Genomes and Genes
Summary: Viscous materials composed of complex, high-molecular-weight compounds derived from the distillation of petroleum or the destructive distillation of wood or coal. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Publications198 found, 100 shown here
- A comparison of nicotine dose estimates in smokers between filter analysis, salivary cotinine, and urinary excretion of nicotine metabolitesF K St Charles
British American Tobacco, Southampton, SO15 8TL, UK
Psychopharmacology (Berl) 189:345-54. 2006..However, no comparison of the filter analysis method with body fluid analysis methods has been published...
- Phototoxicity of bituminous tars-correspondence between results of 3T3 NRU PT, 3D skin model and experimental human dataD Jirova
National Reference Center for Cosmetics, National Institute of Public Health, Srobarova 48, 100 42 Prague 10, Czech Republic
Toxicol In Vitro 19:931-4. 2005Bituminous tars (Ichthammol and Ichthyol Pale) are widely used in pharmaceutical, veterinary and cosmetic industries for their anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory and anti-pruritic effects...
- Similar uptake of lung carcinogens by smokers of regular, light, and ultralight cigarettesStephen S Hecht
Transdiciplinary Tobacco Use Research and Cancer Center, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 14:693-8. 2005..The results are consistent with epidemiologic studies that show no difference in lung cancer risk in smokers of these cigarettes...
- Smokers' beliefs about "Light" and "Ultra Light" cigarettesS Shiffman
Pinney Associates, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA
Tob Control 10:i17-23. 2001..To assess beliefs about the tar and nicotine delivery characteristics and health benefits of Light and Ultra Light cigarettes among cigarette smokers...
- What do Marlboro Lights smokers know about low-tar cigarettes?K Michael Cummings
Department of Health Behavior, Division of Cancer Prevention and Population Sciences, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY 14263, USA
Nicotine Tob Res 6:S323-32. 2004....
- Menthol's potential effects on nicotine dependence: a tobacco industry perspectiveValerie B Yerger
Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Box 0612, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143 0612, USA
Tob Control 20:ii29-36. 2011..To examine what the tobacco industry knows about the potential effects menthol may have on nicotine dependence...
- A randomized, controlled exposure study in adult smokers of full flavor Marlboro cigarettes switching to Marlboro Lights or Marlboro Ultra Lights cigarettesPaul Mendes
Philip Morris USA Research Center, Clinical Evaluation, 4201 Commerce Road, Richmond, VA 23234, USA
Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 51:295-305. 2008..Conclusions. Switching smokers to lower FTC tar yield cigarettes, on average, reduces nicotine and other biomarkers considered surrogates of tar exposure...
- Health impact of "reduced yield" cigarettes: a critical assessment of the epidemiological evidenceM J Thun
American Cancer Society, Atlanta, Georgia 30329 4251, USA
Tob Control 10:i4-11. 2001..Tobacco control policies should not allow changes in cigarette design to subvert or distract from interventions proven to reduce the prevalence, intensity, and duration of smoking...
- Variation in, and causes of, toxicity of cigarette butts to a cladoceran and microtoxT Micevska
Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Technology UTS, Sydney, Australia
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 50:205-12. 2006..70) for C. cf. dubia and one brand for V. fischeri. However, when the cigarettes were pooled, the relationship was weak (R(2) < 0.40) for both test species. Brand affected the toxicity to both species but more so for V. fischeri...
- Malaysian and Thai smokers' beliefs about the harmfulness of 'light' and menthol cigarettesB King
VicHealth Centre for Tobacco Control, The Cancer Council Victoria, Carlton, Victoria, Australia
Tob Control 19:444-50. 2010..This study explored the extent to which Malaysian and Thai smokers believe "light" and menthol cigarettes are less harmful than "regular" cigarettes and the correlates of these beliefs...
- Dependence of tar, nicotine and carbon monoxide yields on physical parameters: implications for exposure, emissions control and monitoringW E Stephens
School of Geography and Geosciences, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9AL, UK
Tob Control 16:170-6. 2007..A related aim is to determine whether accurate prediction of TNCO yields is possible using only simple physical parameters...
- Cotinine concentration in smokers from different countries: relationship with amount smoked and cigarette typeAmanda L Blackford
Division of Biostatistics, Department of Oncology, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 15:1799-804. 2006..Results suggest a saturation point for daily nicotine intake and minimal or no reduction in nicotine intake by smoking light cigarettes...
- Light cigarette smoking impairs coronary microvascular functions as severely as smoking regular cigarettesHakan Gullu
Baskent University, Faculty of Medicine, Konya Teaching and Medical Research Centre, Cardiology Department, Ankara, Turkey
Heart 93:1274-7. 2007..Smoking low-tar, low-nicotine cigarettes (light cigarettes) would be expected to be less hazardous than smoking regular cigarettes owing to the lower nicotine and tar yield...
- Relationship between constituent labelling and reporting of tar yields among smokers in four countriesR J O'Connor
Department of Health Behavior, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY 14203, USA
J Public Health (Oxf) 28:324-9. 2006..Pack labelling appears to be useful for conveying information about cigarettes to smokers; however, there is an urgent need to develop more meaningful information on toxic constituents of cigarette smoke...
- 'Light' and 'mild' cigarettes: who smokes them? Are they being misled?M J Ashley
Ontario Tobacco Research Unit, Centre for Health Promotion, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON
Can J Public Health 92:407-11. 2001..These data provide empirical support for banning 'light' and 'mild' on cigarette packaging...
- Switching to lower tar cigarettes does not increase or decrease the likelihood of future quit attempts or cessationAndrew Hyland
Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Department of Cancer Prevention, Epidemiology, and Biostatistics, Buffalo NY 14263, USA
Nicotine Tob Res 5:665-71. 2003..The data show that switching to a low-tar cigarette does not appear to increase or decrease the likelihood of future cessation, though motivation to stop smoking may be associated with switching...
- STAT3 activation inhibits human bronchial epithelial cell apoptosis in response to cigarette smoke exposureXiangde Liu
Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198 5885, USA
Biochem Biophys Res Commun 353:121-6. 2007..These findings suggest that STAT3 mediates HBEC survival in response to CSE-induced DNA damage, at least in part, through the IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway...
- Cessation among smokers of "light" cigarettes: results from the 2000 national health interview surveyHilary A Tindle
University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, 15213, USA
Am J Public Health 96:1498-504. 2006..However, the availability of light cigarettes may deter smoking cessation...
- How do different cigarette design features influence the standard tar yields of popular cigarette brands sold in different countries?R J O'Connor
Department of Health Behavior, Division of Cancer Prevention and Population Sciences, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Elm and Carlton Streets, Buffalo, NY 14263, USA
Tob Control 17:i1-5. 2008..To examine the associations among cigarette design features and tar yields of leading cigarette brands sold in the United States, Canada, Australia and the United Kingdom...
- Properties of "light" cigarettes sold in New ZealandKaila J Norton
N Z Med J 121:107-10. 2008
- How did UK cigarette makers reduce tar to 10 mg or less?RICHARD J O'CONNOR
BMJ 332:302. 2006
- Short-term exposure evaluation of adult smokers switching from conventional to first-generation electrically heated cigarettes during controlled smokingHans J Roethig
Philip Morris USA, Clinical Evaluation, 615 Maury Street, Richmond, VA 23224 4121, USA
J Clin Pharmacol 45:133-45. 2005..The study design was found to be suitable for the evaluation of the exposure of adult smokers to the measured smoke constituents and to allow the differentiation of different cigarette designs...
- Beliefs about the relative harm of "light" and "low tar" cigarettes: findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) China SurveyT Elton-Marshall
Department of Psychology, PAS Building, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada
Tob Control 19:i54-62. 2010..However, there is little research on whether similar perceptions exist among smokers in low and middle incomes, including China...
- Taking ad-Vantage of lax advertising regulation in the USA and Canada: reassuring and distracting health-concerned smokersStacey J Anderson
Center for Tobacco Control Research and Education, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143 1390, USA
Soc Sci Med 63:1973-85. 2006....
- Effect of health messages about "Light" and "Ultra Light" cigarettes on beliefs and quitting intentS Shiffman
Pinney Associates, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA
Tob Control 10:i24-32. 2001..To test the impact of three health messages focusing on vent holes, sensory effects of Light and Ultra Light cigarettes, or health consequences of smoking, respectively, on beliefs and quitting intentions...
- Adolescents' beliefs about the risks involved in smoking "light" cigarettesRhonda Y Kropp
Division of Adolescent Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94118, USA
Pediatrics 114:e445-51. 2004....
- The dark side of marketing seemingly "Light" cigarettes: successful images and failed factR W Pollay
University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
Tob Control 11:I18-31. 2002..To understand the development, intent, and consequences of US tobacco industry advertising for low machine yield cigarettes...
- Relationship between machine-derived smoke yields and biomarkers in cigarette smokers in GermanyGerhard Scherer
ABF Analytisch biologisches Forschungslabor GmbH, Goethestr 20, 80336 Muenchen, Germany
Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 47:171-83. 2007..It is concluded that machine-derived yields of cigarettes from the contemporary German cigarette market have little or no impact on the actual smoking-related exposure determined by suitable biomarkers...
- High levels of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in 20 brands of Chinese cigarettesV Akpan
Department of Pharmacology, University of Florence, Viale Pieraccini 6, 50139 Florence, Italy
J Appl Toxicol 26:480-3. 2006..53, P < 0.01), thus providing an easily measurable parameter for ranking various cigarette brands in developing countries where more sophisticated techniques might not be feasible for lack of funds and expertise...
- Cigarette tar yields in relation to mortality from lung cancer in the cancer prevention study II prospective cohort, 1982-8Jeffrey E Harris
Department of Economics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
BMJ 328:72. 2004..To assess the risk of lung cancer in smokers of medium tar filter cigarettes compared with smokers of low tar and very low tar filter cigarettes...
- Will the next generation of "safer" cigarettes be safer?Kenneth E Warner
School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 2029, USA
J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 27:543-50. 2005....
- "Light" and "mild" cigarettes: let's end the confusion. NowAndrew Pipe
Can J Public Health 96:165-6, 188. 2005
- Publishing tobacco tar measurements on packetsNigel Gray
BMJ 329:813-4. 2004
- The unbearable lightness of "light" cigarettes: a comparison of smoke yields in six varieties of Canadian "light" cigarettesPaul L Gendreau
School of Psychoeducation, University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec
Can J Public Health 96:167-72. 2005..We selected cigarettes from the two most popular Canadian brands, Du Maurier and Players...
- Smoking machine test inadequate and confusing, but no replacement a decade laterSarah L Zielinski
J Natl Cancer Inst 97:10-1. 2005
- A digital image analysis system for identifying filter vent blocking on ultralight cigarettesRICHARD J O'CONNOR
Department of Behavioral Health, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, USA
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 14:533-7. 2005..The results indicate that the pattern of color saturation is related to vent blocking. Implications for tobacco control research and policy are discussed...
- Reductions in the tobacco specific nitrosamine (TSNA) content of tobaccos taken from commercial Canadian cigarettes and corresponding reductions in TSNA deliveries in mainstream smoke from such cigarettesW S Rickert
Labstat International, ULC, 262 Manitou Drive, Kitchener, Ont, Canada N2C 1L3
Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 51:306-10. 2008..These results show that other factors (microorganisms, nitrite levels) may be negating the TSNA reductions achieved by indirect-fired curing...
- [The biggest fraud of the century: light cigarettes]Francis Thompson
Association pour les droits des non fumeurs, Ottawa, Canada
Promot Educ . 2005..It is hoped that the FCTC which includes a provision on the use of descriptors will prevent the fraud being repeated in the rest of the world and especially in the countries of Africa...
- Do reductions in the tar and nicotine yields of cigarettes help to explain recent reductions in lung cancer rates in young men and women in the United States?Peter N Lee
P N Lee Statistics and Computing Ltd, Sutton, Surrey, United Kingdom
Inhal Toxicol 18:365-88. 2006..Interpretation is not straightforward, but the findings suggest declines in yields have contributed to the recent declines in rates in young U.S. men and women...
- Evaluation of functional relationships for predicting mainstream smoke constituent machine yields for conventional cigarettes from the Japanese marketT Hyodo
Japan Tobacco Inc, Product Quality Research Division, 6 2 Umegaoka, Aoba ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 2278512, Japan
Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 48:194-224. 2007..Consistent with reported results from previous benchmark studies and market surveys mainstream smoke constituent yields are well predictable when "tar" (and NO) yields are known...
- Tobacco smoke: unraveling a controversial subjectAnja Thielen
Tabak und Rauchen GmbH, Neustädtische Kirchstrasse 8, 10117 Berlin, Germany
Exp Toxicol Pathol 60:141-56. 2008..This paper gives a comprehensive overview of cigarette design, the composition and toxicity testing of smoke, and the way machines and people smoke - with links to the more detailed literature...
- Physical design analysis and mainstream smoke constituent yields of the new potential reduced exposure product, Marlboro UltraSmoothVaughan W Rees
Division of Public Health Practice, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
Nicotine Tob Res 9:1197-206. 2007..The data suggest that MUS has been designed to reduce toxic yields while preserving consumer appeal. However, MUS is less effective in reducing toxic smoke constituents when smoked under intensive conditions...
- Mapping cigarettes similarities using cluster analysis methodsSorana D Bolboaca
Iuliu Hatieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy Cluj Napoca, 6 Louis Pasteur, 400349 Cluj Napoca, Romania
Int J Environ Res Public Health 4:233-42. 2007..The tar and carbon monoxide concentrations were the main criteria used in clusterization. An analysis of a largest sample could reveal more relevant and useful information regarding the similarities between cigarette brands...
- Potentially reduced exposure cigarettes accelerate atherosclerosis: evidence for the role of nicotineDaniel F Catanzaro
Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, 1300 York Avenue, New York, NY, 10021, USA
Cardiovasc Toxicol 7:192-201. 2007..Taken together, these observations suggest that smoking may accelerate atherosclerosis by increasing oxidative stress mediated at least in part via the actions of nicotine...
- Do increases in cigarette prices lead to increases in sales of cigarettes with high tar and nicotine yields?Matthew C Farrelly
RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
Nicotine Tob Res 9:1015-20. 2007..Our results are consistent with earlier population-based cross-sectional and longitudinal studies showing that higher cigarette prices and taxes are associated with increasing consumption of higher-yield cigarettes by smokers...
- Digital image analysis of cigarette filter staining to estimate smoke exposureRICHARD J O'CONNOR
Department of Health Behavior, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY 14263, USA
Nicotine Tob Res 9:865-71. 2007..These data suggest that digital image analysis of spent cigarette butts can serve as a reliable proxy measure of total smoke volume...
- Mainstream smoke emissions of Australian and Canadian cigarettesBill King
VicHealth Centre for Tobacco Control, The Cancer Council Victoria, Carlton, Victoria, Australia
Nicotine Tob Res 9:835-44. 2007....
- Toxicological evaluation of cigarettes with two banded cigarette paper technologiesEugenia H Theophilus
Research and Development, R J Reynolds Tobacco Company RJRT, Bowman Gray Technical Center, Winston Salem, NC 27015, USA
Exp Toxicol Pathol 59:17-27. 2007..Collectively, data indicated that cigarettes with and without BCPT had a similar toxicological profile in this test battery...
- DNA solution(R) in cigarette filters reduces polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) levels in mainstream tobacco smokeM Lodovici
Department of Pharmacology, University of Florence, Viale Pieraccini 6, 50139 Florence, Italy
Food Chem Toxicol 45:1752-6. 2007....
- [The assessment of toxic components from tobacco/ smoke in working students]Rafat W Wójciak
Katedra Higieny Zywienia Człowieka, Akademia Rolnicza w Poznaniu
Przegl Lek 63:1023-6. 2006..2.0 +/- 1.5; tar--60.3 +/- 42.0 vs. 24.4 +/- 18.0; carbon monoxide--62.4 +/- 43.5 vs. 25.2 +/- 18.7 mg/day. In conclusions, the non-smokers are exposed on toxic components of tobacco smoke in the half parts of these what smokers intake...
- The temporal relationship between advertising and sales of low-tar cigarettesMark B Reed
San Diego State University, San Diego, California, USA
Tob Control 15:436-41. 2006..To determine whether a temporal relationship exists between the advertising and sales of low-tar cigarettes. It was hypothesised that increases in the advertising of low-tar cigarettes would precede increases in sales for these cigarettes...
- Possible effects on smokers of cigarette mentholation: a review of the evidence relating to key research questionsMichael S Werley
Philip Morris USA Research Center, 4201 Commerce Road, Richmond, VA 23234, USA
Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 47:189-203. 2007..Any toxicological effects of cigarette mentholation on adult smokers are probably quite limited...
- Cadmium, lead, and thallium in mainstream tobacco smoke particulateR S Pappas
Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, CDC, 4770 Buford Hwy NE, M S F 47, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
Food Chem Toxicol 44:714-23. 2006....
- FTIR analysis of gaseous compounds in the mainstream smoke of regular and light cigarettesZ Bacsik
Chemical Research Centre of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Pusztaszeri ut 59 67, H 1025 Budapest, Hungary
Food Chem Toxicol 45:266-71. 2007..These measurements revealed that the majority of gaseous pollutants originated from the sidestream smoke, while the primary smoke was 'purified' or diluted upon exhalation by the smoker...
- The consequences of the unregulated cigaretteNigel Gray
International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150 cours Albert Thomas, 69008 Lyon, France
Tob Control 15:405-8. 2006..The need for regulation of smoke constituents is emphasised...
- The lightest market in the world: light and mild cigarettes in JapanMary Assunta
School of Public Health, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
Nicotine Tob Res 10:803-10. 2008..Light and mild cigarettes are popular in Japan because Japanese smokers believe low tar/nicotine cigarette with charcoal filters protect them and help mollify their health concerns about smoking...
- Overview of smoking and all cancersJason S Levitz
Division of Hematology Oncology, North Shore University Hospital, 300 Community Drive, Manhasset, NY 11030, USA
Med Clin North Am 88:1655-75, xiii. 2004..This article reviews the carcinogens present in tobacco products, the mechanisms by which tobacco causes cancer, and the various tumor types causally related to tobacco use...
- Fifty years' experience of reduced-tar cigarettes: what do we know about their health effects?Geoffrey C Kabat
Inhal Toxicol 15:1059-102. 2003..Additional analyses of existing data sets could further clarify the impact of low-tar cigarettes...
- Cigarette filter ventilation is a defective design because of misleading taste, bigger puffs, and blocked ventsL T Kozlowski
Department of Biobehavioral Health, The Pennsylvania State University, Pennsylvania 16802, USA
Tob Control 11:I40-50. 2002....
- Smoking, nicotine and tar and risk of small for gestational age babiesE A Mitchell
Department of Paediatrics, University of Auckland, New Zealand
Acta Paediatr 91:323-8. 2002..To assess the effect of maternal smoking and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) on risk of small for gestational age infants (SGA)...
- Determination of tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide yields in the mainstream smoke of selected international cigarettesA M Calafat
National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341, USA
Tob Control 13:45-51. 2004....
- Determination of tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide yields in the smoke of bidi cigarettesClifford H Watson
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Environmental Health, Division of Laboratory Sciences, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
Nicotine Tob Res 5:747-53. 2003..7+/-.4 mg/bidi), and CO (39.2+/-5.7 mg/bidi). In comparison, traditional cigarettes smoked using the bidi cigarette protocol have lower tar and CO yields, but have nicotine deliveries comparable with bidi cigarettes...
- An analysis of the mainstream smoke chemistry of samples of the U.S. cigarette market acquired between 1995 and 2000J E Swauger
Bowman Gray Technical Center, R J Reynolds Tobacco Company, Winston Salem, NC 27102 1487, USA
Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 35:142-56. 2002..Moreover, these data demonstrate that constituent yields of commercially marketed cigarettes available in the U.S. between 1995 and 2000 have been effectively constant...
- Filter vent blockingL S Lewis
Tob Control 11:285-6; author reply 285-6. 2002
- Investigation of mainstream smoke aerosol of the argileh water pipeA Shihadeh
Department of Mechanical Engineering, American University of Beirut, PO Box 11 0236, Riad El Solh, Lebanon
Food Chem Toxicol 41:143-52. 2003....
- More on the regulation of tobacco smoke: how we got here and where nextN Gray
Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, European Institute of Oncology, Milan, Italy
Ann Oncol 14:353-7. 2003..This will not produce a safe cigarette but should result in a reduction in harm if seriously implemented...
- The Australian tar derby: the origins and fate of a low tar harm reduction programmeW King
VicHealth Centre for Tobacco Control, The Cancer Council Victoria, Victoria, Australia
Tob Control 12:iii61-70. 2003..To document the development of the low tar harm reduction programme in Australia, including tobacco industry responses...
- Oregon jury hits Philip Morris with $150m damages for low tar cigarettesFred Charatan
BMJ 324:808. 2002
- Regulation of cigarette emissionsN Gray
Ann Oncol 13:19-21. 2002
- [What perception have smokers of nicotine and tar yields of cigarettes?]E Plantin-Carrenard
Service de Biochimie C, Groupe Hospitalier Pitie Salpetriere, Paris, France
Rev Mal Respir 21:67-73. 2004..Impact on smokers has been poorly studied. This study intended to determine the smoker perception of nicotine and tar yields of cigarettes...
- Harm reductionAnn McNeill
St George s Hospital Medical School, London
BMJ 328:885-7. 2004
- The effect of tobacco ingredients on smoke chemistry. Part II: casing ingredientsRichard R Baker
British American Tobacco, Research and Development Centre, Regent s Park Road, Southampton SO15 8TL, UK
Food Chem Toxicol 42:S39-52. 2004..However, the statistical significance of many of these increases was not present when the long-term variability of the analytical method was taken into account. The significance and possible reasons for the increases are discussed...
- Mainstream smoke constituent yields and predicting relationships from a worldwide market sample of cigarette brands: ISO smoking conditionsM E Counts
Philip Morris USA Inc, Research, Development and Engineering, Richmond, VA 23261 6583, USA
Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 39:111-34. 2004..The estimation methods proposed relate to machine-smoking conditions and are not intended to reflect the actual exposure of any given consumer to smoke constituents...
- 'Light' cigarettes offer no benefit to smokers, report saysNicole Gottlieb
J Natl Cancer Inst 94:162. 2002
- Evaluation of relationships between mainstream smoke acetaldehyde and "tar" and carbon monoxide yields in tobacco smoke and reducing sugars in tobacco blends of U.S. commercial cigarettesJeffrey I Seeman
SaddlePoint Frontiers, 12001 Bollingbrook Place, Richmond, VA 23236 3218, USA
Inhal Toxicol 15:373-95. 2003....
- Erythema multiforme due to contact with weeds: a recurrence after patch testingM Jovanovic
Medical Faculty of Novi Sad, University of Novi Sad, Clinic for Dermatovenerologic Diseases, Clinical Center, Yugoslavia
Contact Dermatitis 48:17-25. 2003..She was PT with a standard series and the Hermal-Trolab plants, woods, tars, balsams and flavors series. Intradermal testing, with a 3 + reaction to mixed weed pollens, was done 3 weeks later...
- Ambient air quality at the site of a former manufactured gas plantM J Collins
Department of Environmental Health Science, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, USA
Environ Monit Assess 68:137-52. 2001..In addition, these data suggest that blending and mixing of coal tars could lead to exceedance of the U.S...
- Total ankle arthroplasty in FranceJ L Besse
INRETS, LBMC UMRT 9406, Lyon 1 University, Lyon Sud Hospital, 69495 Pierre Benite Cedex, France
Orthop Traumatol Surg Res 96:291-303. 2010....
- [Topical corticosteroids and corticosteroid sparing therapy in psoriasis management]Biljana Gorgievska Sukarovska
Klinika za kozne i spolne bolesti, Klinicti bolnicki centar Zagreb i Medicinski fakultet Sveucilista u Zagrebu, Zagreb
Acta Med Croatica 61:375-81. 2007..Topical treatment for mild psoriasis includes topical corticosteroids, calcipotriene, tazarotene, topical tars, anthralin and keratolytics, and immunomodulators (pimecrolimus, tacrolimus)...
- Breaking the relentless course of Hallopeau's acrodermatitis by dapsoneA F Nikkels
Department of Dermatopathology, University of Liege, B 4000 Liege, Belgium
Eur J Dermatol 9:126-8. 1999..Initial therapy using topical corticosteroids, tars and PUVA failed to improve the acral lesions...
- Understanding the fate and transport of petroleum hydrocarbons from coal tar within gasholdersFrédéric Coulon
Centre for Resource Management and Efficiency, Sustainable Systems Department School of Applied Sciences, Cranfield University, MK43 0AL, UK
Environ Int 35:248-52. 2009Coal tars have been identified as posing a threat to human health due to their toxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic characteristics...
- Gas chromatographic study of the volatile products from co-pyrolysis of coal and polyethylene wastesA Dominguez
Instituto Nacional del Carbon, CSIC, Oviedo, Spain
J Chromatogr A 918:135-44. 2001..The analysis of the primary tars indicated that the amount of n-alkanes is always higher than that of n-alkenes and the formation of the alkenes is ..
- Stigmastane and hopanes as conserved biomarkers for estimating oil biodegradation in a former refinery plant-contaminated soilSimona Gagni
Department of Chemistry, Environmental Research and Service Center, Fenice SPA, via Ciro Menotti, No 48, 48023 Marina di Ravenna RA, Italy
Chemosphere 67:1975-81. 2007..hydrocarbons, 9% aromatics, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkylated derivatives, and 13% of tars/asphaltenes...
- Molecular cloning and pharmacological characterization of a Bombyx mori tyramine receptor selectively coupled to intracellular calcium mobilizationJia Huang
Department of Life Science and Biotechnology, Faculty of Life and Environmental Science, Shimane University, Matsue, Shimane, Japan
Insect Biochem Mol Biol 39:842-9. 2009..The data indicate that BmTAR2 belongs to the second class of TARs, which are selectively coupled to intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization...
- The encounter with God in myth and madnessOtto Doerr
Department of Psychiatry at the Institute of Psychiatry, University of Chile, Av La Paz 841, Santiago, Chile
Philos Ethics Humanit Med 2:12. 2007..The question we pose is: are there differences between this kind of religious experiences and those we find in religious texts or in the mythological tradition?..
- Comparative assessment of coal tars obtained from 10 former manufactured gas plant sites in the eastern United StatesDerick G Brown
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Lehigh University, 13 East Packer Avenue, Bethlehem, PA 18015, USA
Chemosphere 65:1562-9. 2006A comparative analysis was performed on eleven coal tars obtained from former manufactured gas plant sites in the eastern United States...
- Modeling seasonal influenza outbreak in a closed college campus: impact of pre-season vaccination, in-season vaccination and holidays/breaksKristin L Nichol
Research Service, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States of America
PLoS ONE 5:e9548. 2010..We conducted the present study to assess the impact of various vaccination strategies including delayed (i.e., in-season) vaccination on influenza outbreaks on a college campus...
- An integrated pharmacoeconomic approach to antimicrobial formulary decision-makingVincent H Tam
Department of Clinical Sciences and Administration, University of Houston College of Pharmacy UHCP, Houston, TX 77030, USA
Am J Health Syst Pharm 63:735-9. 2006..The utility of a novel interdisciplinary approach to antimicrobial formulary decision-making was studied...
- Effects of growth conditions and NAPL presence on transport of Pseudomonas saccharophilia P15 through porous mediaAngela Link
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 13699 5710, USA
Water Res 44:2793-802. 2010..P15 (P15), which is known to biodegrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and to interact with coal tars, within a NAPL-water-mineral system...
- Rat cytotoxic T lymphocytes against human T-lymphotropic virus type 1-infected cells recognize gag gene and env gene encoded antigensY Noguchi
Department of Oncology, Nagasaki University School of Medicine, Japan
J Immunol 143:3737-42. 1989T cell immune responses in syngeneic WKA/H rats were analyzed by using lymphoid cell lines, TARS-1, TART-1, and TARL-2, infected with human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)...
- Viruses, chemicals and co-carcinogenesisHarry W Haverkos
Infectious Disease Service, Department of Medicine, Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington, DC 20307, USA
Oncogene 23:6492-9. 2004..Peyton Rous and others demonstrated the process of co-carcinogenesis by exposing rabbits to a virus and tars. Epidemiologists have proposed virus-chemical interactions to cause several cancers...
- A clinician's paradigm in the treatment of psoriasisMark Lebwohl
Department of Dermatology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York 10029, USA
J Am Acad Dermatol 53:S59-69. 2005..treatment for mild psoriasis includes the use of topical corticosteroids, calcipotriene, tazarotene, topical tars, anthralin, and keratolytics...
- Systematic reviews and economic evaluations conducted for the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence in the United Kingdom: a game of two halves?Michael F Drummond
University of York, York, UK
Int J Technol Assess Health Care 24:146-50. 2008..The objective of this study was to assess the extent to which the systematic review of the clinical literature informs the economic evaluation in NICE technology appraisals...
- Mining health care administrative data with temporal association rules on hybrid eventsS Concaro
Dipartimento di Informatica e Sistemistica, Universita di Pavia, Pavia, Italy
Methods Inf Med 50:166-79. 2011..In this paper we present an algorithm for the extraction of temporal association rules (TARs) on sequences of hybrid events and its application on health care administrative databases.
- Tumors and DNA adducts in mice exposed to benzo[a]pyrene and coal tars: implications for risk assessmentL S Goldstein
Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA 94303, USA
Environ Health Perspect 106:1325-30. 1998..Therefore, we directly compared tumor induction and adduct formation by B[a]P and coal tars in several experimental protocols, including one broadly accepted and used by regulators...
- Loss of heterozygosity analysis of mouse pulmonary adenomas induced by coal tarFernando Benavides
Department of Carcinogenesis, The University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, Smithville, Texas 78957, USA
Environ Mol Mutagen 41:300-8. 2003Manufactured gas plant (MGP) residues, commonly known as coal tars, were generated several decades ago as a byproduct of residential and industrial gas production from the distillation of coal...
- Standardized protocols for photocarcinogenesis safety testingP Donald Forbes
Argus Research, Charles River Laboratories, Inc Horsham, PA 19044, USA
Front Biosci 8:d848-54. 2003..of skin cancer is also increased by contact with photosensitizing drugs and chemicals such as psoralens, coal tars and petroleum stocks...
- Biogeochemical characterisation of a coal tar distillate plumeG M Williams
British Geological Surrey, Keyworth, Nottingham, UK
J Contam Hydrol 53:175-97. 2001The distillation of acidified coal tars for up to 50 years has given rise to a phenol plume approximately 500 m long, 50 m deep and containing up to 15 g l(-1) dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the Triassic Sandstones aquifer...
- A pilot study for the selection of a bioreactor for remediation of groundwater from a coal tar contaminated siteTurlough F Guerin
Shell Engineering Pty Ltd, NSW State Office, P O Box 26, Granville 2142 NSW, Australia
J Hazard Mater 89:241-52. 2002Coal tars in soil at a gasworks site in South Eastern Australia led to groundwater contamination with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), mono-aromatic compounds (BTEX) and phenols...
- Occupation and cancer in BritainL Rushton
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, St Mary s Campus, Norfolk Place, London W2 1PG, UK
Br J Cancer 102:1428-37. 2010..We estimated the current burden of cancer in Britain attributable to past occupational exposures for International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) group 1 (established) and 2A (probable) carcinogens...
- Life Course, Relationship, and Situational Contexts of Teen Dating ViolenceWendy D Manning; Fiscal Year: 2013..study of adolescent and young adults'intimate relationships (Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study-TARS)...
- Identifying and validating new antibiotic targets in cell wall synthesis pathwaysSuzanne Walker; Fiscal Year: 2013..We discovered that PBP2A function is dependent on the activity of a glycosyltransferase, TarS, that attaches [unreadable]-O-GlcNAc residues to wall teichoic acids (WTAs), an additional cell wall polymer ..
- ACTIVITY AND INHIBITION OF THE TAT PROTEIN FROM HIVAlan D Frankel; Fiscal Year: 2010..virus (JDV) Tat is a "chameleon" RNA-binding domain that can bind HIV and bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) TARs in two different binding modes - adopting a high affinity beta-hairpin conformation on BIV TAR and an extended ..
- Organic Solvent Mixtures & Neuropsychological OutcomesEllen Kirrane; Fiscal Year: 2002..including evaporative emissions from fuel and fuel exhaust, styrene and acetone during fiberglass work, paints and tars for waterproofing their traps...
- Characterization of Human Trace Amine ReceptorsKim Neve; Fiscal Year: 2006..advantage of the recent identification and molecular cloning of the DNA for a family of trace amine receptors (TARs)...
- Youthful Relationships and Sexual Risk-TakingPEGGY GIORDANO; Fiscal Year: 2007..builds on an in-depth study of adolescent heterosexual relationships, the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study (TARS)...
- Trace Amine Receptors in Non Human PrimatesGregory Miller; Fiscal Year: 2007..The recent discovery of a family of mammalian trace amine receptors (TARs) presents a significant new resource for exploring the physiological and pharmacological relevance of trace amines ..
- DATING RELATIONSHIPS AND ADOLESCENT FERTILITY BEHAVIORSPEGGY GIORDANO; Fiscal Year: 2002..and eleventh grade youth currently residing in Lucas County, Ohio (the Toledo Adolescent Relationship Study -- TARS)...
- CYCLOOXYGENASE-2 AND XENOBIOTICS IN VASCULAR INJURYBabette Weksler; Fiscal Year: 2005..Xenobiotic substances in cigarette smoke and tars induce both cancer and atherosclerosis in humans and animals...
- Evaluating Low Ignition Propensity Cigarette LegislationRICHARD O CONNOR; Fiscal Year: 2009..Taken together, these studies comprise a comprehensive evaluation of the potential impacts of this harm-reduction policy, which will inform policymakers in other jurisdictions considering similar regulations. ..
- FOLLOW UP OF THE COMMIT COHORT PARTICIPANTS 13 YEARS LATK Cummings; Fiscal Year: 2002....
- The Impact of Product Information on Smoking BehaviorK Cummings; Fiscal Year: 2004..The findings from this study also have important policy implications, as one of the cornerstones of government product regulation is to ensure that consumers are informed about the inherent dangers of the products that they are using. ..
- INTERNAL COUNCIL FOR TOBACCO RESEARCH AND TOBACCO INSTITK Cummings; Fiscal Year: 2002..We anticipate that this information will assist policy makers in evaluating current regulatory measures to curtail tobacco usage. ..
- EXTRAMURAL RESEARCH FACILITIES CONSTRUCTIONKenneth Warner; Fiscal Year: 2004....
- MOLECULAR EPIDEMIOLOGY OF LUNG CANCERChu Chen; Fiscal Year: 2010..g. Rosaceae fruits and Cruciferae vegetables), and food-derived nutrients (e.g. carotenoids, vitamin C, and vitamin E). ..
- ORAL CANCER: MOLECULAR PROFILES & CLINICAL OUTCOMESChu Chen; Fiscal Year: 2010..HPV plays an important etiologic role in some oropharyngeal cancers, we plan to determine and incorporate HPV genotypes in the analyses and interpretation of the study findings. ..
- CARCINOGENIC CYCLIC NITROSAMINE DNA ADDUCTSStephen S Hecht; Fiscal Year: 2010..The proposed research is significant because of the known human exposure to these carcinogens through the diet, tobacco products, and endogenous formation. ..
- Calcium and Gene Expression in Vascular Smooth MuscleKaren M Lounsbury; Fiscal Year: 2010....
- Lung Cancer Chemoprevention: Isothiocyanates, inositolStephen Hecht; Fiscal Year: 2008..abstract_text> ..
- PREDICTORS OF SMOKING BEHAVIORS IN U.S. BLACK WOMENDaniel Brooks; Fiscal Year: 2006..abstract_text> ..
- ANALYSIS OF A LIGHT-REGULATED DEVELOPMENT SWITCHXing Wang Deng; Fiscal Year: 2003..abstract_text> ..
- Pulmonary Mitochondrial Injury Caused by TetrahydrocannabinolTheodore Sarafian; Fiscal Year: 2007..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- Gene x Environment Factors in Smoking CessationAndrew Hyland; Fiscal Year: 2007..abstract_text> ..
- Accelerated x-ray therapy planning system PEREGRINEPAUL NIZIN; Fiscal Year: 2004..2. Benchmarking of NVR over the range of clinically useful energies in homogeneous and heterogeneous phantoms. 3. Validation of NVR in the case of patient-specific Monte Carlo calculations using CT based patient anatomy. ..
- BREAST CANCER AND GENE POLYMORPHISMS IN CHINESE WOMENChu Chen; Fiscal Year: 2003..Our ultimate goal is to provide information to identify women at high risk of breast cancer, and to aid in the formulation of prevention strategies for these women. ..
- METABOLISM OF CARCINOGENIC TOBACCO SPECIFIC NITROSAMINESStephen Hecht; Fiscal Year: 2003..abstract_text> ..
- Tobacco CarcinogenesisStephen Hecht; Fiscal Year: 2005..Steven Tannenbaum (MIT), Dr. Jack Henningfield (Johns Hopkins and Pinney Associates), Drs. Jeffrey Seeman and Anthony Tricker (Philip Morris), and Dr. John Lauterbach (an independent consultant, formerly with Brown and Williamson). ..
- ANALYZING TOBACCO DOCUMENTS ON CIGARETTE DESIGNLynn Kozlowski; Fiscal Year: 2004..Collections (with standardized abstracts controlled vocabulary terms) will be made available on the Internet. Reports will be submitted to peer-reviewed journals. ..
- Cigarette smoking and colorectal cancer riskAndrew Hyland; Fiscal Year: 2003..abstract_text> ..
- Molecular Epidemiology of Endometrial CancerChu Chen; Fiscal Year: 2007..Efforts will also be devoted to generating risk indices through statistical modeling that integrate potential effects of genetic variants in the estrogen metabolism pathway and/or DNA repair pathways. ..
- Macro-social & Parent Influence on Adolescents' Drug UseMatthew Farrelly; Fiscal Year: 2007..Generalized Growth Mixture Modeling will be used to test the study hypotheses. ..