attenuated vaccines

Summary

Summary: Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Protection of humans against malaria by immunization with radiation-attenuated Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites
    Stephen L Hoffman
    Malaria Program, Naval Medical Research Center, 503 Robert Grant Avenue, Silver Spring, MD 20850, USA
    J Infect Dis 185:1155-64. 2002
  2. pmc Viral nucleic acids in live-attenuated vaccines: detection of minority variants and an adventitious virus
    Joseph G Victoria
    Blood Systems Research Institute, San Francisco, California 94118, USA
    J Virol 84:6033-40. 2010
  3. pmc Comparison of the influenza virus-specific effector and memory B-cell responses to immunization of children and adults with live attenuated or inactivated influenza virus vaccines
    Sanae Sasaki
    Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, CA, USA
    J Virol 81:215-28. 2007
  4. pmc Brucellosis: the case for live, attenuated vaccines
    Thomas A Ficht
    Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, Texas A and M University and TX AgriLife Research, College Station, TX 77843 4467, USA
    Vaccine 27:D40-3. 2009
  5. ncbi Chimeric live, attenuated vaccine against Japanese encephalitis (ChimeriVax-JE): phase 2 clinical trials for safety and immunogenicity, effect of vaccine dose and schedule, and memory response to challenge with inactivated Japanese encephalitis antigen
    Thomas P Monath
    Acambis Inc, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
    J Infect Dis 188:1213-30. 2003
  6. ncbi Safety and efficacy of an attenuated vaccine against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis
    Guillermo M Ruiz-Palacios
    Instituto Nacional de Ciencas Medicas y Nutricion, Mexico Distrito Federal, Mexico
    N Engl J Med 354:11-22. 2006
  7. ncbi Clinical proof of principle for ChimeriVax: recombinant live, attenuated vaccines against flavivirus infections
    Thomas P Monath
    Research and Medical Affairs, Acambis Inc, 38 Sidney Street, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
    Vaccine 20:1004-18. 2002
  8. pmc Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) SH and G proteins are not essential for viral replication in vitro: clinical evaluation and molecular characterization of a cold-passaged, attenuated RSV subgroup B mutant
    R A Karron
    Center for Immunization Research, Department of International Health, School of Hygiene and Public Health, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 94:13961-6. 1997
  9. ncbi Immunogenicity, genetic stability, and protective efficacy of a recombinant, chimeric yellow fever-Japanese encephalitis virus (ChimeriVax-JE) as a live, attenuated vaccine candidate against Japanese encephalitis
    F Guirakhoo
    OraVax, Inc, 38 Sidney Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA
    Virology 257:363-72. 1999
  10. pmc Chimeric yellow fever virus 17D-Japanese encephalitis virus vaccine: dose-response effectiveness and extended safety testing in rhesus monkeys
    T P Monath
    OraVax Inc, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA
    J Virol 74:1742-51. 2000

Detail Information

Publications247 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Protection of humans against malaria by immunization with radiation-attenuated Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites
    Stephen L Hoffman
    Malaria Program, Naval Medical Research Center, 503 Robert Grant Avenue, Silver Spring, MD 20850, USA
    J Infect Dis 185:1155-64. 2002
    ....
  2. pmc Viral nucleic acids in live-attenuated vaccines: detection of minority variants and an adventitious virus
    Joseph G Victoria
    Blood Systems Research Institute, San Francisco, California 94118, USA
    J Virol 84:6033-40. 2010
    ..Deep sequencing and microarrays can therefore detect attenuated virus sequence changes, minority variants, and adventitious viruses and help maintain the current safety record of live-attenuated viral vaccines...
  3. pmc Comparison of the influenza virus-specific effector and memory B-cell responses to immunization of children and adults with live attenuated or inactivated influenza virus vaccines
    Sanae Sasaki
    Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, CA, USA
    J Virol 81:215-28. 2007
    ....
  4. pmc Brucellosis: the case for live, attenuated vaccines
    Thomas A Ficht
    Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, Texas A and M University and TX AgriLife Research, College Station, TX 77843 4467, USA
    Vaccine 27:D40-3. 2009
    ..Although the dominant approach has explored the use of live attenuated vaccines, side effects associated with their use has prevented widespread use in humans...
  5. ncbi Chimeric live, attenuated vaccine against Japanese encephalitis (ChimeriVax-JE): phase 2 clinical trials for safety and immunogenicity, effect of vaccine dose and schedule, and memory response to challenge with inactivated Japanese encephalitis antigen
    Thomas P Monath
    Acambis Inc, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
    J Infect Dis 188:1213-30. 2003
    ..Anamnestic responses were observed in preimmune individuals. ChimeriVax-JE appears to be a safe vaccine that provides protective levels of neutralizing antibody after a single dose...
  6. ncbi Safety and efficacy of an attenuated vaccine against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis
    Guillermo M Ruiz-Palacios
    Instituto Nacional de Ciencas Medicas y Nutricion, Mexico Distrito Federal, Mexico
    N Engl J Med 354:11-22. 2006
    ..The safety and efficacy of an attenuated G1P[8] human rotavirus (HRV) vaccine were tested in a randomized, double-blind, phase 3 trial...
  7. ncbi Clinical proof of principle for ChimeriVax: recombinant live, attenuated vaccines against flavivirus infections
    Thomas P Monath
    Research and Medical Affairs, Acambis Inc, 38 Sidney Street, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
    Vaccine 20:1004-18. 2002
    ..The new vaccine holds promise for prevention of JE in travelers and residents of endemic countries. The ChimeriVax technology platform is being exploited for development of new vaccines against dengue and West Nile...
  8. pmc Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) SH and G proteins are not essential for viral replication in vitro: clinical evaluation and molecular characterization of a cold-passaged, attenuated RSV subgroup B mutant
    R A Karron
    Center for Immunization Research, Department of International Health, School of Hygiene and Public Health, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 94:13961-6. 1997
    ..The requirement of SH and G for efficient replication in vivo suggests that selective deletion of one or both of these RSV genes may provide an alternative or additive strategy for developing an optimally attenuated vaccine candidate...
  9. ncbi Immunogenicity, genetic stability, and protective efficacy of a recombinant, chimeric yellow fever-Japanese encephalitis virus (ChimeriVax-JE) as a live, attenuated vaccine candidate against Japanese encephalitis
    F Guirakhoo
    OraVax, Inc, 38 Sidney Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA
    Virology 257:363-72. 1999
    ..All attenuating residues and the avirulent phenotype were preserved after 18 passages in cell cultures or 6 passages in mouse brains...
  10. pmc Chimeric yellow fever virus 17D-Japanese encephalitis virus vaccine: dose-response effectiveness and extended safety testing in rhesus monkeys
    T P Monath
    OraVax Inc, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA
    J Virol 74:1742-51. 2000
    ..ChimeriVax-JE meets preclinical safety and efficacy requirements for a human vaccine; it appears safer than yellow fever 17D vaccine but has a similar profile of immunogenicity and protective efficacy...
  11. ncbi Innate and adaptive immune responses to an intracellular bacterium, Francisella tularensis live vaccine strain
    Karen L Elkins
    Laboratory of Mycobacteria, Division of Bacterial, Parasitic, and Allergenic Products, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, US Food and Drug Administration, 1401 Rockville Pike, HFM 431, Rockville, MD 20852, USA
    Microbes Infect 5:135-42. 2003
    ..Here we review this infection model, which provides a convenient means of studying protective immune mechanisms not only for Francisella, but also for the large and important class of intracellular pathogens...
  12. ncbi Live attenuated chimeric yellow fever dengue type 2 (ChimeriVax-DEN2) vaccine: Phase I clinical trial for safety and immunogenicity: effect of yellow fever pre-immunity in induction of cross neutralizing antibody responses to all 4 dengue serotypes
    Farshad Guirakhoo
    Acambis, Inc, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA
    Hum Vaccin 2:60-7. 2006
    ..The latter observation can have practical implications toward development of a dengue vaccine...
  13. ncbi Vaccines against typhoid fever
    Carlos A Guzman
    Vaccine Research Group, Division of Microbiology, GBF German Research Centre for Biotechnology, Mascheroder Weg 1, Braunschweig, Germany
    Vaccine 24:3804-11. 2006
    ..The advantages and disadvantages of the various approaches taken in the development of a vaccine against typhoid fever are discussed, along with the potential for future vaccine candidates...
  14. pmc Prevention of symptomatic seasonal influenza in 2005-2006 by inactivated and live attenuated vaccines
    Suzanne E Ohmit
    University of Michigan School of Public Health, Department of Epidemiology, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA
    J Infect Dis 198:312-7. 2008
    ....
  15. ncbi Tularemia as a biological weapon: medical and public health management
    D T Dennis
    Division of Vector Borne Infectious Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, PO Box 2087, Fort Collins, CO 80522, USA
    JAMA 285:2763-73. 2001
    ..The Working Group on Civilian Biodefense has developed consensus-based recommendations for measures to be taken by medical and public health professionals if tularemia is used as a biological weapon against a civilian population...
  16. ncbi Safety and efficacy of a pentavalent human-bovine (WC3) reassortant rotavirus vaccine
    Timo Vesikari
    University of Tampere Medical School, Tampere, Finland
    N Engl J Med 354:23-33. 2006
    ..Rotavirus is a leading cause of childhood gastroenteritis and death worldwide...
  17. pmc The absence of enhanced disease with wild type respiratory syncytial virus infection occurring after receipt of live, attenuated, respiratory syncytial virus vaccines
    Peter F Wright
    Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA
    Vaccine 25:7372-8. 2007
    ..The impact of RSV during this surveillance will inform the design of future efficacy studies with RSV vaccines...
  18. pmc Virus attenuation by genome-scale changes in codon pair bias
    J Robert Coleman
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA
    Science 320:1784-7. 2008
    ..Polioviruses thus customized were used to immunize mice and provided protective immunity after challenge. This "death by a thousand cuts" strategy could be generally applicable to attenuating many kinds of viruses...
  19. ncbi Vaccination with phosphoglycan-deficient Leishmania major protects highly susceptible mice from virulent challenge without inducing a strong Th1 response
    Jude E Uzonna
    Department of Pathobiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    J Immunol 172:3793-7. 2004
    ..Thus, these findings report on attenuated parasites that may be used to induce long-term protection against leishmaniasis and indicate that the immunity induced can be maintained in the absence of a strong Th1 response...
  20. ncbi An effective AIDS vaccine based on live attenuated vesicular stomatitis virus recombinants
    N F Rose
    Department of Pathology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510, USA
    Cell 106:539-49. 2001
    ..Protection from AIDS was highly significant (p = 0.001). VSV vectors are promising candidates for human AIDS vaccine trials because they propagate to high titers and can be delivered without injection...
  21. ncbi Efficacy and safety of an oral live attenuated human rotavirus vaccine against rotavirus gastroenteritis during the first 2 years of life in Latin American infants: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III study
    Alexandre C Linhares
    Instituto Evandro Chagas, Secretaria de Vigilância em Saúde, Ministry of Health, Belem, Para, Brazil
    Lancet 371:1181-9. 2008
    ..We therefore aimed to assess the 2-year efficacy and safety of an oral live attenuated human rotavirus vaccine for prevention of severe gastroenteritis in infants...
  22. pmc A live attenuated vaccine for Lassa fever made by reassortment of Lassa and Mopeia viruses
    Igor S Lukashevich
    Institute of Human Virology, University of Maryland Biotechnology Institute, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
    J Virol 79:13934-42. 2005
    ..Detailed examination of two rhesus macaques infected with this MOPV/LAS reassortant revealed no histological lesions or disease signs. Thus, ML29 is a promising attenuated vaccine candidate for Lassa fever...
  23. pmc Vaccinia viruses with mutations in the E3L gene as potential replication-competent, attenuated vaccines: scarification vaccination
    Garilyn M Jentarra
    Graduate Program in Molecular and Cellular Biology, Arizona State University, United States
    Vaccine 26:2860-72. 2008
    ..These results suggest that highly attenuated strains of VACV containing mutations in E3L have the potential for use as scarification administered vaccines...
  24. ncbi Efficacy and safety of a live attenuated, cold-adapted influenza vaccine, trivalent against culture-confirmed influenza in young children in Asia
    John S Tam
    Department of Microbiology and Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 26:619-28. 2007
    ....
  25. ncbi Protective efficacy of a live attenuated vaccine against Argentine hemorrhagic fever. AHF Study Group
    J I Maiztegui
    , Pergamino, Argentina
    J Infect Dis 177:277-83. 1998
    ..No serious adverse events were attributed to vaccination. Candid 1, the first vaccine for the prevention of illness caused by an arenavirus, is safe and highly efficacious...
  26. ncbi Introducing point and deletion mutations into the P/C gene of human parainfluenza virus type 1 (HPIV1) by reverse genetics generates attenuated and efficacious vaccine candidates
    Emmalene J Bartlett
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, Respiratory Viruses Section, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, MD 20892 8007, USA
    Vaccine 24:2674-84. 2006
    ..This virus will be evaluated clinically as a live intranasal HPIV1 vaccine, one that can be further attenuated as necessary by the introduction of additional stabilized att mutations previously developed in the L protein...
  27. pmc Single mutation in the flavivirus envelope protein hinge region increases neurovirulence for mice and monkeys but decreases viscerotropism for monkeys: relevance to development and safety testing of live, attenuated vaccines
    Thomas P Monath
    Acambis Inc, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA
    J Virol 76:1932-43. 2002
    ..These results are consistent with the observation that empirically derived vaccines developed by mouse brain passage of dengue and YF viruses have increased neurovirulence for mice but reduced viscerotropism for humans...
  28. ncbi Modification of dengue virus strains by passage in primary dog kidney cells: preparation of candidate vaccines and immunization of monkeys
    Kenneth H Eckels
    Division of Communicable Diseases and Immunology, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, Maryland 20910, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 69:12-6. 2003
    ..A DENV-3 strain lost all monkey infectivity after PDK cell passage. Twelve vaccine candidates were selected for Phase 1 human trials through this selection process...
  29. pmc Development of a heteroduplex mobility assay to identify field isolates of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus with nucleotide sequences closely related to those of modified live-attenuated vaccines
    K F Key
    Center for Molecular Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Department of Biomedical Sciences and Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia 24060 0342, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 41:2433-9. 2003
    ..virus (PRRSV) isolates with significant nucleotide sequence identities (>/=98%) with the modified live-attenuated vaccines. The major envelope gene (ORF5) of 51 PRRSV field isolates recovered before and after the introduction of ..
  30. ncbi A recombinant live attenuated measles vaccine vector primes effective HLA-A0201-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes and broadly neutralizing antibodies against HIV-1 conserved epitopes
    Clarisse Lorin
    Unite des Virus Lents, CNRS URA 1930, Institut Pasteur, 28 rue du Dr Roux, Paris 75015, France
    Vaccine 23:4463-72. 2005
    ..These results show that the MVSchw pediatric vaccination vector induces efficient cellular and humoral HIV-specific immune responses...
  31. ncbi Human parainfluenza virus type I (HPIV1) vaccine candidates designed by reverse genetics are attenuated and efficacious in African green monkeys
    Emmalene J Bartlett
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, Respiratory Viruses Section, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Building 50, Room 6511, 50 South Drive MSC 8007, Bethesda, MD 20892 8007, USA
    Vaccine 23:4631-46. 2005
    ..One genetically and phenotypically stable vaccine candidate, rC(R84G/F170S)L(Y942A/L992C), was attenuated and efficacious in AGMs and is a promising live attenuated intranasal HPIV1 vaccine candidate suitable for clinical evaluation...
  32. ncbi Evaluation of a live, cold-passaged, temperature-sensitive, respiratory syncytial virus vaccine candidate in infancy
    P F Wright
    Division of Infectious Disease, Dept of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232, USA
    J Infect Dis 182:1331-42. 2000
    ..A live attenuated RSV vaccine for the youngest infant will use cpts-248/404 modified by additional attenuating mutations...
  33. pmc Isolation of an infectious endogenous retrovirus in a proportion of live attenuated vaccines for pets
    Takayuki Miyazawa
    Laboratory of Signal Transduction, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, 53 Shogoin Kawaracho, Sakyo ku, Kyoto 606 8507, Japan
    J Virol 84:3690-4. 2010
    ..In this study, we isolated a feline infectious ERV (RD-114) in a proportion of live attenuated vaccines for pets...
  34. ncbi Head-to-head comparison on the immunogenicity of two HIV/AIDS vaccine candidates based on the attenuated poxvirus strains MVA and NYVAC co-expressing in a single locus the HIV-1BX08 gp120 and HIV-1(IIIB) Gag-Pol-Nef proteins of clade B
    Carmen Elena Gómez
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Centro Nacional de Biotecnologia, CSIC, Ciudad Universitaria Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid, Spain
    Vaccine 25:2863-85. 2007
    ..All of the immunization protocols induced some humoral response against the gp160 protein from HIV-1 clone LAV. Our findings indicate that MVA-B and NYVAC-B meet the criteria to be potentially useful vaccine candidates against HIV/AIDS...
  35. pmc The influence of the multi-basic cleavage site of the H5 hemagglutinin on the attenuation, immunogenicity and efficacy of a live attenuated influenza A H5N1 cold-adapted vaccine virus
    Amorsolo L Suguitan
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Rm 3E13C 1, 33 North Drive, MSC 3203, Bethesda, MD 20892 3203, USA
    Virology 395:280-8. 2009
    ....
  36. ncbi Protection against dengue virus by non-replicating and live attenuated vaccines used together in a prime boost vaccination strategy
    Monika Simmons
    Viral and Rickettsial Diseases Department, Naval Medical Research Center, Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA
    Virology 396:280-8. 2010
    ..After challenge with each one of the four DENV serotypes, vaccinated animals exhibited no viremia but showed anamnestic antibody responses to the challenge viruses...
  37. ncbi rDEN2/4Delta30(ME), a live attenuated chimeric dengue serotype 2 vaccine is safe and highly immunogenic in healthy dengue-naïve adults
    Anna P Durbin
    Center for Immunization Research, Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Hum Vaccin 2:255-60. 2006
    ..The Delta30 mutation remained unchanged in each isolate, confirming the stability of the Delta30 mutation. Further evaluation of this vaccine in a tetravalent formulation is warranted...
  38. ncbi Live attenuated versus inactivated influenza vaccine in infants and young children
    Robert B Belshe
    Saint Louis University Health Sciences Center, St Louis, USA
    N Engl J Med 356:685-96. 2007
    ..S. advisory bodies. To evaluate alternative vaccine approaches, we compared the safety and efficacy of intranasally administered live attenuated influenza vaccine with those of inactivated vaccine in infants and young children...
  39. pmc Predominance of rotavirus P[4]G2 in a vaccinated population, Brazil
    Ricardo Q Gurgel
    Federal University of Sergipe, Aracaju, Brazil
    Emerg Infect Dis 13:1571-3. 2007
    ..All rotaviruses were genotype P[4]G2 with 1 mixed infection with P[NT]G9. Although virus predominance could have occurred randomly, the vaccine may be less protective against P[4]G2. Prospective surveillance is urgently needed...
  40. ncbi Safety, efficacy, and effectiveness of live, attenuated, cold-adapted influenza vaccine in an indicated population aged 5-49 years
    Robert B Belshe
    Center for Vaccine Development, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 39:920-7. 2004
    ....
  41. ncbi The novel oral typhoid vaccine M01ZH09 is well tolerated and highly immunogenic in 2 vaccine presentations
    Beth D Kirkpatrick
    Department of Medicine, Unit of Infectious Diseases, University of Vermont College of Medicine, Burlington, 05405, USA
    J Infect Dis 192:360-6. 2005
    ..We demonstrate that M01ZH09, in a single oral dose, is well tolerated and prompts broad immune responses, regardless of whether prevaccination with a bicarbonate buffer is given...
  42. ncbi The live attenuated dengue serotype 1 vaccine rDEN1Delta30 is safe and highly immunogenic in healthy adult volunteers
    Anna P Durbin
    Center for Immunization Research, Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    Hum Vaccin 2:167-73. 2006
    ..These promising preclinical studies have identified rDEN1Delta30 as a candidate DEN1 vaccine virus for further testing in a human Phase I clinical trial...
  43. pmc A live attenuated cold-adapted influenza A H7N3 virus vaccine provides protection against homologous and heterologous H7 viruses in mice and ferrets
    Tomy Joseph
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, NIAID, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Virology 378:123-32. 2008
    ..The safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of this vaccine in mice and ferrets support the evaluation of this vaccine in clinical trials...
  44. ncbi Multiple amino acid residues confer temperature sensitivity to human influenza virus vaccine strains (FluMist) derived from cold-adapted A/Ann Arbor/6/60
    Hong Jin
    MedImmune Vaccines, Inc, 297 North Bernardo Avenue, Mountain View, CA 94043, USA
    Virology 306:18-24. 2003
    ..In addition, PB1(2005) (A661T) also contributed to the ts phenotype. The identification of multiple genetic loci that control the MDV-A ts phenotype provides a molecular basis for the observed genetic stability of FluMist vaccines...
  45. ncbi Towards a human Lassa fever vaccine
    S P Fisher-Hoch
    University of Texas School of Public Health at Brownsville, 80 Fort Brown, SET B 1 334, Brownsville, Texas 78520, USA
    Rev Med Virol 11:331-41. 2001
    ..The scientific challenge now remains to find alternative methods of delivering T-cell immunity against glycoproteins from Lassa virus in ways which can overcome the local economic and political hurdles to vaccine development...
  46. ncbi Attenuating mutations in the P/C gene of human parainfluenza virus type 1 (HPIV1) vaccine candidates abrogate the inhibition of both induction and signaling of type I interferon (IFN) by wild-type HPIV1
    William Van Cleve
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, Respiratory Viruses Section, NIH, Bldg 50, Room 6511 50 South Drive MSC 8007 Bethesda, MD 20892 8007, USA
    Virology 352:61-73. 2006
    ....
  47. pmc Immunological responses and protective immunity against tuberculosis conferred by vaccination of Balb/C mice with the attenuated Mycobacterium tuberculosis (phoP) SO2 strain
    D Aguilar
    Experimental Pathology Section, Department of Pathology, National Institute of Medical Sciences and Nutrition Salvador Zubiran, Mexico City, Mexico
    Clin Exp Immunol 147:330-8. 2007
    ..The levels of protection conferred by vaccination with M. tuberculosis SO2 or with M. bovis BCG were similar, as measured by granuloma coalescence and pneumonia in addition to growth reduction of M. tuberculosis H37Rv...
  48. ncbi Review on the experience with live attenuated vaccines against tropical theileriosis in Tunisia: considerations for the present and implications for the future
    Mohamed Aziz Darghouth
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Ecole Nationale de Medecine Veterinaire, 2020 Sidi Thabet, Tunisia
    Vaccine 26:G4-G10. 2008
    ..The potential benefit of the live attenuated Tunisian vaccine was evaluated using simple economical models...
  49. pmc Vaccine candidates derived from a novel infectious cDNA clone of an American genotype dengue virus type 2
    Joseph E Blaney
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 USA
    BMC Infect Dis 4:39. 2004
    ..To prepare a vaccine candidate, a previously described 30 nucleotide deletion (Delta30) in the 3' untranslated region of DEN-4 has been engineered into the DEN-2 isolate...
  50. ncbi Attenuated vaccines for tropical theileriosis, babesiosis and heartwater: the continuing necessity
    Varda Shkap
    Division of Parasitology, Kimron Veterinary Institute, Bet Dagan, Israel
    Trends Parasitol 23:420-6. 2007
    Overwhelming evidence has accumulated of the effectiveness of immunization with live attenuated vaccines to control tick-borne diseases of livestock...
  51. ncbi Typhoid fever vaccines: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials
    Abigail Fraser
    Department of Social Medicine, University of Bristol, Canynge Hall, Whiteladies Road, Bristol BS8 2PR, UK
    Vaccine 25:7848-57. 2007
    ..Neither vaccine is currently registered for administration to children below 2 years of age. Given the recent finding that typhoid fever also affects infants, development of a conjugate vaccine is warranted...
  52. pmc New generation live vaccines against human respiratory syncytial virus designed by reverse genetics
    Peter L Collins
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 8007, USA
    Proc Am Thorac Soc 2:166-73. 2005
    ..This would obviate the difficulties inherent in the fragility and inefficient in vitro growth of RSV, simplifying vaccine design and use...
  53. ncbi HIV vaccine design: insights from live attenuated SIV vaccines
    Wayne C Koff
    International AIDS Vaccine Initiative, New York, New York 10038, USA
    Nat Immunol 7:19-23. 2006
    ..Here, the strategies defining key components of the protective immune response elicited by these vaccines are discussed...
  54. ncbi Influenza virus: immunity and vaccination strategies. Comparison of the immune response to inactivated and live, attenuated influenza vaccines
    R J Cox
    Influenza Research Centre Broegelmann Research Laboratory, The Gade Institute, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway
    Scand J Immunol 59:1-15. 2004
    ..In contrast, the CAV may elicit a long-lasting, broader immune (humoral and cellular) response, which more closely resembles natural immunity. The immune response induced by these two vaccines will be compared in this review...
  55. pmc Live attenuated influenza viruses containing NS1 truncations as vaccine candidates against H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza
    John Steel
    Department of Microbiology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York 10029 6574, USA
    J Virol 83:1742-53. 2009
    ..through the introduction of mutations in the hemagglutinin, NS1, and PB2 coding regions display characteristics desirable for live attenuated vaccines and hold potential as vaccine candidates in poultry as well as in mammalian hosts.
  56. pmc ChimeriVax-West Nile virus live-attenuated vaccine: preclinical evaluation of safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy
    Juan Arroyo
    Acambis Inc, 38 Sidney Street, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
    J Virol 78:12497-507. 2004
    ..The safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of the ChimeriVax-WN(02) vaccine in the macaque model indicate the vaccine candidate is expected to be safe and immunogenic for humans...
  57. ncbi Phylogenetic evidence for homologous recombination within the family Birnaviridae
    Chung Chau Hon
    School of Biological Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR
    J Gen Virol 89:3156-64. 2008
    ..This is the first report of evidence for homologous recombination within the family Birnaviridae...
  58. ncbi Investigations of the pathogenesis of Varicella zoster virus infection in the SCIDhu mouse model
    Ann M Arvin
    Departments of Pediatrics, and Microbiology and Immunology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Herpes 13:75-80. 2006
    ..This would be characterized by the retention of infectivity in skin combined with a restricted tropism for T-cells and neurons within sensory ganglia...
  59. ncbi Cell-mediated and humoral immune responses to a virulent plasmid-cured mutant strain of Salmonella enterica serotype gallinarum in broiler chickens
    Neeraj Rana
    Department of Veterinary Public Health and Epidemiology, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar 125 004, Haryana, India
    Vet Microbiol 115:156-62. 2006
    ..These findings indicate that the live attenuated mutant vaccine induced a strong cellular and humoral immunity, which may play a role in the protection of fowl typhoid in broiler chickens...
  60. ncbi Risk of transmission associated with live attenuated vaccines given to healthy persons caring for or residing with an immunocompromised patient
    Mini Kamboj
    Infectious Diseases Service, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 28:702-7. 2007
    ..To better define the risk of transmission associated with live vaccines, we reviewed the currently available literature...
  61. pmc Influenza vaccine effectiveness among US military basic trainees, 2005-06 season
    Jennifer K Strickler
    Naval Health Research Center, San Diego, California 92186 5122, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 13:617-9. 2007
    ..Vaccine effectiveness against laboratory-confirmed influenza was 92% (95% confidence interval 85%-96%)...
  62. ncbi An efficient helper-virus-free method for rescue of recombinant paramyxoviruses and rhadoviruses from a cell line suitable for vaccine development
    Susan E Witko
    Wyeth Vaccines Research, 401 North Middletown Road, Pearl River, NY 10965, USA
    J Virol Methods 135:91-101. 2006
    ....
  63. ncbi Substitution of the structural genes of dengue virus type 4 with those of type 2 results in chimeric vaccine candidates which are attenuated for mosquitoes, mice, and rhesus monkeys
    Stephen S Whitehead
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Room 6515, Building 50, 50 South Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892 8007, USA
    Vaccine 21:4307-16. 2003
    ....
  64. ncbi Characterization of attenuated coxsackievirus B3 strains and prospects of their application as live-attenuated vaccines
    Dae Sun Kim
    The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Biotechnology, 43 1 Yeokgok 2 dong, Wonmi gu, Bucheon si, Gyunggi do 420 743, Republic of Korea
    Expert Opin Biol Ther 10:179-90. 2010
    ..This study examines the characteristics of attenuated CVB3 strains developed so far and their application as live-attenuated CVB3 vaccines, and discusses problems to be overcome in the development of live-attenuated vaccines.
  65. pmc Genetically attenuated Plasmodium berghei liver stages induce sterile protracted protection that is mediated by major histocompatibility complex Class I-dependent interferon-gamma-producing CD8+ T cells
    Ousman Jobe
    Division of Malaria Vaccine Development, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA
    J Infect Dis 196:599-607. 2007
    ..On the basis of these observations, we propose that the development of genetically attenuated P. falciparum parasites is warranted for tests in clinical trials as a pre-erythrocytic stage vaccine candidate...
  66. ncbi Live attenuated influenza vaccine induces cross-reactive antibody responses in children against an a/Fujian/411/2002-like H3N2 antigenic variant strain
    Paul M Mendelman
    MedImmune Vaccines, Mountain View, CA, USA
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 23:1053-5. 2004
    ..Results indicated that the live vaccine induced higher antibody responses than the inactivated vaccine against the A/Panama and A/Fujian-like viruses...
  67. ncbi Correlates of immune protection induced by live, attenuated, cold-adapted, trivalent, intranasal influenza virus vaccine
    R B Belshe
    Department of Medicine, Saint Louis University, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    J Infect Dis 181:1133-7. 2000
    ..Any serum HAI antibody or any nasal wash IgA antibody was correlated with significant protection from H1N1 infection as indicated by vaccine-virus shedding, and high efficacy against H1N1 challenge was demonstrated...
  68. ncbi Evaluation of Streptococcus iniae killed bacterin and live attenuated vaccines in hybrid striped bass through injection and bath immersion
    Jeffrey B Locke
    Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pharmacology and Drug Discovery, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, MC 0687, La Jolla, California 92093 0687, USA
    Dis Aquat Organ 89:117-23. 2010
    ..We investigated the potential for efficient, non-injectable batch vaccination via the use of live attenuated vaccines. Three attenuated S...
  69. ncbi Mucosal immunisation of African green monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops) with an attenuated parainfluenza virus expressing the SARS coronavirus spike protein for the prevention of SARS
    Alexander Bukreyev
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Lancet 363:2122-7. 2004
    ..We have developed an experimental SARS vaccine for direct immunisation of the respiratory tract, the major site of SARS- coronavirus transmission and disease...
  70. ncbi Impact of vector-priming on the immunogenicity of a live recombinant Salmonella enterica serovar typhi Ty21a vaccine expressing urease A and B from Helicobacter pylori in human volunteers
    W G Metzger
    Max Planck Institut für Infektionsbiologie, Abteilung Molekulare Biologie, Schumannstrasse 21 22, D 10117 Berlin, Germany
    Vaccine 22:2273-7. 2004
    ..pylori urease (56%). This supports the results of a previous study in non-preimmunized volunteers where 56% (five of nine) of the volunteers showed a cellular immune response to urease after immunisation with S. typhi Ty21a (pDB1)...
  71. pmc Rotavirus vaccines: an overview
    Penelope H Dennehy
    Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Rhode Island Hospital, 593 Eddy Street, Providence, RI 02903, USA
    Clin Microbiol Rev 21:198-208. 2008
    ..These new safe and effective rotavirus vaccines offer the best hope of reducing the toll of acute rotavirus gastroenteritis in both developed and developing countries...
  72. pmc Codon substitution mutations at two positions in the L polymerase protein of human parainfluenza virus type 1 yield viruses with a spectrum of attenuation in vivo and increased phenotypic stability in vitro
    Josephine M McAuliffe
    Respiratory Viruses Section, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Virol 78:2029-36. 2004
    ..These findings identify the use of alternative codon substitution mutations as a method that can be used to generate candidate vaccine viruses with increased genetic stability and/or a modified level of attenuation...
  73. pmc Generation of recombinant human parainfluenza virus type 1 vaccine candidates by importation of temperature-sensitive and attenuating mutations from heterologous paramyxoviruses
    Jason T Newman
    Respiratory Viruses Section, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Virol 78:2017-28. 2004
    ..Thus, importation of attenuating mutations from heterologous viruses is an effective means for rapidly identifying mutations that attenuate HPIV1 and for generating live-attenuated HPIV1 vaccine candidates...
  74. ncbi Empirically derived live-attenuated vaccines against dengue and Japanese encephalitis
    Jean Francois Saluzzo
    Aventis Pasteur, Campus C Mérieux, 69280 Marcy l Etoile, France
    Adv Virus Res 61:419-43. 2003
  75. pmc Virulence attenuation and live vaccine potential of aroA, crp cdt cya, and plasmid-cured mutants of Salmonella enterica serovar Abortusovis in mice and sheep
    Sergio Uzzau
    Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche, Center for Biotechnology Development and Biodiversity Research, Universita di Sassari, Italy
    Infect Immun 73:4302-8. 2005
    ..All three vaccine candidates appear to be safe for use in sheep and provide a model for the development of live vaccine candidates against naturally occurring ovine salmonellosis...
  76. ncbi Influenza A virus with defective M2 ion channel activity as a live vaccine
    Tokiko Watanabe
    Department of Pathobiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin Madison, 2015 Linden Drive, Madison, WI 53706, USA
    Virology 299:266-70. 2002
    ....
  77. ncbi Effective and safe immunizations with live-attenuated vaccines for children after living donor liver transplantation
    Masayoshi Shinjoh
    Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Keio University, Shinjuku ku, Tokyo 160 8582, Japan
    Vaccine 26:6859-63. 2008
    Immunizations using live-attenuated vaccines are not recommended for post-liver transplant children due to its theoretical risks. However, they will encounter vaccine-preventable viral diseases upon returning to real-life situations...
  78. ncbi Efficacy of human rotavirus vaccine against rotavirus gastroenteritis during the first 2 years of life in European infants: randomised, double-blind controlled study
    T Vesikari
    Vaccine Research Centre, Medical School, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland
    Lancet 370:1757-63. 2007
    ..We aimed to assess the efficacy of the oral live attenuated human rotavirus vaccine Rotarix (RIX4414) for prevention of rotavirus gastroenteritis in European infants during their first 2 years of life...
  79. pmc Cellular and biochemical differences between two attenuated poxvirus vaccine candidates (MVA and NYVAC) and role of the C7L gene
    José Luis Nájera
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Centro Nacional de Biotecnologia, CSIC, Ciudad Universitaria Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid, Spain
    J Virol 80:6033-47. 2006
    ..Overall, our findings demonstrate distinct behavior between NYVAC and MVA strains in cultured cells, as well as a new role for the C7L viral gene as an inhibitor of apoptosis in NYVAC infection...
  80. ncbi rDEN4delta30, a live attenuated dengue virus type 4 vaccine candidate, is safe, immunogenic, and highly infectious in healthy adult volunteers
    Anna P Durbin
    Center for Immunization Research, Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    J Infect Dis 191:710-8. 2005
    ..The live attenuated dengue virus type 4 (DEN-4) vaccine candidate virus rDEN4 Delta 30 was previously found to be safe and immunogenic at a dose of 10(5) plaque-forming units (pfu)...
  81. ncbi Immunogenicity of a highly attenuated MVA smallpox vaccine and protection against monkeypox
    Patricia L Earl
    National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 0445, USA
    Nature 428:182-5. 2004
    ....
  82. ncbi Rationale and plans for developing a non-replicating, metabolically active, radiation-attenuated Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite vaccine
    Thomas C Luke
    Uniformed University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD 20814, USA
    J Exp Biol 206:3803-8. 2003
    ..By producing a vaccine for travelers, Sanaria will provide the infrastructure, regulatory foundation and funds necessary to speed licensure, manufacturing and deployment of the vaccine for the infants and children who need it most...
  83. ncbi Immunologic consequences of Francisella tularensis live vaccine strain infection: role of the innate immune response in infection and immunity
    Leah E Cole
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Maryland, Baltimore, School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
    J Immunol 176:6888-99. 2006
    ....
  84. pmc Cellular immune responses in children and adults receiving inactivated or live attenuated influenza vaccines
    Xiao Song He
    Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    J Virol 80:11756-66. 2006
    ..In conclusion, our findings identify age, type of vaccine, and prevaccination levels of immune reactivity to influenza A virus as factors significantly associated with the magnitude of cellular immune responses to influenza vaccines...
  85. ncbi Genetically modified, live attenuated dengue virus type 3 vaccine candidates
    Joseph E Blaney
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 8007, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 71:811-21. 2004
    ..Thus, the rDEN3/4(ME) and rDEN3/4Delta30(ME) antigenic chimeric viruses can be considered for evaluation in humans and for inclusion in a tetravalent dengue vaccine...
  86. ncbi Comparison of the efficacy and safety of live attenuated cold-adapted influenza vaccine, trivalent, with trivalent inactivated influenza virus vaccine in children and adolescents with asthma
    Douglas M Fleming
    Northfield Health Centre, Birmingham, United Kingdom
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 25:860-9. 2006
    ..LAIV has been studied in only a small number of children with asthma...
  87. ncbi A live attenuated glycoprotein E negative bovine herpesvirus 1 vaccine induces a partial cross-protection against caprine herpesvirus 1 infection in goats
    Julien Thiry
    Department of Animal Health and Well Being, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Bari, 70010 Valenzano, Italy
    Vet Microbiol 113:303-8. 2006
    ..These data indicate the safety and the partial efficacy of a live attenuated gE-negative BoHV-1 vaccine intranasally administrated in goats...
  88. ncbi Principles underlying the development and use of live attenuated cold-adapted influenza A and B virus vaccines
    Brian R Murphy
    Respiratory Viruses Section, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 8007, USA
    Viral Immunol 15:295-323. 2002
  89. pmc Live attenuated yellow fever 17D infects human DCs and allows for presentation of endogenous and recombinant T cell epitopes
    Giovanna Barba-Spaeth
    Laboratory of Virology and Infectious Disease, Center for the Study of Hepatitis C, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10021, USA
    J Exp Med 202:1179-84. 2005
    The yellow fever (YF) 17D vaccine is one of the most successful live attenuated vaccines available. A single immunization induces both long-lasting neutralizing antibody and YF-specific T cell responses...
  90. ncbi The live Mycobacterium tuberculosis phoP mutant strain is more attenuated than BCG and confers protective immunity against tuberculosis in mice and guinea pigs
    Carlos Martin
    Grupo de Genética de Micobacterias, Departamento de Microbiologia, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Zaragoza, Spain
    Vaccine 24:3408-19. 2006
    ..A high dose aerosol challenge of M. tuberculosis SO2 vaccinated guinea pigs resulted in superior levels of protection when compared with BCG vaccination, as measured by guinea pig survival and reduction in disease severity in the lung...
  91. pmc Prevention of antigenically drifted influenza by inactivated and live attenuated vaccines
    Suzanne E Ohmit
    Department of Epidemiology, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor 48109, USA
    N Engl J Med 355:2513-22. 2006
    ..The efficacy of influenza vaccines may decline during years when the circulating viruses have antigenically drifted from those included in the vaccine...
  92. ncbi Superior relative efficacy of live attenuated influenza vaccine compared with inactivated influenza vaccine in young children with recurrent respiratory tract infections
    Shai Ashkenazi
    Schneider Children s Medical Center, Petah Tikva, Israel
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 25:870-9. 2006
    ..This study compared the efficacy and safety of cold-adapted influenza vaccine, trivalent (CAIV-T) with trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) in young children with a history of recurrent respiratory tract infections (RTIs)...
  93. ncbi Evaluation of two live attenuated cold-adapted H5N1 influenza virus vaccines in healthy adults
    Ruth A Karron
    Center for Immunization Research, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, United States
    Vaccine 27:4953-60. 2009
    ..Development of live attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIV) against avian viruses with pandemic potential is an important public health strategy...
  94. ncbi Human cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses to live attenuated 17D yellow fever vaccine: identification of HLA-B35-restricted CTL epitopes on nonstructural proteins NS1, NS2b, NS3, and the structural protein E
    Mary Dawn T Co
    Center for Infectious Disease and Vaccine Research, University of Massachusetts Medical School, 55 Lake Avenue North, Worcester, Massachusetts 01655, USA
    Virology 293:151-63. 2002
    ..These results indicate that the live 17D YFV vaccine induced CD8(+) T cell responses directed against at least four different HLA-B35-restricted YFV epitopes...
  95. ncbi Safety and immunogenicity of tetravalent live-attenuated dengue vaccines in Thai adult volunteers: role of serotype concentration, ratio, and multiple doses
    Arunee Sabchareon
    Vaccine Trial Centre, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 66:264-72. 2002
    ..All subjects seroconverted to serotype 3 after one dose. Serotype 4 elicited the lowest primary response but the highest increase in seroconversion after the second dose...
  96. ncbi Novel vaccines from biotechnology
    D Rogan
    Bioniche Animal Health, P O Box 1570, Belleville, ON K8N 5J2, Canada
    Rev Sci Tech 24:159-74. 2005
    ....
  97. pmc Vaccinia viruses with mutations in the E3L gene as potential replication-competent, attenuated vaccines: intra-nasal vaccination
    Sangeetha Vijaysri
    Graduate Program in Microbiology, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 5401, USA
    Vaccine 26:664-76. 2008
    ..These recombinant VACV constructs may be promising vector candidates for use in vaccination strategies against smallpox and other pathogens...
  98. ncbi Safety and immunogenicity of attenuated dengue virus vaccines (Aventis Pasteur) in human volunteers
    N Kanesa-Thasan
    Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Washington, DC, USA
    Vaccine 19:3179-88. 2001
    ..The live attenuated tetravalent dengue vaccine was most reactogenic, and preferential replication of dengue-3 virus may have affected its infectivity and immunogenicity...
  99. ncbi Demystifying FluMist, a new intranasal, live influenza vaccine
    Sherif B Mossad
    Department of Infectious Diseases, The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, OH 44195, USA
    Cleve Clin J Med 70:801-6. 2003
    ..Intranasal administration is expected to be more acceptable than parenteral, particularly in children, but the potential for the shedding of live virus may pose a risk to anyone with a compromised immune system...
  100. ncbi Phase 1 studies of Walter Reed Army Institute of Research candidate attenuated dengue vaccines: selection of safe and immunogenic monovalent vaccines
    N Kanesa-Thasan
    Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Washington, District of Columbia, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 69:17-23. 2003
    ..Subsequent studies with more recipients will further establish safety and immunogenicity of the four selected vaccine candidates: DENV-1 45AZ5 PDK 20, DENV-2 S16803 PDK 50, DENV-3 CH53489 PDK 20, and DENV-4 341750 PDK 20...
  101. ncbi Live-attenuated intranasal parainfluenza virus type 2 vaccine candidates developed by reverse genetics containing L polymerase protein mutations imported from heterologous paramyxoviruses
    Sheila M Nolan
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, Respiratory Viruses Section, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 50 South Drive, Building 50, Room 6509, MSC 8007, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Vaccine 23:4765-74. 2005
    ..rHPIV2s bearing these modified mutations exhibited enhanced attenuation. The genetically stabilized mutations conferring a high level of attenuation will be useful in generating a live-attenuated virus vaccine for HPIV2...

Research Grants63

  1. Mucosal Immunity, Vaccines and Microbiota Interplay in Humans and Animal
    Marcelo B Sztein; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These studies will provide valuable insights that might accelerate the development of attenuated vaccines for S. dysenteriae 1...
  2. Novel DNA-Launched Attenuated Vaccine for VEE Virus
    PETER M PUSHKO; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..which represents a unique combination of conventional DNA immunization with high efficacy of live attenuated vaccines. The key feature of this technology is that live attenuated virus is launched in vivo from i-DNA plasmid ..
  3. A quantitative proteomics approach to understand viral immune evasion strategies
    Michele E Hardy; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..and the key players, both viral and host, have garnered such focus because of the potential to develop attenuated vaccines consisting of viruses with weakened evasion strategies...
  4. Programming of Protective CD8 T-Cell Memory by Live and Adjuvanted Subunit Vaccin
    Marulasiddappa Suresh; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Live attenuated vaccines have been highly effective in controlling human infections such as smallpox, yellow fever, measles, mumps, rubella, and chicken pox...
  5. Breakthroughs to advance the in vitro propagation of human noroviruses
    Qiuhong Wang; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..of HuNoV replication, to screen for anti- viral drugs and therapies, to serotype HuNoVs and to develop attenuated vaccines and evaluate the neutralizing antibody responses they elicit and correlates of protection...
  6. Role of innate immune responses in the activity of an Alphavirus based adjuvant.
    Robert E Johnston; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Such new adjuvants may help replace live attenuated vaccines with subunit or killed antigens, which are safer, easier to combine with other antigens, and have shorter ..
  7. Antigen presentation by epithelial stem cells to promote life long immunity
    MARIE CLAIRE ELISABETH GAUDUIN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..single cycle SIV (SIVsc) approach, which has been shown to be a very safe strategy compared to traditional attenuated vaccines, we propose to clone the SIVsc genome under the control of the involucrin promoter, a terminally ..
  8. Viral Gastroenteritis: Basis of Protection and Virulence
    HARRY BERNARD GREENBERG; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..diarrheal morbidity and mortality worldwide despite the recent approval of two safe and effective live attenuated vaccines. Many fundamental questions concerning the basis of heterotypic humoral immunity, the mechanisms by which ..
  9. Rational Development of Candidate Attenuated Flavivirus Vaccines
    Tian Wang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Live attenuated vaccines, which induce durable protective immunity, are one of the important strategies to control flavivirus ..
  10. Validating metabolic pathways in the intracellular pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis
    DEREK JAMES FISHER; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..have been used as targets for antibiotic development and CP mutants have been constructed for use as live-attenuated vaccines. While the genes comprising the CP pathway are predicted to be present in the Chlamydia genomes, they have ..
  11. Environmental Modulation of ToxT-dependent Transcription
    KARL KLOSE; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Our ultimate goal is to learn how ToxT functions, in order to utilize this information to design new therapeutics and/or rationally designed live attenuated vaccines to combat cholera.
  12. A Propagating Chimeric Particle as a Safe Alternative to Live-Attenuated Virus
    Kelly Young; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Overall, the propagating chimeric particle vaccine strategy is expected to be a safe alternative to live-attenuated vaccines in the quest for a safe, yet effective vaccine against HIV-1/AIDS...
  13. RNA processing in non-segmented minus-strand RNA viruses
    Sean P J Whelan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..is of intrinsic interest and has the potential to impact the development of antiviral drugs and live attenuated vaccines. Here we will obtain structural and functional insights into this protein for a prototype NNS RNA virus, ..
  14. Inflammasome Response to Bacterial Infection
    Edward A Miao; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..typhimurium. Our results will be instructive for designing live attenuated vaccines as well as vaccine adjuvants...
  15. LIGHT_HVEM_BTLA axis in protective anti_viral immunity
    Shahram Salek-Ardakani; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In this application, we will investigate the molecular basis that differentiates attenuated from non-attenuated vaccines by focusing on vaccine virus (VACV)...
  16. A novel DNA-launched live attenuated Chikungunya vaccine
    PETER M PUSHKO; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..i-DNA vaccination will combine the simplicity of DNA vaccines with the exceptional efficacy of live attenuated vaccines. The i-DNA can potentially improve safety, does not require cold chain and is easy to manufacture and scale-..
  17. Investigating the Role of Cellular Signaling in Liver-Stage Malaria Infection
    Alexis Kaushansky; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..may cause the induction of apoptosis by wildtype parasites and might also enhance immunity induced by live-attenuated vaccines. Altering the hepatocyte response to infection could convert a wildtype, disease promoting parasite into ..
  18. Attenuated Strains of Human Metapneumovirus for Vaccines and Pathogenesis
    John V Williams; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This work proposes to develop live attenuated vaccines against HMPV and define viral determinants of virulence. We propose three specific aims: Specific Aim 1...
  19. Live attenuated vaccines for epidemic and pandemic flu
    Adolfo Garcia Sastre; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Finally, in collaboration with GreenHills Biotechnology, we will optimize cell culture techniques for the large-scale production of NS1-modified influenza virus vaccines suitable for use in humans. ..
  20. Virulence Factors of Francisella tularensis
    Barbara J Mann; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Identification of novel virulence factors may have practical applications for the development of attenuated vaccines, and/or the identification of targets for new therapeutics.
  21. Rational Design of Live Attenuated Influenza A Vaccine Candidates
    Eckard Wimmer; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Also maintaining a 100% amino acid sequence match to the vaccine target, provides a characteristic of SAVE-attenuated vaccines that is not present in any currently available vaccine technology...
  22. Immunity of aged mice after lifelong repeated live or killed influenza vaccines
    DONNA MARIE MURASKO; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..their lives with the attenuated rather than the traditional killed vaccine? Since both the killed and attenuated vaccines are effective in inducing protective immunity in healthy young individuals, there is no basis for choosing ..
  23. Development of live attenuated influenza virus vaccine
    Debi P Nayak; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Live attenuated vaccines can be produced in mass quantity, delivered easily and will produce broader and long lasting protective ..
  24. Control of protective immunity by innate pathways sensing bacterial viability
    JULIE MAGARIAN BLANDER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Live attenuated vaccines are long known to induce superior immune protection and lasting immune memory, and with single dose administration in most cases...
  25. Novel Vaccine Technology for Chikungunya
    Scott C Weaver; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..structural proteins, we produced a live CHIKV vaccine strain that combines the proven advantages of live-attenuated vaccines, yet which should be more stably attenuated than traditional approaches...
  26. Host-pathogen competition in IFN mediated antiviral defense
    DOUGLAS CRAIG HOOPER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The recognition that many laboratory RV strains developed as live-attenuated vaccines spread to, and replicate in the CNS tissues but are cleared by immune mechanisms without overt ..
  27. INDUCTION AND MODULATION OF HOST RESPONSES BY UPEC
    Anthony J Schaeffer; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These studies lay the groundwork for development and optimization of novel and effective live attenuated vaccines for UTI. PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: Urinary tract infections afflict approximately 7 million women in the U.S...
  28. Rotavirus VP6 Specific Human IgA Antibodies
    James E Crowe; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Despite the fact the live attenuated vaccines induce protection against severe disease, we still don't understand fully how immunity to rotavirus ..
  29. Paramyxovirus Assembly
    Toru Takimoto; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..critical process of respiratory virus assembly, which is expected to provide valuable data to develop safe attenuated vaccines or antiviral agents...
  30. Influenza A Virus Infection of Human Nasal Epithelial Cells
    ANDREW S PEKOSZ; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Both inactivated and live attenuated vaccines are available but their effectiveness could be improved substantially to provide broader and longer lasting ..
  31. Epithelial Cells as Mucosal Adjuvant for Life Long Immunity
    Marie Claire Gauduin; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..single cycle SIV (SIVsc) approach, which has been shown to be a very safe strategy compared to traditional attenuated vaccines, we propose to clone the SIVsc genome under the control of the involucrin promoter, a terminally ..
  32. T Cell Response to Listeria Monocytogenes Infection
    Brian S Sheridan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The hypothesis that responses induced by live infection versus immunization with attenuated vaccines share common essential components to generate protective memory will be tested in three aims: Specific Aim ..
  33. Protective immunity induced by P. yoelii genetically attenuated vaccines
    Ruobing Wang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Results of this project will then provide the foundation for development of an effective anti-malaria vaccine. ..
  34. A Tetravalent Dengue Vaccine Based on Alphavirus Replicons
    Laura J White; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Live attenuated vaccines likely will fail to induce endogenous responses to all four DEN serotypes in infants born to monotypically ..
  35. Adoptive transfer of immunity elicited by attenuated HIV vaccines
    DAVID H O'CONNOR; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..primary goal of this application is to learn whether cellular immune responses contribute to the success of attenuated vaccines by adoptively transferring these cells from immunized animals into naive recipients that are subsequently ..
  36. A Sindbis virus-based Vaccine Against RVFV Infection
    Ilya Frolov; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..This vaccine will combine the efficiency of live attenuated vaccines and safety of the subunit vaccines...
  37. Vaccine Design to Concentrate Protective Antibodies at the Mucosal Border
    Ashley T Haase; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Studies of the mechanisms by which SIV live attenuated vaccines provide robust protection have the potential to facilitate design of vaccines to prevent HIV infection...
  38. YELLOW FEVER 17D-BASED CHIMERIC FLAVIVIRUS VACCINES
    William Wold; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..whether this chimeric virus technology warrants further consideration for development of human live- attenuated vaccines for dengue, Japanese encephalitis, and perhaps other medically important flaviviruses and to provide better ..
  39. ANALYSIS TYPHIMURIUM ADHESION TO PEYERS PATCHES
    ANDREAS BAUMLER; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..The investigator's results will therefore facilitate both the design of improved attenuated vaccines and the development of new strategies to prevent disease caused by this pathogen...
  40. MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OF RUBELLA VIRUS
    TERYL FREY; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Use of live, attenuated vaccines control rubella, however these vaccines have been associated with arthritis in adult women and placental ..
  41. Development of live Francisella tularensis vaccines
    Anders Sjostedt; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..it is possible that these include additional protective antigens, the retention of these genes in future attenuated vaccines could be advantageous. Recent work on a spontaneous mutant of Schu S4 supports this hypothesis...
  42. MEASLES VACCINES--IMMUNE RESPONSES AND ATYPICAL MEASLES
    Diane Griffin; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..aims of the proposal are: 1) to characterize the immune responses to formalin-inactivated vaccine and live attenuated vaccines by comparing the specificities and biological properties of anti-measles virus antibodies, T cell effector ..
  43. Attenuated West Nile virus vaccine
    Alexander Khromykh; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The approach and findings obtained in this project should also be applicable to the design of attenuated vaccines against other flaviviruses from the NIAD Category A, B, and C pathogens, e.g...
  44. Lassa and Nipah Virus Interferon-Antagonists
    CHRISTOPHER BASLER; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..are critical for virulence, they are attractive as targets for mutagenesis in the development of live, attenuated vaccines. Further, antiviral drugs that target IFN-antagonists should impair viral replication and might be used to ..
  45. Avian Influenza Vaccines for Pandemic Preparedness
    Daniel Perez; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..goal of this R21 proposal is based on the hypothesis that by manipulating the genome of Al viruses, live attenuated vaccines can be prepared that will not only be useful for pandemic preparedness in humans but also for the control ..
  46. VACCINIA ENCODED KINASES AND PHOSPHATASES
    Paula Traktman; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..of the life cycle of vaccinia virus, which has been used so effectively as the vaccine for protection against smallpox, will provide a solid foundation for the development of rational anti-poxvirus therapies and attenuated vaccines.
  47. GENETIC IMMUNIZATION OF IMMATURE PRIMATES AGAINST HIV1
    Mark Bagarazzi; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..human immunoglobulin production only reaches adult levels at age two years and responses to certain live attenuated vaccines (measles, etc.) have been disappointing in younger infants. In an effort to build on Dr...
  48. Acquired Immunity and Vaccination for P. aeruginosa
    Gerald Pier; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The major aim of the proposal will be to explore how attenuated vaccines that enter lung epithelial cells prior to clearance induce protective antibodies and T cells that recognize ..
  49. Chimeric yellow fever 17D/Dengue vaccines
    Thomas Monath; Fiscal Year: 2000
    The aim of this proposal is to develop genetically engineered live, attenuated vaccines against Dengue types l4...
  50. Cutaneous Gene Therapy with Ultrasound: DNA Vaccination
    Samir Mitragotri; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Genetic vaccines offer several advantages over live-attenuated vaccines. Furthermore, skin offers a natural target site for the delivery of genetic vaccines due to the presence of ..
  51. Evaluation of Flavivirus Live Attenuated Vaccine Recombination Potential
    Charles McGee; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Live attenuated vaccines are an attractive strategy for control of these agents;however concerns have been raised about the ..
  52. GENETICS AND PATHOGENESIS OF BLUETONGUE VIRUS
    ROBERT RAMIG; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..The answers to the questions addressed here are critical to any strategy making use of polyvalent attenuated vaccines for control of viruses with segmented genomes.
  53. LIVE ATTENUATED VACCINES FOR PANDEMIC PREPAREDNESS
    Shengqiang Li; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ....
  54. LIVE ATTENUATED VACCINES FOR PANDEMIC PREPAREDNESS
    Shengqiang Li; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..abstract_text> ..
  55. MECHANISMS TO ELICIT PROTECTIVE IMMUNITY--AIDS VACCINE
    Frank Tung; Fiscal Year: 1999
    DESCRIPTION (Adapted from applicant's abstract): Live attenuated vaccines prepared from simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) have provided the best protective immunity in challenge experiments...
  56. Generation of bPIV3-vectored PIV and RSV Vaccines
    AURELIA HALLER; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Aviron proposes to develop live, attenuated vaccines for prevention of disease caused by hPIV and hRSV...
  57. Conformationally-Constrained PA Anthrax Vaccine
    Maurizio Zanetti; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..an effective anthrax vaccine can be categorized into the following groups: (1) Protein vaccines; (2) Live attenuated vaccines; (3) DNA and replicon vaccines: and (4) Identification of new antigens...
  58. MOLECULAR PATHOGENESIS OF INFLUENZA
    Yoshihiro Kawaoka; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..clinical symptoms in animals can provide valuable information on mutations for use in preparation of live-attenuated vaccines. Finally, knowledge gained from studies on the structural features of the NA and M2 proteins required for ..
  59. DELETION MUTAGENESIS WITHIN NONCODING SEGMENTS OF HIV1
    Mark Wainberg; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..large deletions in the non-coding region, with or without the 184V substitution in RT, may serve as attenuated vaccines for purposes of stimulating anti-SIV humoral and cellular immune responsiveness in macaques. 6...
  60. Viral evolution:mutational effects and interactions
    CHRISTINA BURCH; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..to its general relevance for evolutionary biology, this work has relevance specifically to the development of live attenuated vaccines, and to understanding the evolutionary responses of viruses to drug treatment.
  61. Mycobacterial Genes, Antigens, and Vaccines
    Barry Bloom; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..approach, joining molecular genetics and immunology, to developing safe and effective live attenuated vaccines against TB...
  62. EFFECTS OF CD154 EXPRESSION DURING RETROVIRAL INFECTION
    Luis Giavedoni; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..may lead to improvements in HIV vaccine design in at least two ways: i) better understanding of the mechanisms of immune dysregulation during HIV infection, or ii) prospect for safer live-attenuated vaccines.
  63. Immune Responses to Biodefense Vaccines Early in Life
    Marcela F Pasetti; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..It will also provide knowledge to better understand the mechanisms mediating neonatal-infant immunity to develop more effectivevaccines to prevent diseases early in life. ..