neurotoxins

Summary

Summary: Toxic substances from microorganisms, plants or animals that interfere with the functions of the nervous system. Most venoms contain neurotoxic substances. Myotoxins are included in this concept.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Voltage-gated ion channels and gating modifier toxins
    William A Catterall
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 7280, USA
    Toxicon 49:124-41. 2007
  2. pmc Diverse taxa of cyanobacteria produce beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine, a neurotoxic amino acid
    Paul Alan Cox
    Institute for Ethnomedicine, National Tropical Botanical Garden, Kalaheo, HI 96741, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:5074-8. 2005
  3. pmc Biomagnification of cyanobacterial neurotoxins and neurodegenerative disease among the Chamorro people of Guam
    Paul Alan Cox
    Institute for Ethnobotany, National Tropical Botanical Garden, Kalaheo, HI 96741, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:13380-3. 2003
  4. ncbi Molding the business end of neurotoxins by diversifying evolution
    Adi Kozminsky-Atias
    Department of Life Sciences, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, Israel
    FASEB J 26:576-86. 2012
  5. pmc Transfer of a cyanobacterial neurotoxin within a temperate aquatic ecosystem suggests pathways for human exposure
    Sara Jonasson
    Departments of Botany and Analytical Chemistry, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm, Sweden
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:9252-7. 2010
  6. ncbi Crystal structure of a SNARE complex involved in synaptic exocytosis at 2.4 A resolution
    R B Sutton
    The Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA
    Nature 395:347-53. 1998
  7. pmc A mechanism for slow release of biomagnified cyanobacterial neurotoxins and neurodegenerative disease in Guam
    Susan J Murch
    Institute for Ethnobotany, National Tropical Botanical Garden, Kalaheo, HI 96741, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:12228-31. 2004
  8. ncbi Occurrence of beta-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA) in ALS/PDC patients from Guam
    S J Murch
    Institute for Ethnobotany, National Tropical Botanical Garden, Kalaheo, HI 96741, USA
    Acta Neurol Scand 110:267-9. 2004
  9. ncbi Distinct activities of novel neurotoxins from Australian venomous snakes for nicotinic acetylcholine receptors
    L St Pierre
    The Queensland Cancer Fund Research Unit, The Queensland Institute of Medical Research, P O Box Royal Brisbane Hospital, Herston, Brisbane, 4029, Australia
    Cell Mol Life Sci 64:2829-40. 2007
  10. ncbi Cellular pathology induced by snake venom phospholipase A2 myotoxins and neurotoxins: common aspects of their mechanisms of action
    C Montecucco
    Instituto Clodomiro Picado, Facultad de Microbiologia, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Jose 2060, Costa Rica
    Cell Mol Life Sci 65:2897-912. 2008

Detail Information

Publications385 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Voltage-gated ion channels and gating modifier toxins
    William A Catterall
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 7280, USA
    Toxicon 49:124-41. 2007
    ..for action potential generation and conduction and are the molecular targets for a broad range of potent neurotoxins. These channels are built on a common structural motif containing six transmembrane segments and a pore loop...
  2. pmc Diverse taxa of cyanobacteria produce beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine, a neurotoxic amino acid
    Paul Alan Cox
    Institute for Ethnomedicine, National Tropical Botanical Garden, Kalaheo, HI 96741, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:5074-8. 2005
    ..Production of known neurotoxins has also been considered phylogenetically unpredictable...
  3. pmc Biomagnification of cyanobacterial neurotoxins and neurodegenerative disease among the Chamorro people of Guam
    Paul Alan Cox
    Institute for Ethnobotany, National Tropical Botanical Garden, Kalaheo, HI 96741, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:13380-3. 2003
    ....
  4. ncbi Molding the business end of neurotoxins by diversifying evolution
    Adi Kozminsky-Atias
    Department of Life Sciences, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, Israel
    FASEB J 26:576-86. 2012
    A diverse range of organisms utilize neurotoxins that target specific ion channels and modulate their activity...
  5. pmc Transfer of a cyanobacterial neurotoxin within a temperate aquatic ecosystem suggests pathways for human exposure
    Sara Jonasson
    Departments of Botany and Analytical Chemistry, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm, Sweden
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:9252-7. 2010
    ....
  6. ncbi Crystal structure of a SNARE complex involved in synaptic exocytosis at 2.4 A resolution
    R B Sutton
    The Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA
    Nature 395:347-53. 1998
    ..These characteristics may be important for membrane fusion and for the binding of regulatory factors affecting neurotransmission...
  7. pmc A mechanism for slow release of biomagnified cyanobacterial neurotoxins and neurodegenerative disease in Guam
    Susan J Murch
    Institute for Ethnobotany, National Tropical Botanical Garden, Kalaheo, HI 96741, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:12228-31. 2004
    ..The presence of BMAA in brain tissues from Canadian patients who died of Alzheimer's disease suggests that exposure to cyanobacterial neurotoxins occurs outside of Guam.
  8. ncbi Occurrence of beta-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA) in ALS/PDC patients from Guam
    S J Murch
    Institute for Ethnobotany, National Tropical Botanical Garden, Kalaheo, HI 96741, USA
    Acta Neurol Scand 110:267-9. 2004
    ..Both forms of BMAA were also found at comparable levels in two Canadians who died of progressive neurodegenerative disease. BMAA, which is produced by cyanobacteria, may be associated with some cases of neurodegenerative disease...
  9. ncbi Distinct activities of novel neurotoxins from Australian venomous snakes for nicotinic acetylcholine receptors
    L St Pierre
    The Queensland Cancer Fund Research Unit, The Queensland Institute of Medical Research, P O Box Royal Brisbane Hospital, Herston, Brisbane, 4029, Australia
    Cell Mol Life Sci 64:2829-40. 2007
    Envenomation from Australian elapid snakes results in a myriad of neurological effects due to post-synaptic neurotoxins that bind and inhibit nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) of neurons and muscle fibres...
  10. ncbi Cellular pathology induced by snake venom phospholipase A2 myotoxins and neurotoxins: common aspects of their mechanisms of action
    C Montecucco
    Instituto Clodomiro Picado, Facultad de Microbiologia, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Jose 2060, Costa Rica
    Cell Mol Life Sci 65:2897-912. 2008
    ..The different systemic pathophysiological consequences caused by these toxins are not due to different mechanisms of cell toxicity, but to the intrinsic anatomical and physiological properties of the targeted tissues and cells...
  11. ncbi Color vision: a sensitive indicator of exposure to neurotoxins
    F Gobba
    Dipartimento di Scienze Igienistiche, Microbiologiche e Biostatistiche, Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy
    Neurotoxicology 21:857-62. 2000
    ..15 years an increasing number of studies have investigated color discrimination in workers exposed to various neurotoxins. Color vision was generally evaluated using the Lanthony D-15 desaturated panel (D-15 d), a test suited to ..
  12. ncbi LC-MS/MS determination of the isomeric neurotoxins BMAA (beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine) and DAB (2,4-diaminobutyric acid) in cyanobacteria and seeds of Cycas revoluta and Lathyrus latifolius
    Thomas Krüger
    Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, Institute of Nutrition, Department of Food Chemistry, Dornburger Str 25, 07743 Jena, Germany
    Toxicon 55:547-57. 2010
    ..06 microg g(-1) in cyanobacteria and <0.008 microg g(-1) in angiosperm seeds. The highly specific analysis method with increased detection sensitivity eliminates the disadvantages of derivatization-based methods to be discussed...
  13. ncbi Clostridium botulinum and its neurotoxins: a metabolic and cellular perspective
    E A Johnson
    Department of Food Microbiology and Toxicology, and Bacteriology, Food Research Institute, University of Wisconsin, Madison, 53706, USA
    Toxicon 39:1703-22. 2001
    ..the past decade, and many excellent reviews are available on various aspects of these organisms and their neurotoxins. However, certain areas have not been well-studied, including metabolic regulation of toxin formation and ..
  14. ncbi Co-occurrence of beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine, a neurotoxic amino acid with other cyanobacterial toxins in British waterbodies, 1990-2004
    James S Metcalf
    Division of Molecular and Environmental Microbiology, College of Life Sciences, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 4HN, UK
    Environ Microbiol 10:702-8. 2008
    ..Furthermore, samples collected over several years shows that BMAA can co-occur with other known cyanotoxins in such waterbodies. Health risk assessment of cyanobacterial BMAA in waterbodies is suggested...
  15. ncbi Actions of sea anemone type 1 neurotoxins on voltage-gated sodium channel isoforms
    Enzo Wanke
    Dipartimento di Biotecnologie e Bioscienze, Universita di Milano Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 2, 20126 Milano, Italy
    Toxicon 54:1102-11. 2009
    ....
  16. ncbi Microglia Kv1.3 channels contribute to their ability to kill neurons
    Christopher B Fordyce
    Division of Cellular and Molecular Biology, Toronto Western Research Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, M5T 2S8, Canada
    J Neurosci 25:7139-49. 2005
    ..That is, the dose-dependent reduction in neuron killing by minocycline corresponded with a reduction in p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation in microglia; however, none of the Kv1.3 blockers affected p38 activation...
  17. ncbi Proteolysis of SNAP-25 by types E and A botulinal neurotoxins
    T Binz
    Department of Microbiology, Federal Research Center of Virus Diseases of Animals, Tubingen, Germany
    J Biol Chem 269:1617-20. 1994
    Clostridial neurotoxins, tetanus toxin (TeTx) and the seven related but serologically distinct botulinal neurotoxins (BoNT/A to BoNT/G), are potent inhibitors of synaptic vesicle exocytosis in nerve endings...
  18. pmc Involvement of Kv1.3 and p38 MAPK signaling in HIV-1 glycoprotein 120-induced microglia neurotoxicity
    J Liu
    Neurophysiology Laboratory, Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Neuroscience, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198 5880, USA
    Cell Death Dis 3:e254. 2012
    ..3 attenuated gp120-associated microglia production of neurotoxins and neurotoxicity. Knockdown of K(v)1.3 gene by transfection of microglia with K(v)1...
  19. ncbi Alkylation of myotoxic phospholipases A2 in Bothrops moojeni venom: a promising approach to an enhanced antivenom production
    Andreimar M Soares
    Departamento de Biotecnologia, Universidade de Ribeirao Preto, UNAERP, SP, Ribeirao Preto, Brazil
    Int J Biochem Cell Biol 36:258-70. 2004
    ..moojeni venom or isolated myotoxins while retaining antigenicity, which suggests a promising procedure for an enhanced antiophidian serum production for practical purposes...
  20. ncbi Distinguishing the cyanobacterial neurotoxin beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) from its structural isomer 2,4-diaminobutyric acid (2,4-DAB)
    S A Banack
    Institute for Ethnomedicine, Box 3464, Jackson, WY 83001, USA
    Toxicon 56:868-79. 2010
    ..Other compounds that may be theoretically confused with BMAA during chloroformate derivatization during GC analysis are distinguished due to their different retention times...
  21. ncbi Neurotoxins from Australo-Papuan elapids: a biochemical and pharmacological perspective
    Sanjaya Kuruppu
    Monash Venom Group, Department of Pharmacology, Monash University, Victoria, Australia
    Crit Rev Toxicol 38:73-86. 2008
    ..detailed pharmacological and biochemical characterization of the presynaptic (beta) and postsynaptic (alpha) neurotoxins from these elapid venoms...
  22. pmc The homeobox transcription factor Even-skipped regulates acquisition of electrical properties in Drosophila neurons
    Edward C G Pym
    Neuroscience Group, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK
    Neural Dev 1:3. 2006
    ..The perdurance of these factors in late embryonic neurons is, however, indicative that they might also regulate additional aspects of neuron development, including the acquisition of electrical properties...
  23. ncbi In vitro neuromuscular activity of snake venoms
    Wayne C Hodgson
    Department of Pharmacology, Monash Venom Group, PO Box 13E, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria 3800, Australia
    Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 29:807-14. 2002
    1. Snake venoms consist of a multitude of pharmacologically active components used for the capture of prey. Neurotoxins are particularly important in this regard, producing paralysis of skeletal muscles...
  24. ncbi Effect of intravesical Resiniferatoxin (RTX) on lower urinary tract symptoms, urodynamic parameters, and quality of life of patients with urodynamic increased bladder sensation
    Apostolos Apostolidis
    The National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Department of Uro Neurology, Internal mailbox 71, Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, UK
    Eur Urol 50:1299-305. 2006
    ..We investigated the efficacy of intravesical RTX in patients with urgency and frequency due to increased bladder sensation...
  25. ncbi Molecular mechanisms of calcium-dependent neurodegeneration in excitotoxicity
    Mark Arundine
    Toronto Western Hospital Research Institute, 399 Bathurst Street, Ont M5T 2S8, Toronto, Canada
    Cell Calcium 34:325-37. 2003
    ..Thus, we summarize the importance of Ca(2+) regulation in mammalian neurons and the excitotoxicity hypothesis, and focus on the molecular determinants of glutamate receptor-mediated excitotoxic mechanisms...
  26. ncbi Neurotoxin gene clusters in Clostridium botulinum type A strains: sequence comparison and evolutionary implications
    Sean S Dineen
    Department of Food Microbiology and Toxicology, Food Research Institute, University of Wisconsin, 1925 Willow Drive, Madison, WI 53706, USA
    Curr Microbiol 46:345-52. 2003
    ..These IS elements may have played a role in neurotoxin gene transfer within the host genome and to other Clostridium species...
  27. ncbi Trimethyltin-induced differential expression of PAR subtypes in reactive astrocytes of the rat hippocampus
    Elena Pompili
    Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, University La Sapienza, via A Borelli 50, Rome 00161, Italy
    Brain Res Mol Brain Res 122:93-8. 2004
    ....
  28. ncbi Comparative proteomic analysis of the venom of the taipan snake, Oxyuranus scutellatus, from Papua New Guinea and Australia: role of neurotoxic and procoagulant effects in venom toxicity
    Maria Herrera
    Instituto Clodomiro Picado, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Jose, Costa Rica
    J Proteomics 75:2128-40. 2012
    ..However, at high doses, such as those injected in natural bites, intravascular thrombosis due to the action of the prothrombin activator may constitute a potent and very rapid mechanism for killing prey...
  29. pmc Cytotoxicity of botulinum neurotoxins reveals a direct role of syntaxin 1 and SNAP-25 in neuron survival
    Lisheng Peng
    Department of Microbiology and Immunobiology, Harvard Medical School, Division of Neuroscience, New England Primate Research Center, Southborough, Massachusetts 01772, USA
    Nat Commun 4:1472. 2013
    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT/A-G) act by blocking synaptic vesicle exocytosis. Whether BoNTs disrupt additional neuronal functions has not been addressed...
  30. ncbi Selenium-induced antioxidant protection recruits modulation of thioredoxin reductase during excitotoxic/pro-oxidant events in the rat striatum
    Perla D Maldonado
    Laboratorio de Patología Vascular Cerebral, Instituto Nacional de Neurologia y Neurocirugia, Mexico 14269, Mexico
    Neurochem Int 61:195-206. 2012
    ....
  31. ncbi Presynaptic neurotoxins: an expanding array of natural and modified molecules
    Bazbek Davletov
    Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, UK
    Cell Calcium 52:234-40. 2012
    ..Unlike other toxins, most presynaptic neurotoxins do not kill cells but simply inhibit or activate synaptic transmission...
  32. ncbi Nitrogen starvation of cyanobacteria results in the production of β-N-methylamino-L-alanine
    S Downing
    Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, P O Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031, South Africa
    Toxicon 58:187-94. 2011
    ..This study provides the first data regarding the regulation of intracellular BMAA concentrations in cyanobacteria with results conclusively showing the production of ¹⁵N BMAA by an axenic cyanobacterial culture...
  33. pmc Alterations in bioenergetic function induced by Parkinson's disease mimetic compounds: lack of correlation with superoxide generation
    Brian P Dranka
    Department of Biophysics and Free Radical Research Center, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, USA
    J Neurochem 122:941-51. 2012
    ..Together these data indicate that MPP(+), rotenone, and 6-OHDA dramatically shift bioenergetic function away from the mitochondria and towards glycolysis in N27 cells...
  34. ncbi Discovery and structure of a potent and highly specific blocker of insect calcium channels
    X H Wang
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, CT 06032, USA
    J Biol Chem 276:40306-12. 2001
    We have isolated a novel family of insect-selective neurotoxins that appear to be the most potent blockers of insect voltage-gated calcium channels reported to date...
  35. ncbi Evolutionary trends in venom composition in the western rattlesnakes (Crotalus viridis sensu lato): toxicity vs. tenderizers
    Stephen P Mackessy
    School of Biological Sciences, University of Northern Colorado, 501 20th St, CB 92, Greeley, CO 80639 0017, USA
    Toxicon 55:1463-74. 2010
    ..The functional significance of these biochemical characteristics likely relates to characteristics of prey consumed, and venoms with low metalloproteinase activity may constrain snake prey selection or foraging activity patterns...
  36. ncbi Prospective, randomized, double-blind study of safety and tolerability of intravesical resiniferatoxin (RTX) in interstitial cystitis (IC)
    Tony Y H Chen
    Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Sherbrooke, Service d urologie 3001, Canada
    Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct 16:293-7. 2005
    ..To determine the safety and tolerability of intravesical resiniferatoxin (RTX) in interstitial cystitis (IC) patients...
  37. pmc Manganese exposure is cytotoxic and alters dopaminergic and GABAergic neurons within the basal ganglia
    Gregg D Stanwood
    Vanderbilt Kennedy Center for Research on Human Development, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37620, USA
    J Neurochem 110:378-89. 2009
    ..These studies suggest that acute manganese exposure induces cytoskeletal dysfunction prior to degeneration and that chronic manganese exposure results in neurochemical dysfunction with overlapping features to PD...
  38. ncbi Neonatal brain injury
    Donna M Ferriero
    Department of Neurolog, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143 0663, USA
    N Engl J Med 351:1985-95. 2004
  39. ncbi Venomic and antivenomic analyses of the Central American coral snake, Micrurus nigrocinctus (Elapidae)
    JULIAN FERNANDEZ
    Instituto Clodomiro Picado, Facultad de Microbiología, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica
    J Proteome Res 10:1816-27. 2011
    ..Within 3FTxs, several isoforms of short-chain α-neurotoxins as well as muscarinic-like toxins and proteins with similarity to long-chain κ-2 bungarotoxin were identified...
  40. ncbi Does melatonin help save dopaminergic cells in MPTP-treated mice?
    Jeannine Ma
    CNS Stability and Degeneration, Research School of Biological Sciences, Australian National University, Australia
    Parkinsonism Relat Disord 15:307-14. 2009
    ..This indicated that melatonin pre-treatment potentially neuroprotected all the SNc cells from MPTP toxicity and death...
  41. ncbi Beyond BOTOX: advantages and limitations of individual botulinum neurotoxins
    Bazbek Davletov
    Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 2QH, UK
    Trends Neurosci 28:446-52. 2005
    Botulinum neurotoxins are the most potent toxins designed by nature. They are produced by Clostridium bacteria to cause long-lasting paralysis and death...
  42. ncbi Basic immunological aspects of botulinum toxin therapy
    M Zouhair Atassi
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    Mov Disord 19:S68-84. 2004
    ....
  43. pmc Insights into the different catalytic activities of Clostridium neurotoxins
    Sheng Chen
    Department of Applied Biology and Chemical Technology, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR
    Biochemistry 51:3941-7. 2012
    The clostridial neurotoxins are among the most potent protein toxins for humans and are responsible for botulism, a flaccid paralysis elicited by the botulinum toxins (BoNT), and spastic paralysis elicited by tetanus toxin (TeNT)...
  44. pmc Screening and cDNA cloning of Kv1 potassium channel toxins in sea anemones
    Yoshikazu Yamaguchi
    Department of Food Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, Konan 4, Minato ku, Tokyo, Japan
    Mar Drugs 8:2893-905. 2010
    ..3)-SHTX-She1a (Shk) from Stichodactyla helianthus but only 34-63% identities with the other type 1 potassium channel toxins...
  45. ncbi Self-assembly of Abeta(1-42) into globular neurotoxins
    Brett A Chromy
    Biodefense Division, Biology and Biotechnology Research Program, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, L 446, Livermore, California 94551, USA
    Biochemistry 42:12749-60. 2003
    ..The observed neurotoxicity, structure, and stability of synthetic Abeta(1-42) globular assemblies support the hypothesis that Abeta(1-42) oligomers play a role in triggering nerve cell dysfunction and death in Alzheimer's disease...
  46. ncbi Distinct mechanisms underlie distinct polyphenol-induced neuroprotection
    Keiko Yazawa
    Department of Neuroscience for Drug Discovery, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606 8501, Japan
    FEBS Lett 580:6623-8. 2006
    ..Although Ca(2+) influx was not attenuated by CA, caspase-3 was reduced by direct inhibition of the enzyme. All polyphenols reduced glutamate-induced generation of ROS...
  47. ncbi Vitamin D(3) attenuates 6-hydroxydopamine-induced neurotoxicity in rats
    J Y Wang
    Department of Physiology, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan
    Brain Res 904:67-75. 2001
    ..Since both H(2)O(2) and 6-OHDA may injure cells via free radical and reactive oxygen species, the neuroprotection seen here may operate via a reversal of such a toxic mechanism...
  48. ncbi The insecticidal potential of scorpion beta-toxins
    Michael Gurevitz
    Department of Plant Sciences, George S Wise Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv 69978, Tel Aviv, Israel
    Toxicon 49:473-89. 2007
    ..This information may be useful in future attempts to mimic the bioactive surface of the toxins for the design of anti-insect selective peptidomimetics...
  49. ncbi Excitotoxic damage, disrupted energy metabolism, and oxidative stress in the rat brain: antioxidant and neuroprotective effects of L-carnitine
    Daniela Silva-Adaya
    Laboratorio de Aminoácidos Excitadores, Instituto Nacional de Neurologia y Neurocirugia Manuel Velasco Suarez, Mexico, Mexico
    J Neurochem 105:677-89. 2008
    ..Our results suggest that the protective properties of L-CAR in the neurotoxic models tested are mostly mediated by its characteristics as an antioxidant agent...
  50. pmc Functional expression of spider neurotoxic peptide huwentoxin-I in E. coli
    Er Meng
    Key Laboratory of Protein Chemistry and Developmental Biology of the Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, Hunan, China
    PLoS ONE 6:e21608. 2011
    ..The heteroexpressed huwentoxin-I was able to block currents generated by human Na(v1.7) at an IC₅₀ of 640 nmole/L, similar to that of the natural huwentoxin-I, which is 630 nmole/L...
  51. ncbi Equivalent effects of snake PLA2 neurotoxins and lysophospholipid-fatty acid mixtures
    Michela Rigoni
    Department of Biomedical Sciences and Consiglio Nazionale Ricerche Institute of Neuroscience, University of Padova, Italy
    Science 310:1678-80. 2005
    Snake presynaptic phospholipase A2 neurotoxins (SPANs) paralyze the neuromuscular junction (NMJ)...
  52. ncbi Botulinum neurotoxin: a marvel of protein design
    Mauricio Montal
    Section of Neurobiology, Division of Biological Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 0366, USA
    Annu Rev Biochem 79:591-617. 2010
    ..Understanding the design principles underpinning the function of such a dynamic modular protein remains a challenging task...
  53. ncbi A novel potassium channel in lymphocyte mitochondria
    Ildiko Szabo
    Department of Biology, University of Padova, 35121 Padova, Italy
    J Biol Chem 280:12790-8. 2005
    ..3. Our data provide the first molecular identification of a mitochondrial potassium conductance...
  54. ncbi Is the light chain subcellular localization an important factor in botulinum toxin duration of action?
    Ester Fernandez-Salas
    Neurotoxin Research Program, Department of Biological Sciences, Allergan Inc, Irvine, California 92612, USA
    Mov Disord 19:S23-34. 2004
    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) are therapeutic proteins that are specific, potent, and effective. They are highly specific in binding to motor neurons but do not bind to other non-neuronal cells...
  55. ncbi Human monoclonal ScFv neutralize lethal Thai cobra, Naja kaouthia, neurotoxin
    Kasem Kulkeaw
    Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, Thammasat University, Rangsit Center, Pathum Thani 12120, Thailand
    J Proteomics 72:270-82. 2009
    ..The mimotope is also similar to peptide sequences found on other snake venom neurotoxins implying a possibility of the HuScFv to exert pan-neutralizing activity against multiple snake neurotoxins.
  56. ncbi An overview of toxins and genes from the venom of the Asian scorpion Buthus martensi Karsch
    Cyril Goudet
    Laboratory of Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Leuven, Van Evenstraat 4, B 3000, Leuven, Belgium
    Toxicon 40:1239-58. 2002
    ..The work on the venom of BmK led to the discovery of two new subfamilies, alpha-KT x 14 and alpha-KT x 17...
  57. ncbi Survival of midbrain dopaminergic cells after lesion or deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus in MPTP-treated monkeys
    Bradley A Wallace
    Department of Clinical and INSERM U318 Preclinical Neurosciences, University Joseph Fourier, Grenoble, France
    Brain 130:2129-45. 2007
    ..In summary, these results indicated that STN alteration offered neuroprotection to dopaminergic cells that would normally die as part of the disease process...
  58. ncbi The cystine knot structure of ion channel toxins and related polypeptides
    R S Norton
    Biomolecular Research Institute, Parkville, Australia
    Toxicon 36:1573-83. 1998
    ..The compact and robust nature of this motif makes it an excellent scaffold for the design and engineering of novel polypeptides with enhanced activity against existing targets, or with activity against novel targets...
  59. ncbi Insect-selective spider toxins targeting voltage-gated sodium channels
    Graham M Nicholson
    Neurotoxin Research Group, Department of Medical and Molecular Biosciences, University of Technology, Sydney P O Box 123, Broadway, NSW 2007, Australia
    Toxicon 49:490-512. 2007
    The voltage-gated sodium (Na(v)) channel is a target for a number of drugs, insecticides and neurotoxins. These bind to at least seven identified neurotoxin binding sites and either block conductance or modulate Na(v) channel gating...
  60. ncbi Proteomic analysis reveals the role of synaptic vesicle cycling in sustaining the suprachiasmatic circadian clock
    Michael J Deery
    Cambridge Centre for Proteomics, Department of Biochemistry, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1QR, UK
    Curr Biol 19:2031-6. 2009
    ..Specifically, we highlight synaptic vesicle cycling as a novel point of clock cell regulation in mammals...
  61. ncbi Kainate receptors in epilepsy and excitotoxicity
    P Vincent
    Laboratoire Physiologie Cellulaire de la Synapse, CNRS UMR5091, Bordeaux Neuroscience Institute, University of Bordeaux 2, 33077 Bordeaux, France
    Neuroscience 158:309-23. 2009
    ..Finally, we report recent findings proposing KARs as targets of antiepileptic drugs and neuroprotective agents...
  62. ncbi Neurotoxic flying foxes as dietary items for the Chamorro people, Marianas Islands
    Sandra Anne Banack
    California State University, Fullerton, CA 92834, USA
    J Ethnopharmacol 106:97-104. 2006
    ..Other animals that forage on cycad seeds may also provide BMAA inputs into the traditional Chamorro diet...
  63. ncbi N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subtypes: multiple roles in excitotoxicity and neurological disease
    Elisa A Waxman
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, USA
    Neuroscientist 11:37-49. 2005
    ..This review examines the roles of NMDA receptor subtypes in excitotoxicity and neurological disorders...
  64. ncbi Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase gene disruption renders mice resistant to cerebral ischemia
    M J Eliasson
    Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Science, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    Nat Med 3:1089-95. 1997
    ....
  65. ncbi Phoneutria nigriventer venom: a cocktail of toxins that affect ion channels
    Marcus V Gomez
    Departamento de Farmacologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil
    Cell Mol Neurobiol 22:579-88. 2002
    ..4. It is expected that molecular genetics in addition to biochemical, biophysical and pharmacological approaches will help to further define Phoneutria toxins and their mechanisms of action in the near future...
  66. ncbi Long-distance retrograde effects of botulinum neurotoxin A
    Flavia Antonucci
    Istituto di Neuroscienze, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, 56100 Pisa, Italy
    J Neurosci 28:3689-96. 2008
    Botulinum neurotoxins (designated BoNT/A-BoNT/G) are bacterial enzymes that block neurotransmitter release by cleaving essential components of the vesicle fusion machinery...
  67. ncbi Clostridial toxins as therapeutic agents: benefits of nature's most toxic proteins
    E A Johnson
    Department of Food Microbiology and Toxicology, University of Wisconsin, Madison 53706, USA
    Annu Rev Microbiol 53:551-75. 1999
    ..The remarkable success of botulinum toxin as a therapeutic agent has created a new field of investigation in microbiology...
  68. pmc Beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine enhances neurotoxicity through multiple mechanisms
    Doug Lobner
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, Marquette University, 561 N 15th Street, Rm 426, Milwaukee, WI 53233, USA
    Neurobiol Dis 25:360-6. 2007
    ..The results provide further support for the hypothesis that BMAA plays a role in neurodegenerative diseases...
  69. ncbi Scorpion toxins specific for Na+-channels
    L D Possani
    Department of Molecular Recognition and Structural Biology, Institute of Biotechnology, National Autonomous University of Mexico, Avenida Universidad 2001, Cuernavaca, Mexico
    Eur J Biochem 264:287-300. 1999
    ..The presence of an intron at the DNA level, situated in the middle of the signal peptide, has been demonstrated...
  70. pmc Sea anemone toxins affecting voltage-gated sodium channels--molecular and evolutionary features
    Yehu Moran
    Department of Plant Sciences, George S Wise Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel
    Toxicon 54:1089-101. 2009
    The venom of sea anemones is rich in low molecular weight proteinaceous neurotoxins that vary greatly in structure, site of action, and phyletic (insect, crustacean or vertebrate) preference...
  71. pmc Response to 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) differs in mouse strains and reveals a divergence in JNK signaling and COX-2 induction prior to loss of neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta
    Justin D Boyd
    Department of Developmental Neurobiology, St Jude Children s Research Hospital, 332 N Lauderdale, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA
    Brain Res 1175:107-16. 2007
    ..Furthermore, strain-specific responses to MPTP are not due to differences in MPP(+) levels and are not secondary to cell death. These results provide evidence toward a mechanism of strain-dependent sensitivity to MPTP...
  72. ncbi Astrocytic glutamate release-induced transient depolarization and epileptiform discharges in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons
    Ning Kang
    Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, New York Medical College, Valhalla, 10595, USA
    J Neurophysiol 94:4121-30. 2005
    ..Our study provides a novel mechanism, astrocytic release of glutamate, for seizure initiation...
  73. pmc Reduced susceptibility to ischemic brain injury and N-methyl-D-aspartate-mediated neurotoxicity in cyclooxygenase-2-deficient mice
    C Iadecola
    Center for Clinical and Molecular Neurobiology, Department of Neurology, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:1294-9. 2001
    ..Thus, COX-2 is involved in pathogenic events occurring in both the early and late stages of cerebral ischemia and may be a valuable therapeutic target for treatment of human stroke...
  74. pmc AChBP-targeted alpha-conotoxin correlates distinct binding orientations with nAChR subtype selectivity
    Sebastien Dutertre
    Institute for Molecular Bioscience, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
    EMBO J 26:3858-67. 2007
    ..Together, these results establish a new pharmacophore for the design of novel subtype-selective ligands with therapeutic potential in nAChR-related diseases...
  75. pmc Nicotinamide prevents NAD+ depletion and protects neurons against excitotoxicity and cerebral ischemia: NAD+ consumption by SIRT1 may endanger energetically compromised neurons
    Dong Liu
    Laboratory of Neurosciences, National Institute on Aging, Intramural Research Program, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Neuromolecular Med 11:28-42. 2009
    ....
  76. ncbi Critical role of dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus in a wide range of behavioral circadian rhythms
    Thomas C Chou
    Department of Neurobiology and Program in Neuroscience, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    J Neurosci 23:10691-702. 2003
    ..Through these pathways, the DMH may influence a wide range of behavioral circadian rhythms...
  77. ncbi Molecular mechanisms of glutamate receptor-mediated excitotoxic neuronal cell death
    R Sattler
    Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Neuroscience, Baltimore MD 21209, USA
    Mol Neurobiol 24:107-29. 2001
    ..The present review is aimed at summarizing the molecular mechanisms of NMDA receptor and AMPA/kainate receptor-mediated excitotoxic neuronal cell death...
  78. pmc Pretreatment with near-infrared light via light-emitting diode provides added benefit against rotenone- and MPP+-induced neurotoxicity
    Rong Ying
    Department of Cell Biology, Neurobiology and Anatomy, Medical College of Wisconsin, 8701 Watertown Plank Road, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA
    Brain Res 1243:167-73. 2008
    ..LED treatment during neurotoxin exposure was significantly better than LED treatment alone during exposure to neurotoxins. In addition, MPP(+) induced a decrease in neuronal ATP levels (to 48% of control level) that was reversed ..
  79. ncbi Effectiveness of intravesical resiniferatoxin for anticholinergic treatment refractory detrusor overactivity due to nonspinal cord lesions
    Hann Chorng Kuo
    Department of Urology, Buddhist Tzu Chi General Hospital, 707, Section 3 Chung Yang Road, Hualien, Taiwan
    J Urol 170:835-9. 2003
    ..This study investigated the clinical effect of intravesical resiniferatoxin in treating detrusor overactivity of nonspinal cord lesions refractory to anticholinergics...
  80. pmc Bacterial toxins and the nervous system: neurotoxins and multipotential toxins interacting with neuronal cells
    Michel R Popoff
    Institut Pasteur, Bactéries anaérobies et Toxines, 25 rue du Dr Roux, F 757254, Paris Cedex 15, France
    Toxins (Basel) 2:683-737. 2010
    ..Some of them specifically act on neuronal cells (clostridial neurotoxins) leading to characteristics neurological affections...
  81. ncbi Detection of the neurotoxin BMAA within cyanobacteria isolated from freshwater in China
    Aifeng Li
    Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Sciences and Ecology, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100, PR China
    Toxicon 55:947-53. 2010
    ..We suggest that cyanobacteria grown under some culture conditions may be relatively free of BMAA...
  82. ncbi The mechanisms of neuronal death produced by mitochondrial toxin 3-nitropropionic acid: the roles of N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptors and mitochondrial calcium overload
    W T Lee
    Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan
    Neuroscience 112:707-16. 2002
    ..Inhibition of its activation and [Ca(2+)](m) overload with subsequent mitochondrial membrane depolarization can therefore attenuate the neuronal death induced by 3-nitropropionic acid...
  83. ncbi Neuroprotective effect of ginkgolide K on glutamate-induced cytotoxicity in PC 12 cells via inhibition of ROS generation and Ca(2+) influx
    Shuwei Ma
    Pharmaceutical Engineering, Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Qiqihar University, Qiqihar 161006, PR China
    Neurotoxicology 33:59-69. 2012
    ..Therefore, the present study supports the notion that ginkgolide K may be a promising neuroprotective agent for the treatment of cerebral ischemia disease...
  84. ncbi Elucidation of matrix effects and performance of solid-phase extraction for LC-MS/MS analysis of β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) and 2,4-diaminobutyric acid (DAB) neurotoxins in cyanobacteria
    Aifeng Li
    Key Laboratory of Marine Environment and Ecology, Ocean University of China, Ministry of Education, Qingdao, 266100, China
    Analyst 137:1210-9. 2012
    ..LC-MS/MS) method using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) was developed for the analysis of neurotoxins β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) and 2,4-diaminobutyric acid (DAB), using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) ..
  85. ncbi Denmotoxin, a three-finger toxin from the colubrid snake Boiga dendrophila (Mangrove Catsnake) with bird-specific activity
    Joanna Pawlak
    Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, National University of Singapore
    J Biol Chem 281:29030-41. 2006
    ..Denmotoxin illustrates the relationship between toxin specificity and the primary prey type that constitutes the snake's diet...
  86. pmc First case of infant botulism caused by Clostridium baratii type F in California
    Jason R Barash
    Infant Botulism Treatment and Prevention Program, California Department of Health Services, 850 Marina Bay Parkway, Room E 361, Richmond, CA 94804, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 43:4280-2. 2005
    ..Environmental investigations failed to identify a source of this strain. This is the youngest patient reported to have infant botulism and the fifth instance of infant botulism caused by C. baratii type F...
  87. ncbi Inter-relationships between quinolinic acid, neuroactive kynurenines, neopterin and beta 2-microglobulin in cerebrospinal fluid and serum of HIV-1-infected patients
    M P Heyes
    Section on Analytical Biochemistry, NIMH, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892
    J Neuroimmunol 40:71-80. 1992
    ..We conclude that immune activation increases the levels of neuroactive kynurenines within the central nervous system of HIV-1-infected patients secondary to activation of indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase...
  88. ncbi "Weak toxin" from Naja kaouthia is a nontoxic antagonist of alpha 7 and muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptors
    Y N Utkin
    Shemyakin-Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, 16/10 Miklukho-Maklaya Str, V-437 Moscow GSP-7, 117997 Russia
    J Biol Chem 276:15810-5. 2001
    ..kaouthia, representing short-type and long-type alpha-neurotoxins, respectively...
  89. pmc Tetrodotoxin reduces cue-induced drug craving and anxiety in abstinent heroin addicts
    Jie Shi
    National Institute on Drug Dependence, Peking University, Beijing 100083, China
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 92:603-7. 2009
    ..The purpose of this double-blind, placebo-controlled study was to assess the effect of a single intramuscular dose of TTX on cue-induced craving and anxiety in abstinent heroin addicts...
  90. ncbi Trimethyltin-induced neurotoxicity: gene expression pathway analysis, q-RT-PCR and immunoblotting reveal early effects associated with hippocampal damage and gliosis
    A R Little
    Molecular Neurotoxicology Laboratory, Health Effects Research Laboratory, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention NIOSH, 1095 Willowdale Road, Morgantown, WV 26505, USA
    Neurotoxicol Teratol 34:72-82. 2012
    ..These observations provide new insight into early events associated with neuronal degeneration and associated glial activation that may serve as the basis for discovery and development of biomarkers of neurotoxicity...
  91. ncbi Alpha neurotoxins
    Carmel M Barber
    Monash Venom Group, Department of Pharmacology, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800, Australia
    Toxicon 66:47-58. 2013
    b>Neurotoxins have been isolated from hydrophid, elapid and, more recently, colubrid snake venoms...
  92. ncbi Resveratrol preconditioning increases methionine sulfoxide reductases A expression and enhances resistance of human neuroblastoma cells to neurotoxins
    Peng Fei Wu
    Department of Pharmacology, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430030, China
    J Nutr Biochem 24:1070-7. 2013
    ..attention has turned to MsrA in coupling with the pathology of Parkinson's disease, which is closely related to neurotoxins that cause dopaminergic neuron degeneration...
  93. ncbi Action of botulinum neurotoxins in the central nervous system: antiepileptic effects
    Y Bozzi
    Istituto di Neuroscienze del CNR, Pisa, Italy
    Neurotox Res 9:197-203. 2006
    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are metalloproteases which act on nerve terminals and cause a long-lasting inhibition of neurotransmitter release...
  94. ncbi Molecular immune recognition of botulinum neurotoxin B. The light chain regions that bind human blocking antibodies from toxin-treated cervical dystonia patients. Antigenic structure of the entire BoNT/B molecule
    M Zouhair Atassi
    Verna and Marrs McLean Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, United States
    Immunobiology 217:17-27. 2012
    ..With the previous localization of the antigenic regions on the BoNT/B H chain, the human Ab recognition of the entire BoNT/B molecule is presented and compared to the recognition of BoNT/A by human blocking Abs...
  95. ncbi Na+/K+-ATPase inhibitor palytoxin enhances vulnerability of cultured cerebellar neurons to domoic acid via sodium-dependent mechanisms
    Anabel Pérez-Gómez
    Departament of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Institute of Biotechnlogy of Asturias, University of Oviedo, 33006 Oviedo, Spain
    J Neurochem 114:28-38. 2010
    ..They also raise reasonable concern about possible risks for human health associated to the ingestion of low amounts of phycotoxins PTX and domoic acid in food...
  96. ncbi Neurotoxicity of ammodytoxin a in the envenoming bites of Vipera ammodytes ammodytes
    Uros Logonder
    Department of Molecular and Biomedical Sciences, Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana, Slovenia
    J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 67:1011-9. 2008
    ....
  97. ncbi Unregulated cytosolic dopamine causes neurodegeneration associated with oxidative stress in mice
    Linan Chen
    Department of Neurobiology, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA
    J Neurosci 28:425-33. 2008
    ..The present study has significant clinical implications, because dopamine replacement therapy is the mainstay of PD treatment. In addition, our model provides an efficient in vivo approach to test therapeutic agents for PD...
  98. ncbi Polysialylation of NCAM is upregulated by hyperthermia and participates in heat shock preconditioning-induced neuroprotection
    V Duveau
    Universite Bordeaux 2, CNRS UMR 5227 Mouvement, Adaptation, Cognition, 146, rue Leo Saignat, 33076 Bordeaux Cedex, France
    Neurobiol Dis 26:385-95. 2007
    ..The upregulation of PSA-NCAM by hyperthermia may have a significant impact on hippocampal plasticity, permitting induction of the complex molecular cascade responsible for neuroprotection...
  99. ncbi Functional expression and characterization of four novel neurotoxins from sea anemone Anthopleura sp
    Lei Wang
    Department of Biochemistry, College of Life Sciences, Sun Yat Sen Zhongshan University, Guangzhou 510275, People s Republic of China
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 313:163-70. 2004
    The genes of four novel neurotoxins, named Hk2a, Hk7a, Hk8a, and Hk16a, were obtained from sea anemone Anthopleura sp...
  100. pmc Different genotypes of anatoxin-producing cyanobacteria coexist in the Tarn River, France
    Sabrina Cadel-Six
    Unité des Cyanobactéries CNRS URA 2172, Institut Pasteur, 28 rue du Docteur Roux, 75724 Paris Cedex 15, France
    Appl Environ Microbiol 73:7605-14. 2007
    ..Furthermore, they reemphasize the importance of monitoring benthic cyanobacteria in aquatic environments to fully assess the health risks associated with these organisms...
  101. ncbi Norepinephrine regulates locomotor hyperactivity in the mouse mutant coloboma
    Michelle D Jones
    Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Meyer 6 181, 600 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 75:209-16. 2003
    ..These results suggest that NE regulation in the CNS plays an important role in the expression of hyperactivity in this mouse model, consistent with results of human studies and current models of ADHD...

Research Grants78

  1. Robust Peptide-Based Diagnostics of Botulinum Toxins
    John E Mueller; Fiscal Year: 2012
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs;A-G), secreted by the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium botulinum, are highly lethal microbial proteins with an extremely low half-lethal dose of only 1-3 ng/kg in ..
  2. Fast accurate ultrasensitive in vitro assay to determine BoNT potency &stability
    ARMIN H REITMAIR; Fiscal Year: 2012
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Botulinum Neurotoxins (BoNTs) are the most toxic substances known and classified as Category A biothreat agents...
  3. Food(cassava) cyanogen exposure and motor neuron degeneration
    DANIEL DESIRE TSHALA KATUMBAY; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..g. exposure to certain neurotoxins cause the motor system to degenerate...
  4. Analysis and Therapy of Age-Dependent Proteostasis Failure in Neurodegeneration
    ROBERT JOSEPH SHMOOKLER REIS; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..are instead less-toxic, sequestered repositories formed from smaller, soluble aggregates which are more potent neurotoxins. This issue could be resolved through a careful, comparative analysis of soluble vs...
  5. Neuroprotection Against Parkinsonian Cell Death
    Jun Chen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..unclear, a breakthrough on this question has emerged from studies using animal models induced by Parkinsonian neurotoxins, such as MPTP, or viral-targeted overexpression of the PD-related brain-specific protein 1-Synuclein in the SNc...
  6. Effect of Articular Neurotoxin on Joint Pain and Neurochemical Signature
    Maren Lawson Mahowald; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..have used mouse models of acute and chronic arthritis to study the analgesic potential of intra-articular (IA) neurotoxins (NT) for relieving arthritis pain and improving musculoskeletal function...
  7. Training in Environmental Health to Reduce Chronic Disease in Latin America
    Philip J Landrigan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..3) exposure to lead and other heavy metals and neurotoxins such as pesticides continue in the developing world and contribute to neurobehavioral effects later in life...
  8. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of gp120 neurotoxicity
    Italo Mocchetti; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..is sufficient to initiate an irreversible neurodegenerative process even in the absence of other endogenous neurotoxins or other patho-physiological insults...
  9. Blood brain barrier immune compromise in NeuroAIDS
    Georgette D Kanmogne; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Infected cells in the brain secrete neurotoxins that affect neuronal function and lead to cognitive impairments...
  10. Liquid Crystal-Based End-of-Service-Life-Indicator for Toluene Vapor
    BHARAT R ACHARYA; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..by National Institute of Occupational Safety and Hygiene (NIOSH) as carcinogens, reproductive hazards, and/or neurotoxins. Workers in these industries wear Air Purifier Respirators (APRs) equipped with respirator cartridges on their ..
  11. Linking Limnology to Cyanotoxins in Drinking Water Using Buoy Sensors and Auto-Sa
    Todd R Miller; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and include hepatotoxins (microcystins and cylindrospermopsin) and neurotoxins (anatoxins, saxitoxin, and beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine)...
  12. Endogenous Hemoglobin And Heme Detoxification After Intracerebral Hemorrhage
    Xiurong Zhao; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..provided by applicant): The products of erythrocyte lyses, hemoglobin (Hb) and heme, are recognized as neurotoxins and the main contributors to delayed cerebral edema and tissue damage after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH)...
  13. Cellular Functions of Parkin
    Jian Feng; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..On the other hand, research on PD neurotoxins has demonstrated a critical role of mitochondrial dysfunction in PD pathogenesis...
  14. T Cell-Mediated Neurodegeneration in Parkinson's Disease
    R Lee Mosley; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..and neurodegeneration due to proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, reactive intermediates, and neurotoxins, we have shown in an experimental model of PD that nitrated a-synuclein, a component commonly found in ..
  15. Developmental Cigarette Smoke Exposure: Biomarkers of Neurotoxicity
    M Michele Pisano; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..These biomarkers will provide targets for future investigations into the epigenetic effects of environmental neurotoxins on neuro/cognitive development...
  16. Pro-inflammatory glucocorticoid effects in the CNS
    Robert M Sapolsky; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The proposal begins to dissect the molecular mechanisms underlying these unexpected and damaging pro-inflammatory GC effects. ..
  17. Automated Analysis of Learning and Memory for Neuro-Developmental Studies
    Michael Levin; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..enable screening large drug and gene libraries for new compounds that enhance memory and learning, counteract neurotoxins or drug addiction, function as sedatives or stimulants, etc...
  18. Detoxification of Biogeneic Aldehydes in Parkinson's Disease
    Randy Strong; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..whether impaired aldehyde detoxification increases the sensitivity of dopamine neurons to environmental neurotoxins and biogenic aldehydes;Aim 2 To determine the role of a-synuclein in the neuropathology and behavioral deficits ..
  19. Receptors for clostridial neurotoxins
    Edwin R Chapman; Fiscal Year: 2010
    Botulism was first described almost 200 years ago. This disease is caused by the botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT), which are the most potent toxins known...
  20. NET-PD LS-1 Nicotine and Neuroprotection in Parkinson's Disease
    Jayaraman Rao; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Exogenous (MPTP and rotenone) and endogenous neurotoxins (increased free radicals) induce severe damage to Complex I of the electron transfer chain of the mitochondria, ..
  21. Development of High Affinity Analogues of Brevenal: Novel Molecular Probes for Ne
    Mary C Wolf; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..potent brevenal derivatives could lead to compounds with the potential for treating exposure to environmental neurotoxins and aid in the identification of a new drug locus for treatment of pulmonary disorders such as asthma, cystic ..
  22. Targeting Cellular Processes to Counter the Effects of BoNT Intoxication
    Sina Bavari; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: Botulinum neurotoxins are the causative agents of the disease botulism...
  23. Second Generation Small Molecule Inhibitors of Botulinum Neurotoxins
    Sina Bavari; Fiscal Year: 2013
    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) represent one of the most serious bioterror threats to our national security...
  24. A Novel CNS-Penetrable Antiretroviral
    Ned C Sacktor; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Although neurons do not directly support HIV infection, soluble factors and neurotoxins produced by CNS-resident infected cells - such as microglia and astrocytes - are known to lead to neuronal ..
  25. Cognitive and socioemotional development after postnatal anesthesia
    Mark G Baxter; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): General anesthetics may act as neurotoxins when given early in mammalian development...
  26. Novel mechanism of neuroprotection against neurotoxins
    Jianhua Zhang; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..We will study the effect of partial loss-of-function and gain-of- function of a lysosomal enzyme in Parkinson's disease models. This study will help establish lysosomal based therapy for Parkinson's disease. ..
  27. Neurodevelopment in Urban Environments: Role of Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution
    Jiu Chiuan Chen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The growing population of children in American cities is exposed to various neurotoxins present in urban environments which may damage their developing brains...
  28. Central Kappa Opioid Neural Regulation of Cardiovascular and Renal Function
    Helmut B Gottlieb; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Ultimately, opioid compounds can be developed and used to treat fluid overload/hyponatremia in susceptible patients and improvement of one's quality of life. ..
  29. Structural and functional studies of botulinum neurotoxin
    Rongsheng Jin; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are among the most poisonous substances known to man, with a 50% lethal dose (LD50) of 1 ng/kg in mice...
  30. Selection-driven plant metabolites for treatment of CNS diseases
    John M Littleton; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Expression of the functional hDAT in plant cells (Preliminary studies), makes these susceptible to neurotoxins, (MPTP, 6hydroxydopamine) which are transported by the hDAT...
  31. Translation regulation of gene expression in toxic dinoflagellates
    ALLEN RICHARD PLACE; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant) A number of dinoflagellate species are known to produce potent neurotoxins. Their blooms are commonly referred to as ''red tides...
  32. Structural Mechanisms of Botulinum Neurotoxin Pathogenesis
    DANA BORDEN LACY; Fiscal Year: 2012
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are the most poisonous substances known and have been classified by the CDC as one of the six highest-risk threat agents for bioterrorism...
  33. Phase II Trial of Tiopronin in Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
    EDWARD SANDER CONNOLLY; Fiscal Year: 2011
    Currently there is no treatment for the damage that follows cerebral ischemia. Many neurotoxins, including 3-aminopropanal (3AP), are produced in ischemic brain producing a vicious cycle of brain cell death...
  34. LRRK2 Mediated HIV1 Tat Induced Microgliosis is Detrimental to Synapses
    JENNA MAE TABOR-GODWIN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The HIV-1 Tat protein is one of the main neurotoxins still produced in the CNS despite the use of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) (5) (6)...
  35. Environment, Imprinting, and Neurodevelopment
    CARMEN JOSEPH MARSIT; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..complex, we have decided to focus on fetal exposure to metals, specifically those which are widely considered neurotoxins or those considered protective, as a paradigm to build a comprehensive model to examine the inter-relationships ..
  36. RESTING STATE FUNCTIONAL CONNECTIVITY MRI IN MANGANESE EXPOSED WELDERS
    Susan Criswell; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..results and the techniques employed will be useful for future development of functional biomarkers of both neurotoxins and neurodegenerative processes...
  37. Quinoline-based Inhibitors of BoNT/A LC
    John D Williams; Fiscal Year: 2012
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are the most poisonous biological substances known. The lethal intravenous dose of BoNT serotype A (BoNT/A) in humans is 1-5 ng/kg...
  38. Novel therapeutic approaches to treatment of botulinum neurotoxin poisoning
    Eric A Johnson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Developing antidotes to botulinum neurotoxins is a priority goal of the Biodefense Research Agenda...
  39. Trispecific monoclonal antibody for botulinum neurotoxin intoxication therapy
    James D Marks; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..to generate highly potent trispecific antibodies for the prevention and treatment of botulism due to botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) serotypes A, B, E, and F...
  40. Distal effects of botulinum neurotoxins
    Edwin R Chapman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The clostridial neurotoxins (CNTs) comprise a family of eight related toxins: tetanus (TeNT) and seven botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT/A-G), which cause the diseases tetanus and botulism, respectively...
  41. DNA Microarray analysis of Clostridium botulinum
    Wei Jen Lin; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..There are seven serotypes of botulinum neurotoxins (A - G), produced from different strains of C...
  42. PROTECTION AGAINST ORGANOPHOSPHATE NEUROTOXINS BY TOBACCO CEMBRANOIDS
    P A Ferchmin; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The most likely nerve toxins to be used are the organophosphate (OP) neurotoxins that have been used before against military and civilian populations...
  43. The Neuroimmunology of Anhedonia
    Vilma Gabbay; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..a central neuroimmunological pathway, which is activated by cytokines and degrades tryptophan into several neurotoxins ("kynurenines")...
  44. Extra-nigral Neurodegeneration in Experimental Parkinson's Disease
    Naren L Banik; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..While the etiology of PD is not fully understood, neurotoxins have been im- plicated in PD pathogenesis...
  45. A Cell-based Assay for Botulinum Neurotoxin Detection and Development
    Ward C Tucker; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are the most toxic substances known to humans, causing respiratory failure...
  46. Structural Biology of Amyloid Beta-Protein
    David B Teplow; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Recent work has suggested that dimeric or trimeric assemblies are important neurotoxins, but hexameric, nonameric, dodecameric, and larger oligomers also have been shown to be potent neurotoxins...
  47. Neurotoxins from Marine Algae and Cyanobacteria
    Thomas F Murray; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  48. Targeting vascular activation: a novel therapeutic strategy for Alzheimer's
    Paula Grammas; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The "activated" brain vasculature represents an important and unexplored source of neurotoxins in the AD brain...
  49. MECHANISMS OF NEURONAL DEATH IN PARKINSON'S DISEASE
    KAREN L OMALLEY; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..to monitor axonal transport in CNS dopaminergic neurons to test a nested set of hypotheses that PD-associated neurotoxins and genetic mutations trigger early changes in axon transport that contribute to the loss of synaptic function ..
  50. Long-term effects of botulinum neurotoxins on neuronal viability
    Min Dong; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Botulinum neurotoxins are a family of seven bacterial toxins (BoNT/A-G) that cause the disease botulism in humans and animals...
  51. Pharmacological modulation of synapses and cognition during HIV-1 neurotoxicity
    Stanley A Thayer; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..PSD loss induced by HIV-1 neurotoxins is reversible...
  52. Effect of Lead, Manganese and Stress During Development
    Michael T Williams; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Exposure to low-levels of various neurotoxins has been suggested as a potential factor in these changes...
  53. Alcohol-Induced Headaches: An Animal Model
    Christina R Maxwell; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..whereas HIV uses microglia as a vehicle for replication, and the resulting microglia infection produces neurotoxins and excitotoxins...
  54. CXCL8-mediated glial cross-talk and neuroprotection in HIV-1 Dementia
    Anuja Ghorpade; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Importantly, CXCL8 was neuroprotective in cultured human neurons exposed to HIV-1-related neurotoxins. Biological relevance of this observation was further confirmed as HIV-1-infected brain tissues demonstrated ..
  55. Molecular and anatomical basis of sleep regulation by SLEEPLESS
    William J Joiner; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..SSS is one of the founding members of a large family of relatively uncharacterized proteins that resemble neurotoxins, which often act on ion channels, raising the possibility that other members of this family may regulate ..
  56. Small Molecule Therapeutics for Botullinum Neurotoxin A
    Tobin J Dickerson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Unfortunately, there is no known cure for the disorder. Botulinum neurotoxins are classified by the CDC as one of the six highest-risk threat agents for bioterrorism due to their relative ..
  57. Phase 2 Study of Rasagiline for Treatment of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
    Yunxia Wang; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..to its symptomatic mechanism, however, rasagiline has broad neuroprotective activities against a variety of neurotoxins in neuronal cell cultures and in animal models...
  58. Early Pesticide Exposure and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes in a Thai Birth Cohort
    P Barry Ryan; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..However many are neurotoxins that are acutely toxic at high doses and have the potential to exert more subtle effects at lower levels, ..
  59. Botulinum Neurotoxin Trafficking and Tissue Distribution with Mouse Body Imaging
    Bal Ram Singh; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs), classified as category A bioterrorism agent(s) by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), are the most toxic substances known to mankind...
  60. Therapeutic Delivery Platforms against Botulism
    Joseph T Barbieri; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are the most potent protein toxins for humans and Category A select agents. There are seven serotypes of the BoNTs (termed A-G)...
  61. CD36 in Alzheimer's Disease
    JOSEPH EL-KHOURY; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Microglia are activated by Abeta to produce proinflammatory cytokines and neurotoxins. Abeta-induced cytokines participate in AD pathogenesis by increasing neurotoxin production and up-regulating ..
  62. Mitochondrial protection of a GDNF propeptide
    Luke H Bradley; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Numerous studies demonstrate that these neurotoxins specifically inhibit the mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes of dopaminergic neurons, which initiates a ..
  63. Novel Organophosphorous Hydrolases for Decontamination
    Andrew Mesecar; Fiscal Year: 2007
    unreadable] DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Organophosphorous (OP) neurotoxins such as paraoxon, sarin, soman, VX, and Russian-VX, are a broad class of chemicals commonly used as pesticides and chemical warfare (CW) agents...
  64. Blood Brain Barrier Physiology and HIV Dementia
    HOWARD GENDELMAN; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..cell infection and its relationship to blood-brain barrier (BBB) function; 2) uncover putative glial neurotoxins (for example, stromal cell derived factor-one- nitric oxide, platelet activating factor, tumor necrosis factor ..
  65. Neuropsychological & Thyroid Effects of Perfluorinated Compounds in Older Adults
    Edward Fitzgerald; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..that are already at risk for age-related neurological deficits, a process that may be accelerated by neurotoxins. A total of 253 men and women between 55 and 74 years of age participated in the parent project from 2000-02, ..
  66. Novel Organophosphorous Hydrolases for Decontamination
    Andrew Mesecar; Fiscal Year: 2004
    Organophosphorous (OP) neurotoxins such as paraoxon, sarin, soman, VX, and Russian-VX, are a broad class of chemicals commonly used as pesticides and chemical warfare (CW) agents...
  67. Glycogen synthase kinase-3beta: a setpoint for dopamine dysfunction in neuroAIDS
    Seth Perry; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..A large body of evidence suggests HAND pathogenesis results from a toxic milieu of secretory neurotoxins secreted from HIV-1 infected, brain-resident mononuclear phagocytes and glia, which act in concert to impart a ..
  68. EXCITOTOXIN EFFECTS ON SPINAL CORD IN VITRO
    JOHN DELFS; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..The long-term objective of this research is to understand better the role of excitotoxins in spinal neuron degeneration and death...
  69. PHARMACOLOGY OF FETAL STRIATAL TISSUE TRANSPLANTS
    Andrew Norman; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ....
  70. RNA aptamers as novel antidotes against botulism
    Shuowei Cai; Fiscal Year: 2009
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are the most toxic substances known to man, and cause the deadly neuroparalytic disease, botulism. The flaccid paralysis caused by botulism lasts for months...
  71. HIV-1 Clade Diversity and Macrophage Mediated Neurotoxicity in HIV-1 Dementia
    Jialin Zheng; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Our recent preliminary data indicates clade B viral strains may produce more neurotoxins, such as glutamate, during HIV-1 infection than clade C viral strains...
  72. TARGET-GUIDED BOTULINUM NEUROTOXIN INHIBITOR DISCOVERY
    Hartmuth Kolb; Fiscal Year: 2006
    DESCRIPTION (provided by the applicant): Neurotoxins produced by Clostridium botulinum are among the most potent toxins known to man...
  73. Advanced Reproductive Age and Environmental Health
    Stephanie Engel; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..contaminants, including bisphenol A (BPA) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), are possible human neurotoxins, immune modulators, reproductive toxicants, or may otherwise interfere with growth and development...
  74. MECHANISM OF BOTULINUM NEUROTOXIN ACTION
    Bal Ram Singh; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..b>Neurotoxins act intracellulary to block acetylcholine neurotransmitter release leading to the flaccid muscle paralysis in ..
  75. Sodium Channel Contratoxins Derived from Cone Snail Venoms
    Grzegorz Bulaj; Fiscal Year: 2007
    unreadable] DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Neurotoxins that target ion channels are among the chemicals that NIH has identified as at the nexus of neuroscience research and counterterrorism...
  76. Development of Tethered Toxins for Neuroscience Research
    Nathaniel Heintz; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..These agents (tethered toxins) are chimeric molecules derived from tethering of naturally occurring peptide neurotoxins to the cell surface via GPI anchors or transmembrane...
  77. PROPERTIES OF CHEMICALLY MODIFIED PHOSPHOLIPASE A-2
    Philip Rosenberg; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..For example, we shall use in our studies: 1. presynaptically acting PLA2 neurotoxins (Beta bungarotoxin, notexin, caudoxin) which are very toxic and show specific effects on motor nerve terminals...
  78. Molecular evolution of latrotoxins: neurotoxins from black widow spider venom
    JESSICA GARB; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..tredecimguttatus) venom shows that in addition to a-latrotoxin, it contains other neurotoxins that are similar to a-latrotoxin in protein sequence, but which selectively affect invertebrates...