smallpox vaccine

Summary

Summary: A live VACCINIA VIRUS vaccine of calf lymph or chick embryo origin, used for immunization against smallpox. It is now recommended only for laboratory workers exposed to smallpox virus. Certain countries continue to vaccinate those in the military service. Complications that result from smallpox vaccination include vaccinia, secondary bacterial infections, and encephalomyelitis. (Dorland, 28th ed)

Top Publications

  1. pmc Major increase in human monkeypox incidence 30 years after smallpox vaccination campaigns cease in the Democratic Republic of Congo
    Anne W Rimoin
    University of California, Los Angeles School of Public Health, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:16262-7. 2010
  2. ncbi Cutting edge: long-term B cell memory in humans after smallpox vaccination
    Shane Crotty
    Emory Vaccine Center and Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    J Immunol 171:4969-73. 2003
  3. ncbi Proteome-wide analysis of the serological response to vaccinia and smallpox
    D Huw Davies
    Center for Virus Research, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697, USA
    Proteomics 7:1678-86. 2007
  4. ncbi Modified vaccinia Ankara: potential as an alternative smallpox vaccine
    Lewis H McCurdy
    Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 3017, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 38:1749-53. 2004
  5. pmc Clinical and immunologic responses to multiple doses of IMVAMUNE (Modified Vaccinia Ankara) followed by Dryvax challenge
    Sharon E Frey
    Department of Medicine, Saint Louis University School of Medicine and National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Vaccine Treatment and Evaluation Unit, 1100 S Grand Blvd DRC 8, St Louis, MO 63104, USA
    Vaccine 25:8562-73. 2007
  6. pmc Smallpox vaccines: targets of protective immunity
    Bernard Moss
    Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 3210, USA
    Immunol Rev 239:8-26. 2011
  7. pmc Safety, immunogenicity, and surrogate markers of clinical efficacy for modified vaccinia Ankara as a smallpox vaccine in HIV-infected subjects
    Richard N Greenberg
    Infectious Diseases Division, University of Kentucky School of Medicine, Lexington, KY 40536 0093, USA
    J Infect Dis 207:749-58. 2013
  8. pmc Transcriptomic profiles of high and low antibody responders to smallpox vaccine
    R B Kennedy
    Mayo Vaccine Research Group, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA
    Genes Immun 14:277-85. 2013
  9. ncbi Daniel Bernoulli's epidemiological model revisited
    Klaus Dietz
    Department of Medical Biometry, University of Tubingen, Westbahnhofstr 55, 72070 Tübingen, Germany
    Math Biosci 180:1-21. 2002
  10. ncbi Smallpox: anything to declare?
    Geoffrey L Smith
    Department of Virology, The Wright Fleming Institute, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, St Mary s Campus, Norfolk Place, London W2 1P6, UK
    Nat Rev Immunol 2:521-7. 2002

Detail Information

Publications300 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc Major increase in human monkeypox incidence 30 years after smallpox vaccination campaigns cease in the Democratic Republic of Congo
    Anne W Rimoin
    University of California, Los Angeles School of Public Health, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:16262-7. 2010
    ..Improved surveillance and epidemiological analysis is needed to better assess the public health burden and develop strategies for reducing the risk of wider spread of infection...
  2. ncbi Cutting edge: long-term B cell memory in humans after smallpox vaccination
    Shane Crotty
    Emory Vaccine Center and Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    J Immunol 171:4969-73. 2003
    ..In this study, we demonstrate that smallpox vaccine-specific memory B cells last for >50 years in immunized individuals...
  3. ncbi Proteome-wide analysis of the serological response to vaccinia and smallpox
    D Huw Davies
    Center for Virus Research, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697, USA
    Proteomics 7:1678-86. 2007
    ..Reserve, WR) proteome to profile antibody reactivities after primary infection or boosting with the licensed smallpox vaccine, Dryvax, and with archival convalescent smallpox sera...
  4. ncbi Modified vaccinia Ankara: potential as an alternative smallpox vaccine
    Lewis H McCurdy
    Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 3017, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 38:1749-53. 2004
    ..Herein, we review alternative approaches to maintaining immunity to smallpox through vaccination with attenuated poxviruses, and we suggest modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) as a leading candidate for an alternative smallpox vaccine.
  5. pmc Clinical and immunologic responses to multiple doses of IMVAMUNE (Modified Vaccinia Ankara) followed by Dryvax challenge
    Sharon E Frey
    Department of Medicine, Saint Louis University School of Medicine and National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Vaccine Treatment and Evaluation Unit, 1100 S Grand Blvd DRC 8, St Louis, MO 63104, USA
    Vaccine 25:8562-73. 2007
    ..IMVAMUNE vaccination prior to Dryvax reduced virus replication at the Dryvax site, decreased the size of the primary cutaneous lesion, and decreased the time to healing but did not completely ameliorate the immune response...
  6. pmc Smallpox vaccines: targets of protective immunity
    Bernard Moss
    Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 3210, USA
    Immunol Rev 239:8-26. 2011
    ....
  7. pmc Safety, immunogenicity, and surrogate markers of clinical efficacy for modified vaccinia Ankara as a smallpox vaccine in HIV-infected subjects
    Richard N Greenberg
    Infectious Diseases Division, University of Kentucky School of Medicine, Lexington, KY 40536 0093, USA
    J Infect Dis 207:749-58. 2013
    ..Alternative smallpox vaccines with an improved safety profile would address this unmet medical need...
  8. pmc Transcriptomic profiles of high and low antibody responders to smallpox vaccine
    R B Kennedy
    Mayo Vaccine Research Group, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA
    Genes Immun 14:277-85. 2013
    ..Here we describe the application of mRNA-Seq transcriptome profiling to understanding immune responses in smallpox vaccine recipients...
  9. ncbi Daniel Bernoulli's epidemiological model revisited
    Klaus Dietz
    Department of Medical Biometry, University of Tubingen, Westbahnhofstr 55, 72070 Tübingen, Germany
    Math Biosci 180:1-21. 2002
    ..One can use this estimate to assess the gain in life expectancy if only a fraction of the population is immunized...
  10. ncbi Smallpox: anything to declare?
    Geoffrey L Smith
    Department of Virology, The Wright Fleming Institute, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, St Mary s Campus, Norfolk Place, London W2 1P6, UK
    Nat Rev Immunol 2:521-7. 2002
    ..In the words of Rep. Christopher Shay, 'Better to be scared by the improbable possibility than to be unprepared for the catastrophic reality'...
  11. pmc Safety and immunogenicity of modified vaccinia Ankara (ACAM3000): effect of dose and route of administration
    Marissa B Wilck
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    J Infect Dis 201:1361-70. 2010
    ..We conducted a clinical trial of the safety and immunogenicity of modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) to examine the effects of dose and route of administration...
  12. ncbi Host range, growth property, and virulence of the smallpox vaccine: vaccinia virus Tian Tan strain
    Qing Fang
    Modern Virology Research Center and AIDS Center, National Key Laboratory of Virology, College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Hubei 430072, PR China
    Virology 335:242-51. 2005
    ..Our data demonstrate the need for further attenuation of VTT to serve either as a safer smallpox vaccine or as a live vaccine vector for other pathogens.
  13. ncbi Individual-based computational modeling of smallpox epidemic control strategies
    Donald S Burke
    Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 North Wolfe Street, Room E5527, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Acad Emerg Med 13:1142-9. 2006
    ....
  14. pmc Modified vaccinia virus Ankara protects macaques against respiratory challenge with monkeypox virus
    Koert J Stittelaar
    Department of Virology, Erasmus MC, Building Hoboken, Room Ee 17 26, P O Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    J Virol 79:7845-51. 2005
    ..The MVA-based smallpox vaccine protected macaques against a lethal respiratory challenge with monkeypox virus and is therefore an important ..
  15. pmc Priming-boosting vaccination with recombinant Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin and a nonreplicating vaccinia virus recombinant leads to long-lasting and effective immunity
    Yasushi Ami
    Division of Experimental Animal Research, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Shinjuku ku, Tokyo, Japan
    J Virol 79:12871-9. 2005
    ..These results suggest that a recombinant M. bovis BCG-based vector may have potential as an HIV/AIDS vaccine when administered in combination with a replication-deficient vaccinia virus DIs vector in a priming-boosting strategy...
  16. pmc An attenuated LC16m8 smallpox vaccine: analysis of full-genome sequence and induction of immune protection
    Shigeru Morikawa
    Department of Virology, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Toyama, Tokyo, Japan
    J Virol 79:11873-91. 2005
    ..These results suggest that priming with m8 IMV provides efficient protection despite undetectable levels of immunity against EEV...
  17. pmc Human leukocyte antigen genotypes in the genetic control of adaptive immune responses to smallpox vaccine
    Inna G Ovsyannikova
    Mayo Clinic Vaccine Research Group, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA
    J Infect Dis 203:1546-55. 2011
    The role of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes in mediating adaptive immune responses to smallpox vaccine remains unknown.
  18. pmc Genomic analysis of the vaccinia virus strain variants found in Dryvax vaccine
    Li Qin
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta, 6020 Katz Group Centre, Edmonton, AB T6G 2H7, Canada
    J Virol 85:13049-60. 2011
    ..There is more genetic diversity detected within a vial of Dryvax than between variola virus major and minor strains, and our study highlights how propagation methods affect the genetics of orthopoxvirus populations...
  19. ncbi Emergence and reemergence of smallpox: the need for development of a new generation smallpox vaccine
    Sergei N Shchelkunov
    Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk 630090, Russia
    Vaccine 29:D49-53. 2011
    ....
  20. pmc Smallpox vaccine with integrated IL-15 demonstrates enhanced in vivo viral clearance in immunodeficient mice and confers long term protection against a lethal monkeypox challenge in cynomolgus monkeys
    Rafal J Zielinski
    Radiation Oncology Branch, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892 1374, USA
    Vaccine 28:7081-91. 2010
    ..Therefore, a safer smallpox vaccine that can match the efficacy of first generation vaccines is urgently needed...
  21. pmc Modeling potential responses to smallpox as a bioterrorist weapon
    M I Meltzer
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atalnta, Georgia 30333
    Emerg Infect Dis 7:959-69. 2001
    ..Historical data indicate that a median of 2,155 smallpox vaccine doses per case were given to stop outbreaks, implying that a stockpile of 40 million doses should be adequate.
  22. ncbi Myopericarditis following smallpox vaccination among vaccinia-naive US military personnel
    Jeffrey S Halsell
    The University of Virginia, Charlottesville, USA
    JAMA 289:3283-9. 2003
    ..Although many viruses have been reported to cause myopericarditis, it has been a rare or unrecognized event after vaccination with the currently used strain of vaccinia virus (New York City Board of Health)...
  23. pmc Molecular smallpox vaccine delivered by alphavirus replicons elicits protective immunity in mice and non-human primates
    Jay W Hooper
    US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Virology Division, 1425 Porter Street, Fort Detrick, MD 21702, United States
    Vaccine 28:494-511. 2009
    ..from strains of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, are being used to develop alternatives to the current smallpox vaccine. Here, we demonstrated that virus-like replicon particles (VRPs) expressing the vaccinia virus A33R, B5R, ..
  24. pmc Genome-wide genetic associations with IFNγ response to smallpox vaccine
    Richard B Kennedy
    Program in Translational Immunovirology and Biodefense, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
    Hum Genet 131:1433-51. 2012
    ..We report here the first smallpox vaccine response genome-wide association study of over 1,000 recent recipients of Dryvax(®)...
  25. ncbi A model for a smallpox-vaccination policy
    Samuel A Bozzette
    RAND Center for Domestic and International Health Security, Santa Monica, Calif, USA
    N Engl J Med 348:416-25. 2003
    ..The new reality of biologic terrorism and warfare has ignited a debate about whether to reintroduce smallpox vaccination...
  26. pmc Genome-wide association study of antibody response to smallpox vaccine
    Inna G Ovsyannikova
    Mayo Clinic Vaccine Research Group, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
    Vaccine 30:4182-9. 2012
    We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of antibody levels in a multi-ethnic group of 1071 healthy smallpox vaccine recipients...
  27. pmc Failure of the smallpox vaccine to develop a skin lesion in vaccinia virus-naïve individuals is related to differences in antibody profiles before vaccination, not after
    Xiaolin Tan
    Division of Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, California, USA
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 19:418-28. 2012
    ..Although the sample size studied was small, we conclude the failure to take in responders correlates with preexisting immunity of unknown etiology that may attenuate the skin reaction in a way similar to previous smallpox vaccination...
  28. pmc Genome-wide analysis of polymorphisms associated with cytokine responses in smallpox vaccine recipients
    Richard B Kennedy
    Mayo Vaccine Research Group, Mayo Clinic, Guggenheim 611C, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
    Hum Genet 131:1403-21. 2012
    ..analysis of the effects of host genetic variation on cytokine responses to vaccinia virus stimulation in smallpox vaccine recipients...
  29. pmc Safety and immunogenicity of LC16m8, an attenuated smallpox vaccine in vaccinia-naive adults
    Jeffrey S Kennedy
    Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY, USA
    J Infect Dis 204:1395-402. 2011
    LC16m8 is an attenuated cell culture-adapted Lister vaccinia smallpox vaccine missing the B5R protein and licensed for use in Japan.
  30. ncbi Vaccinia immune globulin: current policies, preparedness, and product safety and efficacy
    Riccardo Wittek
    Institut de Biotechnologie, University of Lausanne, CH 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland
    Int J Infect Dis 10:193-201. 2006
    ..begun to develop policies and preparedness programs to deal with a bioterror attack, including stockpiling of smallpox vaccine. Smallpox vaccine itself may be associated with a number of serious adverse events, which can often be ..
  31. ncbi ACAM2000: a newly licensed cell culture-based live vaccinia smallpox vaccine
    Richard N Greenberg
    University of Kentucky School of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Room MN 672, 800 Rose Street, Lexington, KY 40536 0084, USA
    Expert Opin Investig Drugs 17:555-64. 2008
    ..and animal welfare); and iii) use of variola as a weapon for bioterrorism, a new and safer vaccinia-based smallpox vaccine derived from new cell culture-based technology was proposed. Federally funded work by Acambis, Inc...
  32. pmc Rapid protection in a monkeypox model by a single injection of a replication-deficient vaccinia virus
    Patricia L Earl
    Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 3210, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:10889-94. 2008
    ..Protection correlated with the more rapid immune response to MVA compared to Dryvax, which may be related to the higher dose of MVA that can be tolerated safely...
  33. ncbi LC16m8: an attenuated smallpox vaccine
    Julie Kenner
    VaxGen Inc, USA
    Vaccine 24:7009-22. 2006
    ..LC16m8, an attenuated, replicating smallpox vaccine derived from the Lister strain of vaccinia, is currently licensed in Japan where it was safely used in over ..
  34. ncbi Smallpox vaccination and adverse reactions. Guidance for clinicians
    Joanne Cono
    Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Program, National Center for Infectious Diseases, USA
    MMWR Recomm Rep 52:1-28. 2003
    ..The frequencies of smallpox vaccine-associated adverse events were identified in studies of the 1960s...
  35. ncbi Heterogeneity in the A33 protein impacts the cross-protective efficacy of a candidate smallpox DNA vaccine
    Joseph W Golden
    Department of Molecular Virology, Virology Division, United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, MD 21702, USA
    Virology 377:19-29. 2008
    ..Furthermore, our results caution that adequate cross-protection by any pan-orthopoxvirus subunit vaccine will require not only careful evaluation of cross-protective immunity, but also of targeting of multiple orthopoxvirus immunogens...
  36. ncbi Cytokine milieu of atopic dermatitis skin subverts the innate immune response to vaccinia virus
    Michael D Howell
    Division of Allergy and Immunology, Department of Pediatrics, National Jewish Medical and Research Center, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, Colorado 80206, USA
    Immunity 24:341-8. 2006
    ..The current study demonstrates that Th2 cytokines enhance VV replication in AD skin by subverting the innate immune response against VV in a STAT-6-dependent manner...
  37. pmc Major neutralizing sites on vaccinia virus glycoprotein B5 are exposed differently on variola virus ortholog B6
    Lydia Aldaz-Carroll
    Department of Microbiology, School of Dental Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 240 S 40th St, Philadelphia, PA 19104 6002, USA
    J Virol 81:8131-9. 2007
    ..Assuming that B6 contains similar variola virus-specific epitopes, our data suggest that a subunit vaccine using the variola virus homologues might exhibit improved protective efficacy against smallpox...
  38. ncbi Contact vaccinia--transmission of vaccinia from smallpox vaccination
    John M Neff
    Center for Children with Special Needs, Children s Hospital, and the Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine, 4800 Sand Point Way NE, CM 09, Seattle, WA 98105 0371, USA
    JAMA 288:1901-5. 2002
  39. pmc Surfing a genetic association interaction network to identify modulators of antibody response to smallpox vaccine
    N A Davis
    Department of Mathematical and Computer Sciences, University of Tulsa, Tulsa, OK 74104, USA
    Genes Immun 11:630-6. 2010
    ..We apply SNPrank to a GAIN analysis of a candidate-gene association study on human immune response to smallpox vaccine. SNPrank implicates a SNP in the retinoid X receptor α (RXRA) gene through a network interaction effect on ..
  40. ncbi Vaccinia (smallpox) vaccine: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), 2001
    L D Rotz
    Office of Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Activity, USA
    MMWR Recomm Rep 50:1-25; quiz CE1-7. 2001
    ..In addition, this report contains ACIP's recommendations for the use of vaccinia vaccine if smallpox (variola) virus were used as an agent of biological terrorism or if a smallpox outbreak were to occur for another unforeseen reason...
  41. pmc Immunity from smallpox vaccine persists for decades: a longitudinal study
    Dennis D Taub
    Laboratory of Immunology and Clinical Research Branch, National Institute on Aging Intramural Research Program, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD 21224 6825, USA
    Am J Med 121:1058-64. 2008
    ..The threat of smallpox resulting from bioterrorist action has prompted a reassessment of the level of immunity in current populations...
  42. pmc ORFeome approach to the clonal, HLA allele-specific CD4 T-cell response to a complex pathogen in humans
    Lichen Jing
    Department of Medicine, University of Washington, 1616 Eastlake Avenue East, Suite 251, Seattle, WA 98102, USA
    J Immunol Methods 347:36-45. 2009
    ....
  43. pmc A protein-based smallpox vaccine protects non-human primates from a lethal monkeypox virus challenge
    George W Buchman
    Chesapeake PERL, Inc, Savage, MD, USA
    Vaccine 28:6627-36. 2010
    ..A subunit smallpox vaccine comprising vaccinia virus membrane proteins A33, B5, L1, A27 and aluminum hydroxide (alum) ± CpG was ..
  44. pmc Redundancy and plasticity of neutralizing antibody responses are cornerstone attributes of the human immune response to the smallpox vaccine
    Mohammed Rafii El Idrissi Benhnia
    La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology, Division of Vaccine Discovery, 9420 Athena Circle, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    J Virol 82:3751-68. 2008
    The smallpox vaccine is widely considered the gold standard for human vaccines, yet the key antibody targets in humans remain unclear...
  45. ncbi Smallpox vaccine. A tame virus runs amok
    Jocelyn Kaiser
    Science 316:1418-9. 2007
  46. pmc A randomized, double-blind, dose-finding Phase II study to evaluate immunogenicity and safety of the third generation smallpox vaccine candidate IMVAMUNE
    Alfred von Krempelhuber
    Bavarian Nordic GmbH, Fraunhoferstrasse 13, 82152 Martinsried, Germany
    Vaccine 28:1209-16. 2010
    IMVAMUNE is a Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA)-based virus that is being developed as a safer 3rd generation smallpox vaccine. In order to determine the optimal dose for further development, a double-blind, randomized Phase II trial was ..
  47. ncbi Can postexposure vaccination against smallpox succeed?
    Philip P Mortimer
    Virus Reference Division, Central Public Health Laboratory, London, United Kingdom
    Clin Infect Dis 36:622-9. 2003
    ....
  48. ncbi Protective immunity following vaccination: how is it defined?
    Ian J Amanna
    Vaccine and Gene Therapy Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, Beaverton, Oregon 97006, USA
    Hum Vaccin 4:316-9. 2008
    ....
  49. ncbi Postexposure immunization with modified vaccinia virus Ankara or conventional Lister vaccine provides solid protection in a murine model of human smallpox
    Nir Paran
    Israel Institute for Biological Research, Ness Ziona, Israel
    J Infect Dis 199:39-48. 2009
    ..Scenarios of sudden biothreats have prompted demand for rapidly protective vaccination. However, the feasibility of short-term vaccination (i.e., vaccination shortly before exposure) with vaccinia virus (VACV) is uncertain...
  50. pmc Identification of poxvirus CD8+ T cell determinants to enable rational design and characterization of smallpox vaccines
    David C Tscharke
    Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Exp Med 201:95-104. 2005
    ..Modified vaccinia virus ankara (MVA), a candidate replacement smallpox vaccine, failed to induce responses to two of the defined determinants...
  51. ncbi Antibodies against the extracellular enveloped virus B5R protein are mainly responsible for the EEV neutralizing capacity of vaccinia immune globulin
    Edward Bell
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Virology 325:425-31. 2004
    ..Vaccinia immune globulin (VIG) has been used to treat complications from the smallpox vaccine. While the potency of VIG was defined by its ability to neutralize intracellular mature virus, a second form ..
  52. ncbi Surveillance guidelines for smallpox vaccine (vaccinia) adverse reactions
    Christine Casey
    Immunization Safety Office, Office of the Chief Science Officer, Office of the Director, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
    MMWR Recomm Rep 55:1-16. 2006
    ..The smallpox vaccine surveillance case definitions presented in the report can be used in future vaccination programs to ensure ..
  53. pmc Developing new smallpox vaccines
    S R Rosenthal
    CBER Food and Drug Administration, Rockville, MD 20852, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 7:920-6. 2001
    New stockpiles of smallpox vaccine are required as a contingency for protecting civilian and military personnel against deliberate dissemination of smallpox virus by terrorists or unfriendly governments...
  54. ncbi Transmission potential of smallpox in contemporary populations
    R Gani
    Centre for Applied Microbiology and Research, Porton, Down, Salisbury, Wiltshire SP4 0JG, UK
    Nature 414:748-51. 2001
    ..5 to 6) predict a reasonably rapid epidemic rise before the implementation of public health interventions, because little residual herd immunity exists now that vaccination has ceased...
  55. pmc Highly attenuated smallpox vaccine protects mice with and without immune deficiencies against pathogenic vaccinia virus challenge
    Linda S Wyatt
    Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 0445, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:4590-5. 2004
    Modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA), developed >30 years ago as a highly attenuated candidate smallpox vaccine, was recloned from a 1974 passage and evaluated for safety and immunogenicity...
  56. ncbi Differential regulation of granzyme and perforin in effector and memory T cells following smallpox immunization
    Michael T Rock
    Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232, USA
    J Immunol 174:3757-64. 2005
    ..Together, these data suggest an important role for effector CD8+ T cells in controlling poxvirus infection, and have implications for our understanding of human CD8+ T cell differentiation...
  57. pmc Immunization with vaccinia virus induces polyfunctional and phenotypically distinctive CD8(+) T cell responses
    Melissa L Precopio
    Immunology Laboratory, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Exp Med 204:1405-16. 2007
    ..This quality of the CD8(+) T cell response may be at least partially responsible for the profound efficacy of these vaccines in protection against smallpox and serves as a benchmark against which other vaccines can be evaluated...
  58. pmc The smallpox vaccine induces an early neutralizing IgM response
    Juan E Moyron-Quiroz
    Division of Vaccine Discovery, La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Vaccine 28:140-7. 2009
    ....
  59. pmc Genetically stable and fully effective smallpox vaccine strain constructed from highly attenuated vaccinia LC16m8
    Minoru Kidokoro
    Department of Virology III, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, 4 7 1 Gakuen, Musashimurayama, Tokyo 208 0011, Japan
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:4152-7. 2005
    A highly attenuated LC16m8 (m8) smallpox vaccine has been licensed in Japan because of its extremely low neurovirulence profile, which is comparable to that of replication incompetent strains of vaccinia virus...
  60. pmc Vaccinia virus strain NYVAC induces substantially lower and qualitatively different human antibody responses compared with strains Lister and Dryvax
    Claire M Midgley
    Department of Virology, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, Norfolk Place, London W2 1PG, UK
    J Gen Virol 89:2992-7. 2008
    ..However, NYVAC strains engineered to express antigens from other pathogens remain promising candidate vaccines for immunization against other diseases...
  61. ncbi Recommendations for using smallpox vaccine in a pre-event vaccination program. Supplemental recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) and the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC)
    Melinda Wharton
    Epidemiology and Surveillance Division, National Center for Infectious Diseases, USA
    MMWR Recomm Rep 52:1-16. 2003
    ..MMWR 2001;50[No. RR-10]:1-25). This supplemental report provides recommendations for using smallpox vaccine in the pre-event vaccination program in the United States...
  62. ncbi Monitoring the safety of a smallpox vaccination program in the United States: report of the joint Smallpox Vaccine Safety Working Group of the advisory committee on immunization practices and the Armed Forces Epidemiological Board
    John Neff
    Children s Hospital and Regional Medical Center, Seattle, Washington, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 46:S258-70. 2008
    ..on Immunization Practices and the Department of Defense Armed Forces Epidemiological Board formed a joint Smallpox Vaccine Safety Working Group (SVS WG) to provide independent safety oversight for smallpox vaccination safety-..
  63. pmc An extremely diverse CD4 response to vaccinia virus in humans is revealed by proteome-wide T-cell profiling
    Lichen Jing
    Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98102, USA
    J Virol 82:7120-34. 2008
    ..Our results provide the first empirical whole-proteome data set regarding the global CD4 response to full-length proteins in a complex virus and are consistent with the theory that abundant structural proteins are immunodominant...
  64. pmc Evaluation of the efficacy of modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA)/IMVAMUNE against aerosolized rabbitpox virus in a rabbit model
    Nicole L Garza
    Center for Aerobiological Sciences, US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, Frederick, MD 21702, United States
    Vaccine 27:5496-504. 2009
    ..This study shows that IMVAMUNE can be a very effective vaccine against aerosolized RPXV...
  65. pmc The immunology of smallpox vaccines
    Richard B Kennedy
    Mayo Clinic Vaccine Research Group, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
    Curr Opin Immunol 21:314-20. 2009
    ....
  66. ncbi Quantification of antibody responses against multiple antigens of the two infectious forms of Vaccinia virus provides a benchmark for smallpox vaccination
    Mike M Putz
    Department of Virology, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, St Mary s Campus, London W2 1PG, UK
    Nat Med 12:1310-5. 2006
    ..These data suggest that it would be unwise to exclude the B5 protein from a future smallpox vaccine. Repeated vaccination provided significantly higher B5-specific and thus EEV-neutralizing antibody responses...
  67. pmc Gender effects on humoral immune responses to smallpox vaccine
    Richard B Kennedy
    Mayo Vaccine Research Group, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA
    Vaccine 27:3319-23. 2009
    There are no data currently available on gender and racial variation in smallpox vaccine immune responses. We recruited 1076 healthy adults 18-40 years old who received one dose of the US-licensed smallpox vaccine (Dryvax)...
  68. ncbi Biological agents as weapons 1: smallpox and botulism
    Michael Whitby
    Infection Management Services, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane, QLD
    Med J Aust 176:431-3. 2002
    ..5. Foodborne and inhalational botulism could result from deliberate release of toxin. 6. Botulism presents with cranial nerve palsies and descending paralysis in a patient with normal conscious state and no fever...
  69. pmc Polyclonal antibody cocktails generated using DNA vaccine technology protect in murine models of orthopoxvirus disease
    Joseph W Golden
    Virology Division, United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, MD 21702, USA
    Virol J 8:441. 2011
    ..The L1 and A27 components of this vaccine target the mature virion (MV) whereas A33 and B5 target the enveloped virion (EV)...
  70. ncbi Third-generation smallpox vaccines: challenges in the absence of clinical smallpox
    Clement A Meseda
    Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, USFDA, Rockville, MD 20852, USA
    Future Microbiol 5:1367-82. 2010
    ..However, there has been renewed interest in smallpox vaccine development due in part to zoonotic poxvirus infections and the possibility of a re-emergence of smallpox, as ..
  71. ncbi Identification and preliminary characterization of vaccinia virus (Dryvax) antigens recognized by vaccinia immune globulin
    Agnes Jones-Trower
    Laboratory of DNA Viruses, Division of Viral Products, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, HFM 457, 1401 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852 1448, USA
    Virology 343:128-40. 2005
    ..The modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA), a new generation smallpox vaccine that is attenuated for replication in humans, expresses most, but not all, of the major vaccinia antigens ..
  72. ncbi Biodefense. Smallpox vaccines: looking beyond the next generation
    Martin Enserink
    Science 304:809. 2004
  73. ncbi Genomic differences of Vaccinia virus clones from Dryvax smallpox vaccine: the Dryvax-like ACAM2000 and the mouse neurovirulent Clone-3
    John D Osborne
    Biotechnology Core Facility Branch, Division of Scientific Resources, National Center for Preparedness, Detection, and Control of Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30329, United States
    Vaccine 25:8807-32. 2007
    ..S., consists of a biologically vaccine-like VACV homogeneous-sequence clone from the conventional smallpox vaccine Dryvax, which we verified from Dryvax sequence chromatograms is genetically heterogeneous...
  74. pmc Race and sex-based differences in cytokine immune responses to smallpox vaccine in healthy individuals
    Iana H Haralambieva
    Mayo Vaccine Research Group, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA Program in Translational Immunovirology and Biodefense, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
    Hum Immunol 74:1263-6. 2013
    We assessed the effects of sex, race and ethnicity on smallpox vaccine-induced immune responses in 1071 armed forces members after primary Dryvax(®) smallpox vaccination, including 790 males and 281 females; 580 Caucasians, 217 African-..
  75. pmc Modelling responses to a smallpox epidemic taking into account uncertainty
    J Legrand
    Epidemiology and Information Sciences, INSERM U444, CHU Saint Antoine, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 27 rue Chaligny, 75012 Paris, France
    Epidemiol Infect 132:19-25. 2004
    ..e. the number of secondary cases infected by one case in an entirely susceptible population, equal to 3 in the reference scenario), time to intervention, and proportion of traced and vaccinated contacts...
  76. pmc Characterization and use of mammalian-expressed vaccinia virus extracellular membrane proteins for quantification of the humoral immune response to smallpox vaccines
    Alonzo D Garcia
    Laboratory of DNA Viruses, Division of Viral Products, Center for Biologics and Evaluation and Research FDA, 1401 Rockville Pike, HFM 457, Rockville, MD 20892, USA
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 14:1032-44. 2007
    The licensed smallpox vaccine Dryvax is used as the standard in comparative immunogenicity and protection studies of new smallpox vaccine candidates...
  77. ncbi Clinical responses to undiluted and diluted smallpox vaccine
    Sharon E Frey
    Department of Medicine, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Vaccine and Treatment Evaluation Unit, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, St Louis, USA
    N Engl J Med 346:1265-74. 2002
    To evaluate the potential to increase the supply of smallpox vaccine (vaccinia virus), we compared the response to vaccination with 10(8.1), 10(7.2), and 10(7.0) plaque-forming units (pfu) of vaccinia virus per milliliter.
  78. ncbi Clonal vaccinia virus grown in cell culture as a new smallpox vaccine
    Richard Weltzin
    Acambis Inc, 38 Sidney Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA
    Nat Med 9:1125-30. 2003
    ..To develop a modern smallpox vaccine, we have adapted vaccinia virus that was derived from the existing Dryvax vaccine for growth in a human ..
  79. pmc Group interest versus self-interest in smallpox vaccination policy
    Chris T Bauch
    Department of Mathematics and Statistics, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada L8S 4K1
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:10564-7. 2003
    ..This shortfall results in a substantial increase in expected mortality after an attack...
  80. ncbi The use of smallpox virus as a biological weapon: the vaccination situation in France
    D Levy-Bruhl
    Institut de Veille Sanitaire, Saint Maurice, France
    Euro Surveill 6:171-8. 2001
    ..Even in the case of a real threat, the vaccination of frontline healthcare personnel, and in particular of contacts of cases, must be given priority...
  81. ncbi Monkeypox outbreak a reminder of emerging infections vulnerabilities
    Joan Stephenson
    JAMA 290:23-4. 2003
  82. pmc Smallpox vaccines induce antibodies to the immunomodulatory, secreted vaccinia virus complement control protein
    Joan E Adamo
    Laboratory of DNA Viruses, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research CBER, US Food and Drug Administration FDA, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Gen Virol 90:2604-8. 2009
    ..immune globulin was used to screen the secreted proteins from cells infected with Dryvax or the candidate smallpox vaccine LC16m8 to determine whether the protective humoral response included antibodies against secreted viral ..
  83. ncbi Smallpox vaccination: a review, part I. Background, vaccination technique, normal vaccination and revaccination, and expected normal reactions
    Vincent A Fulginiti
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Arizona, Tucson, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 37:241-50. 2003
    ..The characteristics of smallpox vaccine, the technique of administration, and the expected reactions to primary vaccination and revaccination are ..
  84. ncbi Dose-related effects of smallpox vaccine
    Sharon E Frey
    Department of Medicine, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Vaccine and Treatment Evaluation Unit, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, St Louis, USA
    N Engl J Med 346:1275-80. 2002
    ....
  85. pmc Side-by-side comparison of gene-based smallpox vaccine with MVA in nonhuman primates
    Joseph W Golden
    Department of Molecular Virology, Virology Division, United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, Maryland, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 7:e42353. 2012
    ..None of the 4pox/LT-vaccinated animals shed virus. Our findings show, for the first time, that a subunit orthopoxvirus vaccine delivered by the same schedule can provide a degree of protection at least as high as that of MVA...
  86. ncbi Smallpox virus destruction and the implications of a new vaccine
    D A Henderson
    Center for Biosecurity of UPMC, Baltimore, Maryland 21202, USA
    Biosecur Bioterror 9:163-8. 2011
    ..This commentary provides approximations of these costs and the incremental contribution that a newly developed vaccine might make in terms of public health security...
  87. ncbi Expected adverse events in a mass smallpox vaccination campaign
    Alex R Kemper
    Division of General Pediatrics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
    Eff Clin Pract 5:84-90. 2002
    ..Before the latter strategy is adopted, an understanding of the likely consequences of mass vaccination is essential...
  88. pmc Capturing the spectrum of interaction effects in genetic association studies by simulated evaporative cooling network analysis
    Brett A McKinney
    Department of Genetics, University of Alabama School of Medicine, Birmingham, AL, USA
    PLoS Genet 5:e1000432. 2009
    ..We apply the EC filter to a smallpox vaccine cohort study of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and infer a GAIN for a collection of SNPs associated ..
  89. ncbi The strategic use of novel smallpox vaccines in the post-eradication world
    Joseph W Golden
    Department of Molecular Virology, Virology Division, United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, MD 21702, USA
    Expert Rev Vaccines 10:1021-35. 2011
    ..The currently licensed live-virus smallpox vaccine ACAM2000 is effective, but associated with serious and even life-threatening adverse events...
  90. pmc Evaluating the orthopoxvirus type I interferon-binding molecule as a vaccine target in the vaccinia virus intranasal murine challenge model
    Joseph W Golden
    Department of Molecular Virology, Virology Division, United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, Maryland 21702, USA
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 17:1656-65. 2010
    ..This study shows that DNA vaccination with the VACV IBM results in a robust immune response but that this response does not significantly enhance protection in a high-dose challenge model...
  91. ncbi Smallpox vaccine-induced antibodies are necessary and sufficient for protection against monkeypox virus
    Yvette Edghill-Smith
    Animal Models and Retroviral Vaccines Section, National Cancer Institute, 41 D804, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Nat Med 11:740-7. 2005
    ..Thus, vaccines able to induce long-lasting protective antibody responses may constitute realistic alternatives to the currently available smallpox vaccine (Dryvax).
  92. pmc Effect of vaccination with modified vaccinia Ankara (ACAM3000) on subsequent challenge with Dryvax
    Michael S Seaman
    Division of Viral Pathogenesis, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    J Infect Dis 201:1353-60. 2010
    ..To investigate this question, we examined the effect of immunization with modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) on subsequent challenge with replication-competent vaccinia virus (Dryvax)...
  93. ncbi A randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of CJ-50300, a newly developed cell culture-derived smallpox vaccine, in healthy volunteers
    Hee Chang Jang
    Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea
    Vaccine 28:5845-9. 2010
    ..trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of CJ-50300, a newly developed cell culture-derived smallpox vaccine, and to determine its minimum effective dose...
  94. ncbi Predicting residual immunity against smallpox
    Hiroshi Nishiura
    J Infect Dis 195:160-1; author reply 161-2. 2007
  95. ncbi A review of the smallpox vaccine adverse events active surveillance system
    Tracy N Thomas
    National Immunization Program, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 46:S212-20. 2008
    ..However, an active surveillance system may be important when there is no enhanced passive surveillance system available...
  96. pmc Serological responses in humans to the smallpox vaccine LC16m8
    Benjamin F Johnson
    Section of Virology, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, St Mary s Campus, Norfolk Place, London W2 1PG, UK
    J Gen Virol 92:2405-10. 2011
    ..of the Japanese Self-Defense Forces were vaccinated with vaccinia virus (VACV) strain LC16m8, an attenuated smallpox vaccine derived from VACV strain Lister...
  97. ncbi Comparison of the safety and immunogenicity of ACAM1000, ACAM2000 and Dryvax in healthy vaccinia-naive adults
    Sharon E Frey
    Division of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Department of Internal Medicine, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, 1100 S Grand Blvd DRC 8th Floor, St Louis, MO 63104, United States
    Vaccine 27:1637-44. 2009
    ..0x10(8)PFU/mL. All subjects had a primary skin reaction indicating a successful vaccination. The adverse events, 4-fold neutralizing antibody rise and T cell immune responses were similar between the groups...
  98. pmc Single-shot immunization with recombinant adenovirus encoding vaccinia virus glycoprotein A27L is protective against a virulent respiratory poxvirus infection
    Rajeev Rudraraju
    Gene Therapy Program, and Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA
    Vaccine 28:4997-5004. 2010
    ..This study is the first demonstration that a single-shot subunit vaccine encoding a poxvirus protein confers protection against the mortality and morbidity associated with poxvirus infection...
  99. pmc Electrocardiography screening for cardiotoxicity after modified Vaccinia Ankara vaccination
    Junko Sano
    The Saint Louis University School of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, St Louis, MO 63117, USA
    Am J Med 122:79-84. 2009
    ..Symptomatic myopericarditis has been described after smallpox vaccination using replication-competent vaccinia strains...
  100. ncbi Phenotypic and genetic diversity of the traditional Lister smallpox vaccine
    Aude Garcel
    Laboratoire de Virologie, Centre de Recherches du Service de Santé des Armées Emile Pardé, 24 Avenue des Maquis du Gresivaudan, BP87, Grenoble 38702, France
    Vaccine 27:708-17. 2009
    As an initial step in the development of a second-generation smallpox vaccine derived from the Lister strain, to be prepared for a variola virus threat, diversity of the traditional vaccine was examined by characterizing a series of ten ..
  101. ncbi Responses to smallpox vaccine
    Jeffrey A Frelinger
    N Engl J Med 347:689-90; author reply 689-90. 2002

Research Grants62

  1. Emerging functions of poxvirus virulence factor, N1L
    William Marshall; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Treatment options are limited, and vaccinia virus, the current smallpox vaccine, may induce serious side effects...
  2. Salmonella Vaccines Against Bacterial Enteropathogens
    Roy Curtiss; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..If successful, this vaccine(s) should have a societal public health benefit of a magnitude similar to the impact of the smallpox vaccine.
  3. Skin Defense by Antimicrobial Peptides
    Richard L Gallo; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The later impacts the capacity to administer live viral vaccines such as the smallpox vaccine. In the current proposal we will continue to study antimicrobial peptides, now turning to analysis of the ..
  4. Dermatotropic cellular immune responses induced by a novel smallpox vaccine
    Stephen R Walsh; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We further hypothesize that vaccination with the experimental smallpox vaccine modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) by the ID, subcutaneous (SC), and epicutaneous routes has a similar ..
  5. Mechanisms of humoral immunity development and function to the smallpox vaccine
    SHANE P CROTTY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): We have spent substantial effort demonstrating that the smallpox vaccine elicits lifelong immunological memory in human (JI 2003, Clin Vaccine Imm 2007) and the human neutralizing antibody response is ..
  6. Clinical Development of Combination Plague/Smallpox Vaccine
    CHARALAMBOS PARTIDOS; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..At this time, no human vaccines are available for plague and the current smallpox vaccine has significant side effects...
  7. Ontology-based Information Network to Support Vaccine Research
    Yongqun He; Fiscal Year: 2012
    Project Summary (Abstract): Since the introduction of Edward Jenner's smallpox vaccine in 1796, vaccines have proven invaluable for their ability to stimulate the immune system and to confer protection against pathogenic organisms...
  8. Negative regulation of Plasma cells by CD28 and B7 molecules
    Joshy Jacob; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..For instance, humans immunized with smallpox vaccine exhibit stable levels of neutralizing antibodies in their serum for over 75 years...
  9. Machine Learning Analysis of Genetic Modulators of Vaccine Immune Response
    BRETT MCKINNEY; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..polymorphism (SNP) and clinical data from volunteers from a NIAID/NIH-sponsored trial to evaluate the Aventis Pasteur Smallpox Vaccine and a Center for Disease Control sponsored trial to evaluate Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed.
  10. Smallpox vaccine and vaccinia complement control protein
    STUART ISAACS; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..We believe that VCP is a promising target for novel vaccine strategies that has the potential to enhance both the safety and immunogenicity of next generation smallpox vaccines ..
  11. Cytokine Signaling Network Response to Smallpox Vaccine
    BRETT MCKINNEY; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..from 103 volunteers that are part of an ongoing NIAID/NIH-sponsored trial to evaluate the Aventis Pasteur Smallpox Vaccine (APSV)...
  12. Pathogenesis of Vaccinia virus keratitis
    Curtis R Brandt; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..ER personnel) and the military. The Smallpox vaccine, Vaccinia virus, is a live attenuated virus and adverse vaccine responses are common...
  13. Mechanisms for NK Cell Activation in Vaccinia Virus Control
    Yiping Yang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Vaccinia virus (VV) is the live smallpox vaccine responsible for the successful eradication of smallpox worldwide...
  14. ST-246 treatment of smallpox vaccine-related adverse events
    Douglas W Grosenbach; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..due to direct risk of adverse events or the possibility of placing direct contacts at risk (23), the current smallpox vaccine is inadequate to protect the US population from smallpox...
  15. Optimizing the formulation of a protein based smallpox vaccine
    Stuart N Isaacs; Fiscal Year: 2012
    This proposal, in response to RFA AI-07-003, is for the development of a future generation smallpox vaccine that can be safely administered to a diverse population...
  16. Vaccinia Proteome Affinity Reagents From Phage Display
    Philip Felgner; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..high affinity binding partner, or "Artificial Antibody" (ArtAb), for each protein in the vaccinia virus (smallpox vaccine) proteome...
  17. Genetic Risk for Smallpox Vaccine Related to Myocarditis
    Deborah A Nickerson; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This contract will study the genetic risk for smallpox vaccine related to myocarditis
  18. Genetic variants associated with smallpox vaccine immune response heterogeneity
    Gregory Poland; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This contract will study the genetic variants associated with smallpox vaccine immune response heterogeneity
  19. Adjuvants for Agile Vaccine Development
    Philip Felgner; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..In Specific Aim 1, we will focus on using two model antigens, one derived from vaccinia virus (the smallpox vaccine) and a second from F. tularensis. The wild-type F...
  20. Bacterial Commensal Vector Delivery/Smallpox Vaccine
    Dennis Hruby; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Successful completion of the proposed [unreadable] experiments will identify a BCV smallpox vaccine candidate suitable for subsequent preclinical validation and development. [unreadable] [unreadable]
  21. Dose Optimization, Production & Tox Testing of Replicon-Vaccines for Smallpox
    Kurt Kamrud; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Much of the threat posed by Orthopoxviruses could be eliminated by vaccination;however, because the smallpox vaccine is a live orthopoxvirus the vaccine itself can pose serious health risks to immunocompetent individuals and ..
  22. Development of a Safer Smallpox Vaccine
    Michael Cho; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Although existing smallpox vaccine is relatively safe, it is not without serious medical complications including eczema vaccinatum, vaccinia ..
  23. Development of an VEE Replicon Vaccine Against Smallpox
    Kurt Kamrud; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Much of the threat posed by Orthopoxviruses could be eliminated by vaccination; however, because the smallpox vaccine is a live orthopoxvirus, the vaccine itself can pose serious health risks to both immunocompetent and ..
  24. Development of a Yellow Fever Vaccine for Vulnerable Populations
    Ian Amanna; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..is estimated at 1 to 2 deaths per million doses, indicating that this vaccine is as dangerous as the live smallpox vaccine, Dryvax...
  25. Smallpox subunit vaccine in the C-PERL expression system
    GEORGE BUCHMAN; Fiscal Year: 2005
    Chesapeake PERL (C-PERL), a recombinant protein manufacturing company, proposes to develop a smallpox vaccine based on recombinant proteins from vaccinia and expressed in C-PERL's proprietary larval expression system...
  26. Heteropolymer System to Treat Vaccinia Complications
    Steven Pincus; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..It is highly infectious and has a death rate as high as 25%. The only approved smallpox vaccine (live vaccinia virus) is available in very limited quantities (15.4 million doses) and is decades old...
  27. TLR Signaling in CD8 T Cell Response to Vaccinia Virus
    Yiping Yang; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: Vaccinia virus (VV) is the live smallpox vaccine responsible for successful eradication of smallpox worldwide...
  28. IMMUNOMODULATION OF VACCINIA-INDUCED ANTIMICROBIAL PEPT*
    Donald Leung; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Along with its legacy of enormous success, the live virus smallpox vaccine has the dubious distinction of having one of the highest rates of vaccine-associated adverse events of any ..
  29. Vaccinia virus-specific T-cell phenotypes
    Michael Rock; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The smallpox vaccine provides a unique opportunity to evaluate T cell responses in truly separate cohorts (naive and experienced) ..
  30. Human Monoclonal Antibodies for Bioterrorism Defense
    Ernest Smith; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..virus, the etiologic agent of smallpox, and the closely related vaccinia virus, which is the basis for the smallpox vaccine, have evolved a complex strategy to evade host defenses in the individual and to permit rapid and devastating ..
  31. Assessment of Smallpox Specific Immune Responses
    Thomas Denny; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..smallpox (variola) in individuals who were previously vaccinated in the United States commercially approved smallpox vaccine (preparation of live Vaccinia virus)...
  32. Augmenting innate and vaccine immune response with der-G
    Daniel Zimmerman; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..However, a new and successful smallpox vaccine intervention program, or one to treat exposed individual requires not only an effective vaccine, but also ..
  33. Therapeutics for Pox, Filo and Other Viral Pathogens
    STEWART SCHNELLER; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..In preparation for possible release of smallpox, plans are well underway to avail sufficient quantities of smallpox vaccine for a large number of people...
  34. Novel Smallpox Vaccine Derived from VV/VAR Immunome
    Anne De Groot; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..In this application, we propose to develop a safe, new smallpox vaccine based on epitopes conserved between the vaccinia virus (VV) and Variola (VAR) 'immunomes' that ..
  35. Poxvirus Immunity and DNA/MVA HIV Vaccines
    Rama Rao Amara; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..bioterrorism threat the US government is prepared to vaccinate at least a subset of people with the current smallpox vaccine (Dryvax/New York Board of Health strain of vaccinia)...
  36. Human Monoclonal Antibodies to Replace VIG for Therapy
    Lisa Cavacini; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..globulin (VIG) has been used as prophylaxis for treating individuals for which contra indications exist for smallpox vaccine and for treatment of those with complications of vaccinations...
  37. Mucosal modified vaccinina Ankara-based plaque vaccines
    DAN STINCHCOMB; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..responses has been well-documented for a variety of pathogens and MVA is being used as a second generation smallpox vaccine. In a related poxvirus vaccine vector, we demonstrated that several molecular elements significantly enhance ..
  38. A Safer and More Efficacious Smallpox Vaccine
    Tilahun Yilma; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..
  39. Cell-Mediated Immune Responses to Vaccinia Viruses
    James Crowe; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..the level of cell-mediated immunity elicited in naive adults following vaccination with the Aventis Pasteur smallpox vaccine. Furthermore, these studies will establish a paradigm in which researchers can begin to incorporate improved ..
  40. Poxvirus regulation of NF-kB: Mechanisms for virulence
    Joanna Shisler; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Results obtained here may prove useful in devising novel strategies to overcome pathogenic effects of vaccinia, with implications for enhancing safety and efficacy of a smallpox vaccine.
  41. Innate Immunomodulating Genes of Smallpox Vaccines
    Tilahun Yilma; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..experience, we propose developing a safer and more efficacious rVV based on the Wyeth strain for use as a smallpox vaccine as well as a vector for other infectious disease vaccines...
  42. Human T Cell Responses to Vaccinia Vaccine
    Phyllis Flomenberg; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..It is anticipated that this work will provide new tools for the detection and monitoring of vaccinia-specific T cell responses from most individuals and will help develop new strategies for smallpox vaccine development.
  43. Pox Virus Immunology and Vaccine Development
    Rafi Ahmed; Fiscal Year: 2007
    There is a serious need for a smallpox vaccine alternative because of the significant incidence of adverse events to the current vaccine (Dryvax)...
  44. Oral Smallpox Vaccine Development
    Mary Moyer; Fiscal Year: 2004
    This Phase I SBIR grant application aggressively targets the next steps in the development of lNCELL's oral smallpox vaccine. It builds on successful preliminary studies to develop the raw materials and do in vitro and formulation studies ..
  45. Mast Cell Activator as Adjuvant for Biodefense Vaccines
    HERMAN STAATS; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..For example, the currently used smallpox vaccine is a live virus vaccine that may not be used in immunocompromised individuals and may cause heart ..
  46. Novel Vaccines for Smallpox
    David Weiner; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Together these studies will establish if this simple and novel approach can bridge the current situation and produce a safer more effective smallpox vaccine. [unreadable] [unreadable]
  47. ST-246 treatment of smallpox vaccine-related adverse events in murine models
    DOUGLAS GROSENBACH; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Use of the smallpox vaccine poses a serious health risk, especially for the immunocompromised, or those with eczema/atopic dermatitis...
  48. An Alternative Approach to a New Smallpox Vaccine: MVA and Inflammatory Stimuli
    William Green; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..In this way we hope to define new vaccination paradigms that can be tested in non-human primate pox systems and ultimately in man. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  49. Disabling Vaccinia IFNr: A New Smallpox Vaccine
    Bertram Jacobs; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..The intent is to use this data to satisfy the FDA Animal Efficacy Rule, and pave the way for Phase l/ll Clinical Trials in healthy human volunteers. ..
  50. IMMUNOGENETIC MECHANISMS OF VACCINE RESPONSE
    Gregory A Poland; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The knowledge gained from these studies will enable us to design new strategies and new vaccines to protect human health against viral diseases. ..
  51. IMMUNE RESPONSES TO DENGUE VIRUSES
    Francis Ennis; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..These results will provide basic information about the roles of dengue virus-specific or flavivirus-crossreactive T lymphocyte responses in the pathogenesis of DHF or in the recovery from dengue virus infections. ..
  52. LIVE, ATTENUATED, RECOMBINANT VACCINE - WEST NILE VIRUS
    Thomas Monath; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..abstract_text> ..
  53. DOMINANCE IN T CELL RESPONSES TO SMALLPOX VACCINATION
    Alessandro Sette; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..These variola virus-derived epitopes would be incorporated in an optimized multi-determinant vaccine construct, inserted in the currently available vaccinia vaccine. ..
  54. Immunogenetic characterization of MHC molecules as a tool for biomedical research
    Alessandro Sette; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..These experiments will validate the approach and tools developed and also identify epitopes that can be utilized to monitor responses in these A-C pathogen systems. [unreadable]..
  55. Clinical Research and Mentoring in Infectious Disease
    Kent Sepkowitz; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  56. Novel Approaches to the Inhibition of Anthrax Toxin
    ANDREW ARTENSTEIN; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ....
  57. An Improved Vaccine for Protection Against Smallpox
    Bertram Jacobs; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Strains will be analyzed in mice for pathogenesis and for induction of a protective immune response. ..
  58. Recombinant Sendai Virus as a Novel HIV Vaccine Vector
    KAREN SLOBOD; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Studies described in this application may ultimately identify rSV as an effective intranasal vaccine vehicle useful in the prevention of HIV. ..
  59. Novel inhibitors of the replication of poxviruses
    Johan Neyts; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The final goal of this application is to advance a compound for the treatment of (systemic or cutaneous) poxvirus infections to the initial stages of development, i.e., selecting an IND candidate. ..
  60. IMMUNOPHYSIOLOGY OF KERATINOCYTE CYTOKINES
    Thomas Kupper; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..These questions, which can only be answered in[unreadable] our transgenic system, will provide important insights into the[unreadable] relationship between keratinocytes, T cells, and skin disease.[unreadable]..
  61. MICRONUTRIENTS AND MOTHER TO CHILD TRANSMISSION OF HIV
    Richard Semba; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..The relationship between mastitis and breastmilk HIV load and the epidemiology and microbiology of mastitis will be examined in a new cohort of HIV-infected lactating women. ..