tars

Summary

Summary: Viscous materials composed of complex, high-molecular-weight compounds derived from the distillation of petroleum or the destructive distillation of wood or coal. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)

Top Publications

  1. pmc A comparison of nicotine dose estimates in smokers between filter analysis, salivary cotinine, and urinary excretion of nicotine metabolites
    F K St Charles
    British American Tobacco, Southampton, SO15 8TL, UK
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 189:345-54. 2006
  2. ncbi Phototoxicity of bituminous tars-correspondence between results of 3T3 NRU PT, 3D skin model and experimental human data
    D Jirova
    National Reference Center for Cosmetics, National Institute of Public Health, Srobarova 48, 100 42 Prague 10, Czech Republic
    Toxicol In Vitro 19:931-4. 2005
  3. ncbi Similar uptake of lung carcinogens by smokers of regular, light, and ultralight cigarettes
    Stephen S Hecht
    Transdiciplinary Tobacco Use Research and Cancer Center, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 14:693-8. 2005
  4. pmc Smokers' beliefs about "Light" and "Ultra Light" cigarettes
    S Shiffman
    Pinney Associates, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA
    Tob Control 10:i17-23. 2001
  5. ncbi What do Marlboro Lights smokers know about low-tar cigarettes?
    K Michael Cummings
    Department of Health Behavior, Division of Cancer Prevention and Population Sciences, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY 14263, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 6:S323-32. 2004
  6. pmc Menthol's potential effects on nicotine dependence: a tobacco industry perspective
    Valerie B Yerger
    Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Box 0612, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143 0612, USA
    Tob Control 20:ii29-36. 2011
  7. ncbi A randomized, controlled exposure study in adult smokers of full flavor Marlboro cigarettes switching to Marlboro Lights or Marlboro Ultra Lights cigarettes
    Paul Mendes
    Philip Morris USA Research Center, Clinical Evaluation, 4201 Commerce Road, Richmond, VA 23234, USA
    Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 51:295-305. 2008
  8. pmc Health impact of "reduced yield" cigarettes: a critical assessment of the epidemiological evidence
    M J Thun
    American Cancer Society, Atlanta, Georgia 30329 4251, USA
    Tob Control 10:i4-11. 2001
  9. ncbi Variation in, and causes of, toxicity of cigarette butts to a cladoceran and microtox
    T Micevska
    Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Technology UTS, Sydney, Australia
    Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 50:205-12. 2006
  10. ncbi Malaysian and Thai smokers' beliefs about the harmfulness of 'light' and menthol cigarettes
    B King
    VicHealth Centre for Tobacco Control, The Cancer Council Victoria, Carlton, Victoria, Australia
    Tob Control 19:444-50. 2010

Detail Information

Publications198 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc A comparison of nicotine dose estimates in smokers between filter analysis, salivary cotinine, and urinary excretion of nicotine metabolites
    F K St Charles
    British American Tobacco, Southampton, SO15 8TL, UK
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 189:345-54. 2006
    ..However, no comparison of the filter analysis method with body fluid analysis methods has been published...
  2. ncbi Phototoxicity of bituminous tars-correspondence between results of 3T3 NRU PT, 3D skin model and experimental human data
    D Jirova
    National Reference Center for Cosmetics, National Institute of Public Health, Srobarova 48, 100 42 Prague 10, Czech Republic
    Toxicol In Vitro 19:931-4. 2005
    Bituminous tars (Ichthammol and Ichthyol Pale) are widely used in pharmaceutical, veterinary and cosmetic industries for their anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory and anti-pruritic effects...
  3. ncbi Similar uptake of lung carcinogens by smokers of regular, light, and ultralight cigarettes
    Stephen S Hecht
    Transdiciplinary Tobacco Use Research and Cancer Center, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 14:693-8. 2005
    ..The results are consistent with epidemiologic studies that show no difference in lung cancer risk in smokers of these cigarettes...
  4. pmc Smokers' beliefs about "Light" and "Ultra Light" cigarettes
    S Shiffman
    Pinney Associates, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA
    Tob Control 10:i17-23. 2001
    ..To assess beliefs about the tar and nicotine delivery characteristics and health benefits of Light and Ultra Light cigarettes among cigarette smokers...
  5. ncbi What do Marlboro Lights smokers know about low-tar cigarettes?
    K Michael Cummings
    Department of Health Behavior, Division of Cancer Prevention and Population Sciences, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY 14263, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 6:S323-32. 2004
    ....
  6. pmc Menthol's potential effects on nicotine dependence: a tobacco industry perspective
    Valerie B Yerger
    Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Box 0612, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143 0612, USA
    Tob Control 20:ii29-36. 2011
    ..To examine what the tobacco industry knows about the potential effects menthol may have on nicotine dependence...
  7. ncbi A randomized, controlled exposure study in adult smokers of full flavor Marlboro cigarettes switching to Marlboro Lights or Marlboro Ultra Lights cigarettes
    Paul Mendes
    Philip Morris USA Research Center, Clinical Evaluation, 4201 Commerce Road, Richmond, VA 23234, USA
    Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 51:295-305. 2008
    ..Conclusions. Switching smokers to lower FTC tar yield cigarettes, on average, reduces nicotine and other biomarkers considered surrogates of tar exposure...
  8. pmc Health impact of "reduced yield" cigarettes: a critical assessment of the epidemiological evidence
    M J Thun
    American Cancer Society, Atlanta, Georgia 30329 4251, USA
    Tob Control 10:i4-11. 2001
    ..Tobacco control policies should not allow changes in cigarette design to subvert or distract from interventions proven to reduce the prevalence, intensity, and duration of smoking...
  9. ncbi Variation in, and causes of, toxicity of cigarette butts to a cladoceran and microtox
    T Micevska
    Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Technology UTS, Sydney, Australia
    Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 50:205-12. 2006
    ..70) for C. cf. dubia and one brand for V. fischeri. However, when the cigarettes were pooled, the relationship was weak (R(2) < 0.40) for both test species. Brand affected the toxicity to both species but more so for V. fischeri...
  10. ncbi Malaysian and Thai smokers' beliefs about the harmfulness of 'light' and menthol cigarettes
    B King
    VicHealth Centre for Tobacco Control, The Cancer Council Victoria, Carlton, Victoria, Australia
    Tob Control 19:444-50. 2010
    ..This study explored the extent to which Malaysian and Thai smokers believe "light" and menthol cigarettes are less harmful than "regular" cigarettes and the correlates of these beliefs...
  11. pmc Dependence of tar, nicotine and carbon monoxide yields on physical parameters: implications for exposure, emissions control and monitoring
    W E Stephens
    School of Geography and Geosciences, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9AL, UK
    Tob Control 16:170-6. 2007
    ..A related aim is to determine whether accurate prediction of TNCO yields is possible using only simple physical parameters...
  12. ncbi Cotinine concentration in smokers from different countries: relationship with amount smoked and cigarette type
    Amanda L Blackford
    Division of Biostatistics, Department of Oncology, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 15:1799-804. 2006
    ..Results suggest a saturation point for daily nicotine intake and minimal or no reduction in nicotine intake by smoking light cigarettes...
  13. pmc Light cigarette smoking impairs coronary microvascular functions as severely as smoking regular cigarettes
    Hakan Gullu
    Baskent University, Faculty of Medicine, Konya Teaching and Medical Research Centre, Cardiology Department, Ankara, Turkey
    Heart 93:1274-7. 2007
    ..Smoking low-tar, low-nicotine cigarettes (light cigarettes) would be expected to be less hazardous than smoking regular cigarettes owing to the lower nicotine and tar yield...
  14. ncbi Relationship between constituent labelling and reporting of tar yields among smokers in four countries
    R J O'Connor
    Department of Health Behavior, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY 14203, USA
    J Public Health (Oxf) 28:324-9. 2006
    ..Pack labelling appears to be useful for conveying information about cigarettes to smokers; however, there is an urgent need to develop more meaningful information on toxic constituents of cigarette smoke...
  15. ncbi 'Light' and 'mild' cigarettes: who smokes them? Are they being misled?
    M J Ashley
    Ontario Tobacco Research Unit, Centre for Health Promotion, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON
    Can J Public Health 92:407-11. 2001
    ..These data provide empirical support for banning 'light' and 'mild' on cigarette packaging...
  16. ncbi Switching to lower tar cigarettes does not increase or decrease the likelihood of future quit attempts or cessation
    Andrew Hyland
    Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Department of Cancer Prevention, Epidemiology, and Biostatistics, Buffalo NY 14263, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 5:665-71. 2003
    ..The data show that switching to a low-tar cigarette does not appear to increase or decrease the likelihood of future cessation, though motivation to stop smoking may be associated with switching...
  17. ncbi STAT3 activation inhibits human bronchial epithelial cell apoptosis in response to cigarette smoke exposure
    Xiangde Liu
    Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198 5885, USA
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 353:121-6. 2007
    ..These findings suggest that STAT3 mediates HBEC survival in response to CSE-induced DNA damage, at least in part, through the IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway...
  18. pmc Cessation among smokers of "light" cigarettes: results from the 2000 national health interview survey
    Hilary A Tindle
    University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, 15213, USA
    Am J Public Health 96:1498-504. 2006
    ..However, the availability of light cigarettes may deter smoking cessation...
  19. ncbi How do different cigarette design features influence the standard tar yields of popular cigarette brands sold in different countries?
    R J O'Connor
    Department of Health Behavior, Division of Cancer Prevention and Population Sciences, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Elm and Carlton Streets, Buffalo, NY 14263, USA
    Tob Control 17:i1-5. 2008
    ..To examine the associations among cigarette design features and tar yields of leading cigarette brands sold in the United States, Canada, Australia and the United Kingdom...
  20. ncbi Properties of "light" cigarettes sold in New Zealand
    Kaila J Norton
    N Z Med J 121:107-10. 2008
  21. pmc How did UK cigarette makers reduce tar to 10 mg or less?
    RICHARD J O'CONNOR
    BMJ 332:302. 2006
  22. ncbi Short-term exposure evaluation of adult smokers switching from conventional to first-generation electrically heated cigarettes during controlled smoking
    Hans J Roethig
    Philip Morris USA, Clinical Evaluation, 615 Maury Street, Richmond, VA 23224 4121, USA
    J Clin Pharmacol 45:133-45. 2005
    ..The study design was found to be suitable for the evaluation of the exposure of adult smokers to the measured smoke constituents and to allow the differentiation of different cigarette designs...
  23. pmc Beliefs about the relative harm of "light" and "low tar" cigarettes: findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) China Survey
    T Elton-Marshall
    Department of Psychology, PAS Building, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada
    Tob Control 19:i54-62. 2010
    ..However, there is little research on whether similar perceptions exist among smokers in low and middle incomes, including China...
  24. ncbi Taking ad-Vantage of lax advertising regulation in the USA and Canada: reassuring and distracting health-concerned smokers
    Stacey J Anderson
    Center for Tobacco Control Research and Education, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143 1390, USA
    Soc Sci Med 63:1973-85. 2006
    ....
  25. pmc Effect of health messages about "Light" and "Ultra Light" cigarettes on beliefs and quitting intent
    S Shiffman
    Pinney Associates, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA
    Tob Control 10:i24-32. 2001
    ..To test the impact of three health messages focusing on vent holes, sensory effects of Light and Ultra Light cigarettes, or health consequences of smoking, respectively, on beliefs and quitting intentions...
  26. ncbi Adolescents' beliefs about the risks involved in smoking "light" cigarettes
    Rhonda Y Kropp
    Division of Adolescent Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94118, USA
    Pediatrics 114:e445-51. 2004
    ....
  27. pmc The dark side of marketing seemingly "Light" cigarettes: successful images and failed fact
    R W Pollay
    University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Tob Control 11:I18-31. 2002
    ..To understand the development, intent, and consequences of US tobacco industry advertising for low machine yield cigarettes...
  28. ncbi Relationship between machine-derived smoke yields and biomarkers in cigarette smokers in Germany
    Gerhard Scherer
    ABF Analytisch biologisches Forschungslabor GmbH, Goethestr 20, 80336 Muenchen, Germany
    Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 47:171-83. 2007
    ..It is concluded that machine-derived yields of cigarettes from the contemporary German cigarette market have little or no impact on the actual smoking-related exposure determined by suitable biomarkers...
  29. ncbi High levels of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in 20 brands of Chinese cigarettes
    V Akpan
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Florence, Viale Pieraccini 6, 50139 Florence, Italy
    J Appl Toxicol 26:480-3. 2006
    ..53, P < 0.01), thus providing an easily measurable parameter for ranking various cigarette brands in developing countries where more sophisticated techniques might not be feasible for lack of funds and expertise...
  30. pmc Cigarette tar yields in relation to mortality from lung cancer in the cancer prevention study II prospective cohort, 1982-8
    Jeffrey E Harris
    Department of Economics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
    BMJ 328:72. 2004
    ..To assess the risk of lung cancer in smokers of medium tar filter cigarettes compared with smokers of low tar and very low tar filter cigarettes...
  31. ncbi Will the next generation of "safer" cigarettes be safer?
    Kenneth E Warner
    School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 2029, USA
    J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 27:543-50. 2005
    ....
  32. ncbi "Light" and "mild" cigarettes: let's end the confusion. Now
    Andrew Pipe
    Can J Public Health 96:165-6, 188. 2005
  33. pmc Publishing tobacco tar measurements on packets
    Nigel Gray
    BMJ 329:813-4. 2004
  34. ncbi The unbearable lightness of "light" cigarettes: a comparison of smoke yields in six varieties of Canadian "light" cigarettes
    Paul L Gendreau
    School of Psychoeducation, University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec
    Can J Public Health 96:167-72. 2005
    ..We selected cigarettes from the two most popular Canadian brands, Du Maurier and Players...
  35. ncbi Smoking machine test inadequate and confusing, but no replacement a decade later
    Sarah L Zielinski
    J Natl Cancer Inst 97:10-1. 2005
  36. ncbi A digital image analysis system for identifying filter vent blocking on ultralight cigarettes
    RICHARD J O'CONNOR
    Department of Behavioral Health, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, USA
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 14:533-7. 2005
    ..The results indicate that the pattern of color saturation is related to vent blocking. Implications for tobacco control research and policy are discussed...
  37. ncbi Reductions in the tobacco specific nitrosamine (TSNA) content of tobaccos taken from commercial Canadian cigarettes and corresponding reductions in TSNA deliveries in mainstream smoke from such cigarettes
    W S Rickert
    Labstat International, ULC, 262 Manitou Drive, Kitchener, Ont, Canada N2C 1L3
    Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 51:306-10. 2008
    ..These results show that other factors (microorganisms, nitrite levels) may be negating the TSNA reductions achieved by indirect-fired curing...
  38. ncbi [The biggest fraud of the century: light cigarettes]
    Francis Thompson
    Association pour les droits des non fumeurs, Ottawa, Canada
    Promot Educ . 2005
    ..It is hoped that the FCTC which includes a provision on the use of descriptors will prevent the fraud being repeated in the rest of the world and especially in the countries of Africa...
  39. ncbi Do reductions in the tar and nicotine yields of cigarettes help to explain recent reductions in lung cancer rates in young men and women in the United States?
    Peter N Lee
    P N Lee Statistics and Computing Ltd, Sutton, Surrey, United Kingdom
    Inhal Toxicol 18:365-88. 2006
    ..Interpretation is not straightforward, but the findings suggest declines in yields have contributed to the recent declines in rates in young U.S. men and women...
  40. ncbi Evaluation of functional relationships for predicting mainstream smoke constituent machine yields for conventional cigarettes from the Japanese market
    T Hyodo
    Japan Tobacco Inc, Product Quality Research Division, 6 2 Umegaoka, Aoba ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 2278512, Japan
    Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 48:194-224. 2007
    ..Consistent with reported results from previous benchmark studies and market surveys mainstream smoke constituent yields are well predictable when "tar" (and NO) yields are known...
  41. ncbi Tobacco smoke: unraveling a controversial subject
    Anja Thielen
    Tabak und Rauchen GmbH, Neustädtische Kirchstrasse 8, 10117 Berlin, Germany
    Exp Toxicol Pathol 60:141-56. 2008
    ..This paper gives a comprehensive overview of cigarette design, the composition and toxicity testing of smoke, and the way machines and people smoke - with links to the more detailed literature...
  42. ncbi Physical design analysis and mainstream smoke constituent yields of the new potential reduced exposure product, Marlboro UltraSmooth
    Vaughan W Rees
    Division of Public Health Practice, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 9:1197-206. 2007
    ..The data suggest that MUS has been designed to reduce toxic yields while preserving consumer appeal. However, MUS is less effective in reducing toxic smoke constituents when smoked under intensive conditions...
  43. pmc Mapping cigarettes similarities using cluster analysis methods
    Sorana D Bolboaca
    Iuliu Hatieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy Cluj Napoca, 6 Louis Pasteur, 400349 Cluj Napoca, Romania
    Int J Environ Res Public Health 4:233-42. 2007
    ..The tar and carbon monoxide concentrations were the main criteria used in clusterization. An analysis of a largest sample could reveal more relevant and useful information regarding the similarities between cigarette brands...
  44. ncbi Potentially reduced exposure cigarettes accelerate atherosclerosis: evidence for the role of nicotine
    Daniel F Catanzaro
    Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, 1300 York Avenue, New York, NY, 10021, USA
    Cardiovasc Toxicol 7:192-201. 2007
    ..Taken together, these observations suggest that smoking may accelerate atherosclerosis by increasing oxidative stress mediated at least in part via the actions of nicotine...
  45. ncbi Do increases in cigarette prices lead to increases in sales of cigarettes with high tar and nicotine yields?
    Matthew C Farrelly
    RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 9:1015-20. 2007
    ..Our results are consistent with earlier population-based cross-sectional and longitudinal studies showing that higher cigarette prices and taxes are associated with increasing consumption of higher-yield cigarettes by smokers...
  46. ncbi Digital image analysis of cigarette filter staining to estimate smoke exposure
    RICHARD J O'CONNOR
    Department of Health Behavior, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY 14263, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 9:865-71. 2007
    ..These data suggest that digital image analysis of spent cigarette butts can serve as a reliable proxy measure of total smoke volume...
  47. ncbi Mainstream smoke emissions of Australian and Canadian cigarettes
    Bill King
    VicHealth Centre for Tobacco Control, The Cancer Council Victoria, Carlton, Victoria, Australia
    Nicotine Tob Res 9:835-44. 2007
    ....
  48. ncbi Toxicological evaluation of cigarettes with two banded cigarette paper technologies
    Eugenia H Theophilus
    Research and Development, R J Reynolds Tobacco Company RJRT, Bowman Gray Technical Center, Winston Salem, NC 27015, USA
    Exp Toxicol Pathol 59:17-27. 2007
    ..Collectively, data indicated that cigarettes with and without BCPT had a similar toxicological profile in this test battery...
  49. ncbi DNA solution(R) in cigarette filters reduces polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) levels in mainstream tobacco smoke
    M Lodovici
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Florence, Viale Pieraccini 6, 50139 Florence, Italy
    Food Chem Toxicol 45:1752-6. 2007
    ....
  50. ncbi [The assessment of toxic components from tobacco/ smoke in working students]
    Rafat W Wójciak
    Katedra Higieny Zywienia Człowieka, Akademia Rolnicza w Poznaniu
    Przegl Lek 63:1023-6. 2006
    ..2.0 +/- 1.5; tar--60.3 +/- 42.0 vs. 24.4 +/- 18.0; carbon monoxide--62.4 +/- 43.5 vs. 25.2 +/- 18.7 mg/day. In conclusions, the non-smokers are exposed on toxic components of tobacco smoke in the half parts of these what smokers intake...
  51. pmc The temporal relationship between advertising and sales of low-tar cigarettes
    Mark B Reed
    San Diego State University, San Diego, California, USA
    Tob Control 15:436-41. 2006
    ..To determine whether a temporal relationship exists between the advertising and sales of low-tar cigarettes. It was hypothesised that increases in the advertising of low-tar cigarettes would precede increases in sales for these cigarettes...
  52. ncbi Possible effects on smokers of cigarette mentholation: a review of the evidence relating to key research questions
    Michael S Werley
    Philip Morris USA Research Center, 4201 Commerce Road, Richmond, VA 23234, USA
    Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 47:189-203. 2007
    ..Any toxicological effects of cigarette mentholation on adult smokers are probably quite limited...
  53. ncbi Cadmium, lead, and thallium in mainstream tobacco smoke particulate
    R S Pappas
    Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, CDC, 4770 Buford Hwy NE, M S F 47, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
    Food Chem Toxicol 44:714-23. 2006
    ....
  54. ncbi FTIR analysis of gaseous compounds in the mainstream smoke of regular and light cigarettes
    Z Bacsik
    Chemical Research Centre of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Pusztaszeri ut 59 67, H 1025 Budapest, Hungary
    Food Chem Toxicol 45:266-71. 2007
    ..These measurements revealed that the majority of gaseous pollutants originated from the sidestream smoke, while the primary smoke was 'purified' or diluted upon exhalation by the smoker...
  55. pmc The consequences of the unregulated cigarette
    Nigel Gray
    International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150 cours Albert Thomas, 69008 Lyon, France
    Tob Control 15:405-8. 2006
    ..The need for regulation of smoke constituents is emphasised...
  56. ncbi The lightest market in the world: light and mild cigarettes in Japan
    Mary Assunta
    School of Public Health, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
    Nicotine Tob Res 10:803-10. 2008
    ..Light and mild cigarettes are popular in Japan because Japanese smokers believe low tar/nicotine cigarette with charcoal filters protect them and help mollify their health concerns about smoking...
  57. ncbi Overview of smoking and all cancers
    Jason S Levitz
    Division of Hematology Oncology, North Shore University Hospital, 300 Community Drive, Manhasset, NY 11030, USA
    Med Clin North Am 88:1655-75, xiii. 2004
    ..This article reviews the carcinogens present in tobacco products, the mechanisms by which tobacco causes cancer, and the various tumor types causally related to tobacco use...
  58. ncbi Fifty years' experience of reduced-tar cigarettes: what do we know about their health effects?
    Geoffrey C Kabat
    Inhal Toxicol 15:1059-102. 2003
    ..Additional analyses of existing data sets could further clarify the impact of low-tar cigarettes...
  59. pmc Cigarette filter ventilation is a defective design because of misleading taste, bigger puffs, and blocked vents
    L T Kozlowski
    Department of Biobehavioral Health, The Pennsylvania State University, Pennsylvania 16802, USA
    Tob Control 11:I40-50. 2002
    ....
  60. ncbi Smoking, nicotine and tar and risk of small for gestational age babies
    E A Mitchell
    Department of Paediatrics, University of Auckland, New Zealand
    Acta Paediatr 91:323-8. 2002
    ..To assess the effect of maternal smoking and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) on risk of small for gestational age infants (SGA)...
  61. pmc Determination of tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide yields in the mainstream smoke of selected international cigarettes
    A M Calafat
    National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341, USA
    Tob Control 13:45-51. 2004
    ....
  62. ncbi Determination of tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide yields in the smoke of bidi cigarettes
    Clifford H Watson
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Environmental Health, Division of Laboratory Sciences, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 5:747-53. 2003
    ..7+/-.4 mg/bidi), and CO (39.2+/-5.7 mg/bidi). In comparison, traditional cigarettes smoked using the bidi cigarette protocol have lower tar and CO yields, but have nicotine deliveries comparable with bidi cigarettes...
  63. ncbi An analysis of the mainstream smoke chemistry of samples of the U.S. cigarette market acquired between 1995 and 2000
    J E Swauger
    Bowman Gray Technical Center, R J Reynolds Tobacco Company, Winston Salem, NC 27102 1487, USA
    Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 35:142-56. 2002
    ..Moreover, these data demonstrate that constituent yields of commercially marketed cigarettes available in the U.S. between 1995 and 2000 have been effectively constant...
  64. pmc Filter vent blocking
    L S Lewis
    Tob Control 11:285-6; author reply 285-6. 2002
  65. ncbi Investigation of mainstream smoke aerosol of the argileh water pipe
    A Shihadeh
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, American University of Beirut, PO Box 11 0236, Riad El Solh, Lebanon
    Food Chem Toxicol 41:143-52. 2003
    ....
  66. ncbi More on the regulation of tobacco smoke: how we got here and where next
    N Gray
    Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, European Institute of Oncology, Milan, Italy
    Ann Oncol 14:353-7. 2003
    ..This will not produce a safe cigarette but should result in a reduction in harm if seriously implemented...
  67. pmc The Australian tar derby: the origins and fate of a low tar harm reduction programme
    W King
    VicHealth Centre for Tobacco Control, The Cancer Council Victoria, Victoria, Australia
    Tob Control 12:iii61-70. 2003
    ..To document the development of the low tar harm reduction programme in Australia, including tobacco industry responses...
  68. pmc Oregon jury hits Philip Morris with $150m damages for low tar cigarettes
    Fred Charatan
    BMJ 324:808. 2002
  69. ncbi Regulation of cigarette emissions
    N Gray
    Ann Oncol 13:19-21. 2002
  70. ncbi [What perception have smokers of nicotine and tar yields of cigarettes?]
    E Plantin-Carrenard
    Service de Biochimie C, Groupe Hospitalier Pitie Salpetriere, Paris, France
    Rev Mal Respir 21:67-73. 2004
    ..Impact on smokers has been poorly studied. This study intended to determine the smoker perception of nicotine and tar yields of cigarettes...
  71. pmc Harm reduction
    Ann McNeill
    St George s Hospital Medical School, London
    BMJ 328:885-7. 2004
  72. ncbi The effect of tobacco ingredients on smoke chemistry. Part II: casing ingredients
    Richard R Baker
    British American Tobacco, Research and Development Centre, Regent s Park Road, Southampton SO15 8TL, UK
    Food Chem Toxicol 42:S39-52. 2004
    ..However, the statistical significance of many of these increases was not present when the long-term variability of the analytical method was taken into account. The significance and possible reasons for the increases are discussed...
  73. ncbi Mainstream smoke constituent yields and predicting relationships from a worldwide market sample of cigarette brands: ISO smoking conditions
    M E Counts
    Philip Morris USA Inc, Research, Development and Engineering, Richmond, VA 23261 6583, USA
    Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 39:111-34. 2004
    ..The estimation methods proposed relate to machine-smoking conditions and are not intended to reflect the actual exposure of any given consumer to smoke constituents...
  74. ncbi 'Light' cigarettes offer no benefit to smokers, report says
    Nicole Gottlieb
    J Natl Cancer Inst 94:162. 2002
  75. ncbi Evaluation of relationships between mainstream smoke acetaldehyde and "tar" and carbon monoxide yields in tobacco smoke and reducing sugars in tobacco blends of U.S. commercial cigarettes
    Jeffrey I Seeman
    SaddlePoint Frontiers, 12001 Bollingbrook Place, Richmond, VA 23236 3218, USA
    Inhal Toxicol 15:373-95. 2003
    ....
  76. ncbi Erythema multiforme due to contact with weeds: a recurrence after patch testing
    M Jovanovic
    Medical Faculty of Novi Sad, University of Novi Sad, Clinic for Dermatovenerologic Diseases, Clinical Center, Yugoslavia
    Contact Dermatitis 48:17-25. 2003
    ..She was PT with a standard series and the Hermal-Trolab plants, woods, tars, balsams and flavors series. Intradermal testing, with a 3 + reaction to mixed weed pollens, was done 3 weeks later...
  77. ncbi Ambient air quality at the site of a former manufactured gas plant
    M J Collins
    Department of Environmental Health Science, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, USA
    Environ Monit Assess 68:137-52. 2001
    ..In addition, these data suggest that blending and mixing of coal tars could lead to exceedance of the U.S...
  78. ncbi Total ankle arthroplasty in France
    J L Besse
    INRETS, LBMC UMRT 9406, Lyon 1 University, Lyon Sud Hospital, 69495 Pierre Benite Cedex, France
    Orthop Traumatol Surg Res 96:291-303. 2010
    ....
  79. ncbi [Topical corticosteroids and corticosteroid sparing therapy in psoriasis management]
    Biljana Gorgievska Sukarovska
    Klinika za kozne i spolne bolesti, Klinicti bolnicki centar Zagreb i Medicinski fakultet Sveucilista u Zagrebu, Zagreb
    Acta Med Croatica 61:375-81. 2007
    ..Topical treatment for mild psoriasis includes topical corticosteroids, calcipotriene, tazarotene, topical tars, anthralin and keratolytics, and immunomodulators (pimecrolimus, tacrolimus)...
  80. ncbi Breaking the relentless course of Hallopeau's acrodermatitis by dapsone
    A F Nikkels
    Department of Dermatopathology, University of Liege, B 4000 Liege, Belgium
    Eur J Dermatol 9:126-8. 1999
    ..Initial therapy using topical corticosteroids, tars and PUVA failed to improve the acral lesions...
  81. ncbi Understanding the fate and transport of petroleum hydrocarbons from coal tar within gasholders
    Frédéric Coulon
    Centre for Resource Management and Efficiency, Sustainable Systems Department School of Applied Sciences, Cranfield University, MK43 0AL, UK
    Environ Int 35:248-52. 2009
    Coal tars have been identified as posing a threat to human health due to their toxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic characteristics...
  82. ncbi Gas chromatographic study of the volatile products from co-pyrolysis of coal and polyethylene wastes
    A Dominguez
    Instituto Nacional del Carbon, CSIC, Oviedo, Spain
    J Chromatogr A 918:135-44. 2001
    ..The analysis of the primary tars indicated that the amount of n-alkanes is always higher than that of n-alkenes and the formation of the alkenes is ..
  83. ncbi Stigmastane and hopanes as conserved biomarkers for estimating oil biodegradation in a former refinery plant-contaminated soil
    Simona Gagni
    Department of Chemistry, Environmental Research and Service Center, Fenice SPA, via Ciro Menotti, No 48, 48023 Marina di Ravenna RA, Italy
    Chemosphere 67:1975-81. 2007
    ..hydrocarbons, 9% aromatics, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkylated derivatives, and 13% of tars/asphaltenes...
  84. ncbi Molecular cloning and pharmacological characterization of a Bombyx mori tyramine receptor selectively coupled to intracellular calcium mobilization
    Jia Huang
    Department of Life Science and Biotechnology, Faculty of Life and Environmental Science, Shimane University, Matsue, Shimane, Japan
    Insect Biochem Mol Biol 39:842-9. 2009
    ..The data indicate that BmTAR2 belongs to the second class of TARs, which are selectively coupled to intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization...
  85. pmc The encounter with God in myth and madness
    Otto Doerr
    Department of Psychiatry at the Institute of Psychiatry, University of Chile, Av La Paz 841, Santiago, Chile
    Philos Ethics Humanit Med 2:12. 2007
    ..The question we pose is: are there differences between this kind of religious experiences and those we find in religious texts or in the mythological tradition?..
  86. ncbi Comparative assessment of coal tars obtained from 10 former manufactured gas plant sites in the eastern United States
    Derick G Brown
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Lehigh University, 13 East Packer Avenue, Bethlehem, PA 18015, USA
    Chemosphere 65:1562-9. 2006
    A comparative analysis was performed on eleven coal tars obtained from former manufactured gas plant sites in the eastern United States...
  87. pmc Modeling seasonal influenza outbreak in a closed college campus: impact of pre-season vaccination, in-season vaccination and holidays/breaks
    Kristin L Nichol
    Research Service, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 5:e9548. 2010
    ..We conducted the present study to assess the impact of various vaccination strategies including delayed (i.e., in-season) vaccination on influenza outbreaks on a college campus...
  88. ncbi An integrated pharmacoeconomic approach to antimicrobial formulary decision-making
    Vincent H Tam
    Department of Clinical Sciences and Administration, University of Houston College of Pharmacy UHCP, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Am J Health Syst Pharm 63:735-9. 2006
    ..The utility of a novel interdisciplinary approach to antimicrobial formulary decision-making was studied...
  89. ncbi Effects of growth conditions and NAPL presence on transport of Pseudomonas saccharophilia P15 through porous media
    Angela Link
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 13699 5710, USA
    Water Res 44:2793-802. 2010
    ..P15 (P15), which is known to biodegrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and to interact with coal tars, within a NAPL-water-mineral system...
  90. ncbi Rat cytotoxic T lymphocytes against human T-lymphotropic virus type 1-infected cells recognize gag gene and env gene encoded antigens
    Y Noguchi
    Department of Oncology, Nagasaki University School of Medicine, Japan
    J Immunol 143:3737-42. 1989
    T cell immune responses in syngeneic WKA/H rats were analyzed by using lymphoid cell lines, TARS-1, TART-1, and TARL-2, infected with human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)...
  91. ncbi Viruses, chemicals and co-carcinogenesis
    Harry W Haverkos
    Infectious Disease Service, Department of Medicine, Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington, DC 20307, USA
    Oncogene 23:6492-9. 2004
    ..Peyton Rous and others demonstrated the process of co-carcinogenesis by exposing rabbits to a virus and tars. Epidemiologists have proposed virus-chemical interactions to cause several cancers...
  92. ncbi A clinician's paradigm in the treatment of psoriasis
    Mark Lebwohl
    Department of Dermatology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York 10029, USA
    J Am Acad Dermatol 53:S59-69. 2005
    ..treatment for mild psoriasis includes the use of topical corticosteroids, calcipotriene, tazarotene, topical tars, anthralin, and keratolytics...
  93. ncbi Systematic reviews and economic evaluations conducted for the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence in the United Kingdom: a game of two halves?
    Michael F Drummond
    University of York, York, UK
    Int J Technol Assess Health Care 24:146-50. 2008
    ..The objective of this study was to assess the extent to which the systematic review of the clinical literature informs the economic evaluation in NICE technology appraisals...
  94. ncbi Mining health care administrative data with temporal association rules on hybrid events
    S Concaro
    Dipartimento di Informatica e Sistemistica, Universita di Pavia, Pavia, Italy
    Methods Inf Med 50:166-79. 2011
    ..In this paper we present an algorithm for the extraction of temporal association rules (TARs) on sequences of hybrid events and its application on health care administrative databases.
  95. pmc Tumors and DNA adducts in mice exposed to benzo[a]pyrene and coal tars: implications for risk assessment
    L S Goldstein
    Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA 94303, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 106:1325-30. 1998
    ..Therefore, we directly compared tumor induction and adduct formation by B[a]P and coal tars in several experimental protocols, including one broadly accepted and used by regulators...
  96. ncbi Loss of heterozygosity analysis of mouse pulmonary adenomas induced by coal tar
    Fernando Benavides
    Department of Carcinogenesis, The University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, Smithville, Texas 78957, USA
    Environ Mol Mutagen 41:300-8. 2003
    Manufactured gas plant (MGP) residues, commonly known as coal tars, were generated several decades ago as a byproduct of residential and industrial gas production from the distillation of coal...
  97. ncbi Standardized protocols for photocarcinogenesis safety testing
    P Donald Forbes
    Argus Research, Charles River Laboratories, Inc Horsham, PA 19044, USA
    Front Biosci 8:d848-54. 2003
    ..of skin cancer is also increased by contact with photosensitizing drugs and chemicals such as psoralens, coal tars and petroleum stocks...
  98. ncbi Biogeochemical characterisation of a coal tar distillate plume
    G M Williams
    British Geological Surrey, Keyworth, Nottingham, UK
    J Contam Hydrol 53:175-97. 2001
    The distillation of acidified coal tars for up to 50 years has given rise to a phenol plume approximately 500 m long, 50 m deep and containing up to 15 g l(-1) dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the Triassic Sandstones aquifer...
  99. ncbi A pilot study for the selection of a bioreactor for remediation of groundwater from a coal tar contaminated site
    Turlough F Guerin
    Shell Engineering Pty Ltd, NSW State Office, P O Box 26, Granville 2142 NSW, Australia
    J Hazard Mater 89:241-52. 2002
    Coal tars in soil at a gasworks site in South Eastern Australia led to groundwater contamination with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), mono-aromatic compounds (BTEX) and phenols...
  100. pmc Occupation and cancer in Britain
    L Rushton
    Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, St Mary s Campus, Norfolk Place, London W2 1PG, UK
    Br J Cancer 102:1428-37. 2010
    ..We estimated the current burden of cancer in Britain attributable to past occupational exposures for International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) group 1 (established) and 2A (probable) carcinogens...

Research Grants31

  1. Life Course, Relationship, and Situational Contexts of Teen Dating Violence
    Wendy D Manning; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..study of adolescent and young adults'intimate relationships (Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study-TARS)...
  2. Identifying and validating new antibiotic targets in cell wall synthesis pathways
    Suzanne Walker; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We discovered that PBP2A function is dependent on the activity of a glycosyltransferase, TarS, that attaches [unreadable]-O-GlcNAc residues to wall teichoic acids (WTAs), an additional cell wall polymer ..
  3. ACTIVITY AND INHIBITION OF THE TAT PROTEIN FROM HIV
    Alan D Frankel; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..virus (JDV) Tat is a "chameleon" RNA-binding domain that can bind HIV and bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) TARs in two different binding modes - adopting a high affinity beta-hairpin conformation on BIV TAR and an extended ..
  4. Organic Solvent Mixtures & Neuropsychological Outcomes
    Ellen Kirrane; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..including evaporative emissions from fuel and fuel exhaust, styrene and acetone during fiberglass work, paints and tars for waterproofing their traps...
  5. Characterization of Human Trace Amine Receptors
    Kim Neve; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..advantage of the recent identification and molecular cloning of the DNA for a family of trace amine receptors (TARs)...
  6. Youthful Relationships and Sexual Risk-Taking
    PEGGY GIORDANO; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..builds on an in-depth study of adolescent heterosexual relationships, the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study (TARS)...
  7. Trace Amine Receptors in Non Human Primates
    Gregory Miller; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The recent discovery of a family of mammalian trace amine receptors (TARs) presents a significant new resource for exploring the physiological and pharmacological relevance of trace amines ..
  8. DATING RELATIONSHIPS AND ADOLESCENT FERTILITY BEHAVIORS
    PEGGY GIORDANO; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..and eleventh grade youth currently residing in Lucas County, Ohio (the Toledo Adolescent Relationship Study -- TARS)...
  9. CYCLOOXYGENASE-2 AND XENOBIOTICS IN VASCULAR INJURY
    Babette Weksler; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Xenobiotic substances in cigarette smoke and tars induce both cancer and atherosclerosis in humans and animals...
  10. Evaluating Low Ignition Propensity Cigarette Legislation
    RICHARD O CONNOR; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Taken together, these studies comprise a comprehensive evaluation of the potential impacts of this harm-reduction policy, which will inform policymakers in other jurisdictions considering similar regulations. ..
  11. FOLLOW UP OF THE COMMIT COHORT PARTICIPANTS 13 YEARS LAT
    K Cummings; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ....
  12. The Impact of Product Information on Smoking Behavior
    K Cummings; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The findings from this study also have important policy implications, as one of the cornerstones of government product regulation is to ensure that consumers are informed about the inherent dangers of the products that they are using. ..
  13. INTERNAL COUNCIL FOR TOBACCO RESEARCH AND TOBACCO INSTIT
    K Cummings; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..We anticipate that this information will assist policy makers in evaluating current regulatory measures to curtail tobacco usage. ..
  14. EXTRAMURAL RESEARCH FACILITIES CONSTRUCTION
    Kenneth Warner; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ....
  15. MOLECULAR EPIDEMIOLOGY OF LUNG CANCER
    Chu Chen; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..g. Rosaceae fruits and Cruciferae vegetables), and food-derived nutrients (e.g. carotenoids, vitamin C, and vitamin E). ..
  16. ORAL CANCER: MOLECULAR PROFILES & CLINICAL OUTCOMES
    Chu Chen; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..HPV plays an important etiologic role in some oropharyngeal cancers, we plan to determine and incorporate HPV genotypes in the analyses and interpretation of the study findings. ..
  17. CARCINOGENIC CYCLIC NITROSAMINE DNA ADDUCTS
    Stephen S Hecht; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The proposed research is significant because of the known human exposure to these carcinogens through the diet, tobacco products, and endogenous formation. ..
  18. Calcium and Gene Expression in Vascular Smooth Muscle
    Karen M Lounsbury; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  19. Lung Cancer Chemoprevention: Isothiocyanates, inositol
    Stephen Hecht; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..abstract_text> ..
  20. PREDICTORS OF SMOKING BEHAVIORS IN U.S. BLACK WOMEN
    Daniel Brooks; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  21. ANALYSIS OF A LIGHT-REGULATED DEVELOPMENT SWITCH
    Xing Wang Deng; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..abstract_text> ..
  22. Pulmonary Mitochondrial Injury Caused by Tetrahydrocannabinol
    Theodore Sarafian; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  23. Gene x Environment Factors in Smoking Cessation
    Andrew Hyland; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  24. Accelerated x-ray therapy planning system PEREGRINE
    PAUL NIZIN; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..2. Benchmarking of NVR over the range of clinically useful energies in homogeneous and heterogeneous phantoms. 3. Validation of NVR in the case of patient-specific Monte Carlo calculations using CT based patient anatomy. ..
  25. BREAST CANCER AND GENE POLYMORPHISMS IN CHINESE WOMEN
    Chu Chen; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Our ultimate goal is to provide information to identify women at high risk of breast cancer, and to aid in the formulation of prevention strategies for these women. ..
  26. METABOLISM OF CARCINOGENIC TOBACCO SPECIFIC NITROSAMINES
    Stephen Hecht; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..abstract_text> ..
  27. Tobacco Carcinogenesis
    Stephen Hecht; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Steven Tannenbaum (MIT), Dr. Jack Henningfield (Johns Hopkins and Pinney Associates), Drs. Jeffrey Seeman and Anthony Tricker (Philip Morris), and Dr. John Lauterbach (an independent consultant, formerly with Brown and Williamson). ..
  28. ANALYZING TOBACCO DOCUMENTS ON CIGARETTE DESIGN
    Lynn Kozlowski; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Collections (with standardized abstracts controlled vocabulary terms) will be made available on the Internet. Reports will be submitted to peer-reviewed journals. ..
  29. Cigarette smoking and colorectal cancer risk
    Andrew Hyland; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..abstract_text> ..
  30. Molecular Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer
    Chu Chen; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Efforts will also be devoted to generating risk indices through statistical modeling that integrate potential effects of genetic variants in the estrogen metabolism pathway and/or DNA repair pathways. ..
  31. Macro-social & Parent Influence on Adolescents' Drug Use
    Matthew Farrelly; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Generalized Growth Mixture Modeling will be used to test the study hypotheses. ..