inactivated vaccines

Summary

Summary: Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Influenza virus: immunity and vaccination strategies. Comparison of the immune response to inactivated and live, attenuated influenza vaccines
    R J Cox
    Influenza Research Centre Broegelmann Research Laboratory, The Gade Institute, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway
    Scand J Immunol 59:1-15. 2004
  2. ncbi Cross-protection against homologous drift variants of influenza A and B after vaccination with split vaccine
    R Heckler
    Niedersächsisches Landesgesundheitsamt, Hannover, Germany
    Intervirology 50:58-62. 2007
  3. pmc Development and evaluation of an Influenza virus subtype H7N2 vaccine candidate for pandemic preparedness
    Claudia Pappas
    Influenza Division, Mailstop G 16, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 14:1425-32. 2007
  4. ncbi Effectiveness of mass oral cholera vaccination in Beira, Mozambique
    Marcelino E S Lucas
    Ministry of Health, Maputo, Mozambique
    N Engl J Med 352:757-67. 2005
  5. ncbi Alum boosts TH2-type antibody responses to whole-inactivated virus influenza vaccine in mice but does not confer superior protection
    Laura Bungener
    Department of Medical Microbiology, Molecular Virology Section, University Medical Center Groningen and University of Groningen, Postbus 30 001, 9700 RB Groningen, The Netherlands
    Vaccine 26:2350-9. 2008
  6. ncbi Use of the inactivated intranasal influenza vaccine and the risk of Bell's palsy in Switzerland
    Margot Mutsch
    Division of Communicable Diseases, World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Travellers Health, Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
    N Engl J Med 350:896-903. 2004
  7. ncbi Failure of inactivated influenza A vaccine to protect healthy children aged 6-24 months
    Taro Maeda
    Department of Pediatrics, Public Shisou General Hospital, Shisou, Japan
    Pediatr Int 46:122-5. 2004
  8. pmc A multisystem approach for development and evaluation of inactivated vaccines for Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV)
    Donald L Fine
    DynPort Vaccine Company LLC DVC, A CSC Company, 64 Thomas Johnson Drive, Frederick, MD 21702, USA
    J Virol Methods 163:424-32. 2010
  9. pmc A role for immune complexes in enhanced respiratory syncytial virus disease
    Fernando P Polack
    Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Bloomberg School of Public Health at Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    J Exp Med 196:859-65. 2002
  10. ncbi Partial protective effect of inactivated Japanese encephalitis vaccine on lethal West Nile virus infection in mice
    Tomohiko Takasaki
    Department of Virology 1, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, 1 23 1 Toyama, Shinjuku ku, Tokyo 162 8640, Japan
    Vaccine 21:4514-8. 2003

Detail Information

Publications209 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Influenza virus: immunity and vaccination strategies. Comparison of the immune response to inactivated and live, attenuated influenza vaccines
    R J Cox
    Influenza Research Centre Broegelmann Research Laboratory, The Gade Institute, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway
    Scand J Immunol 59:1-15. 2004
    ..In contrast, the CAV may elicit a long-lasting, broader immune (humoral and cellular) response, which more closely resembles natural immunity. The immune response induced by these two vaccines will be compared in this review...
  2. ncbi Cross-protection against homologous drift variants of influenza A and B after vaccination with split vaccine
    R Heckler
    Niedersächsisches Landesgesundheitsamt, Hannover, Germany
    Intervirology 50:58-62. 2007
    ..The results demonstrate that in situations where drift variants emerge too late to be included in the influenza vaccine formulation, the cross-protection conferred must be evaluated on a case-by-case basis...
  3. pmc Development and evaluation of an Influenza virus subtype H7N2 vaccine candidate for pandemic preparedness
    Claudia Pappas
    Influenza Division, Mailstop G 16, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 14:1425-32. 2007
    ..These studies indicate that H7N2-PR8 is immunogenic, safe, and protective in animal models; these are the essential attributes to qualify for phase I human clinical trials as a prepandemic vaccine...
  4. ncbi Effectiveness of mass oral cholera vaccination in Beira, Mozambique
    Marcelino E S Lucas
    Ministry of Health, Maputo, Mozambique
    N Engl J Med 352:757-67. 2005
    ..We evaluated a mass immunization program with recombinant cholera-toxin B subunit, killed whole-cell (rBS-WC) oral cholera vaccine in Beira, Mozambique, a city where the seroprevalence of HIV is 20 to 30 percent...
  5. ncbi Alum boosts TH2-type antibody responses to whole-inactivated virus influenza vaccine in mice but does not confer superior protection
    Laura Bungener
    Department of Medical Microbiology, Molecular Virology Section, University Medical Center Groningen and University of Groningen, Postbus 30 001, 9700 RB Groningen, The Netherlands
    Vaccine 26:2350-9. 2008
    ..Major difference between these groups of mice was the type of immune response induced, TH2 instead of TH1, indicating that a TH1 response plays a major role in viral clearance...
  6. ncbi Use of the inactivated intranasal influenza vaccine and the risk of Bell's palsy in Switzerland
    Margot Mutsch
    Division of Communicable Diseases, World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Travellers Health, Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
    N Engl J Med 350:896-903. 2004
    ..After the introduction of an inactivated intranasal influenza vaccine that was used only in Switzerland, 46 cases of Bell's palsy were reported...
  7. ncbi Failure of inactivated influenza A vaccine to protect healthy children aged 6-24 months
    Taro Maeda
    Department of Pediatrics, Public Shisou General Hospital, Shisou, Japan
    Pediatr Int 46:122-5. 2004
    ..The aim of the present study was to determine the prophylactic effect of inactivated influenza vaccine against influenza A in healthy children aged 6-24 months...
  8. pmc A multisystem approach for development and evaluation of inactivated vaccines for Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV)
    Donald L Fine
    DynPort Vaccine Company LLC DVC, A CSC Company, 64 Thomas Johnson Drive, Frederick, MD 21702, USA
    J Virol Methods 163:424-32. 2010
    ..The combination of in vitro and in vivo assays provides a practical approach to optimize manufacturing process parameters for development of other inactivated viral vaccines...
  9. pmc A role for immune complexes in enhanced respiratory syncytial virus disease
    Fernando P Polack
    Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Bloomberg School of Public Health at Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    J Exp Med 196:859-65. 2002
    ..Further, we show correlation with the enhanced disease observed in children by providing evidence of complement activation in postmortem lung sections from children with enhanced RSV disease...
  10. ncbi Partial protective effect of inactivated Japanese encephalitis vaccine on lethal West Nile virus infection in mice
    Tomohiko Takasaki
    Department of Virology 1, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, 1 23 1 Toyama, Shinjuku ku, Tokyo 162 8640, Japan
    Vaccine 21:4514-8. 2003
    ..These results indicate that the currently available mouse brain-derived inactivated JE vaccine can induce partial protective immunity to WNV in mice...
  11. ncbi Vaccine-enhanced respiratory syncytial virus disease in cotton rats following immunization with Lot 100 or a newly prepared reference vaccine
    G A Prince
    Virion Systems, Inc, 9610 Medical Center Drive, Suite 100, Rockville, MD 20850 3343, USA
    J Gen Virol 82:2881-8. 2001
    ..Additionally, we reviewed the lesions in the lungs of the two humans who died with the vaccine-enhanced disease in 1967, and found that they were similar to, but more severe than those seen in the cotton rats...
  12. ncbi Prevention and control of influenza. Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP)
    Scott A Harper
    MMWR Recomm Rep 54:1-40. 2005
    ..A link to this report and other information can be accessed at http://www.cdc.gov/flu...
  13. pmc Superior immunogenicity of inactivated whole virus H5N1 influenza vaccine is primarily controlled by Toll-like receptor signalling
    Felix Geeraedts
    Department of Medical Microbiology, Molecular Virology Section, University Medical Center Groningen and University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands
    PLoS Pathog 4:e1000138. 2008
    ....
  14. ncbi Chimeric live, attenuated vaccine against Japanese encephalitis (ChimeriVax-JE): phase 2 clinical trials for safety and immunogenicity, effect of vaccine dose and schedule, and memory response to challenge with inactivated Japanese encephalitis antigen
    Thomas P Monath
    Acambis Inc, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
    J Infect Dis 188:1213-30. 2003
    ..Anamnestic responses were observed in preimmune individuals. ChimeriVax-JE appears to be a safe vaccine that provides protective levels of neutralizing antibody after a single dose...
  15. ncbi From lethal virus to life-saving vaccine: developing inactivated vaccines for pandemic influenza
    John M Wood
    National Institute for Biological Standards and Control, Blanche Lane, South Mimms, Potters Bar, Hertfordshire EN6 3QG, UK
    Nat Rev Microbiol 2:842-7. 2004
    ..However, the transition of reverse-genetic technologies from the research laboratory to the manufacturing environment has presented new challenges for vaccine manufacturers as well as veterinary and public health authorities...
  16. ncbi Inactivated influenza H5N1 whole-virus vaccine with aluminum adjuvant induces homologous and heterologous protective immunities against lethal challenge with highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses in a mouse model
    Ai Ninomiya
    Laboratory of Influenza Viruses, Department of Virology 3, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Gakuen 4 7 1, Musashi Murayama, Tokyo 208 0011, Japan
    Vaccine 25:3554-60. 2007
    ..Our study suggests that rgHK213/03 vaccine is still useful as a backup vaccine for recent H5N1 viruses and that if rgVNJP1203/04 vaccine is employed, more vaccine antigen would be necessary to induce sufficient immunity...
  17. ncbi Co-immunization with West Nile DNA and inactivated vaccines provides synergistic increases in their immunogenicities in mice
    Tomohiro Ishikawa
    Department of Health Sciences, Kobe University School of Medicine, 7 10 2 Tomogaoka, Suma ku, Kobe 654 0142, Japan
    Microbes Infect 9:1089-95. 2007
    ..1 microg induced a titer of 1:40 at a 90% plaque reduction 6 or 9 weeks after immunization. Both IgG1 and IgG2a antibodies were induced in mice by co-immunization with the DNA and protein vaccines...
  18. ncbi Protection of swine by live and inactivated vaccines prepared from a leader proteinase-deficient serotype A12 foot-and-mouth disease virus
    J Chinsangaram
    USDA, ARS, NAA, Plum Island Animal Disease Center, Greenport, NY 11944, USA
    Vaccine 16:1516-22. 1998
    ..The results demonstrate the potential of A12-LLV2 as a live-attenuated vaccine as well as a safe source of antigen for chemically inactivated vaccines.
  19. ncbi Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-induced airway hyperresponsiveness in allergically sensitized mice is inhibited by live RSV and exacerbated by formalin-inactivated RSV
    R S Peebles
    Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee 37232 2582, USA
    J Infect Dis 182:671-7. 2000
    ..This study suggests that immune modulation with RSV vaccination can have profound effects on RSV-induced airway disease and that prevention of airway hyperresponsiveness is an important end point in vaccine development...
  20. ncbi Intranasal immunization with formalin-inactivated virus vaccine induces a broad spectrum of heterosubtypic immunity against influenza A virus infection in mice
    Ayato Takada
    Division of Virology, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, 108 8639, Japan
    Vaccine 21:3212-8. 2003
    ..This approach may overcome limitations in the efficacy of inactivated influenza vaccines and confer potent immunity to humans against viruses with new pandemic potential...
  21. ncbi Herd immunity conferred by killed oral cholera vaccines in Bangladesh: a reanalysis
    Mohammad Ali
    International Vaccine Institute, Seoul, Korea
    Lancet 366:44-9. 2005
    ..We reanalysed data from a field trial in Bangladesh to ascertain whether there is evidence of indirect protection from killed oral cholera vaccines...
  22. ncbi Field study on the use of inactivated H5N2 vaccine in avian species
    Serena Oh
    Vet Rec 157:299-300. 2005
  23. ncbi Serological response to vaccination against avian influenza in zoo-birds using an inactivated H5N9 vaccine
    Mads F Bertelsen
    Centre for Zoo and Wild Animal Health, Copenhagen Zoo, Roskildevej 38, DK 2000 Frederiksberg, Denmark
    Vaccine 25:4345-9. 2007
    ....
  24. ncbi Immunogenicity of SARS inactivated vaccine in BALB/c mice
    Sheng Xiong
    Biomedical Research and Development Center, Floor 5, Building of Biology, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510630, PR China
    Immunol Lett 95:139-43. 2004
    ..Results also suggest that polypeptides originating from protein N or S might be a potential target for the generation of a recombinant SARS vaccine...
  25. pmc Evaluation of recombinant Onchocerca volvulus activation associated protein-1 (ASP-1) as a potent Th1-biased adjuvant with a panel of protein or peptide-based antigens and commercial inactivated vaccines
    Wenjun Xiao
    State Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Biosecurity, Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, Beijing 100071, China
    Vaccine 26:5022-9. 2008
    ..HIV peptide (HIV-p), recombinant HIV gp41 (rgp41) and HBV HBsAg, as well as three commercially available inactivated vaccines against haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS), Influenza and Rabies...
  26. pmc Cellular immune responses in children and adults receiving inactivated or live attenuated influenza vaccines
    Xiao Song He
    Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    J Virol 80:11756-66. 2006
    ..In conclusion, our findings identify age, type of vaccine, and prevaccination levels of immune reactivity to influenza A virus as factors significantly associated with the magnitude of cellular immune responses to influenza vaccines...
  27. ncbi Cold-adapted live influenza vaccine versus inactivated vaccine: systemic vaccine reactions, local and systemic antibody response, and vaccine efficacy. A meta-analysis
    W E P Beyer
    WHO National Influenza Centre, Institute of Virology, Erasmus University Rotterdam, P O Box 1738, NL 3000 DR, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    Vaccine 20:1340-53. 2002
    ....
  28. ncbi Nasal vaccination, Escherichia coli enterotoxin, and Bell's palsy
    Robert B Couch
    Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, USA
    N Engl J Med 350:860-1. 2004
  29. pmc Cell culture (Vero) derived whole virus (H5N1) vaccine based on wild-type virus strain induces cross-protective immune responses
    Otfried Kistner
    Baxter AG, Biomedical Research Center, Uferstrasse 15, A 2304 Orth Donau, Austria
    Vaccine 25:6028-36. 2007
    ..These data indicate that cell culture-grown whole virus vaccines, based on the wild-type virus, allow the rapid high yield production of a candidate pandemic vaccine...
  30. ncbi Efficacy of three inactivated vaccines against bluetongue virus serotype 8 in sheep
    Michael Eschbaumer
    Institute of Diagnostic Virology, Friedrich Loeffler Institut, Südufer 10, 17493 Greifswald Insel Riems, Germany
    Vaccine 27:4169-75. 2009
    ..Only one vaccinated animal was very weakly positive in the real-time RT-PCR at day 10 after challenge infection, and one seronegative sheep in one of the vaccine groups was not protected...
  31. ncbi Assessing the functionality of viral entry-associated domains of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus during inactivation procedures, a potential tool to optimize inactivated vaccines
    Iris Delrue
    Department of Virology, Parasitology and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Salisburylaan 133, 9820 Merelbeke, Belgium
    Vet Res 40:62. 2009
    ..Although PRRSV incubation at 37 degrees C can completely inactivate PRRSV with preservation of entry-associated domains, this method is not recommended for vaccine development, since the mechanism is yet unknown...
  32. ncbi Evaluation of humoral response and protective efficacy of three inactivated vaccines against bluetongue virus serotype 8 one year after vaccination of sheep and cattle
    Regula Wäckerlin
    Institute of Diagnostic Virology, Friedrich Loeffler Institut, Federal Research Institute for Animal Health, Südufer 10, 17493 Greifswald Insel Riems, Germany
    Vaccine 28:4348-55. 2010
    The long-term efficacy of three commercially available inactivated vaccines against bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8) (BLUEVAC) 8, Zulvac 8, and BTVPUR AlSap 8) was evaluated in a seroprevalence study and challenge experiments...
  33. ncbi Novel dry powder preparations of whole inactivated influenza virus for nasal vaccination
    Robert J Garmise
    School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, CB 7360 Kerr Hall Room 1310, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    AAPS PharmSciTech 8:E81. 2007
    ..It was concluded that enhanced serum and mucosal antibody responses were elicited by a dry powder nasal vaccine, specifically, administered in the presence of sodium alginate...
  34. ncbi Intranasal immunization of mice with a formalin-inactivated bovine respiratory syncytial virus vaccine co-formulated with CpG oligodeoxynucleotides and polyphosphazenes results in enhanced protection
    John W Mapletoft
    Vaccine and Infectious Disease Organization, University of Saskatchewan, 120 Veterinary Road, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5E3, Canada
    J Gen Virol 89:250-60. 2008
    ..Co-formulation of CpG ODN and PP is a promising new vaccine platform technology that may have applications in mucosal immunization in humans...
  35. pmc Challenge of conducting a placebo-controlled randomized efficacy study for influenza vaccine in a season with low attack rate and a mismatched vaccine B strain: a concrete example
    Jiri Beran
    The Vaccination and Travel Medicine Center, Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic
    BMC Infect Dis 9:2. 2009
    ..Our aim was to determine the efficacy of a trivalent inactivated split virus influenza vaccine (TIV) against culture-confirmed influenza A and/or B in adults 18 to 64 years of age during the 2005/2006 season in the Czech Republic...
  36. ncbi Inactivated SARS-CoV vaccine elicits high titers of spike protein-specific antibodies that block receptor binding and virus entry
    Yuxian He
    Viral Immunology Laboratory, Lindsley F Kimball Research Institute, New York Blood Center, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 325:445-52. 2004
    ..However, caution should be taken in using the inactivated SARS-CoV as a vaccine since it may also cause harmful immune and/or inflammatory responses...
  37. ncbi Dramatic improvement in FMD DNA vaccine efficacy and cross-serotype antibody induction in pigs following a protein boost
    Yanmin Li
    Institute for Animal Health Pirbright Laboratory, Ash Road, Pirbright, Woking, Surrey, UK
    Vaccine 26:2647-56. 2008
    ..Most remarkably, a significant level of cross-serotype reactivity was observed against A, C and Asia1 in the virus neutralisation and ELISA tests. This prime-boost strategy fully protected pigs from a heterologous challenge...
  38. ncbi Immunisation with gamma globulin to murray valley encephalitis virus and with an inactivated Japanese encephalitis virus vaccine as prophylaxis against australian encephalitis: evaluation in a mouse model
    A K Broom
    Department of Microbiology, University of Western Australia, QEII Medical Centre, Nedlands, Perth, Western Australia
    J Med Virol 61:259-65. 2000
    ....
  39. pmc Phase I evaluation of intranasal trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine with nontoxigenic Escherichia coli enterotoxin and novel biovector as mucosal adjuvants, using adult volunteers
    Iain Stephenson
    Infectious Diseases Unit, Leicester Royal Infirmary, Leicester LE1 5WW, United Kingdom
    J Virol 80:4962-70. 2006
    ..The addition of the biovector to the vaccine given with 30 microg LTK63 enhanced mucosal IgA responses to A/Duck/Singapore (H5N3) (P=0.0491) and B/Guandong (P=0.0028) but not to A/Panama (H3N2). All vaccines were well tolerated...
  40. pmc Evaluation of feline monocyte-derived dendritic cells loaded with internally inactivated virus as a vaccine against feline immunodeficiency virus
    Giulia Freer
    Retrovirus Center and Virology Section, Department of Experimental Pathology, University of Pisa, Via del Brennero 2, I 56127 Pisa, Italy
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 15:452-9. 2008
    ....
  41. ncbi Efficacies of inactivated vaccines against betanodavirus in grouper larvae (Epinephelus coioides) by bath immunization
    Yu Hsuan Kai
    Institute of Zoology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan
    Vaccine 26:1450-7. 2008
    ..1-0.2% formalin-inactivated vaccines (39-43)...
  42. ncbi Microcarrier-based MDCK cell culture system for the production of influenza H5N1 vaccines
    Alan Yung Chih Hu
    Vaccine R and D Center, National Health Research Institutes, Zhunan, Miaoli, Taiwan
    Vaccine 26:5736-40. 2008
    ....
  43. ncbi Efficiency of inactivated vaccines against heartwater in Burkina Faso: impact of Ehrlichia ruminantium genetic diversity
    Hassane Adakal
    CIRDES Centre International de Recherche Développement sur l Elevage en zone Sub humide, BP 454, Bobo Dioulasso 01, Burkina Faso
    Vaccine 28:4573-80. 2010
    ..Map1 genotyping of strains detected in brains from control sheep showed that genotype distribution varied according to time and study areas, which could explain the difference in efficacy of the vaccine...
  44. pmc Prevention of antigenically drifted influenza by inactivated and live attenuated vaccines
    Suzanne E Ohmit
    Department of Epidemiology, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor 48109, USA
    N Engl J Med 355:2513-22. 2006
    ..The efficacy of influenza vaccines may decline during years when the circulating viruses have antigenically drifted from those included in the vaccine...
  45. ncbi Cross-protective immunity in mice induced by live-attenuated or inactivated vaccines against highly pathogenic influenza A (H5N1) viruses
    Xiuhua Lu
    Influenza Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, USA
    Vaccine 24:6588-93. 2006
    ..These results demonstrated that vaccination of mice with H5 IIV or LAIV induced a high degree of cross-protection from illness and death following lethal challenges with a heterologous H5N1 virus...
  46. pmc Prevention of symptomatic seasonal influenza in 2005-2006 by inactivated and live attenuated vaccines
    Suzanne E Ohmit
    University of Michigan School of Public Health, Department of Epidemiology, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA
    J Infect Dis 198:312-7. 2008
    ....
  47. ncbi Effectiveness of inactivated influenza vaccines varied substantially with antigenic match from the 2004-2005 season to the 2006-2007 season
    Edward A Belongia
    Epidemiology Research Center, Marshfield Clinic Research Foundation, Marshfield, Wisconsin 54449, USA
    J Infect Dis 199:159-67. 2009
    ..We estimated the effectiveness of inactivated influenza vaccines for the prevention of laboratory-confirmed, medically attended influenza during 3 seasons with variable antigenic match between vaccine and patient strains...
  48. ncbi Safety and efficacy of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine in young children: a summary for the new era of routine vaccination
    Kenneth M Zangwill
    School of Medicine, UCLA Harbor UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA, USA
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 23:189-97. 2004
    ....
  49. ncbi Efficacy trial of live, cold-adapted and inactivated influenza virus vaccines in older adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a VA cooperative study
    Geoffrey J Gorse
    Department of Veterans Affairs, Medical Center, Saint Louis University, St Louis, MO, USA
    Vaccine 21:2133-44. 2003
    ..17, 0.53), and -0.05 for type B virus (95% CL: -1.13, 0.48). However, there was a possible advantage for TC over TP in reducing respiratory consequences of an influenza season measured by pulmonary function and symptoms at end of study...
  50. ncbi Efficacy of different commercial and new inactivated vaccines against ovine enzootic abortion
    J N García de la Fuente
    Departamento de Sanidad Animal, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de Leon, Unidad de Microbiologia e Inmunologia, Campus de Vegazana, S N, 24007 Leon, Spain
    Vet Microbiol 100:65-76. 2004
    The protective efficacy of two inactivated commercial (A, B) and two new inactivated vaccines (M7, QS) against ovine enzootic abortion was determined in two separate experiments in sheep...
  51. ncbi Identification of immunodominant sites on the spike protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus: implication for developing SARS diagnostics and vaccines
    Yuxian He
    Lindsley F Kimball Research Institute, New York Blood Center, New York, NY 10021, USA
    J Immunol 173:4050-7. 2004
    ..This study also provides information useful for designing SARS vaccines and understanding the SARS pathogenesis...
  52. ncbi Vaccination against highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus in zoos using an adjuvanted inactivated H5N2 vaccine
    Joost Philippa
    Institute of Virology, Erasmus MC, P O Box 2040, 3000 CA, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    Vaccine 25:3800-8. 2007
    ....
  53. ncbi Efficacy of vaccines in chickens against highly pathogenic Hong Kong H5N1 avian influenza
    D E Swayne
    USDA, Agriculture Research Service, Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, Athens, GA 30605, USA
    Avian Dis 45:355-65. 2001
    ..The commercial and experimental inactivated vaccines had mean protective doses ranging from 0.25 to 0...
  54. ncbi The role of T cells in protection by an inactivated infectious bursal disease virus vaccine
    Silke Rautenschlein
    Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, St Paul, MN 55108, USA
    Vet Immunol Immunopathol 89:159-67. 2002
    ..We propose that the inability of iIBDV to protect TxCsA chickens was due to compromised T cell immunity, functional T helper cells and most likely also cytotoxic T cells are needed in iIBDV vaccine protection...
  55. ncbi Immunization against influenza: comparison of various topical and parenteral regimens containing inactivated and/or live attenuated vaccines in healthy adults
    W A Keitel
    Departments of Molecular Virology and Microbiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    J Infect Dis 183:329-332. 2001
    ..Combined inl and im immunization is a promising approach for enhancing both local and systemic immune responses against influenza...
  56. ncbi Efficacy of inactivated vaccines against H5N1 avian influenza infection in ducks
    Deborah Middleton
    Australian Animal Health Laboratory, CSIRO Livestock Industries, PO Bag 24, Geelong, Victoria, 3220 Australia
    Virology 359:66-71. 2007
    ..While both vaccines protected against morbidity, the monovalent vaccine provided effective protection, with no evidence of shedding of the challenge virus and no serological response to the H5N1 challenge virus...
  57. ncbi Effect of maternal antibodies on influenza virus-specific immune response elicited by inactivated virus and naked DNA
    D L Radu
    Department of Microbiology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York 10029, USA
    Scand J Immunol 53:475-82. 2001
    ..Maternal antibodies do not affect cell-mediated immunity. These findings might be used to design efficient vaccination schedules for newborns and infants...
  58. ncbi Characterization of an influenza A H5N2 reassortant as a candidate for live-attenuated and inactivated vaccines against highly pathogenic H5N1 viruses with pandemic potential
    J A Desheva
    Department of Virology, Institute of Experimental Medicine, RAMS, St Petersburg, Russia
    Vaccine 24:6859-66. 2006
    ..results suggest a new strategy of using classical genetic reassortment between a high-growth ca H2N2 strain and antigenically related non-pathogenic avian viruses to prepare live-attenuated and inactivated vaccines for influenza pandemic.
  59. pmc Comparison of the influenza virus-specific effector and memory B-cell responses to immunization of children and adults with live attenuated or inactivated influenza virus vaccines
    Sanae Sasaki
    Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, CA, USA
    J Virol 81:215-28. 2007
    ....
  60. ncbi Immunogenicity and protective efficacy in mice of a formaldehyde-inactivated Indian strain of Japanese encephalitis virus grown in Vero cells
    Mohan Babu Appaiahgari
    Virology Laboratory, National Institute of Immunology, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, JNU Complex, New Delhi 110067, India
    Vaccine 22:3669-75. 2004
    ..Thus, for the vaccine production, inactivation of JEV with formalin at 22 degrees C would be a preferred method as it is faster and does not require cold room storage...
  61. ncbi Intradermal influenza vaccine administered using a new microinjection system produces superior immunogenicity in elderly adults: a randomized controlled trial
    David Holland
    Centre for Clinical Research and Effective Practice, Middlemore Hospital, Auckland, New Zealand
    J Infect Dis 198:650-8. 2008
    ..Enhanced influenza vaccines are needed to provide improved protection for elderly individuals. The intradermal vaccination route was hypothesized to provide immunogenicity superior to that provided by the intramuscular vaccination route...
  62. ncbi Humoral and cellular immune responses in children given annual immunization with trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine
    Alenka M Zeman
    Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305 5208, USA
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 26:107-15. 2007
    ..There have been no prior reports of the frequency of circulating influenza-specific, interferon gamma-producing memory CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells in healthy children who have received multiple influenza immunizations...
  63. ncbi An Advisory Committee Statement (ACS). National Advisory Committee on Immunization (NACI). Statement on influenza vaccination for the 2004-2005 season
    P Orr
    Can Commun Dis Rep 30:1-32. 2004
  64. ncbi Immunity to influenza in older adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
    Geoffrey J Gorse
    Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center and Division of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Saint Louis University, St Louis, Missouri, USA
    J Infect Dis 190:11-9. 2004
    ..Chronically ill older adults constitute a population vulnerable for complications associated with influenza. Study of their immunity to influenza virus may help design better strategies to stimulate protective immune responses...
  65. ncbi Safety and immunogenicity of an inactivated adjuvanted whole-virion influenza A (H5N1) vaccine: a phase I randomised controlled trial
    Jiangtao Lin
    Chinese Japanese Friendship Hospital, Beijing, China
    Lancet 368:991-7. 2006
    ..This virus has the potential to emerge as a pandemic threat and H5N1 vaccines are being developed in many countries. Our aim was to assess the safety and immunogenicity of an inactivated adjuvanted whole-virion H5N1 vaccine...
  66. ncbi Induction of innate immunity by nasal influenza vaccine administered in combination with an adjuvant (cholera toxin)
    K Matsuo
    Department of Pathology, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Toyama 1 23 1, Shinjuku ku, Tokyo, Japan
    Vaccine 18:2713-22. 2000
    ....
  67. ncbi Immune responses of healthy subjects to a single dose of intramuscular inactivated influenza A/Vietnam/1203/2004 (H5N1) vaccine after priming with an antigenic variant
    Nega Ali Goji
    University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York 14642, USA
    J Infect Dis 198:635-41. 2008
    ..We administered a single dose of influenza A/Vietnam/1203/2004 (H5N1, clade 1) vaccine to subjects who had received 2 doses of influenza A/Hong Kong/156/1997 (H5N1, clade 0) vaccine in 1998...
  68. ncbi Enhancement of potent antibody and T-cell responses by a single-dose, novel nanoemulsion-formulated pandemic influenza vaccine
    Ming Hsi Huang
    Vaccine Research and Development Center, National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan, ROC
    Microbes Infect 11:654-60. 2009
    ..These results indicate that PELC can be used for effective single-dose immunization and could thus play an important role in influenza pandemic preparedness...
  69. ncbi Seasonal influenza vaccine delivered by intradermal microinjection: A randomised controlled safety and immunogenicity trial in adults
    Isabel Leroux-Roels
    Center for Vaccinology, Ghent University and Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
    Vaccine 26:6614-9. 2008
    ..Intradermal TIV induced non-inferior humoral immune responses against all three strains and superior responses against both A strains (H1N1, H3N2) compared with the control. Both vaccines were well tolerated...
  70. ncbi Head-to-head comparison of four nonadjuvanted inactivated cell culture-derived influenza vaccines: effect of composition, spatial organization and immunization route on the immunogenicity in a murine challenge model
    Niels Hagenaars
    Department of Pharmaceutics, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Utrecht University, P O BOX 80082, 3508 TB Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Vaccine 26:6555-63. 2008
    ....
  71. ncbi Fluarix, inactivated split-virus influenza vaccine
    G W Rose
    Division of Infectious Diseases, The Ottawa Hospital, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, K1H 8L6, Canada
    Expert Opin Biol Ther 6:301-10. 2006
    ..Other directions to explore in an effort to secure future vaccine supply are considered...
  72. ncbi Safety and immunogenicity of an inactivated subvirion influenza A (H5N1) vaccine
    John J Treanor
    Department of Medicine, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, USA
    N Engl J Med 354:1343-51. 2006
    ..Influenza A (H5N1) viruses could cause a severe worldwide epidemic, with high attack rates, large numbers of deaths and hospitalizations, and wide disruption. Effective vaccines against these viruses in humans are urgently needed...
  73. ncbi Cytotoxic T-cell immunity as a target for influenza vaccines
    Arno Mullbacher
    Lancet Infect Dis 6:255-6. 2006
  74. ncbi Protection against bovine respiratory syncytial virus challenge following a single dose of vaccine in young calves with maternal antibody
    I C Mawhinney
    ICM, Broadlands, Tut Hill, Bury St Edmunds IP28 6LE
    Vet Rec 156:139-43. 2005
    ..015)...
  75. ncbi Flu-vaccine makers toil to boost supply
    Carina Dennis
    Nature 440:1099. 2006
  76. ncbi Evaluation of a quadrivalent inactivated vaccine for the protection of cattle against diseases due to common viral infections
    J R Patel
    Intervet UK Ltd, The Elms, Thicket Road, Houghton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire, PE28 2BQ, UK
    J S Afr Vet Assoc 75:137-46. 2004
    ..6-2.7 days. Thus a standard course of the quadrivalent vaccine afforded a significant protection against IBR virus, PI3 virus, BVDV and BRSV for at least 6 months...
  77. ncbi Bovine respiratory syncytial virus ISCOMs--protection in the presence of maternal antibodies
    Sara Hägglund
    Department of Ruminant Medicine and Veterinary Epidemiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P O Box 7019, SE 75007 Uppsala, Sweden
    Vaccine 23:646-55. 2004
    ..In conclusion, the ISCOMs overcame the suppressive effect of maternal antibodies in calves and induced strong clinical and virological protection against a BRSV challenge...
  78. ncbi Seroprotection rate, mean fold increase, seroconversion rate: which parameter adequately expresses seroresponse to influenza vaccination?
    W E P Beyer
    National Influenza Centre, Department of Virology, Erasmus University, P O Box 1738, NL 3000 DR Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    Virus Res 103:125-32. 2004
    ..Although not devoid of theoretical limitations (heteroscedasticity), correction of post-GMT and PR by linear regression appears to provide better estimates of antibody response and vaccine immunogenicity...
  79. ncbi Japanese encephalitis vaccines: current vaccines and future prospects
    T P Monath
    Acambis Inc, 38 Sidney Street, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
    Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 267:105-38. 2002
    ..Other approaches to JE vaccines--including naked DNA, oral vaccination, and recombinant subunit vaccines--have been reviewed...
  80. ncbi Effect of genomic variation in the challenge virus on the neutralization titres of recipients of inactivated JE vaccines--report of a collaborative study on PRNT50 assays for Japanese encephalitis virus (JE) antibodies
    Morag Ferguson
    Division of Virology, National Institute for Biological Standards and Control, Blanche Lane, South Mimms, Potters Bar, Herts EN6 3 QG, UK
    Biologicals 36:111-6. 2008
    ....
  81. ncbi Immunogenicity and reactogenicity of a trivalent influenza split vaccine in previously unvaccinated children aged 6-9 and 10-13 years
    Ruprecht Schmidt-Ott
    GlaxoSmithKline, Theresienhöhe 11, 80339 Munich, Germany
    Vaccine 26:32-40. 2007
    ....
  82. ncbi Development of Eurasian H7N7/PR8 high growth reassortant virus for clinical evaluation as an inactivated pandemic influenza vaccine
    Samadhan J Jadhao
    Influenza Division, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road, NE, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Vaccine 26:1742-50. 2008
    ..The vaccine candidate virus satisfied the agricultural safety requirements for chickens, proved safe in mice, and has entered in phase-I human clinical trial in the United States...
  83. ncbi Development of Vero cell-derived inactivated Japanese encephalitis vaccine
    Keishin Sugawara
    Kikuchi Research Center, The Chemo Sero Therapeutic Research Institute, Kumamoto 869 1298, Japan
    Biologicals 30:303-14. 2002
    ..Our system is very simple and could be easily scaled-up to allow vaccine production at a several thousand litre scale...
  84. ncbi Immunological priming of one dose of inactivated hepatitis A vaccine given during the first year of life in presence of maternal antibodies
    Rosanna Lagos
    Centro para la Vacunas en Desarollo Chile, Hospital Roberto del Rio, Santiago, Chile
    Vaccine 21:3730-3. 2003
    ....
  85. ncbi Immune responses to bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) following use of an inactivated BRSV-PI3-Mannheimia haemolytica vaccine and a modified live BRSV-BVDV vaccine
    P Kerkhofs
    Veterinary and Agrochemical Research Centre, Groeselenberg 99, Brussels B 1180, Belgium
    Vet J 167:208-10. 2004
  86. ncbi Non-clinical and phase I clinical trials of a Vero cell-derived inactivated Japanese encephalitis vaccine
    Syoji Kuzuhara
    The Chemo Sero Therapeutic Research Institute, Kikuchi Research Center, Kawabe Kyokushi, Kikuchi, Kumamoto 869 1298, Japan
    Vaccine 21:4519-26. 2003
    ....
  87. ncbi Use of live and inactivated vaccines in the control of West Nile fever in domestic geese
    M Malkinson
    Kimron Veterinary Institute, Beit Dagan, Israel
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 951:255-61. 2001
    ..The lower levels of protection are attributable to flocks being affected with intercurrent infections at the time of vaccination...
  88. ncbi Passive transfer of maternal immunoglobulin isotype antibodies against tetanus and influenza and their effect on the response of foals to vaccination
    W D Wilson
    Department of Medicine and Epidemiology (VM:VME, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis 95616, USA
    Equine Vet J 33:644-50. 2001
    ....
  89. ncbi Safety and antigenicity of non-adjuvanted and MF59-adjuvanted influenza A/Duck/Singapore/97 (H5N3) vaccine: a randomised trial of two potential vaccines against H5N1 influenza
    K G Nicholson
    Infectious Diseases Unit, Leicester Royal Infirmary, LE1 5WW, Leicester, UK
    Lancet 357:1937-43. 2001
    ..We did an observer-blind, phase I, randomised trial in healthy volunteers to assess safety, tolerability, and antigenicity of MF59-adjuvanted and non-adjuvanted vaccines...
  90. ncbi Comparison of the reactogenicity and immunogenicity of a split and a subunit-adjuvanted influenza vaccine in elderly subjects
    S Squarcione
    Direzione Sanitaria Azienda IRCCS, Ospedale Lazzaro Spallanzani, Via Portuense, 292, 00149 Rome, Italy
    Vaccine 21:1268-74. 2003
    ..A lower antibody response against the influenza B strain was also observed in other studies conducted during the same season. In subjects 75 years of age or older, Fluad was more immunogenic than Vaxigrip for all three virus strains...
  91. ncbi Detection of antibodies to the nonstructural protein (NS1) of avian influenza viruses allows distinction between vaccinated and infected chickens
    Siting Zhao
    Lab of Animal Infectious Diseases, College of Veterinary Medicine National Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, China
    Avian Dis 49:488-93. 2005
    ..This ELISA is useful for serological diagnosis to distinguish chickens infected with influenza viruses from those immunized with inactivated vaccine...
  92. ncbi Chitosan as an adjuvant for parenterally administered inactivated influenza vaccines
    Y Ghendon
    Mechnikov Research Institute for Vaccines and Sera, 1 st Dubrovskaja str, 15, 115088 Moscow, Russia
    Arch Virol 153:831-7. 2008
    ..Inactivated avian influenza virus A/H5N2 admixed with chitosan, when administered to mice challenged afterwards with the same virus, showed higher immunogenicity and protective efficacy compared with the antigen without chitosan...
  93. pmc Live, attenuated influenza virus (LAIV) vehicles are strong inducers of immunity toward influenza B virus
    Victor C Huber
    Department of Infectious Disease, St Jude Children s Research Hospital, 332 N Lauderdale Street, Memphis, TN 38105 2794, USA
    Vaccine 26:5381-8. 2008
    ..Our results differ from generally accepted influenza A virus vaccine models, and argue that strategies for control of influenza B virus should be considered separately from those for influenza A virus...
  94. ncbi Protective immunity against influenza H5N1 virus challenge in mice by intranasal co-administration of baculovirus surface-displayed HA and recombinant CTB as an adjuvant
    Mookkan Prabakaran
    Animal Health Biotechnology, Temasek Life Science Laboratory, 1 Research Link, National University of Singapore, Singapore, 117604
    Virology 380:412-20. 2008
    ....
  95. pmc Induction of heterosubtypic immunity to influenza virus by intranasal immunization
    Fu Shi Quan
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Emory University School of Medicine, 1510 Clifton Rd, Atlanta, GA 30322
    J Virol 82:1350-9. 2008
    ..In contrast, immunity induced by inactivated vaccines is predominantly subtype specific...
  96. ncbi Assessment of newcastle disease vaccination of houbara bustard breeders (Chlamydotis undulata undulata)
    Charles Facon
    Emirates Center for Wildlife Propagation, Province de Boulemane B P 47, 33250 Missour, Royaume du Maroc
    J Wildl Dis 41:768-74. 2005
    ..Maternally derived antibodies were efficiently transmitted in vitellus, further confirming that offspring of females hyperimmunized with the inactivated vaccine received high titers of maternal antibodies...
  97. ncbi A vaccine prepared from a non-pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus strain confers protective immunity against highly pathogenic avian influenza virus infection in cynomolgus macaques
    Yasushi Itoh
    Department of Pathology, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Shiga, Japan
    Vaccine 26:562-72. 2008
    ..This demonstrates that the vaccine prepared with the non-pathogenic H5N1 virus from our influenza virus library conferred protective immunity against H5N1 HPAI virus infection to macaques...
  98. ncbi Safety and immunogenicity from a phase I trial of inactivated severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus vaccine
    Jiang Tao Lin
    Beijing China Japan Friendship Hospital, People s Republic of China
    Antivir Ther 12:1107-13. 2007
    ..Emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) from the winter of 2002 to the spring of 2003 has caused a serious threat to public health...
  99. ncbi Evaluation of multiple immune parameters after vaccination with modified live or killed bovine viral diarrhea virus vaccines
    A J Reber
    Food Animal Health and Management Program, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 7385, USA
    Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 29:61-77. 2006
    ..We observed that the correlation among most of the assays conducted were weak; the correlation between SN titers and cellular proliferation assays demonstrated a moderate correlation...
  100. ncbi Formulation with CpG ODN enhances antibody responses to an equine influenza virus vaccine
    A M Lopez
    Vaccine and Infectious Disease Organization, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Sask, S7N 5E3 Canada
    Vet Immunol Immunopathol 114:103-10. 2006
    ..This study is the first demonstration that CpG/Em enhances antigen-specific antibody responses in horses and supports its potential to be used as an adjuvant for vaccines against equine infections...
  101. ncbi Effect of compound mucosal immune adjuvant on mucosal and systemic immune responses in chicken orally vaccinated with attenuated Newcastle-disease vaccine
    Xiaofei Zhang
    Key Laboratory of Animal Physiology and Biochemistry, Ministry of Agriculture, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China
    Vaccine 25:3254-62. 2007
    ..Based on good synergistic effects of their components, two cMIAs would be expected as new-type mucosal immune adjuvants for mucosal immune...

Research Grants66

  1. Human Rabies Virus Vaccine Development
    James P McGettigan; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..elicit immune responses similar to that from live RV vaccines, which are more potent and different from inactivated vaccines. Importantly, these replication-deficient viruses are also very safe even in T- and B- cell immune-..
  2. Foundation Immunogens for Influenza Vaccines
    Eric A Weaver; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The centralized viruses (H1N1-con, H2N2-con, H3N2-con, and H5N1-con) will be used to make traditional inactivated vaccines. 2) In order to determine the most broadly protective vaccine, mice will be immunized with centralized and ..
  3. A Novel Systemic and Mucosal Adjuvant for Biodefense
    Mario Barro; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..particles safely exhibit potent systemic and mucosal adjuvant activity when administered with subunit or inactivated vaccines. To build on these results with the goal of producing a safe and effective second generation adjuvant for ..
  4. Mechanisms of B Cell Responses to a Novel Adjuvant for Influenza Vaccine
    David K Hong; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..provided by applicant): Project summary: Current influenza vaccine strategies, including whole or split inactivated vaccines lacking adjuvants or cold-adapted intranasal vaccination induce antibody responses that are generally short-..
  5. A novel single dose vaccine for pre-and post-exposure prophylaxis of rabies
    MILOSZ ANDRZEJ FABER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..therapeutic activity when clinical rabies is developing and conventional post-exposure prophylaxis with inactivated vaccines is no longer effective...
  6. Generation of Novel Recombinant Rabies Virus Vaccines
    BERNHARD F DIETZSCHOLD; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..has reached the CNS, clinical rabies is developing, and conventional post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) with inactivated vaccines is no longer effective...
  7. Structure-function analysis of infection- and vaccine-induced B-cell repertoires
    STEPHEN COPLAN HARRISON; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..1) The B-cell repertoires elicited by inactivated vaccines and by infection differ in degree of polyclonal activation and breadth of neutralization;the repertoires ..
  8. MOLECULAR PATHOGENESIS OF FLAVIVIRUS ENCEPHALITIS
    Thomas Chambers; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..Prevention of such diseases with live- attenuated and inactivated vaccines is an important public health priority but progress in this area requires better knowledge of the molecular ..
  9. Development of a VEEV, WEEV, EEEV DNA Vaccine Delivered by Electroporation
    Brian Livingston; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..human vaccines for the encephalitic alphaviruses, although conventional live-attenuated and formalin-inactivated vaccines for VEEV, EEEV, and WEEV have been developed and are currently utilized under IND status these vaccines ..
  10. PRODUCTION OF NON-EGG GROWN INFLUENZA VACCINES
    LOUIS POTASH; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..The pilot lots of both live and inactivated vaccines will have been produced and safety tested in accordance with cGMP guidelines which would be suitable for ..
  11. Avian Influenza Virus Vaccines Bearing Immunomodulators
    Paul Roberts; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..This reservoir is of major concern as a potential source of pandemic influenza virus strains. Inactivated vaccines are currently available for protection against some of the circulating strains, and for these strains the ..
  12. NOVEL APPROACH TO A RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUS VACCINE
    Jeffrey Kahn; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..Such viruses are excellent candidates for live or inactivated vaccines:- The RSV-F and G have been cloned from RSV genomic RNA...
  13. Vaccine-enhanced respiratory syncytial virus disease
    FERNANDO POLACK; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Furthermore, why inactivated vaccines against this virus elicit non-protective antibody is not understood...
  14. Novel Model to Predict Safety and Efficacy of Microbicides
    Gregory Prince; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  15. IMPROVEMENT OF THE COTTON RAT MODEL OF HUMAN DISEASES
    Gregory Prince; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..The proposed workscope of this application is to develop a library of reagents directed against cotton rat cell-surface antigens, cytokines and chemokines. ..
  16. Mucosal RSV vaccine using CpG oligodeoxynucleotides
    Gregory Prince; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Phase II activities would use that information to formulate a vaccine that would be both effective and safe. ..
  17. Reducing Transmission of Influenza by Face Masks
    ARNOLD MONTO; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Such a reduction could have a major public health impact during a pandemic. In the second year, the study can be expanded or modified based on findings in the first. ..
  18. Comparative Study of Influenza Vaccines in Adults
    ARNOLD MONTO; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Results will help to determine how the vaccine may be used as part of the strategy to combat influenza in varying situations. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  19. Synergism Between Influenza Virus and Pneumococcus
    Jonathan McCullers; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ....
  20. Host response to Chlamydia genital infection in the male
    Roger Rank; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..abstract_text> ..
  21. Alphavirus-based Vaccine for Prevention of MPV Infection
    James Crowe; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..The consortium submitting this application brings together an experienced investigator group with expertise in pneumovirus and alphavirus virology, immunology, and vaccine development. ..
  22. Development of Guinea Pig as Mamalian for Influenza Virus Transmission
    Peter Palese; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  23. Second Generation Rabies Vaccines
    James McGettigan; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The development of treatment that relies on only one to two doses of vaccine instead of six inoculations will greatly enhance the effectiveness of rabies virus prevention. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  24. Whole Inactivated HIV-1; Stabilization and Immunogenicity
    Haynes Sheppard; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Therefore, this proposal represents a critical step in qualifying this HIV vaccine concept for transition from pre-clinical to clinical studies. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  25. ACUTE ALPHAVIRAL ENCEPHALITIS
    Diane Griffin; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..abstract_text> ..
  26. Impact of Oseltamivir on Outcomes and Costs of Pediatric Influenza
    Susan Coffin; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..The proposed project will enhance our understanding of influenza-specific antiviral therapy and its ability to alter the outcomes of children hospitalized with the influenza virus. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  27. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Nanoparticle Vaccines
    James Crowe; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..The development of a new technology for vaccination using nanoparticles also could have wide impact, since such a vaccine technology might be useful in developing vaccines against other infections. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  28. Rapid Analysis of Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness
    Edward Belongia; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Interim and annual estimates of VE with 95% confidence intervals will be provided to CDC, including overall VE and VE for each of the priority age groups. ..
  29. Role of CNS CD4+ T cells in TMEV-induced Demyelination
    Byung Kim; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable]..
  30. Vaccinia: T-cell immunity and homing to skin
    David Koelle; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Our data will assist in evaluating the immunogenicity of these constructs. ..
  31. Characterization of Aspergillus fumigatus specific CD4 T cell responses.
    Eric G Pamer; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..abstract_text> ..
  32. Virulence factors of influenza virus: The NS1 protein
    Adolfo Garcia Sastre; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..abstract_text> ..
  33. Protective Cell-Mediated Immunity Against Lethal H5N1 Influenza A Viruses
    Peter C Doherty; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The current formalin-inactivated vaccines promote a highly specific and effective antibody response, provided this is directed against exactly the ..
  34. TOGAVIRUS TROPISM FOR BONES, JOINTS, AND CNS
    Mark T Heise; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  35. Rational Design of HIV Fusion Inhibitors Targeting gp41
    Shibo Jiang; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Therefore, this research is relevant to public health. ..
  36. Mucosal immune response to oral cholera vaccine Peru 15
    Firdausi Qadri; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..cholerae. ..
  37. HUMAN MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES THAT NEUTRALIZE VACCINIA
    James Crowe; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..In summary, this work will yield a safe and effective immunotherapeutic strategy for treatment of vaccinia complications. ..
  38. Intradermal vaccinia:T-cell specificity and skin homing
    David Koelle; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..2) Measure E-selectin binding by vaccinia-specific CD8 cells, and 2.3) Compare CLA and E-selectin binding by vaccinia-specific T-cells in recent and distant vaccines. ..
  39. Immunomodulation on the Nanoscale (RMI)
    James Crowe; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Immunology and infectious diseases. 2. Materials science, especially nanoparticles, nanowires, and nanofluidics. 3. Instrumented platforms for cellular imaging and control. 4. Biocomputing. ..
  40. HSV Immunotherapeutic Vaccine
    David Koelle; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ....
  41. DNA VACCINE IMMUNITY TO HIV1 AND SIV
    Norman Letvin; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..This aim therefore studies cross reactivity to a single epitope not multi epitopes. ..
  42. Novel methods for generation of human B cell hybridomas
    James Crowe; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..
  43. Human T Cells Responses to RSV
    James Crowe; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  44. Inflammation and T cell immunity to Listeria
    Eric Pamer; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Our studies will shed light on the important interactions between innate immunity and adaptive T cell responses. ..
  45. TRANSFECTANT INFLUENZA VIRUSES IN CANCER THERAPY
    Adolfo Garcia Sastre; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..The proposed research may advance the field of cancer therapy towards possible novel ways to treat human tumors and prolong survival of cancer patients. ..
  46. Human Antibody Responses to Rotavirus
    James Crowe; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable]..
  47. VEE PATHOGENESIS AND VACCINE DEVELOPMENT
    Slobodan Paessler; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..By dissecting the nonstructural proteins of VEEV from the structural proteins, the role of replieative machinery (nonstructural proteins) in the pathogenesis will be elucidated. ..
  48. Immune Correlates of HSV-2 Disease Severity
    David Koelle; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ....
  49. Immune Responses During Measles Virus Infection
    Diane Griffin; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..3. To determine the roles of different CD4 and CD8 T cell populations in production of cytokines at various times during measles and the effect of concurrent HIV infection on these roles. ..
  50. INFLUENZA VIRUS RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS (RNP)
    Peter Palese; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  51. 3rd Orthomyxoviruses Research Conference
    Jonathan McCullers; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The purpose of this proposal is to provide funds that will allow promising young investigators to interact with their peers and develop a commitment to this area of research. ..
  52. NOVEL IMMUNIZATION STRATEGIES AGAINST ANTHRAX
    LUCY FREYTAG; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..This information may also be valuable in the development of similar prevention strategies against other potential agents of biowarfare/bioterrorism. ..
  53. Anti-HIV-1 Composite Cellulose Acetate Phthalate Film
    Shibo Jiang; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ....
  54. Cell-Mediated Immune Responses to Vaccinia Viruses
    James Crowe; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..We will examine many of these questions by taking advantage of new technology that allows for examination of T cell responses at the single cell level, and in an immunodominant epitope specific manner. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  55. Lethal synergism between influenza and pneumococcus
    Jonathan McCullers; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ....
  56. Influenza-pneumococcal synergism: role of neuraminidase
    Jonathan McCullers; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ....
  57. Enhancement of targeting HIV vaccine to dendritic cell
    Sang Moo Kang; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..As a long-term objective, the efficacy of targeting VLPs to DCs will be tested in a non-human primate model for designing a more effective AIDS vaccine. ..
  58. Shigella dysenteriae vaccine construction
    Eileen Barry; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ....
  59. 2007 Viruses & Cells Gordon Conference
    Diane Griffin; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  60. MEASLES VACCINES--IMMUNE RESPONSES AND ATYPICAL MEASLES
    Diane Griffin; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..to determine the pathogenesis of atypical measles, characterize the immune responses to prototype live and inactivated vaccines, and to continue development of cDNA-based measles vaccines...
  61. Vulnerability to Smallpox Due to Declining CTL Immunity
    Innocent Mbawuike; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..By correlating these responses with vaccinia lesion sizes in new vaccinees, markers of severe complications from vaccinia vaccination may be identified. ..
  62. BACTERIAL MODULATION OF LUNG INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE
    Thomas Russo; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..g. hemolysin) and bacterially induced host response elements in directly mediating the pathogenesis of lung injury. ..
  63. TH1 CYTOKINES AND IMPAIRED CD8* CTLS IN ELDERLY
    Innocent Mbawuike; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ....
  64. Neonatal Immunization with Acellular Pertussis Vaccines
    Natasha Halasa; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ....