Genomes and Genes
Summary: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.
Publications261 found, 100 shown here
- Impact of the serogroup A meningococcal conjugate vaccine, MenAfriVac, on carriage and herd immunityPaul A Kristiansen
Norwegian Institute of Public Health, University of Oslo, Norway
Clin Infect Dis 56:354-63. 2013..It is not known whether MenAfriVac has an impact on NmA carriage...
- Immunogenicity of a single dose of tetravalent meningococcal serogroups A, C, W-135, and Y conjugate vaccine administered to 2- to 10-year-olds is noninferior to a licensed-ACWY polysaccharide vaccine with an acceptable safety profileZiad A Memish
National Guard Affairs, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Pediatr Infect Dis J 30:e56-62. 2011....
- Decline in invasive pneumococcal disease after the introduction of protein-polysaccharide conjugate vaccineCynthia G Whitney
Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
N Engl J Med 348:1737-46. 2003..In early 2000, a protein-polysaccharide conjugate vaccine targeting seven pneumococcal serotypes was licensed in the United States for use in young children...
- Effectiveness of meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccine 4 years after introductionCaroline L Trotter
Statistics, Economics, and Modelling Department, Health Protection Agency Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre, 61 Colindale Avenue, London NW9 5EQ, UK
Lancet 364:365-7. 2004..The number of individuals in these cohorts remains low, but alternative routine immunisation schedules should be considered to ensure high levels of protection are sustained...
- Impact of meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccines on carriage and herd immunityMartin C J Maiden
Dept of Zoology, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford University, Oxford, United Kingdom
J Infect Dis 197:737-43. 2008..The impact of this intervention on asymptomatic carriage of meningococci was investigated to establish whether serogroup replacement or protection by herd immunity occurred...
- Safety and immunogenicity of a tetravalent meningococcal serogroups A, C, W-135 and Y conjugate vaccine in adolescents and adultsNancy Bermal
Research Institute for Tropical Medicine, Filinvest Corporate City, Alabang, Muntinlupa City, Philippines
Hum Vaccin 7:239-47. 2011..The results of this study indicate that ACWY-TT could be used as a third conjugate vaccine in the protection of adolescents against meningococcal disease...
- A universal vaccine for serogroup B meningococcusMarzia M Giuliani
Novartis Vaccines, Via Fiorentina 1, 53100 Siena, Italy
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:10834-9. 2006..The strain coverage could be increased to 90% and above by the addition of CpG oligonucleotides or by using MF59 as adjuvant. The vaccine has the potential to conquer one of the most devastating diseases of childhood...
- The meningococcal vaccine candidate GNA1870 binds the complement regulatory protein factor H and enhances serum resistanceGuillermo Madico
Section of Infectious Diseases, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02118, USA
J Immunol 177:501-10. 2006..These data provide further support for inclusion of this molecule in a meningococcal vaccine. To reflect the critical function of this molecule, we suggest calling it fH-binding protein...
- A phase 1 study of a meningococcal native outer membrane vesicle vaccine made from a group B strain with deleted lpxL1 and synX, over-expressed factor H binding protein, two PorAs and stabilized OpcA expressionP B Keiser
Walter Reed Army Institute of Research WRAIR, Silver Spring, MD, USA
Vaccine 29:1413-20. 2011..Depletion assays show contributions to bactericidal activity from antibodies to lipooligosaccharide (LOS), fHbp v.1 and OpcA...
- A dose-range study assessing immunogenicity and safety of one dose of a new candidate meningococcal serogroups A, C, W-135, Y tetanus toxoid conjugate (MenACWY-TT) vaccine administered in the second year of life and in young childrenM Knuf
Zentrum für Kinder und Jugendmedizin, Johannes Gutenberg University, Germany
Vaccine 28:744-53. 2010..The safety profile was comparable to licensed controls. The new ACWY-TT conjugate vaccine promises high seroprotection levels against meningococcal disease from 1 year of age...
- Tetravalent meningococcal serogroups A, C, W-135 and Y conjugate vaccine is well tolerated and immunogenic when co-administered with measles-mumps-rubella-varicella vaccine during the second year of life: An open, randomized controlled trialTimo Vesikari
Vaccine Research Center, University of Tampere Medical School, Tampere, Finland
Vaccine 29:4274-84. 2011..ACWY-TT can be co-administered with MMRV without affecting immunogenicity or safety profiles of either vaccine. This study has been registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT00474266...
- Meningococcal vaccines and herd immunity: lessons learned from serogroup C conjugate vaccination programsCaroline L Trotter
Department of Social Medicine, University of Bristol, Canynge Hall, Bristol, UK
Expert Rev Vaccines 8:851-61. 2009..The magnitude of the herd effects following MCC vaccination was largely unanticipated, and has important consequences for the design and evaluation of new meningococcal vaccines.
- Efficacy of a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine against acute otitis mediaJ Eskola
National Public Health Institute, Helsinki, Finland
N Engl J Med 344:403-9. 2001..CONCLUSIONS: The heptavalent pneumococcal polysaccharide-CRM197 conjugate vaccine is safe and efficacious in the prevention of acute otitis media caused by the serotypes included in the vaccine...
- Immunogenicity and safety of a meningococcal A conjugate vaccine in AfricansSamba O Sow
Centre pour le Développement des Vaccins, Bamako, Mali
N Engl J Med 364:2293-304. 2011..Group A meningococci are the source of major epidemics of meningitis in Africa. An affordable, highly immunogenic meningococcal A conjugate vaccine is needed...
- The Meningitis Vaccine ProjectF Marc LaForce
The Meningitis Vaccine Project, PATH, 13 Chemin du Levant, 01210 Ferney Voltaire, France
Vaccine 25:A97-100. 2007..epidemics in Africa through the development, licensure, introduction, and widespread use of conjugate meningococcal vaccines. Since group A Neisseria meningitidis (N...
- An investigational tetravalent meningococcal serogroups A, C, W-135 and Y-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine co-administered with Infanrix™ hexa is immunogenic, with an acceptable safety profile in 12-23-month-old childrenMarkus Knuf
Pediatrics Infectious Diseases, University Medicine, Mainz, Germany
Vaccine 29:4264-73. 2011..ACWY-TT and DTaP-HBV-IPV/Hib co-administration during the second year would facilitate introduction of ACWY-TT into routine toddler vaccination schedules...
- Safety, immunogenicity, and immune memory of a novel meningococcal (groups A, C, Y, and W-135) polysaccharide diphtheria toxoid conjugate vaccine (MCV-4) in healthy adolescentsHarry Keyserling
School of Medicine, Emory University, 2015 Uppergate Drive NE, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 159:907-13. 2005..The objective of this study was to compare the tolerability, immunogenicity, and immune memory of MCV-4 with those of a quadrivalent polysaccharide vaccine (PSV-4; Menomune A/C/Y/W-135; Sanofi Pasteur Inc)...
- Next-generation outer membrane vesicle vaccines against Neisseria meningitidis based on nontoxic LPS mutantsPeter van der Ley
Unit Vaccinology, National Institute of Public Health and the Environment RIVM, Bilthoven, The Netherlands
Hum Vaccin 7:886-90. 2011..Several groups have now started the development of native OMV vaccines based on non-toxic LPS mutants, and this Commentary provides an overview of the various approaches and results thus far...
- Long-term protection in children with meningococcal C conjugate vaccination: lessons learnedRay Borrow
Vaccine Evaluation Unit, NW Regional HPA Laboratory, Manchester Medical Microbiology Partnership, PO Box 209, Clinical Sciences Building, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Manchester, M13 9WZ, UK
Expert Rev Vaccines 5:851-7. 2006..The assumption that immune memory was predictive of long-term protection is incorrect, at least after vaccination in infancy. Persistence of antibody and herd immunity may be more relevant for long-term disease control...
- Vaccine potential of the Neisseria meningitidis 2086 lipoproteinLeah D Fletcher
Wyeth Vaccines Research, Pearl River, New York 10965, USA
Infect Immun 72:2088-100. 2004..The rLP2086 family of antigens are candidates worthy of further vaccine development...
- Immunogenicity and safety of an investigational quadrivalent meningococcal ACWY tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine in healthy adolescents and young adults 10 to 25 years of ageRoger Baxter
Kaiser Permanente Vaccine Study Center, Oakland, CA, USA
Pediatr Infect Dis J 30:e41-8. 2011..An investigational quadrivalent Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A, C, W-135, and Y tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-TT) has been developed to expand available options for vaccination against invasive meningococcal disease...
- Multicenter, open-label, randomized phase II controlled trial of an investigational recombinant Meningococcal serogroup B vaccine with and without outer membrane vesicles, administered in infancyJamie Findlow
Vaccine Evaluation Unit, Health Protection Agency North West, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Manchester, UK
Clin Infect Dis 51:1127-37. 2010..7-2,4). In this trial, we assessed the immunogenicity of these formulations in infants, who are at greatest risk of contracting MenB disease...
- Immunogenicity, reactogenicity and persistence of meningococcal A, C, W-135 and Y-tetanus toxoid candidate conjugate (MenACWY-TT) vaccine formulations in adolescents aged 15-25 yearsLars Ostergaard
Department of Infectious Diseases, Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark
Vaccine 27:161-8. 2009..Our results present five investigational MenACWY-TT conjugate vaccine formulations which are well tolerated and highly immunogenic in adolescents...
- Global epidemiology of meningococcal disease and vaccine efficacyAndrew J Pollard
University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, England
Pediatr Infect Dis J 23:S274-9. 2004..Comprehensive disease control can be achieved only with the use of vaccines that target all of these disease-causing serogroups...
- Effectiveness of heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in children younger than five years of age for prevention of pneumoniaSteven B Black
Kaiser Permanente Vaccine Study Center, Oakland, CA 94612, USA
Pediatr Infect Dis J 21:810-5. 2002..To determine the effectiveness of the Wyeth heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine against clinical and radiograph-confirmed pneumonia in children...
- Characterization of native outer membrane vesicles from lpxL mutant strains of Neisseria meningitidis for use in parenteral vaccinationMakda Fisseha
The Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, 503 Robert Grant Ave, Silver Spring, Maryland 20910 7500, USA
Infect Immun 73:4070-80. 2005..However, immunogenicity could be largely restored by use of an adjuvant. These results provide evidence that NOMV from deltalpxL2 mutant strains will be safe and immunogenic in humans when given parenterally...
- Serogroup A meningococcal conjugate vaccination in Burkina Faso: analysis of national surveillance dataRyan T Novak
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
Lancet Infect Dis 12:757-64. 2012..We analysed national surveillance data around PsA-TT introduction to investigate the early effect of the vaccine on meningitis incidence and epidemics...
- Effectively introducing a new meningococcal A conjugate vaccine in Africa: the Burkina Faso experienceMamoudou H Djingarey
WHO Intercountry Support Team, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso
Vaccine 30:B40-5. 2012..The Burkina Faso success augurs well for further rollout of the Men A conjugate vaccine in meningitis belt countries...
- Conquering the meningococcusDavid S Stephens
Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA
FEMS Microbiol Rev 31:3-14. 2007..This report reviews new discoveries impacting prevention and future prospects for conquering the meningococcus as a human pathogen...
- Immunogenicity and tolerability of recombinant serogroup B meningococcal vaccine administered with or without routine infant vaccinations according to different immunization schedules: a randomized controlled trialNicoletta Gossger
Oxford Vaccine Group, NIHR Oxford Biomedical Research Centre and Department of Paediatrics, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
JAMA 307:573-82. 2012..In the absence of an effective vaccine, serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis (MenB) remains a major cause of invasive disease in early childhood in developed countries...
- Qualitative and quantitative assessment of meningococcal antigens to evaluate the potential strain coverage of protein-based vaccinesJohn Donnelly
Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics, 53100 Siena, Italy
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:19490-5. 2010..This assay allows typing of large panels of strains and prediction of coverage of protein-based meningococcal vaccines. Similar assays may be used for protein-based vaccines against other bacteria.
- Immunogenicity and tolerability of a multicomponent meningococcal serogroup B (4CMenB) vaccine in healthy adolescents in Chile: a phase 2b/3 randomised, observer-blind, placebo-controlled studyMaría Elena Santolaya
Departamento de Pediatria, Hospital Dr Luis Calvo Mackenna, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile
Lancet 379:617-24. 2012..We assessed immunogenicity and tolerability of a four-component vaccine (4CMenB) in adolescents...
- Improved OMV vaccine against Neisseria meningitidis using genetically engineered strains and a detergent-free purification processBas van de Waterbeemd
Netherlands Vaccine Institute, Unit Research and Development, The Netherlands
Vaccine 28:4810-6. 2010..With comparable toxicity and yield, no aggregation and cross-protection against other PorA subtypes, these OMV vaccines are potentially safe and effective for parenteral use in humans...
- Recombinant protein meningococcal serogroup B vaccine combined with outer membrane vesiclesXilian Bai
Vaccine Evaluation Unit, Health Protection Agency North West, Manchester Medical Microbiology Partnership, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Manchester, M13 9WZ, UK
Expert Opin Biol Ther 11:969-85. 2011..The novel vaccine Bexsero (previously 4CMenB) has been developed and proven safe and immunogenic in clinical trials...
- Immunologic hyporesponsiveness to serogroup C but not serogroup A following repeated meningococcal A/C polysaccharide vaccination in Saudi ArabiaHani Jokhdar
School of Epidemiology and Health Science, Medical School, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PT, United Kingdom
Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 11:83-8. 2004....
- Serogroup B meningococcal vaccines-an unfinished storyManish Sadarangani
Oxford Vaccine Group, Department of Paediatrics, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
Lancet Infect Dis 10:112-24. 2010..Vaccines based on subcapsular antigens have recently produced promising results in early clinical trials, and the disease burden might be substantially reduced over the next few years...
- Immunity against Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C in the Dutch population before and after introduction of the meningococcal c conjugate vaccineRicharda M de Voer
Laboratory for Infectious Diseases and Screening, National Institute of Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands
PLoS ONE 5:e12144. 2010..A catch-up campaign was performed targeting all individuals aged 14 months to 18 years. We determined the MenC-specific immunity before and after introduction of the MenC conjugate (MenCC) vaccine...
- Prospects for vaccine prevention of meningococcal infectionLee H Harrison
Infectious Diseases Epidemiology Research Unit, 521 Parran Hall, 130 DeSoto St, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA
Clin Microbiol Rev 19:142-64. 2006..This review covers the changing epidemiology of meningococcal disease in the United States, issues related to vaccine prevention, and recommendations on the use of the new vaccine...
- Broad vaccine coverage predicted for a bivalent recombinant factor H binding protein based vaccine to prevent serogroup B meningococcal diseaseHan Qing Jiang
Pfizer Vaccine Research, 401N Middletown Rd, Pearl River, NY 10965, USA
Vaccine 28:6086-93. 2010..Importantly, epidemiologically prevalent fHBP variants from both subfamilies were killed...
- Planning, registration, and implementation of an immunisation campaign against meningococcal serogroup C disease in the UK: a success storyE Miller
Immunisation Division, Public Health Laboratory Service, Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre, 61 Colindale Avenue, NW9 5EQ, London, UK
Vaccine 20:S58-67. 2001..Surveillance of the prevalent serogroups and serosubtypes among invasive case isolates has shown no evidence of any capsular switching to serogroup B during the first 18 months of the MCC vaccination programme...
- Prevention and control of meningococcal disease. Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP)Oleg O Bilukha
Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, CDC, 1600 Clifton Road NE, MS C 09, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
MMWR Recomm Rep 54:1-21. 2005..It also provides updated recommendations regarding use of the tetravalent meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine (MPSV4) and on antimicrobial chemoprophylaxis...
- A surveillance network for meningococcal disease in EuropeCaroline L Trotter
Immunization Department, Health Protection Agency Centre for Infections, London, UK
FEMS Microbiol Rev 31:27-36. 2007..The importance of close collaboration between networks of epidemiologists, microbiologists, and the wider scientific and public health community is demonstrated...
- Baseline meningococcal carriage in Burkina Faso before the introduction of a meningococcal serogroup A conjugate vaccinePaul A Kristiansen
Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Nydalen, 0403 Oslo, Norway
Clin Vaccine Immunol 18:435-43. 2011..5-1,2-2/F5-8, belonging to the ST-23 complex (47%). All serogroup A isolates were ST-2859 of the ST-5 complex with P1.20,9/F3-1. This study forms a solid basis for evaluating the impact of MenAfriVac introduction on serogroup A carriage...
- Properties and clinical performance of vaccines containing outer membrane vesicles from Neisseria meningitidisJohan Holst
Department of Bacteriology and Immunology, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, P O Box 4404 Nydalen, Oslo NO 0403, Norway
Vaccine 27:B3-12. 2009..The desire to have a global vaccine strategy that enables susceptible individuals to be protected against all the relevant serogroups of meningococcal disease may become a reality...
- Validation of serological correlate of protection for meningococcal C conjugate vaccine by using efficacy estimates from postlicensure surveillance in EnglandNick Andrews
Immunisation Division, PHLS Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre, London NW9 5EQ, United Kingdom
Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 10:780-6. 2003....
- Sequence diversity of the factor H binding protein vaccine candidate in epidemiologically relevant strains of serogroup B Neisseria meningitidisEllen Murphy
Wyeth Vaccines Research, Pearl River, New York 10965, USA
J Infect Dis 200:379-89. 2009..We report an extensive survey and phylogenetic analysis of the diversity of fhbp genes and predicted protein sequences in invasive clinical isolates obtained in the period 2000-2006...
- Immunogenicity and tolerability of a quadrivalent meningococcal glycoconjugate vaccine in children 2-10 years of ageS Black
Center for Global Child Health, Cincinnati Children s Hospital, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA
Vaccine 28:657-63. 2010..Both vaccines were well tolerated. In children 2-10 years of age, MenACWY-CRM induced a higher immune response than that of MPSV4, and was well tolerated...
- Characterization of fHbp, nhba (gna2132), nadA, porA, and sequence type in group B meningococcal case isolates collected in England and Wales during January 2008 and potential coverage of an investigational group B meningococcal vaccineJay Lucidarme
Vaccine Evaluation Unit, Health Protection Agency, P O Box 209, Floor 2, Clinical Sciences Building 2, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Oxford Road, Manchester M139WZ, United Kingdom
Clin Vaccine Immunol 17:919-29. 2010..On the basis of genotypic data and predicted immunological cross-reactivity, the potential level of rMenB-OMV vaccine coverage in England and Wales ranges from 66% to 100%...
- Updated postlicensure surveillance of the meningococcal C conjugate vaccine in England and Wales: effectiveness, validation of serological correlates of protection, and modeling predictions of the duration of herd immunityHelen Campbell
Immunisation, Hepatitis and Blood Safety Department, Health Protection Agency Centre for Infections, 61 Colindale Avenue, London NW9 5EQ, UK
Clin Vaccine Immunol 17:840-7. 2010..Modeling suggested that protection against carriage persists for at least 3 years and predicted the stabilization of serogroup C disease at low levels (fewer than 50 cases per year) up to 2015-2016...
- Review of meningococcal group B vaccinesDan M Granoff
Center for Immunobiology and Vaccine Development, Children s Hospital Oakland Research Institute, Oakland, California, USA
Clin Infect Dis 50:S54-65. 2010..Thus, the prospects have never been better for developing vaccines for prevention of meningococcal disease, including that caused by group B strains...
- Immunogenicity and tolerability in infants of a New Zealand epidemic strain meningococcal B outer membrane vesicle vaccineSharon H Wong
The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand
Pediatr Infect Dis J 28:385-90. 2009..An outer membrane vesicle meningococcal vaccine (MeNZB), was developed for the New Zealand epidemic strain of Neisseria meningitidis B:4:P1.7-2,4...
- Neisseria meningitidis group B correlates of protection and assay standardization--international meeting report Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, United States, 16-17 March 2005R Borrow
Vaccine Evaluation Unit, Health Protection Agency, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Manchester M13 9WZ, United Kingdom
Vaccine 24:5093-107. 2006
- From Agadez to Zinder: estimating coverage of the MenAfriVac™ conjugate vaccine against meningococcal serogroup A in Niger, September 2010 - January 2012Saverio Caini
European Programme for Intervention Epidemiology Training EPIET, European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control ECDC, Stockholm, Sweden
Vaccine 31:1597-603. 2013..Priorities for the future should include incorporating meningitis A vaccination into the existing immunization schedule and assessing its impact at a population level...
- Delivering a safe and effective strain-specific vaccine to control an epidemic of group B meningococcal diseaseJane O'Hallahan
Ministry of Health, Wellington, New Zealand
N Z Med J 122:48-59. 2009..This paper summarises the outcomes of this campaign including coverage levels achieved, evidence of vaccine effectiveness and safety, and the strategies used to manage key events and risks that emerged during the campaign...
- Post-PCV7 changes in colonizing pneumococcal serotypes in 16 Massachusetts communities, 2001 and 2004Susan S Huang
Channing Laboratory, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
Pediatrics 116:e408-13. 2005..Analysis of colonizing serotypes among healthy children in the community provides critical data on such changes...
- Biology and pathogenesis of the evolutionarily successful, obligate human bacterium Neisseria meningitidisDavid S Stephens
Emory University, Robert W Woodruff Health Sciences Center, 1440 Clifton Road, NE, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
Vaccine 27:B71-7. 2009..We review the general status of our knowledge of pathogenesis of meningococcal carriage, transmission and virulence behavior with particular emphasis on the relevance of research on this topic to vaccine development...
- Meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccination in England and Wales: coverage and initial impact of the campaignC L Trotter
Immunisation Division, PHLS Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre, 61 Colindale Avenue, London NW9 5EQ
Commun Dis Public Health 5:220-5. 2002....
- Chronicle of an outbreak foretold: meningococcal meningitis W135 in Burkina FasoJosef Decosas
Plan International, Accra, Ghana
Lancet Infect Dis 2:763-5. 2002..Vaccine against the W135 serogroup is expensive and in short supply. Strategies to react to a future African epidemic of W135 meningococcal meningitis with a sufficient and affordable supply of vaccine must be put into place now...
- NadA, a novel vaccine candidate of Neisseria meningitidisMaurizio Comanducci
Immunological Research Institute Siena, Chiron S p A, Via Fiorentina 1, 53100 Siena, Italy
J Exp Med 195:1445-54. 2002..NadA induces strong bactericidal antibodies and is protective in the infant rat model suggesting that this protein may represent a novel antigen for a vaccine able to control meningococcal disease caused by three hypervirulent lineages...
- Development of a group A meningococcal conjugate vaccine, MenAfriVac(TM)Carl E Frasch
Frasch Biologics Consulting, Martinsburg, West Virginia, USA
Hum Vaccin Immunother 8:715-24. 2012..We summarize the laboratory and clinical studies leading to prequalification of MenAfriVac(TM). The 2011 epidemic season ended with no reported case of group A meningitis in vaccinated individuals...
- Hyporesponsiveness and its clinical implications after vaccination with polysaccharide or glycoconjugate vaccinesJan Poolman
GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rue de l Institut 89, 1330 Rixensart, Belgium
Expert Rev Vaccines 10:307-22. 2011..These data have implications for the development of new multivalent vaccines...
- Effectiveness of a vaccination programme for an epidemic of meningococcal B in New ZealandRichard Arnold
School of Mathematics, Statistics and Operations Research, Victoria University of Wellington, PO Box 600, Wellington 6140, New Zealand
Vaccine 29:7100-6. 2011..Between July 2004 and December 2008 an estimated 210 epidemic strain cases (95% CI 100-380), six deaths and 15-30 cases of severe sequelae were avoided in New Zealand due to the introduction of the MeNZB vaccine...
- Use of an observational cohort study to estimate the effectiveness of the New Zealand group B meningococcal vaccine in children aged under 5 yearsYvonne Galloway
Ministry of Health, Wellington, New Zealand
Int J Epidemiol 38:413-8. 2009..In July 2004 a strain-specific vaccine was introduced to combat an epidemic of group B meningococcal disease in New Zealand. We estimated the effectiveness of this vaccine in pre-school-aged children...
- Is a single dose of meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccine sufficient for protection? experience from the NetherlandsPatricia Kaaijk
National Institute for Public Health and the Environment RIVM, Centre for Infectious Diseases Control Netherlands, Section Vaccinology, Bilthoven, The Netherlands
BMC Infect Dis 12:35. 2012..Countries that have implemented the MenC vaccine since then in their national immunisation programmes use different schedules. Nevertheless, all involved countries seem to experience substantial declines in the incidence of MenC disease...
- Meningococcal outer membrane vesicle vaccines derived from mutant strains engineered to express factor H binding proteins from antigenic variant groups 1 and 2Oliver Koeberling
Novartis Vaccines, Siena, Italy
Clin Vaccine Immunol 16:156-62. 2009..Thus, native OMV vaccines from mutants expressing fHbp variants have the potential to be safe for humans and to confer broad protection against meningococcal disease from strains expressing fHbp from each of the antigenic variant groups...
- Seroprevalence of antibodies against serogroup C meningococci in England in the postvaccination eraCaroline L Trotter
Department of Social Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK
Clin Vaccine Immunol 15:1694-8. 2008....
- Natural and vaccine-induced immunity and immunologic memory to Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C in young adultsDavid Goldblatt
Immunobiology Unit, Institute of Child Health, Public Health Laboratory Service, Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre, London, United Kingdom
J Infect Dis 185:397-400. 2002....
- Bactericidal antibody responses induced by meningococcal recombinant chimeric factor H-binding protein vaccinesPeter T Beernink
Center for Immunobiology and Vaccine Development, Children s Hospital Oakland Research Institute, Oakland, California, USA
Infect Immun 76:2568-75. 2008....
- CRM197-conjugated serogroup C meningococcal capsular polysaccharide, but not the native polysaccharide, induces persistent antigen-specific memory B cellsDominic F Kelly
Department of Paediatrics, University of Oxford, Level 4, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford OX3 9DU, United Kingdom
Blood 108:2642-7. 2006..Detection of peripheral blood memory B-cell responses after vaccination may be a useful signature of successful induction of immunologic memory during novel vaccine evaluation...
- Immunogenicity of, and immunologic memory to, a reduced primary schedule of meningococcal C-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine in infants in the United kingdomRay Borrow
PHLS Meningococcal Reference Unit, Withington Hospital, Manchester, United Kingdom
Infect Immun 71:5549-55. 2003..This study provides the first evidence that the number of doses of MCC-TT used in infant immunization schedules could be decreased...
- Epidemic meningitis due to Group A Neisseria meningitidis in the African meningitis belt: a persistent problem with an imminent solutionF Marc LaForce
PATH, 13 Chemin du Levant, Ferney Voltaire 01210, France
Vaccine 27:B13-9. 2009..Widespread use of such a vaccine is likely to generate herd immunity and to put an end to Group A meningococcal epidemics...
- Quadrivalent meningococcal vaccination of adults: phase III comparison of an investigational conjugate vaccine, MenACWY-CRM, with the licensed vaccine, MenactraKeith S Reisinger
Primary Physicians Research, Pittsburgh, PA 15241, USA
Clin Vaccine Immunol 16:1810-5. 2009..MenACWY-CRM is well tolerated in adults 19 to 55 years of age, with immune responses to each of the serogroups noninferior and, in some cases, statistically superior to those to Menactra...
- Phase III comparison of an investigational quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine with the licensed meningococcal ACWY conjugate vaccine in adolescentsLisa A Jackson
Group Health Center for Health Studies, Seattle, Washington 98101, USA
Clin Infect Dis 49:e1-10. 2009..This study compares the safety and immunogenicity of the Novartis Vaccines investigational quadrivalent meningococcal CRM(197) conjugate vaccine, MenACWY-CRM, with the licensed meningococcal conjugate vaccine, Menactra...
- W135 meningococcal carriage in association with the Hajj pilgrimage 2001: the Singapore experienceAnnelies Wilder-Smith
Department of Infectious Diseases, Travellers Health and Vaccination Centre, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, 11 Jalan Tan Tock Seng, Singapore 308433, Singapore
Int J Antimicrob Agents 21:112-5. 2003..These findings would support a policy of eradication of pharyngeal carriage in returning pilgrims to prevent introduction and dissemination of meningococci...
- Antibody persistence after serogroup C meningococcal conjugate immunization of United Kingdom primary-school children in 1999-2000 and response to a booster: a phase 4 clinical trialK P Perrett
Oxford Vaccine Group, Department of Paediatrics, University of Oxford, Centre for Clinical Vaccinology and Tropical Medicine, Churchill Hospital, Australia
Clin Infect Dis 50:1601-10. 2010..The response to a Haemophilus influenzae type b-MenC conjugate (Hib-MenC) booster was also measured...
- Bactericidal antibody is the immunologic surrogate of protection against meningococcal diseaseCarl E Frasch
Frasch Biologics Consulting, PO Box 986, Martinsburg, WV, USA 25402
Vaccine 27:B112-6. 2009..3) Meningococcal polysaccharide, polysaccharide-protein conjugates, and outer membrane vesicle vaccines all induce SBA shown to be effective in direct proportion to the percent of vaccinees with SBA activity...
- Neisseria meningitidis B vaccinesDonatella Panatto
Department of Health Sciences, University of Genoa, Via Pastore 1, 16132, Genoa, Italy
Expert Rev Vaccines 10:1337-51. 2011..The aims of this article are to describe the most recent developments in meningococcal B vaccines and to discuss how these vaccines can contribute to containing meningococcal disease...
- The VR2 epitope on the PorA P1.7-2,4 protein is the major target for the immune response elicited by the strain-specific group B meningococcal vaccine MeNZBD R Martin
Insitute of Environmental Science and Research ESR, Porirua, New Zealand
Clin Vaccine Immunol 13:486-91. 2006..4 epitope of the PorA protein supports the public health decision to use a strain-specific vaccine for the control of New Zealand's epidemic of meningococcal disease...
- NadA diversity and carriage in Neisseria meningitidisMaurizio Comanducci
IRIS, Chiron Vaccines, Via Fiorentina 1, 53100 Siena, Italy
Infect Immun 72:4217-23. 2004..The presence of NadA can therefore be used as a tool to study the dynamics of meningococcal infections and understand why this bacterium, which is mostly a commensal, can become a severe pathogen...
- A hypothetical explanatory model for meningococcal meningitis in the African meningitis beltJudith E Mueller
Agence de Medecine Preventive, Institut Pasteur, 25 28 Rue du Dr Roux, 75724 Paris Cedex 15, France
Int J Infect Dis 14:e553-9. 2010..Epidemic waves occur if new meningococcal strains which escape pre-existing immunity, enter the population. Future research should include the impact of viral co-infection on bacterial colonization and invasion...
- The modular architecture of meningococcal factor H-binding proteinPeter T Beernink
Center for Immunobiology and Vaccine Development, Children s Hospital Oakland Research Institute, Oakland, CA 94609, USA
Microbiology 155:2873-83. 2009..Collectively, the data suggest that recombination between Neisseria meningitidis and N. gonorrhoeae progenitors generated a family of modular, antigenically diverse meningococcal fHbps...
- Meningococcal C conjugate vaccine: the experience in England and WalesHelen Campbell
Immunisation, Hepatitis and Blood Safety Department, Health Protection Agency Centre for Infections, 61 Colindale Avenue, London NW9 5EQ, UK
Vaccine 27:B20-9. 2009..The MCC immunization programme has been extremely successful in controlling serogroup C disease and continues to be evaluated. The aim of this paper is to review the experiences in England and Wales over the past 9 years...
- Variation of the factor H-binding protein of Neisseria meningitidisCarina Brehony
Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, OX1 3PS, UK
Microbiology 155:4155-69. 2009..The highest levels of selection were observed in regions corresponding to epitopes recognized by previously described bactericidal monoclonal antibodies...
- Clinical and immunologic risk factors for meningococcal C conjugate vaccine failure in the United KingdomCressida Auckland
Immunisation Department, Centre for Infections, Health Protection Agency, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Manchester, United Kingdom
J Infect Dis 194:1745-52. 2006..The meningococcal serogroup C conjugate (MCC) vaccine was introduced into the United Kingdom with licensure based on immunogenicity data not efficacy data...
- A review of vaccine research and development: meningococcal diseaseMarc P Girard
University Paris 7, 39 rue Seignemartin, FR 69008 Lyon, France
Vaccine 24:4692-700. 2006..However, effective global prevention of meningococcal disease will not be achievable without the development of a vaccine against Group B meningitis, for which outer membrane protein vaccines are under development...
- Impact and effectiveness of meningococcal C conjugate vaccine following its introduction in SpainAmparo Larrauri
Red Nacional de Vigilancia Epidemiológica, Centro Nacional de Epidemiologia, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Sinesio Delgado 6, 28029 Madrid, Spain
Vaccine 23:4097-100. 2005..Accordingly, there is a need for ongoing re-evaluation of VE and ascertainment of long-term vaccine protection. The findings reported would allow to decide on the advisability of revising current vaccination guidelines...
- Epidemiological profile of meningococcal disease in the United StatesLee H Harrison
University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health and School of Medicine, Pennsylvania, USA
Clin Infect Dis 50:S37-44. 2010..No vaccine is available for endemic disease caused by serogroup B strains. Two tetravalent (A/C/Y/W-135) meningococcal vaccines are licensed in the United States: a purified polysaccharide product and a polysaccharide-protein ..
- Serological basis for use of meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccines in the United Kingdom: reevaluation of correlates of protectionR Borrow
PHLS Meningococcal Reference Unit, Withington Hospital, Manchester M20 2LR, London NW9 5EQ, United Kingdom
Infect Immun 69:1568-73. 2001..These results indicated that the majority of toddlers with an rSBA titer between 8 and 64, and some of those with an hSBA result of <4, have mounted a protective immune response with the induction of immunological memory...
- Immunogenicity of two investigational serogroup B meningococcal vaccines in the first year of life: a randomized comparative trialMatthew D Snape
Department of Paediatrics, Oxford Vaccine Group, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
Pediatr Infect Dis J 29:e71-9. 2010....
- Risk and protective factors for meningococcal disease in adolescents: matched cohort studyJoanna Tully
Academic Centre for Child Health, Queen Mary s School of Medicine and Dentistry at Barts and The London, University of London, London E1 1BB
BMJ 332:445-50. 2006..To examine biological and social risk factors for meningococcal disease in adolescents...
- Protective activity of monoclonal antibodies to genome-derived neisserial antigen 1870, a Neisseria meningitidis candidate vaccineJo Anne Welsch
Children s Hospital Oakland Research Institute, Oakland, CA 94609, USA
J Immunol 172:5606-15. 2004..meningitidis strains expressing GNA1870 subvariant 1 proteins. The data support GNA1870 as a promising vaccine candidate for prevention of meningococcal group B disease caused by GNA1870 variant 1 strains...
- Structural Basis for the Immunogenic Properties of the Meningococcal Vaccine Candidate LP2086Alessandro Mascioni
Wyeth Research, Structural Biology and Computational Chemistry, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02140 and Wyeth Vaccines Research, Pearl River, New York 10965, USA
J Biol Chem 284:8738-46. 2009..A surface of subfamily-defining residues was identified on one face of the protein, offering an explanation for the induction of subfamily-specific bactericidal antibodies...
- Serogroup C meningococcal glycoconjugate vaccine in adolescents: persistence of bactericidal antibodies and kinetics of the immune response to a booster vaccine more than 3 years after immunizationMatthew D Snape
Oxford Vaccine Group, Department of Paediatrics, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX3 7LJ, United Kingdom
Clin Infect Dis 43:1387-94. 2006....
- Systematic review: Impact of meningococcal vaccination on pharyngeal carriage of meningococciStephanie Dellicour
Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, UK
Trop Med Int Health 12:1409-21. 2007To investigate the effect of meningococcal vaccines on pharyngeal carriage of meningococci.
- Meningococcal carriage in the African meningitis beltCaroline L Trotter
Department of Social Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK
Lancet Infect Dis 7:797-803. 2007..Carefully designed carriage studies are needed to measure and interpret the impact of meningococcal group A conjugate vaccines in Africa...
- Characterization of fHbp, nhba (gna2132), nadA, porA, sequence type (ST), and genomic presence of IS1301 in group B meningococcal ST269 clonal complex isolates from England and WalesJay Lucidarme
Vaccine Evaluation Unit, Health Protection Agency, P O Box 209, Floor 2, Clinical Sciences Building 2, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9WZ, United Kingdom
J Clin Microbiol 47:3577-85. 2009..Expression studies and serum bactericidal antibody assays will serve to enhance predictions of coverage and will augment ongoing studies regarding the significance of IS1301 within the ST269 cluster...
- Meningococcal conjugate vaccine for Africa: a model for development of new vaccines for the poorest countriesLuis Jodar
WHO, Geneva, Switzerland
Lancet 361:1902-4. 2003
- Herd immunity from meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccination in England: database analysisMary E Ramsay
Public Health Laboratory Service Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre, London, NW9 5EQ
BMJ 326:365-6. 2003
- Protective efficacy of a second pneumococcal conjugate vaccine against pneumococcal acute otitis media in infants and children: randomized, controlled trial of a 7-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide-meningococcal outer membrane protein complex conjugate vTerhi Kilpi
National Public Health Institute KTL, Helsinki, Finland
Clin Infect Dis 37:1155-64. 2003..The 2 boosters seemed to provide equal protection against AOM, but PncPS induced markedly higher antibody concentrations. The efficacy of PncOMPC was comparable to that of the recently licensed pneumococcal conjugate vaccine...
- New vaccines require potent adjuvants like AFPL1 and AFCo1O Perez
Immunology Department, Finlay Institute, Havana City, Cuba
Scand J Immunol 66:271-7. 2007..Both are very promising adjuvants...
- Impact of meningococcal C conjugate vaccine in the UKP Balmer
Meningococcal Reference Unit, Manchester PHL, Withington Hospital
J Med Microbiol 51:717-22. 2002..Surveillance of the genotypic and phenotypic characteristics of invasive and carriage isolates has shown no evidence to date of capsular switching from serogroup C to serogroup B...
- An engineered meningococcal OMV vaccine for Africa against all capsular groupsDan M Granoff; Fiscal Year: 2013....
- EMERGING INFECTIONS PROGRAMTimothy F Jones; Fiscal Year: 2011..abstract_text> ..
- Evaluation of vaccination reminder/recall systems for adolescent patientsPeter Szilagyi; Fiscal Year: 2009..This study evaluates the effectiveness of patient reminder/recall in improving both adolescent immunization delivery and the delivery of other critical adolescent preventive services. ..
- PROPHOLAXIS OF H. INFLUENZAE AND OTHER INFECTIONSMathuram Santosham; Fiscal Year: 1991..BPIG is prepared from the pooled plasma of adult donors immunized with Hib, pneumococcal and meningococcal vaccines. Between June 1983 and April 1986, infants were randomized in a double-blind fashion to receive BPIG (n=..
- Prevention of group B Neisseria meningitidis InfectionRANDALL MRSNY; Fiscal Year: 2004..The proposed studies will combine immunological and genetic approaches with a novel vaccine platform to select one or two lead candidates for further development. ..
- Neisseria meningitidis antigens expressed in infectionDan Granoff; Fiscal Year: 2005..meningitidis disease, including group B strains for which there is currently no vaccine available. Also, characterization of gene expression in an in vivo model will lead to a better understanding of meningococcal pathogenesis. ..
- Molecular basis meningococcal group A capsular immunityDan Granoff; Fiscal Year: 2007..abstract_text> ..
- Molecular bssis of mef-mediated antibiotic resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniaeDavid S Stephens; Fiscal Year: 2010..pneumoniae. ..
- Center for Clinical and Translational Science Advancement at EmoryDavid Stephens; Fiscal Year: 2006..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- CLINICAL RESEARCH CURRICULUM AWARDDavid Stephens; Fiscal Year: 2004..abstract_text> ..
- MENINGOCOCCAL LIPOOLIGOSACCHARIDE & MUCOSAL PATHOGENESISDavid Stephens; Fiscal Year: 2007..Meningococcal infections remain devastating in the United States and worldwide. Current meningococcal vaccines have major limitations and antibiotic-resistant meningococci are emerging, emphasizing the need to better ..
- Regulation of Capsule Biosynthesis in N. meningitidisDavid Stephens; Fiscal Year: 2006..protein, appears conserved, is essential for capsule expression and is a candidate for conjugate or other meningococcal vaccines that prevent disease due to all invasive serogroups...
- Forensic Detection of Salmonella Resistance and SubtypeLee Harrison; Fiscal Year: 2005..enterica and 2) molecular methods for rapid outbreak detection among S. enterica serovars. ..
- Unique Neisseria Meningitidis B Capsular EpitopesGREGORY MOE; Fiscal Year: 2009..Thus, this proposal offers a novel approach to develop a protective PS-based vaccine that avoids safety concerns of eliciting autoantibodies and for understanding structural differences between group B capsular and host PSA antigens. ..
- MIMETICS OF CAPSULAR EPITOPES OF NEISSERIA MENINGITIDISGREGORY MOE; Fiscal Year: 2004..The results also may identify new candidate molecules for inclusion in a future vaccine for prevention of NmB disease. ..
- Using MEPS Data to Inform Public-Plan ConsumerismMatthew Davis; Fiscal Year: 2007..Findings will have immediate relevance for implementation of the HOA projects and other consumerism efforts. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- New Paradigms of Cerebral Palsy Etiology: A Comprehensive Case Control StudyNIGEL SEFTON PANETH; Fiscal Year: 2010..Maternal interviews and birth certificates will inform the above analyses by linking molecular information to self-reported and recorded clinical events and conditions. ..
- Oxygen and Phototherapy in perinatal period: Risk of Acute Lymphoctyic LeukemiaNigel Paneth; Fiscal Year: 2008..If these treatments increase the risk of leukemia, it should be possible to find alternative ways to manage newborn problems that minimize exposure to these treatments [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- Activation of human TLR4 by endotoxin binding to MD-2SHANTA ZIMMER; Fiscal Year: 2008..The study of other diseases (e.g. atherosclerosis, inflammatory bowel disease, and asthma) with inflammatory components which are mediated by the activation of TLR4 and MD-2 may also benefit from this work. ..
- HPV Outcomes: Prevention Epidemiology and Surveillance (HOPES)Cosette Marie Wheeler; Fiscal Year: 2010..Image-based diagnostic standards will be critical to future population evaluations. ..
- co-Trimoxazole in Zambian Infants (TZI)CHRISTOPHER GILL; Fiscal Year: 2007..abstract_text> ..
- IMMUNOGENETIC MECHANISMS OF VACCINE RESPONSEGregory A Poland; Fiscal Year: 2010..The knowledge gained from these studies will enable us to design new strategies and new vaccines to protect human health against viral diseases. ..
- Role of Sialidase in Pulmonary Host Defenses and Acute Lung InjuryAlan Cross; Fiscal Year: 2010..Since inhibitors of sialidase are commercially available, these studies will provide the experimental rationale for testing a new therapeutic approach to the treatment of lung injury. ..
- RCT to evaluate guidelines for acute rhinosinusitisJane Garbutt; Fiscal Year: 2008..In addition, knowledge gained from this research could be used to decrease the inappropriate use of antibiotics. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- NICHD Institutional Training for PediatriciansKathryn Edwards; Fiscal Year: 2007..3.) Evaluate the success of the training program through both process and outcomes evaluation. (4.) Implement continuous quality improvement procedures that will enhance the PPOR components, curriculum, and overall program. ..
- New Methods for Evaluating Interobserver AgreementMichael Haber; Fiscal Year: 2006..Existing and new agreement indices will be compared and linked. All the proposed methods will be applied to real data sets from the behavioral and biomedical sciences. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- DETERMINING/UNDERSTANDING BARRIERS TO ADULT IMMUNIZATIONRichard Zimmerman; Fiscal Year: 2001..This project will furnish relevant, up-to-date to enhance policy planning, practice management and medical education. ..
- SIALIC ACID MODULATION REGULATES NEUTROPHIL DIAPEDESISAlan Cross; Fiscal Year: 2002..These studies will define a new mechanism for a rapidly adaptable, temporally- restricted local response to inflammation. This proposal will provide new targets and additional approaches to the treatment of inflammation. ..
- Novel Approaches to the Inhibition of Anthrax ToxinANDREW ARTENSTEIN; Fiscal Year: 2003....
- Epidemiologic Methods: Resistant Nosocomial InfectionsMarc Lipsitch; Fiscal Year: 2004..This will in turn lead to better practices to reduce the incidence of ARNI. ..
- ENHANCING MUCOSAL IMMUNE RESPONSES BY MICROENCAPSULATIONPaul Offit; Fiscal Year: 2005..The availability of microencapsulated virus provides a unique opportunity to understand the relationship between APC and protective mucosal immune responses. ..
- FACTORS IN PEDIATRIC AIDS TRANSMISSION AND PATHOGENESISStephen Spector; Fiscal Year: 2005..The findings of this research will provide an improved understanding of the pathogenesis of HIV-1 infection of children and perinatal transmission, and help to develop improved treatment/prevention strategies. ..
- ADOLESCENT MEDICINE TRIALS UNIT (AMTU)Stephen Spector; Fiscal Year: 2005..The experience of our team in HIV care, clinical trials and laboratory studies, we believe, will enable our group to make a significant contribution to the success of the ATN. ..
- Pediatric ACTG Coordinating and Operations CenterStephen Spector; Fiscal Year: 2005..abstract_text> ..
- VACCINE EFFICACY IN CHILDREN WITH SICKLE CELL DISEASEThomas Adamkiewicz; Fiscal Year: 2006..abstract_text> ..
- PEDIATRIC AIDS CLINICAL TRIALS GROUPStephen Spector; Fiscal Year: 2006..abstract_text> ..
- Early events during infection with anthraxAlan Cross; Fiscal Year: 2006..abstract_text> ..
- Evaluation of Anti-endotoxin Vaccine for Human UseAlan Cross; Fiscal Year: 2006..If successful, these studies will lead to phase II and Ill studies for the prevention and treatment of sepsis. ..
- Effect of Neisserial Porin in Immune Cell ApoptosisLee Wetzler; Fiscal Year: 2006..In addition, these results can have significant implications in Neisserial pathogenesis, especially since we have new preliminary data that intact live meningococci can also protect cells from apoptosis. ..
- INTERFERON Y MEDIATES ANTI E COLI DEFENSES AND SEPSISAlan Cross; Fiscal Year: 2001..The demonstration of a spectrum of responses to LPS in these studies may identify the earliest changes in cytokine responses that predict the development of sepsis. ..