City 84112, USA
    J Biol Chem 278:757-64. 2003
    ..Like alpha-CTx ImI, the block by alpha-CTx ImII is voltage-independent. Thus, alpha-CTx ImII represents a probe for a novel antagonist binding site, or microsite, on the alpha7 nAChR...
  57. pmc Fluorophore-assisted light inactivation produces both targeted and collateral effects on N-type calcium channel modulation in rat sympathetic neurons
    Juan Guo
    Laboratory of Molecular Physiology, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5625 Fishers Lane, Room TS 06, MSC 9411, Bethesda, MD, 20892 9941 USA
    J Physiol 576:477-92. 2006
    ..These data challenge the assumption that the fluorophore-tagged protein is the sole target of FALI and provide evidence that collateral damage to proximal proteins occurs following fluorophore illumination...
  58. ncbi Beta-Bungarotoxin induction of neurite outgrowth in NB41A3 cells
    Pei Fung Wu
    Department of Kinesiology, Health and Leisure Studies, National Kaohsiung University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
    Toxicon 52:354-60. 2008
    ..Taken together, our results suggest the beta-Bgt-induced outgrowth of neurite from NB41A3 cells may be mediated by small G proteins...
  59. ncbi The role of palmitoylation in functional expression of nicotinic alpha7 receptors
    Renaldo C Drisdel
    Department of Neurobiology, Pharmacology, and Physiology, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA
    J Neurosci 24:10502-10. 2004
    ..In conclusion, our data indicate a function for protein palmitoylation in which palmitoylation of assembling alpha7 subunits in the ER has a role in the formation of functional BgtRs...
  60. ncbi Mice deficient in the alpha7 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor lack alpha-bungarotoxin binding sites and hippocampal fast nicotinic currents
    A Orr-Urtreger
    Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    J Neurosci 17:9165-71. 1997
    ....
  61. ncbi Phospholipase A(2) activity of beta-bungarotoxin is essential for induction of cytotoxicity on cerebellar granule neurons
    Yu Jen Chen
    Department of Medical Technology and Institute of Biotechnology, Yuanpei University of Science and Technology, Hsinchu, Taiwan
    J Neurobiol 64:213-23. 2005
    ..It is proposed that the CGNs can be a useful tool for studying interactions of the molecules on neuronal plasma membrane with beta-BuTX that mediates the specific cytotoxicity...
  62. ncbi B chain is a functional subunit of beta-bungarotoxin for inducing apoptotic death of human neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells
    Yun Ching Cheng
    Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Sun Yat Sen University Kaohsiung Medical University Joint Research Center, National Sun Yat Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan
    Toxicon 51:304-15. 2008
    ..Taken together, our data indicate that B chain is a functional subunit responsible for the cytotoxicity of beta-Bgt, and suggest that the cytotoxicity of beta-Bgt is mediated by NMDA receptor and potassium conductance...
  63. pmc The Drosophila acetylcholine receptor subunit D alpha5 is part of an alpha-bungarotoxin binding acetylcholine receptor
    Peipei Wu
    Department of Biological Sciences, Center for the Study of Gene Structure and Function, Hunter College and Graduate Center of the City University of New York, New York, New York 10021, USA
    J Biol Chem 280:20987-94. 2005
    ..A peptide-specific antibody raised against the D alpha5 subunit provides further evidence that this subunit is a component of an alpha-bungarotoxin binding nicotinic acetylcholine receptor from the central nervous system of Drosophila...
  64. ncbi Neuroprotective effect of nicotine on dopaminergic neurons by anti-inflammatory action
    Hyun Jung Park
    Department of Neurology, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Korea
    Eur J Neurosci 26:79-89. 2007
    ..Along with various neuroprotective effects of nicotine, the anti-inflammatory mechanism of nicotine could have a major therapeutic implication in the preventive treatment of PD...
  65. ncbi Alpha 9: an acetylcholine receptor with novel pharmacological properties expressed in rat cochlear hair cells
    A B Elgoyhen
    Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, California 92037
    Cell 79:705-15. 1994
    ..Our results suggest that the alpha 9 receptor is involved in the cholinergic efferent innervation of cochlear hair cells and thus may modulate the encoding of auditory stimuli...
  66. ncbi Genetic organization of Bungarus multicinctus protease inhibitor-like proteins
    Long Sen Chang
    Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Sun Yat Sen University Kaohsiung Medical University Joint Research Center, National Sun Yat Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan
    Toxicon 51:1490-5. 2008
    ....
  67. ncbi Lipid rafts serve as a signaling platform for nicotinic acetylcholine receptor clustering
    Dan Zhu
    Program of Developmental Neurobiology, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Department of Neurology, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, Georgia 30912, USA
    J Neurosci 26:4841-51. 2006
    ..These results provide insight into mechanisms of AChR cluster formation...
  68. ncbi Chimaeric nicotinic-serotonergic receptor combines distinct ligand binding and channel specificities
    J L Eisele
    Unité de Recherche Associée au Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique D1284, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France
    Nature 366:479-83. 1993
    ..We report here that one of the constructs expresses a functional receptor that contains the serotonergic channel still blocked by Ca2+ ions, but is activated by nicotinic ligands and potentiated by external Ca2+ ions...
  69. ncbi Normal apoptosis levels in mice expressing one alpha7 nicotinic receptor null and one L250T mutant allele
    R S Broide
    Division of Neuroscience, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Neuroreport 12:1643-8. 2001
    ..Furthermore, L250T mice show normal levels of apoptosis in other nervous system regions expressing alpha7 nAChRs. These results suggest that apoptosis is not the cause of death for L250T neonatal mice...
  70. ncbi Desensitizing and non-desensitizing subtypes of alpha-bungarotoxin-sensitive nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in cockroach neurons
    Vincent L Salgado
    Bayer CropScience AG, Global Biology Insecticides, Alfred Nobel Strasse 50, D 40789 Monheim am Rhein, Germany
    J Insect Physiol 50:867-79. 2004
    ..Spinosyn A weakly antagonizes nAChD receptors -23% at 10 microM. The roles of the two nAChR subtypes in insecticide poisoning are discussed...
  71. ncbi Antisense inhibition of neuronal nicotinic receptors in the tobacco-feeding insect, Manduca sexta
    David Fickbohm
    Department of Biology, Dana Laboratory, Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts, 02155, USA
    Arch Insect Biochem Physiol 53:172-85. 2003
    ....
  72. ncbi Cholinergic regulation of endogenous morphine release from lobster nerve cord
    Wei Zhu
    Neuroscience Research Institute, State University of New York College at Old Westbury, P O Box 210, Old Westbury, NY 11568, USA
    Med Sci Monit 12:BR295-301. 2006
    ..Thus, invertebrate nervous tissue preparations can be used as predictive model systems by which to evaluate underlying pharmacological mechanisms of addictive processes...
  73. ncbi Chronic nicotine and dizocilpine effects on regionally specific nicotinic and NMDA glutamate receptor binding
    Edward D Levin
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Brain Res 1041:132-42. 2005
    ..Chronic nicotine effects on receptor regulation are significantly affected by concurrent blockade of NMDA glutamate receptors...
  74. ncbi Nitrogen substitution modifies the activity of cytisine on neuronal nicotinic receptor subtypes
    Eric Carbonnelle
    CNR, Institute of Neuroscience, Section of Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology, Department of Medical Pharmacology and Center of Excellence on Neurodegenerative Diseases, University of Milan, Via Vanvitelli 32, 20129 Milan, Italy
    Eur J Pharmacol 471:85-96. 2003
    ..Adding chemical groups of a different class or size to the basic nitrogen of cytisine leads to compounds that lose full agonist activity on the alpha 3 beta 4 and alpha 7 subtypes...
  75. ncbi Effect of amyloid peptides on the increase in TrkA receptor expression induced by nicotine in vitro and in vivo
    Xinyu D Li
    Alzheimer s Research Center, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA, USA
    J Mol Neurosci 27:325-36. 2005
    ..Therefore, physiologically relevant concentrations of Abeta1-42 can prevent nicotine-induced TrkA receptor expression in brain regions containing cholinergic neurons susceptible to the neurotoxicity associated with Alzheimer's disease...
  76. ncbi P2X(7) receptors exert a permissive role on the activation of release-enhancing presynaptic alpha7 nicotinic receptors co-existing on rat neocortex glutamatergic terminals
    Laura Patti
    Department of Experimental Medicine, Pharmacology and Toxicology Section, University of Genoa, Viale Cembrano 4, 16148 Genova, Italy
    Neuropharmacology 50:705-13. 2006
    ....
  77. ncbi Galantamine activates muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptors without binding to the acetylcholine-binding site
    Gustav Akk
    Department of Anesthesiology, Washington University, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    J Neurosci 25:1992-2001. 2005
    ..We conclude that galantamine activates the muscle-type ACh receptor by interacting with a binding site that is distinct from the site for nicotinic agonists...
  78. ncbi Reduced levels of Abeta 40 and Abeta 42 in brains of smoking controls and Alzheimer's patients
    E Hellström-Lindahl
    Department of Neurotec, Division of Molecular Neuropharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden
    Neurobiol Dis 15:351-60. 2004
    ..These results indicate that selective nicotinic receptor agonists may be a novel protective therapy in AD by reducing Abeta levels as well as the loss of nicotinic receptors in AD brain...
  79. ncbi Effects of repeated anaesthesia on central cholinergic function in the rat cerebral cortex
    C D Hanning
    Leicester General Hospital, Department of Anaesthesia, Leicester, UK
    Eur J Anaesthesiol 20:93-7. 2003
    ..General anaesthesia may contribute to postoperative cognitive decline in the elderly. The aim was to determine the effects of repeated pentobarbital anaesthesia throughout life on central cholinergic function in the rat...
  80. ncbi Endogenous adenosine prevents post-tetanic release facilitation mediated by alpha3beta2 nicotinic autoreceptors
    M Alexandrina Timóteo
    Laboratório de Farmacologia UMIB, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas de Abel Salazar ICBAS, Universidade do Porto, L Prof Abel Salazar, 2, Portugal
    Eur J Pharmacol 464:115-25. 2003
    ..It is concluded that activation of adenosine A(2A) receptors by endogenously generated adenosine prevents the post-tetanic release facilitation mediated by nicotinic alpha3beta2 autoreceptors...
  81. ncbi Correlations of the electrophysiological activity of neonicotinoids with their binding and insecticidal activities
    Hisashi Nishiwaki
    Faculty of Agriculture, Kinki University, Nakamachi 3327 204, Nara 631 8505, Japan
    Pest Manag Sci 59:1023-30. 2003
    ..Variations in the agonist activity were well correlated with those in the binding potency evaluated using [3H]imidacloprid as well as insecticidal activities...
  82. ncbi Different nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes mediating striatal and prefrontal cortical [3H]dopamine release
    Ying Jun Cao
    Neurological Diseases Research, Global Pharmaceutical Research and Development, Abbott Laboratories, 100 Abbott Park Road, Abbott Park, IL 60064 6125, USA
    Neuropharmacology 48:72-9. 2005
    ..alpha7* nAChRs do not appear to play a role in nAChR-mediated dopamine release from either brain region...
  83. ncbi Relationship between alpha 7 nAChR and apoptosis in human lymphocytes
    María José De Rosa
    Instituto de Investigaciones Bioquimicas de Bahia Blanca, UNS CONICET, Camino La Carrindanga Km 7, B8000FWB Bahia Blanca, Argentina
    J Neuroimmunol 160:154-61. 2005
    ..In addition, the incubation with these drugs decreases the percentage of apoptotic cells induced by the exposure to cortisol. Our results suggest that alpha7 nAChRs are involved in the modulation of cortisol-induced apoptosis...
  84. ncbi Presynaptic alpha7 and non-alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors modulate [3H]d-aspartate release from rat frontal cortex in vitro
    Stephen J Rousseau
    Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY, UK
    Neuropharmacology 49:59-72. 2005
    ....
  85. ncbi Identified spinal motoneurons of young rats possess nicotinic acetylcholine receptors of the heteromeric family
    R Ogier
    Department of Physiology, University Medical Center, 1, rue Michel Servet, CH 1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland
    Eur J Neurosci 20:2591-7. 2004
    ..Our data indicate that spinal motoneurons possess functional nicotinic receptors of the heteromeric type and suggest that nicotinic cholinergic transmission may play a significant role in the developing spinal cord...
  86. ncbi In vivo effects of the anatoxin-a on striatal dopamine release
    F Campos
    Department of Functional Biology and Health Sciences, Faculty of Biology, University of Vigo, Pontevedra, Spain
    Neurochem Res 31:491-501. 2006
    ....
  87. ncbi Cholinergic modulation of microglial activation by alpha 7 nicotinic receptors
    R Douglas Shytle
    Child Development Center, Neuroimmunology Laboratory, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Medicine, University of South Florida College of Medciine, Tampa, Florida, USA
    J Neurochem 89:337-43. 2004
    ..Negative regulation of microglia activation may also represent additional mechanism underlying nicotine's reported neuroprotective properties...
  88. ncbi The involvement of central cholinergic system in the pressor effect of intracerebroventricularly injected U-46619, a thromboxane A2 analog, in conscious normotensive rats
    Murat Yalcin
    Department of Physiology, Uludag University Veterinary Faculty, 16059, Gorukle, Bursa, Turkey
    Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 372:31-40. 2005
    ..The activation of central nicotinic receptors, predominantly alpha7nAChRs, partially mediates the cardiovascular responses to i.c.v. injection of U-46619...
  89. ncbi Role of alpha7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in tetanic stimulation-induced gamma oscillations in rat hippocampal slices
    Chuanzhe Song
    Division of Neurology, Barrow Neurological Institute, St Joseph s Hospital and Medical Center, Phoenix, AZ 85013 4496, USA
    Neuropharmacology 48:869-80. 2005
    ..It is concluded that alpha7-nAChRs in hippocampal slices play important roles in regulation of gamma oscillations, thus potentially helping to explain roles of nAChRs in cognitive functions such as learning, memory and attention...
  90. ncbi Lovastatin stimulates up-regulation of alpha7 nicotinic receptors in cultured neurons without cholesterol dependency, a mechanism involving production of the alpha-form of secreted amyloid precursor protein
    Jin Xiu
    Neurotec Department, Division of Molecular Neuropharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    J Neurosci Res 82:531-41. 2005
    ..We also show that the up-regulation of alpha7 nAChRs stimulated by lovastatin is involved in a mechanism that enhances production of alphaAPPs during APP processing...
  91. ncbi The linoleic acid derivative FR236924 facilitates hippocampal synaptic transmission by enhancing activity of presynaptic alpha7 acetylcholine receptors on the glutamatergic terminals
    S Yamamoto
    Department of Physiology, Hyogo College of Medicine, 1 1 Mukogawa cho, Nishinomiya 663 8501, Japan
    Neuroscience 130:207-13. 2005
    ..This may provide evidence for a link between cis-unsaturated free fatty acids and presynaptic alpha7 ACh receptors in hippocampal synaptic plasticity...
  92. ncbi Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes involved in facilitation of GABAergic inhibition in mouse superficial superior colliculus
    Toshiaki Endo
    Department of Developmental Physiology, National Institute for Physiological Sciences, Myodaiji, Okazaki, Japan
    J Neurophysiol 94:3893-902. 2005
    ..These findings suggest that nAChRs are involved in the regulation of GABAergic inhibition and modulate visual processing in the sSC...
  93. ncbi Association of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors with central respiratory control in isolated brainstem-spinal cord preparation of neonatal rats
    Eiki Hatori
    Department of Anesthesiology, School of Medicine, Keio University, Tokyo, Japan
    Biol Res 39:321-30. 2006
    ..These findings indicate that alpha4beta2 nAChR is involved in both inspiratory and preinspiratory neurons, whereas alpha7 nAChR functions only in preinspiratory neurons to modulate C4 respiratory rate...
  94. pmc Long-term exposure to the new nicotinic antagonist 1,2-bisN-cytisinylethane upregulates nicotinic receptor subtypes of SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells
    Loredana Riganti
    CNR, Institute of Neuroscience, Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology, Department of Medical Pharmacology and Center of Excellence on Neurodegenerative Diseases, University of Milan, Via Vanvitelli 32, 20129 Milan, Italy
    Br J Pharmacol 146:1096-109. 2005
    ....
  95. ncbi High-affinity epibatidine binding of functional, human alpha7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors stably and heterologously expressed de novo in human SH-EP1 cells
    Jian Hong Peng
    Division of Neurobiology, Barrow Neurological Institute, 350 West Thomas Rd, Phoenix, AZ 85013, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 313:24-35. 2005
    ....
  96. ncbi Unique mechanism of action of Alzheimer's drugs on brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and NMDA receptors
    Toshio Narahashi
    Department of Molecular Pharmacology Biological Chemistry, Northwestern University Medical School, 303 E Chicago Avenue, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
    Life Sci 74:281-91. 2003
    ..The nefiracetam potentiation of both nACh and NMDA receptors in a potent and efficacious manner is deemed responsible for its cognitive enhancing action...
  97. ncbi Chronic neonatal nicotine upregulates heteromeric nicotinic acetylcholine receptor binding without change in subunit mRNA expression
    L Z Huang
    Department of Neuroscience and Experimental Therapeutics, College of Medicine, Texas A and M University System, Health Sciences Center, 369 Reynolds Medical Bldg, College Station, TX 77843 1114, USA
    Brain Res 1113:94-109. 2006
    ....
  98. ncbi Evidence suggesting that the mouse sperm acrosome reaction initiated by the zona pellucida involves an alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor
    Jung Ho Son
    Department of Cell Biology and Human Anatomy, School of Medicine, University of California, Davis, California 95616 8643, USA
    Biol Reprod 68:1348-53. 2003
    ..These studies with mouse sperm and ovary-derived ZP strongly support our previous conclusion that activation of an alpha7nAChR is important to the mammalian AR initiated by the egg ZP...
  99. ncbi Involvement of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in suppression of antimicrobial activity and cytokine responses of alveolar macrophages to Legionella pneumophila infection by nicotine
    K Matsunaga
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of South Florida College of Medicine, Tampa, FL 33612, USA
    J Immunol 167:6518-24. 2001
    ....
  100. ncbi Dorsal root ganglion neurons express multiple nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes
    J R Genzen
    Committee on Neurobiology, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA
    J Neurophysiol 86:1773-82. 2001
    ..Both the alpha7-like and alpha3beta4-like responses could be desensitized by prolonged applications of the analgesic epibatidine...
  101. pmc Nicotine facilitates glycine release in the rat spinal dorsal horn
    A Kiyosawa
    Cellular and System Physiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8582, Japan
    J Physiol 536:101-10. 2001
    ..This action on a subset of presynaptic nAChRs may underlie nicotine's modulation of noxious signal transmission and provide a cellular mechanism for the analgesic function of nicotine...

Research Grants55

  1. Role of alpha3-containing nicotinic receptors in mediating central nicotine effec
    Edward Hawrot; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Understanding the molecular interactions of nicotine with its receptors in the central nervous system therefore has significant potential to benefit human health. ..
  2. The Neuronal alpha-bungarotoxin Binding Site
    WILLIAM NATHAN GREEN; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..As the site where nicotine binds in the brain, these receptors are responsible for nicotine addiction and also play a role in neurodegenerative and psychiatric diseases such as Alzheimers disease and schizophrenia. ..
  3. Development of Tethered Toxins for Neuroscience Research
    Nathaniel Heintz; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Preliminary results are that tethered bungarotoxins retain their activity on nAChRs, and that they are not cleaved from the cell surface to inhibit adjacent cells...
  4. PROPERTIES OF CHEMICALLY MODIFIED PHOSPHOLIPASE A-2
    Philip Rosenberg; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..Clinical disorders could be associated with abnormal enzymatic activity or toxic effects unrelated to enzymatic activity...
  5. STRUCTURE FUNCTION ANALYSIS OF ALPHA NEUROTOXINS
    Edward Hawrot; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..This information will be useful in providing valuable models for drug design efforts and in developing new pharmacological tools for the study of neuronal nAChRs. ..
  6. TOXICOLOGICAL STUDIES OF INSECT ACH-RECEPTORS
    AMIRA ELDEFRAWI; Fiscal Year: 1980
    ....
  7. Diversity of Nicotinic Synapses in Sympathetic Ganglia
    John Horn; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..g. cardiovascular adaptation to exercise, reproduction, thermoregulation and defensive adaptation to stress). ..
  8. AUTOREACTIVITY TO AChR IN THE THYMUS OF MG PATIENTS
    Sonia Berrih Aknin; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ....
  9. NICOTINIC SYNAPTIC TRANSMISSION IN THE HIPPOCAMPUS
    Robert Freedman; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ....
  10. MEMBRANE-BOUND ENZYMES AND DRUG RECEPTORS IN MUSCLE
    Thomas Mittag; Fiscal Year: 1980
    ..The relationship of protein kinase activity and phosphorylated membrane state to calcium binding by sarcolemma will also be studied...
  11. NICOTINIC RECEPTORS IN MAMMALIAN INTRACARDIAC NEURONS
    Javier Cuevas; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..An understanding of the properties and physiological role of the receptors is necessary to comprehend neural control of the heart. ..
  12. NITRIC OXIDE MEDIATION OF HIPPOCAMPAL NICOTINE EFFECTS
    Catherine Adams; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..Knowledge gained from the proposed experiments may help elucidate the mechanisms by which nicotine exerts its persistent effects in the central nervous system. ..
  13. ASSEMBLY OF A POSTSYNAPTIC MEMBRANE
    PAUL LUTHER; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..These are essential steps if we are eventually to understand synapse formation at the molecular level...
  14. The Neuronal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Interactome via a Knock-In Mouse
    Edward Hawrot; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Public Health Relatedness: Knowledge of the cascade of cellular processes and protein interactions regulated by nicotine will contribute to the development of new health interventions. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  15. Design/charcterization of alpha-7 nicotinic radioprobes
    Robert Dannals; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Additionally, this exploratory project will address the feasibility of in vivo labeling of alpha-7 nAChR sites. ..
  16. Studying nicotinic AChRs in histaminergic neurons
    VICTOR UTESHEV GAARD; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Some of these effects of nicotine and therapeutic nicotinic agents may arise from their ability to modulate histaminergic function. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  17. RECOVERY FROM AXONAL INJURY
    Bernice Grafstein; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ....
  18. Neuromuscular synaptogenesis in zebrafish
    Rita Balice Gordon; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ....
  19. RECEPTOR CLUSTERING ON DEVELOPING MUSCLE CELLS
    Daniel Axelrod; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ....
  20. MOLECULAR RECOGNITION OF ACETYLCHOLINE RECEPTOR
    M Atassi; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..The work will provide a detailed understanding of the function of AChR and the changes in this function as a result of toxin or autoantibody binding...
  21. PATHWAYS FOR COLOR VISION IN RETINAS
    Dean Bok; Fiscal Year: 1980
    ..Effects of putative synaptic transmitters on postsynaptic0cells will be analyzed by recording from single cells in the isolated superfused retina while applying those substances. ..
  22. The Neuronal alpha-bungarotoxin Binding Site
    William Green; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..abstract_text> ..
  23. Cotinine for Cognitive Impairment in Neurological and Neuropsychiatric Disorders
    Alvin V Terry; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The partly translational design of the study will provide results leading to eventual clinical trials with cotinine or a relevant analog. ..
  24. Neuromuscular Activity: Development and Survival of Avian and Mammalian Neurons
    Ronald W Oppenheim; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..abstract_text> ..
  25. Oxidant Stress: Is it a biomarker of disease progression and response to therapy
    Jesse Roman; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..End of Abstract) ..
  26. Motor System Development in the Absence of Cell Death
    Ronald Oppenheim; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  27. Antipsychotics: Temporal Effects on Cognitive Function
    Alvin Terry; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..unreadable] [unreadable]..
  28. FIBRONECTIN AND RECEPTORS IN LUNGS VASCULOGENESIS
    Jesse Roman; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..abstract_text> ..
  29. Regulation of host response genes in pathogenesis of TB
    Jesse Roman; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ....
  30. DEVELOPMENT AND SURVIVAL OF GLIAL CELLS
    Ronald Oppenheim; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ....
  31. Ontogeny of Motor Systems: Neurogenesis to Behavior
    Ronald Oppenheim; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..g., by using the membership mailing list to the Association for Ethnic Diversity in the Neurosciences). ..
  32. NEURONAL DEATH AND SURVIVAL
    Ronald Oppenheim; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ....
  33. Changes in nicotinic receptors in parkinsonian animals
    JENNIFER KULAK; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..
  34. Gestational Choline Levels and Sensory Inhibition
    Karen Stevens; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..The data from these studies may potentially impact guide lines for human prenatal nutrition in at-risk pregnancies for schizophrenia. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  35. INSECTICIDE ACTIONS ON GABA-A RECEPTORS
    Gustav Akk; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  36. PPAR gamma Signaling and Lung Fibroblast Transdifferentiation
    Virender Rehan; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..abstract_text> ..
  37. Tat-mediated brain endothelial cell dysfunction
    Michal Toborek; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..In a broader aspect, this proposal will contribute to better knowledge of how injury to brain endothelium can contribute to the development of neuroAIDS. ..
  38. Allosteric Coupling in Homomeric Cys-loop Receptors
    STEVEN SINE; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Knowledge of how Cys-loop receptors operate at the molecular level is essential to developing therapeutic strategies and drugs with fewer side effects. ..
  39. HOMOMERIC NICOTINIC ACETYLCHOLINE RECEPTORS
    RONALD LUKAS; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Findings in the project are relevant to our understanding of the important roles played by nAChR in nervous system function and disease and in nicotine dependence. ..
  40. Effect of Raloxifene on Neuronal Physiology
    Teresa Audesirk; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..The production of NO, which has been implicated in several aspects of neuronal differentiation and learning, is enhanced by b-estradiol. This enhancement is blocked by the SERM tamoxifen. ..
  41. GENETIC LINKAGE OF AUDITORY GATING
    Karen Stevens; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..Such information could be important in understanding of the etiology of the disorder and in determining future therapeutic interventions. ..
  42. Mast Cell Role in Masseter Muscle Repair
    JOYCE MORRIS WIMAN; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ....
  43. MOLECULAR NEUROBIOLOGY OF SCHIZOPHRENIA
    Robert Freedman; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..We present provocative new data that perinatal choline supplementation to mice with acra7 polymorphisms results in offspring with normal inhibition of the hippocampal response to repeated sounds. ..
  44. BASAL LAMINA MOLECULES AND SYNAPTOGENESIS
    MICHAEL WERLE; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ....
  45. Pre-habilitation of Aged and Young Neuromuscular Systems
    MICHAEL DESCHENES; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ....
  46. Cholesterol & protein-lipid effects on Ach Receptor
    Jose Lasalde Dominicci; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ....
  47. Actions of Ethanol on Ligand-Gated Ion Channels
    Gustav Akk; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The results from the experiments will be used to examine the mechanism and structural requirements in the ethanol-mediated modulation of the GABAA receptor function. ..
  48. MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OF NOREPINEPHRINE BIOSYNTHESIS
    Esther Sabban; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..These findings will contribute to the development of new strategies to prevent the harmful maladaptive changes in catecholamine neurotransmission, while enhancing its beneficial adaptive aspects ..
  49. Nicotine and Development of Autonomic Neurons
    Malathi Srivatsan; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..These studies will also provide crucial research experience to undergraduate students to stimulate their interest in biomedical research while educating them about the harmful effects of smoking]. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  50. INTERNAL SENSING SYSTEMS IN HYPOTHALAMUS
    GLENN HATTON; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..stimulated physiological conditions. Also to be examined are the effects on excitability of simultaneously activating two or more of the receptors that are known to be expressed in the SON. ..
  51. Molecular Bases for Effects of Nicotine
    RONALD LUKAS; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Insights will also be provided into the kinds of drugs that block or mimic nicotine's actions. Collectively, this knowledge will benefit development of strategies to treat mood, cognitive, and other nervous system disorders. ..
  52. Molecular Regulation of TIMP-2 in Neuron Cell Cycle
    DIANE JAWORSKI; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  53. Sympathetic Ganglia: New Target for ACTH with Stress
    Esther Sabban; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..abstract_text> ..