carcinogens

Summary

Summary: Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Differential effects of CYP2E1 status on the metabolic activation of the colon carcinogens azoxymethane and methylazoxymethanol
    O S Sohn
    American Health Foundation, Valhalla, New York 10595, USA
    Cancer Res 61:8435-40. 2001
  2. pmc Direct evidence that sulfhydryl groups of Keap1 are the sensors regulating induction of phase 2 enzymes that protect against carcinogens and oxidants
    Albena T Dinkova-Kostova
    The Lewis B and Dorothy Cullman Cancer Chemoprotection Center, Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:11908-13. 2002
  3. ncbi Tobacco smoke carcinogens and lung cancer
    S S Hecht
    University of Minnesota Cancer Center, Minneapolis 55455, USA
    J Natl Cancer Inst 91:1194-210. 1999
  4. ncbi An update on direct genotoxicity as a molecular mechanism of ochratoxin a carcinogenicity
    Annie Pfohl-Leszkowicz
    Laboratoire de Genie Chimique, UMR CNRS INPT UPS 5503, INP ENSA Toulouse, 1 Avenue Agrobiopole, F 31326 Auzeville Tolosane, France
    Chem Res Toxicol 25:252-62. 2012
  5. pmc Environmental causes of cancer: endocrine disruptors as carcinogens
    Ana M Soto
    Department of Anatomy and Cellular Biology, Tufts University School of Medicine, 136 Harrison Avenue, Boston, MA 02111, USA
    Nat Rev Endocrinol 6:363-70. 2010
  6. ncbi Cadmium carcinogenesis
    Michael P Waalkes
    Inorganic Carcinogenesis Section, Laboratory of Comparative Carcinogenesis, National Cancer Institute at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Triangle Park, NC 27706, USA
    Mutat Res 533:107-20. 2003
  7. pmc Occupation and cancer in Britain
    L Rushton
    Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, St Mary s Campus, Norfolk Place, London W2 1PG, UK
    Br J Cancer 102:1428-37. 2010
  8. pmc The tobacco-specific carcinogen NNK induces DNA methyltransferase 1 accumulation and tumor suppressor gene hypermethylation in mice and lung cancer patients
    Ruo Kai Lin
    Department of Pharmacology, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Republic of China
    J Clin Invest 120:521-32. 2010
  9. ncbi Regulation of cutaneous malignancy by gammadelta T cells
    M Girardi
    Department of Dermatology and Yale Skin Diseases Research Core Center, King s College, London SE1 9RT, UK
    Science 294:605-9. 2001
  10. ncbi Tobacco smoke carcinogens, DNA damage and p53 mutations in smoking-associated cancers
    Gerd P Pfeifer
    Division of Biology, Beckman Research Institute of the City of Hope, Duarte, California, CA 91010, USA
    Oncogene 21:7435-51. 2002

Detail Information

Publications367 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Differential effects of CYP2E1 status on the metabolic activation of the colon carcinogens azoxymethane and methylazoxymethanol
    O S Sohn
    American Health Foundation, Valhalla, New York 10595, USA
    Cancer Res 61:8435-40. 2001
    Methylazoxymethanol (MAM) and its chemical and metabolic precursor, azoxymethane (AOM), both strong colon carcinogens in rodents, can be metabolically activated by CYP2E1 in vitro...
  2. pmc Direct evidence that sulfhydryl groups of Keap1 are the sensors regulating induction of phase 2 enzymes that protect against carcinogens and oxidants
    Albena T Dinkova-Kostova
    The Lewis B and Dorothy Cullman Cancer Chemoprotection Center, Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:11908-13. 2002
    ..These residues are located in the intervening region between BTB and Kelch repeat domains of Keap1 and probably are the direct sensors of inducers of the phase 2 system...
  3. ncbi Tobacco smoke carcinogens and lung cancer
    S S Hecht
    University of Minnesota Cancer Center, Minneapolis 55455, USA
    J Natl Cancer Inst 91:1194-210. 1999
    ..Among the multiple components of tobacco smoke, 20 carcinogens convincingly cause lung tumors in laboratory animals or humans and are, therefore, likely to be involved in ..
  4. ncbi An update on direct genotoxicity as a molecular mechanism of ochratoxin a carcinogenicity
    Annie Pfohl-Leszkowicz
    Laboratoire de Genie Chimique, UMR CNRS INPT UPS 5503, INP ENSA Toulouse, 1 Avenue Agrobiopole, F 31326 Auzeville Tolosane, France
    Chem Res Toxicol 25:252-62. 2012
    ..This MOA should be taken into consideration for OTA human risk assessment...
  5. pmc Environmental causes of cancer: endocrine disruptors as carcinogens
    Ana M Soto
    Department of Anatomy and Cellular Biology, Tufts University School of Medicine, 136 Harrison Avenue, Boston, MA 02111, USA
    Nat Rev Endocrinol 6:363-70. 2010
    ..Regardless, the data already amassed highlight the need for a public policy to reduce exposure to EDCs...
  6. ncbi Cadmium carcinogenesis
    Michael P Waalkes
    Inorganic Carcinogenesis Section, Laboratory of Comparative Carcinogenesis, National Cancer Institute at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Triangle Park, NC 27706, USA
    Mutat Res 533:107-20. 2003
    ..Cadmium compounds are classified as human carcinogens by several regulatory agencies...
  7. pmc Occupation and cancer in Britain
    L Rushton
    Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, St Mary s Campus, Norfolk Place, London W2 1PG, UK
    Br J Cancer 102:1428-37. 2010
    ..We estimated the current burden of cancer in Britain attributable to past occupational exposures for International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) group 1 (established) and 2A (probable) carcinogens.
  8. pmc The tobacco-specific carcinogen NNK induces DNA methyltransferase 1 accumulation and tumor suppressor gene hypermethylation in mice and lung cancer patients
    Ruo Kai Lin
    Department of Pharmacology, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Republic of China
    J Clin Invest 120:521-32. 2010
    ..Furthermore, this mechanism may also be involved in other smoking-related human diseases...
  9. ncbi Regulation of cutaneous malignancy by gammadelta T cells
    M Girardi
    Department of Dermatology and Yale Skin Diseases Research Core Center, King s College, London SE1 9RT, UK
    Science 294:605-9. 2001
    ..After exposure to carcinogens, skin cells expressed Rae-1 and H60, major histocompatibility complex-related molecules structurally resembling ..
  10. ncbi Tobacco smoke carcinogens, DNA damage and p53 mutations in smoking-associated cancers
    Gerd P Pfeifer
    Division of Biology, Beckman Research Institute of the City of Hope, Duarte, California, CA 91010, USA
    Oncogene 21:7435-51. 2002
    ..Two important classes of tobacco smoke carcinogens are the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and the nicotine-derived nitrosamines...
  11. ncbi Ochratoxin A: the continuing enigma
    Evelyn O'Brien
    Environmental Toxicology, University of Konstanz, Germany
    Crit Rev Toxicol 35:33-60. 2005
    ....
  12. ncbi A pharmacogenetic study to investigate the role of dietary carcinogens in the etiology of colorectal cancer
    Christoph Sachse
    Biomedical Research Centre, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee DD1 9SY, UK
    Carcinogenesis 23:1839-49. 2002
    ..Dietary exposure to food derived heterocyclic amine carcinogens and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons have been proposed as specific risk factors...
  13. ncbi Site-specific in vivo mutagenicity in the kidney of gpt delta rats given a carcinogenic dose of ochratoxin A
    Daisuke Hibi
    Division of Pathology, National Institute of Health Sciences, Tokyo 158 8501, Japan
    Toxicol Sci 122:406-14. 2011
    ..In addition, the reporter gene mutation assay using DNA from target sites could be a more powerful tool to investigate in vivo genotoxicities...
  14. pmc Smoke carcinogens cause bone loss through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor and induction of Cyp1 enzymes
    Jameel Iqbal
    Department of Animal Biology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19147, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110:11115-20. 2013
    ..Overall, the data identify the Ahr and Cyp1 enzymes not only in the pathophysiology of smoke-induced osteoporosis, but also as potential targets for selective modulation by new therapeutics. ..
  15. ncbi Activation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon trans-dihydrodiol proximate carcinogens by human aldo-keto reductase (AKR1C) enzymes and their functional overexpression in human lung carcinoma (A549) cells
    Nisha T Palackal
    Departments of Biochemistry and Biophysics and Pharmacology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
    J Biol Chem 277:24799-808. 2002
    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are environmental pollutants and suspected human lung carcinogens. In patients with non-small cell lung carcinoma, differential display shows that aldo-keto reductase (AKR1C) transcripts are ..
  16. ncbi Cigarette smoking and lung cancer: chemical mechanisms and approaches to prevention
    Stephen S Hecht
    University of Minnesota Cancer Center, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    Lancet Oncol 3:461-9. 2002
    Much is now known about the carcinogens in cigarette smoke, their conversion to forms that react with DNA, and the miscoding properties of the resulting DNA adducts that cause the many genetic changes known to exist in human lung cancer...
  17. ncbi Effects of cadmium on DNA-(Cytosine-5) methyltransferase activity and DNA methylation status during cadmium-induced cellular transformation
    Masufumi Takiguchi
    Inorganic Carcinogenesis Section, Laboratory of Comparative Carcinogenesis, National Cancer Institute at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Exp Cell Res 286:355-65. 2003
    ..These results indicate that, while cadmium is an effective inhibitor of DNA MeTase and initially induces DNA hypomethylation, prolonged exposure results in DNA hypermethylation and enhanced DNA MeTase activity...
  18. ncbi Selective pressure during tumor promotion by phenobarbital leads to clonal outgrowth of beta-catenin-mutated mouse liver tumors
    H Aydinlik
    , , Wilhelmstr. 56, , Germany
    Oncogene 20:7812-6. 2001
    ..These results demonstrate that PB strongly affects the prevalence of mutations in the two cancer-related genes, presumably by positive and negative selection for cells harboring the respective mutation...
  19. ncbi Ochratoxin A induces G(2) phase arrest in human gastric epithelium GES-1 cells in vitro
    Jinfeng Cui
    Department of Pathology, The Second Hospital, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, China
    Toxicol Lett 193:152-8. 2010
    ..In conclusion, cell apoptosis and G(2) phase arrest mediated by Cdc25C, Cdc2 and cyclinB1 may be the initiating event in the gastric toxicity of OTA...
  20. ncbi Cul3 overexpression depletes Nrf2 in breast cancer and is associated with sensitivity to carcinogens, to oxidative stress, and to chemotherapy
    Martin Loignon
    Segal Cancer Centre, Sir Mortimer B Davis Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    Mol Cancer Ther 8:2432-40. 2009
    ..This high Cul3/low Nrf2 signature may be key to cellular sensitivity to both chemical carcinogeneic stimuli as well as to cytotoxicity of commonly used chemotherapeutic drugs in established breast cancers...
  21. ncbi Arsenic-induced bladder cancer in an animal model
    Samuel M Cohen
    Department of Pathology and Microbiology and Eppley Institute for Cancer Research, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198 3135, USA
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 222:258-63. 2007
    ..Extrapolation to human risk needs to take this into account along with the significant differences in toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics that occur between different species...
  22. ncbi The colonic response to genotoxic carcinogens in the rat: regulation by dietary fibre
    Y Hu
    Flinders Centre for Digestive Health and Medical Research Institute, Flinders University of South Australia, Adelaide 5042, Australia
    Carcinogenesis 23:1131-7. 2002
    ..We examined the acute apoptotic response to genotoxic carcinogens ("AARGC") in colonic epithelium and the possibility that dietary fibres of different fermentability ..
  23. pmc Dietary lycopene and tomato extract supplementations inhibit nonalcoholic steatohepatitis-promoted hepatocarcinogenesis in rats
    Yan Wang
    Nutrition and Cancer Biology Laboratory, Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, Boston, MA 02111, USA
    Int J Cancer 126:1788-96. 2010
    ..These data indicate that LY and TE can inhibit NASH-promoted hepatocarcinogenesis mainly as a result of reduced oxidative stress, which could be fulfilled through different mechanisms...
  24. pmc Differential expression of microRNAs in early-stage neoplastic transformation in the lungs of F344 rats chronically treated with the tobacco carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone
    Stephen Kalscheuer
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    Carcinogenesis 29:2394-9. 2008
    ..NNK treatment in rats repressed miR-126* but induced CYP2A3 expression, a mechanism that may potentiate the oncogenic effects of NNK...
  25. ncbi Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon carcinogens increase ubiquitination of p21 protein after the stabilization of p53 and the expression of p21
    Y Nakanishi
    Research Institute for Diseases of the Chest, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan
    Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 22:747-54. 2000
    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon carcinogens (PAHs) and their metabolites have been found to result in a rapid accumulation of p53 gene product in human and mouse cells...
  26. pmc Arsenic-specific stem cell selection during malignant transformation
    Erik J Tokar
    J Natl Cancer Inst 102:638-49. 2010
    ..We tested the hypothesis that prostate stem cells have a survival selection advantage during arsenic exposure that favors their accumulation and facilitates their malignant transformation...
  27. ncbi Molecular mechanisms underlying ochratoxin A-induced genotoxicity: global gene expression analysis suggests induction of DNA double-strand breaks and cell cycle progression
    Daisuke Hibi
    Division of Pathology, National Institute of Health Sciences, Tokyo, Japan
    J Toxicol Sci 38:57-69. 2013
    ..These results suggested that OTA induced DSB and cell cycle progression at the target site. These events other than oxidative stress could trigger genotoxicity leading to OTA-induced renal tumorigenicity...
  28. ncbi Nutrition in adult and childhood cancer: role of carcinogens and anti-carcinogens
    Terezie T Mosby
    St Jude Children s Research Hospital, 262 Danny Thomas Place, Memphis, TN 38105 3678, USA
    Anticancer Res 32:4171-92. 2012
    ..Here we review data focusing on which dietary factors, including food-borne carcinogens, affect the onset of cancers in adults and stress out the potential role of diet in childhood cancer prevention.
  29. ncbi Characteristic expression profiles induced by genotoxic carcinogens in rat liver
    Heidrun Ellinger-Ziegelbauer
    Department of Molecular and Genetic Toxicology, Bayer AG, Wuppertal, Germany
    Toxicol Sci 77:19-34. 2004
    ..In this study, we investigated whether genotoxic carcinogens at doses known to induce liver tumors in the 2-year rat bioassay deregulate a common set of genes in a short-..
  30. ncbi In vitro study of transporters involved in intestinal absorption of inorganic arsenic
    Marta Calatayud
    Instituto de Agroquimica y Tecnologia de Alimentos CSIC, Av Agustín Escardino, 7, 46980 Paterna, Valencia, Spain
    Chem Res Toxicol 25:446-53. 2012
    ..Gene silencing of OATPB, AQP10, and GLUT5 for As(III) and NaPiIIb for As(V) significantly reduces uptake of the inorganic forms. These results indicate that these transporters may be involved in intestinal absorption of iAs...
  31. ncbi Breast cancer risk by occupation and industry: analysis of the CECILE study, a population-based case-control study in France
    Sara Villeneuve
    National Institute of Health and Medical Research, Center for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health, Environmental Epidemiology of Cancer, Villejuif, France
    Am J Ind Med 54:499-509. 2011
    It has been suggested that certain occupational exposures may play a role in breast cancer etiology. The recognition of high-risk occupations may give clues about potential mammary carcinogens in the work place.
  32. pmc Perturbation of mitosis through inhibition of histone acetyltransferases: the key to ochratoxin a toxicity and carcinogenicity?
    Kristin Czakai
    Department of Toxicology, Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Wurzburg, Wurzburg, Germany
    Toxicol Sci 122:317-29. 2011
    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is one of the most potent rodent renal carcinogens studied to date...
  33. pmc Benzene, the exposome and future investigations of leukemia etiology
    Martyn T Smith
    Genes and Environment Laboratory, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 7356, USA
    Chem Biol Interact 192:155-9. 2011
    ..We propose that we should attempt to characterize the 'exposome' of human leukemia by using unbiased laboratory-based methods to find the unknown 'environmental' factors that contribute to leukemia etiology...
  34. pmc Applications of the human p53 knock-in (Hupki) mouse model for human carcinogen testing
    Ahmad Besaratinia
    Department of Cancer Biology, Beckman Research Institute of the City of Hope National Medical Center, 1500 East Duarte Road, Duarte, CA 91010, USA
    FASEB J 24:2612-9. 2010
    ..of the Hupki mouse model system for investigating mutagenesis induced by a variety of environmental carcinogens, including sunlight ultraviolet radiation, benzo[a]pyrene (a tobacco smoke-derived carcinogen), 3-..
  35. ncbi Carcinogen-induced gene promoter hypermethylation is mediated by DNMT1 and causal for transformation of immortalized bronchial epithelial cells
    LEAH A DAMIANI
    Lung Cancer Program, Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87108, USA
    Cancer Res 68:9005-14. 2008
    ..hTERT/cyclin-dependent kinase 4, immortalized bronchial epithelial cell lines after low-dose treatment with the carcinogens methylnitrosourea, benzo(a)pyrene-diolepoxide 1, or both for 12 weeks...
  36. ncbi Global surveillance of oral tobacco products: total nicotine, unionised nicotine and tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines
    Stephen B Stanfill
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Environmental Health, Division of Laboratory Sciences, Emergency Response and Air Toxicants Branch, 4770 Buford Highway, Atlanta, Georgia 30341, USA
    Tob Control 20:e2. 2011
    ..The aim of this study was to determine typical pH ranges and concentrations of total nicotine, unionised nicotine (the most readily absorbed form) and five TSNAs in selected oral tobacco products distributed globally...
  37. pmc Cancer and developmental exposure to endocrine disruptors
    Linda S Birnbaum
    Experimental Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U S Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 111:389-94. 2003
    ..tumor formation induced by prenatal or neonatal exposure to a variety of chemicals, including direct-acting carcinogens and drugs. Recently, natural estrogens have been classified as known human carcinogens...
  38. ncbi Comparison of exposure assessment methods for occupational carcinogens in a multi-centre lung cancer case-control study
    Susan Peters
    Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Environmental Epidemiology Division, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Occup Environ Med 68:148-53. 2011
    ..Different methods have been developed, including case-by-case expert assessment and job-exposure matrices (JEM). The present analyses compare exposure prevalence and risk estimates derived by different exposure assessment methods...
  39. ncbi Molecular mechanisms of asbestos-induced lung epithelial cell apoptosis
    Gang Liu
    Department of Medicine, Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Jesse Brown VA Medical Center and Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
    Chem Biol Interact 188:309-18. 2010
    ..Importantly, the asbestos paradigm is elucidating pathophysiologic insights into other more common pulmonary diseases, such as IPF and lung cancer, for which better therapy is required...
  40. ncbi Discrimination of genotoxic from non-genotoxic carcinogens by gene expression profiling
    J H M van Delft
    Department of Health Risk Analysis and Toxicology, Maastricht University, PO Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands
    Carcinogenesis 25:1265-76. 2004
    ..that modulation of the underlying gene expression patterns is profoundly distinct between GTX and NGTX carcinogens, and thus that expression profiling is applicable for classification of chemical carcinogens as GTX or NGTX...
  41. pmc Assessing susceptibility from early-life exposure to carcinogens
    Hugh A Barton
    Office of Research and Development, National Center for Computational Toxicology, U S Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 113:1125-33. 2005
    ..These analyses suggest increased susceptibility to cancer from early-life exposure, particularly for chemicals acting through a mutagenic mode of action...
  42. ncbi Investigation of the distribution and excretion of okadaic acid in mice using immunostaining method
    Emiko Ito
    Research Center for Pathogenic Fungi and Microbial Toxicoses, Chiba University, 1 8 1 Inohana, Chuo Ku, Chiba, 260 8673, Japan
    Toxicon 40:159-65. 2002
    ..The detection of OA continued for 2 weeks in the liver and blood vessels. Excretion from kidney, cecum and large intestine began even after 5 min of the administration, and the excretion from intestine continued for 4 weeks...
  43. ncbi Mode of action in relevance of rodent liver tumors to human cancer risk
    Michael P Holsapple
    ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute, Washington, DC 20005, USA
    Toxicol Sci 89:51-6. 2006
    ....
  44. ncbi Acrylamide formation mechanism in heated foods
    David V Zyzak
    The Procter and Gamble Company, Winton Hill Business Center, 6210 Center Hill Avenue, Cincinnati, Ohio 45224, USA
    J Agric Food Chem 51:4782-7. 2003
    ..Further confirmation of this mechanism is accomplished through selective removal of asparagine with asparaginase that results in a reduced level of acrylamide in a selected heated food...
  45. ncbi IARC carcinogens reported in cigarette mainstream smoke and their calculated log P values
    C J Smith
    R and D, Bowman Gray Technical Center, RJRT Company, Winston Salem, NC 27102 1487, USA
    Food Chem Toxicol 41:807-17. 2003
    ..IARC) has classified a number of the chemical constituents reported in cigarette mainstream smoke (MS) as carcinogens. Previously, we published a series of historical reviews reporting that 11 IARC Group 1 (known human), nine ..
  46. ncbi 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced invasion/migration of glioblastoma cells through activating PKCalpha/ERK/NF-kappaB-dependent MMP-9 expression
    Cheng Wei Lin
    Graduate Institute of Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan
    J Cell Physiol 225:472-81. 2010
    ..Application of flavonoids to prevent the migration/invasion of glioblastoma cells through blocking PKCalpha/ERK/NF-kappaB activation is first demonstrated herein...
  47. ncbi Pas1 haplotype-dependent genetic predisposition to lung tumorigenesis in rodents: a meta-analysis
    Giacomo Manenti
    Department of Experimental Oncology and Laboratories, Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milan, Italy
    Carcinogenesis 26:875-82. 2005
    ..14; 95% CI 12.51-18.31) in the A/J-type haplotype. Strain differences were observed with six different carcinogens, suggesting that Pas1 locus activity is carcinogen-independent...
  48. ncbi Increased susceptibility to urethane-induced lung tumors in mice with decreased expression of connexin43
    José Luis Avanzo
    Laboratory of Experimental Oncology, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Zootechny, University of Sao Paulo, Avenida Prof Dr Orlando Marques de Paiva 87, CEP 05508 900 São Paulo, Brazil
    Carcinogenesis 25:1973-82. 2004
    ..In conclusion, our results indicate that deletion of one allele of the Cx43 gene clearly favors the carcinogenic effect of urethane administration and results in a higher susceptibility to lung adenoma formation in mice...
  49. ncbi Profile of gene expression induced by the tumour promotor TPA in murine epithelial cells
    Joerg Schlingemann
    Division of Molecular Genetics, Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Heidelberg, Germany
    Int J Cancer 104:699-708. 2003
    Malignant transformation of mouse skin by chemical carcinogens and tumour promoters, such as the phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), is a multistage process that leads to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) formation...
  50. ncbi Contribution of the NQO1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms to lung adenocarcinoma susceptibility
    Noriaki Sunaga
    Biology Division, National Cancer Center Research Institute, Tokyo, Japan
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 11:730-8. 2002
    ..In this study, polymorphisms in five genes involved in the metabolism of carcinogens or in the repair of damaged DNA in lung cells, NQO1-Pro187Ser, GSTT1-positive/null, GSTM1-positive/null, CYP1A1-..
  51. ncbi SirT1-null mice develop tumors at normal rates but are poorly protected by resveratrol
    G Boily
    Center for Cancer Therapeutics, Ottawa Health Research Institute, and Department of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
    Oncogene 28:2882-93. 2009
    ..Thus, our results suggest that SirT1 does not behave like a classical tumor-suppressor gene but the antitumor activity of resveratrol is mediated at least in part by SirT1...
  52. ncbi Nrf2: control of sensitivity to carcinogens
    Stephen L Slocum
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Arch Toxicol 85:273-84. 2011
    Induction of enzymes that enhance the detoxication of chemical carcinogens has been a broadly effective strategy for chemoprevention of experimental carcinogenesis in rodent models...
  53. ncbi Essential role of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) in tumor promotion as revealed by TNF-alpha-deficient mice
    M Suganuma
    Saitama Cancer Center Research Institute, Japan
    Cancer Res 59:4516-8. 1999
    ..All of our results demonstrate that TNF-alpha is the key cytokine for tumor promotion in mouse skin and, very possibly, for carcinogenesis in humans as well...
  54. pmc Acrolein is a major cigarette-related lung cancer agent: Preferential binding at p53 mutational hotspots and inhibition of DNA repair
    Zhaohui Feng
    Department of Environmental Medicine, Pathology, and Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, Tuxedo, NY 10987, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:15404-9. 2006
    ..Together these results suggest that Acr is a major etiological agent for CS-related lung cancer and that it contributes to lung carcinogenesis through two detrimental effects: DNA damage and inhibition of DNA repair...
  55. ncbi Critical period and minimum single oral dose of ochratoxin A for inducing developmental toxicity in pregnant Wistar rats
    Rajendra D Patil
    Division of Pathology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar 243 122, Uttar Pradesh, India
    Reprod Toxicol 22:679-87. 2006
    ..The gestational days 6 and 7 were found to be the most critical for the induction of teratogenicity in rats. Single oral dose of 2.75 mg/kg body weight OTA was found to be the minimum effective teratogenic dose in pregnant Wistar rats...
  56. ncbi Effect of ochratoxin A on redox-regulated transcription factors, antioxidant enzymes and glutathione-S-transferase in cultured kidney tubulus cells
    C Boesch-Saadatmandi
    Institute of Human Nutrition and Food Science, Christian Albrechts University Kiel, Herrman Rodewald Strasse 6, 24118 Kiel, Germany
    Food Chem Toxicol 46:2665-71. 2008
    ..Present data indicate that enhanced ROS production and an impairment of GST activity, possibly due to an AP-1 and Nrf2 dependent signal transduction pathway, may be centrally involved in OTA induced nephrotoxicity...
  57. pmc Occupational exposure to formaldehyde, hematotoxicity, and leukemia-specific chromosome changes in cultured myeloid progenitor cells
    Luoping Zhang
    School of Public Health, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720, USA
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 19:80-8. 2010
    ....
  58. ncbi Mechanism of arsenic carcinogenesis: an integrated approach
    Toby G Rossman
    Kaplan Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Nelson Institute of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, 57 Old Forge Road, Tuxedo, NY 10987, USA
    Mutat Res 533:37-65. 2003
    ..This review will try to integrate all of these issues, with a strong bias toward effects that are produced by environmentally relevant arsenic concentrations...
  59. ncbi Meat, meat cooking methods and preservation, and risk for colorectal adenoma
    Rashmi Sinha
    Nutritional Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    Cancer Res 65:8034-41. 2005
    ..04; 95% CI, 0.90-1.19). Our study of screening-detected colorectal adenomas shows that red meat and meat cooked at high temperatures are associated with an increased risk of colorectal adenoma...
  60. ncbi Estrogenic and antiestrogenic properties of resveratrol in mammary tumor models
    K P Bhat
    Program for Collaborative Research in the Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy, College of Pharmacy, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60612, USA
    Cancer Res 61:7456-63. 2001
    ..In rodent models, carcinogen-induced preneoplastic lesions and mammary tumors are inhibited. These data suggest that resveratrol may have beneficial effects if used as a chemopreventive agent for breast cancer...
  61. ncbi Protective effect of cyanidin 3-O-beta-D-glucoside on ochratoxin A-mediated damage in the rat
    Claudia Di Giacomo
    Department of Biochemistry, Medical Chemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Catania, Vle A Doria 6, 95100 Catania, Italy
    Br J Nutr 98:937-43. 2007
    ..The present study confirmed that the effects of OTA are mediated by oxidative stress and demonstrated that C3G efficiently counteracted deleterious effects of OTA because of its antioxidant and HO-1-inducing properties...
  62. ncbi In vivo mutational analysis of liver DNA in gpt delta transgenic rats treated with the hepatocarcinogens N-nitrosopyrrolidine, 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline, and di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate
    Keita Kanki
    Division of Pathology, National Institute of Health Sciences, Setagaya Ku, Tokyo 158 8501, Japan
    Mol Carcinog 42:9-17. 2005
    ..Our data also indicate that analysis of specific in vivo mutational responses with transgenic animal models can provide crucial information for understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying chemical carcinogenesis...
  63. ncbi Recurrent chemical reactivations of EBV promotes genome instability and enhances tumor progression of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells
    Chih Yeu Fang
    National Institute of Cancer Research, National Health Research Institutes, Zhunan, Taiwan
    Int J Cancer 124:2016-25. 2009
    ..These results suggest that recurrent EBV reactivations may result in accumulation of genome instability and promote the tumor progression of NPC...
  64. ncbi Formaldehyde exposure and leukemia: a new meta-analysis and potential mechanisms
    Luoping Zhang
    School of Public Health, 50 University Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 7356, USA
    Mutat Res 681:150-68. 2009
    ..To test these hypotheses, we recommend that future studies apply biomarkers validated for other chemical leukemogens to the study of formaldehyde...
  65. pmc Genetic loci controlling breast cancer susceptibility in the Wistar-Kyoto rat
    H Lan
    McArdle Laboratory for Cancer Research, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53792, USA
    Genetics 157:331-9. 2001
    ..In addition, we identified an interaction between Mcs8 and a region on chromosome 6 termed Mcsm1 (modifier of Mcs), which had no significant main effect on mammary cancer susceptibility in this genetic analysis...
  66. ncbi The less harmful cigarette: a controversial issue. a tribute to Ernst L. Wynder
    D Hoffmann
    American Health Foundation, Valhalla, New York 10595, USA
    Chem Res Toxicol 14:767-90. 2001
    ..In cigarette smoke, among 4800 identified compounds, 69 are carcinogens, and several are tumor promoters or cocarcinogens...
  67. pmc Relevance of particle-induced rat lung tumors for assessing lung carcinogenic hazard and human lung cancer risk
    J L Mauderly
    Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM 87108, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 105:1337-46. 1997
    ..With the exception of nickel sulfate, particulate agents thought to be human lung carcinogens cause lung tumors in rats exposed by inhalation...
  68. ncbi Ochratoxin A-mediated DNA and protein damage: roles of nitrosative and oxidative stresses
    Christophe Cavin
    Quality and Safety Department, Nestle Research Center, Vers chez les Blanc, CH 1000 Lausanne 26, Switzerland
    Toxicol Sci 110:84-94. 2009
    ..The exact role of nitrosative stress still remains to be established...
  69. ncbi Genetic and environmental factors in cancer and neurodegenerative diseases
    Lucia Migliore
    Dipartimento di Scienze dell Uomo e dell Ambiente, University of Pisa, Via S Giuseppe 22, 56126, Pisa, Italy
    Mutat Res 512:135-53. 2002
    ....
  70. ncbi Cigarette smoking: cancer risks, carcinogens, and mechanisms
    Stephen S Hecht
    The Cancer Center, University of Minnesota, Box 806 Mayo, 420 Delaware Street SE, Minneapolis, MN, USA
    Langenbecks Arch Surg 391:603-13. 2006
    ..Cigarette smoking causes about 30% of all cancer mortality in developed countries. Although smoking is decreasing in developed countries, it is increasing in some developing countries...
  71. ncbi Reduction in antioxidant defenses may contribute to ochratoxin A toxicity and carcinogenicity
    Christophe Cavin
    Quality and Safety Department, Nestle Research Center, CH 1000 Lausanne 26, Switzerland
    Toxicol Sci 96:30-9. 2007
    ..Our data suggest that reduction of cellular defense against oxidative stress by Nrf2 inhibition may be a plausible mechanism of OTA nephrotoxicity and carcinogenicity...
  72. pmc Formation of carcinogens indoors by surface-mediated reactions of nicotine with nitrous acid, leading to potential thirdhand smoke hazards
    Mohamad Sleiman
    Indoor Environment Department, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, MS 70 108B, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:6576-81. 2010
    ..The potent carcinogens 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridinyl)-1-butanone and N-nitroso nornicotine were also detected...
  73. ncbi Airborne particulate matter and human health: toxicological assessment and importance of size and composition of particles for oxidative damage and carcinogenic mechanisms
    Athanasios Valavanidis
    Department of Chemistry, University of Athens, University Campus Zogafou, Athens, Greece
    J Environ Sci Health C Environ Carcinog Ecotoxicol Rev 26:339-62. 2008
    ....
  74. ncbi Phytochemicals from cruciferous plants protect against cancer by modulating carcinogen metabolism
    P Talalay
    Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    J Nutr 131:3027S-33S. 2001
    ..supports the view that phase 2 enzyme induction is a highly effective strategy for reducing susceptibility to carcinogens. This conclusion has recently received strong molecular support from experiments on mice in which the specific ..
  75. ncbi Predictive toxicogenomics approaches reveal underlying molecular mechanisms of nongenotoxic carcinogenicity
    Alex Y Nie
    Johnson and Johnson Pharmaceutical Research and Development, LLC, Raritan, New Jersey, USA
    Mol Carcinog 45:914-33. 2006
    ..with over one hundred paradigm compounds was mined to determine gene expression signatures for nongenotoxic carcinogens (NGTCs). Data were obtained from male rats treated for 24 h...
  76. ncbi Inorganic arsenite-induced malignant transformation of human prostate epithelial cells
    William E Achanzar
    Inorganic Carcinogenesis Section, Laboratory of Comparative Carcinogenesis, National Cancer Institute at National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    J Natl Cancer Inst 94:1888-91. 2002
    ..These results are the first report of arsenite-induced malignant transformation of a human epithelial cell line and provide an important in vitro model for studying the mechanisms underlying arsenic-induced carcinogenesis in humans...
  77. pmc Mortality among a cohort of garment workers exposed to formaldehyde: an update
    L E Pinkerton
    Industrywide Studies Branch, Division of Surveillance, Hazard Evaluations and Field Studies, The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA
    Occup Environ Med 61:193-200. 2004
    ..The mean time weighted average formaldehyde exposure at the plants in the early 1980s was 0.15 ppm but past exposures may have been substantially higher...
  78. ncbi MCL1 is phosphorylated in the PEST region and stabilized upon ERK activation in viable cells, and at additional sites with cytotoxic okadaic acid or taxol
    Aaron M Domina
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Dartmouth Medical School, Hanover, NH 03755, USA
    Oncogene 23:5301-15. 2004
    ....
  79. ncbi Associations between carcinogen-DNA damage, glutathione S-transferase genotypes, and risk of lung cancer in the prospective Physicians' Health Cohort Study
    Frederica P Perera
    Division of Environmental Health Sciences, Joseph L Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York City, NY 10032, USA
    Carcinogenesis 23:1641-6. 2002
    ..The findings underscore the complex and important role of biological susceptibility as a determinant of risk from carcinogens found in tobacco smoke and other environmental compounds.
  80. ncbi Interactions among genetic variants in tobacco metabolizing genes and smoking are associated with head and neck cancer susceptibility in North Indians
    Rajni Sharma
    Department of Otolaryngology, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India
    DNA Cell Biol 30:611-6. 2011
    ..15-7.32, p < 0.01). These results support the hypothesis that genetic variants in tobacco metabolizing genes may contribute to head and neck cancer risk through gene-gene and gene-environmental interactions...
  81. ncbi Oxygen and nitrogen are pro-carcinogens. Damage to DNA by reactive oxygen, chlorine and nitrogen species: measurement, mechanism and the effects of nutrition
    B Halliwell
    Department of Biochemistry, National University of Singapore, Kent Ridge Crescent, Singapore 119260, Singapore
    Mutat Res 443:37-52. 1999
    Humans are exposed to many carcinogens, but the most significant may be the reactive species derived from metabolism of oxygen and nitrogen...
  82. ncbi Hplc/electrospray ionization mass spectrometric analysis of the heterocyclic aromatic amine carcinogen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine in human milk
    Kara A Scott
    Guelph Waterloo Centre for Graduate Work in Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada N1G 2W1
    Chem Res Toxicol 20:88-94. 2007
    ..68 pg/mL) for all subjects except one, for whom a concentration of 1.0 pg PhIP/mL was measured. Our results indicate that the levels of PhIP in human milk are substantially lower than what was previously reported...
  83. ncbi Tumor formation in liver of conditional β-catenin-deficient mice exposed to a diethylnitrosamine/phenobarbital tumor promotion regimen
    Benjamin Rignall
    Department of Toxicology, Institute of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Tubingen, Germany
    Carcinogenesis 32:52-7. 2011
    ....
  84. pmc Cigarette smoke-induced pancreatic damage: experimental data
    Uwe A Wittel
    Departement of General and Visceral Surgery, Universitatsklinik Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany
    Langenbecks Arch Surg 393:581-8. 2008
    ..Despite of this clear epidemiological correlation, cigarette smoke-induced pancreatic damage has only been investigated in a small number of experimental studies...
  85. ncbi Consequences of exposure to carcinogens beginning during developmental life
    Morando Soffritti
    Cesare Maltoni Cancer Research Center, European Ramazzini Foundation of Oncology and Environmental Sciences, Bologna, Italy
    Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 102:118-24. 2008
    ..radiation, the available epidemiological data concerning the adult consequences of developmental exposure to carcinogens is very limited...
  86. pmc Life-span exposure to low doses of aspartame beginning during prenatal life increases cancer effects in rats
    Morando Soffritti
    Cesare Maltoni Cancer Research Center, European Ramazzini Foundation of Oncology and Environmental Sciences, Bologna, Italy
    Environ Health Perspect 115:1293-7. 2007
    ....
  87. pmc Testing an aflatoxin B1 gene signature in rat archival tissues
    B Alex Merrick
    Biomolecular Screening Branch, Division of the National Toxicology Program, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, United States
    Chem Res Toxicol 25:1132-44. 2012
    ..We conclude that an evaluation of gene signatures in archival tissues can be an important toxicological tool for evaluating critical molecular events associated with chemical exposures...
  88. ncbi In vitro benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide-induced DNA adducts and risk of squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck
    Donghui Li
    Department of Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology, The University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    Cancer Res 67:5628-34. 2007
    ..In conclusion, we confirmed the previously reported association between in vitro BPDE-induced DNA adduct levels and SCCHN risk, and the assay may help identify individuals at high risk of developing smoking-related cancers...
  89. pmc A two-locus system controls susceptibility to colitis-associated colon cancer in mice
    Lauren Van Der Kraak
    Department of Biochemistry, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    Oncotarget 1:436-46. 2010
    ..This indicates that susceptibility to chemically-induced CRC and susceptibility to CA-CRC are under distinct genetic control in mice, and probably involve distinct cellular pathways...
  90. ncbi HSP70 and mucin 5B: novel protein targets of N,N'-dinitrosopiperazine-induced nasopharyngeal tumorigenesis
    Fa qing Tang
    Xiangya Hospital, Department of Pathology, Xiangya School of Medicine, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China
    Cancer Sci 100:216-24. 2009
    ..Our data indicate that DNP triggers over-expression of HSP70 and mucin 5B, and is involved in nasopharyngeal tumorigenesis. HSP70 and mucin 5B may be important targets in nasopharyngeal tumorigenesis induced by DNP...
  91. ncbi Overview: Using mode of action and life stage information to evaluate the human relevance of animal toxicity data
    Jennifer Seed
    US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, USA
    Crit Rev Toxicol 35:664-72. 2005
    ..Based mainly on non-DNA-reactive carcinogens, the HRF features a "concordance" analysis of MOA information from both animal and human sources, ..
  92. pmc Occupational cancer in Britain. Statistical methodology
    Sally J Hutchings
    Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health and MRC HPA Centre for Environment and Health, Imperial College London, St Mary s Campus, Norfolk Place, London W2 1PG, UK
    Br J Cancer 107:S8-17. 2012
    ..CARcinogen EXposure (CAREX) database provides point estimates for the number of workers exposed to a range of carcinogens; alternative sources are national surveys such as the Labour Force Survey and Census of Employment...
  93. ncbi A novel inflammation-related mouse colon carcinogenesis model induced by azoxymethane and dextran sodium sulfate
    Takuji Tanaka
    The First Department of Pathology, Kanazawa Medical University, Uchinada, Ishikawa 920 0293
    Cancer Sci 94:965-73. 2003
    ....
  94. pmc Occupational cancer in Britain. Exposure assessment methodology
    Martie van Tongeren
    Institute of Occupational Medicine, Research Avenue North, Riccarton, Edinburgh EH14 4AP, UK
    Br J Cancer 107:S18-26. 2012
    ..This paper describes the methods and results for estimating the historical exposures. All occupational carcinogens or exposure circumstances classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as definite or probable ..
  95. ncbi Effects of cruciferous vegetables and their constituents on drug metabolizing enzymes involved in the bioactivation of DNA-reactive dietary carcinogens
    H Steinkellner
    Institute of Cancer Research, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
    Mutat Res 480:285-97. 2001
    ..These properties have been attributed to alterations in the metabolism of carcinogens by breakdown products of glucosinolates, which are constituents of CF...
  96. ncbi A comparison of exposure to carcinogens among roll-your-own and factory-made cigarette smokers
    Lion Shahab
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, 2 16 Torrington Place, London, UK
    Addict Biol 14:315-20. 2009
    ..To start to address this issue, this study compared the concentrations of metabolites of recognized human carcinogens in smokers of RYO tobacco and FM cigarettes...
  97. ncbi Do electromagnetic fields enhance the effects of environmental carcinogens?
    Jukka Juutilainen
    Department of Environmental Science, University of Kuopio, PO Box 1627, 70211 Kuopio, Finland fi
    Radiat Prot Dosimetry 132:228-31. 2008
    ..Epidemiological data on the interaction between MFs and other environmental agents are scant and inconclusive, and any further studies may be difficult because of the scarcity of subjects with suitable combined exposures...
  98. ncbi Formaldehyde: integrating dosimetry, cytotoxicity, and genomics to understand dose-dependent transitions for an endogenous compound
    Melvin E Andersen
    Program in Chemical Safety Sciences, The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Toxicol Sci 118:716-31. 2010
    ....
  99. ncbi Altered expression of beta-catenin, inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 in azoxymethane-induced rat colon carcinogenesis
    M Takahashi
    Cancer Prevention Division, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 1 1, Tsukiji 5 chome, Chuo Ku, Tokyo 104 0045, Japan
    Carcinogenesis 21:1319-27. 2000
    ..These results show that beta-catenin alterations may be related to induction of iNOS expression, these being early events in AOM-induced colon tumorigenesis which may play important roles in causing dysplastic changes...
  100. ncbi High sensitivity to carcinogens in the brain of a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease
    J Serrano
    Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Neurobiology, Instituto Cajal, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas CSIC, Madrid, Spain
    Oncogene 29:2165-71. 2010
    ..Clinical studies reporting comorbidity of AD and brain cancer are needed to understand whether our observations hold true for humans...
  101. ncbi Gene expression and mutation assessment provide clues of genetic and epigenetic mechanisms in liver tumors of oxazepam-exposed mice
    S A Lahousse
    Cellular and Molecular Pathology Branch, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA
    Vet Pathol 48:875-84. 2011
    ..These data suggest that formation of hepatocellular adenomas and carcinomas in oxazepam-exposed mice involves alteration of the Wnt signaling pathway, oxidative stress, and potential epigenetic alterations...

Research Grants78

  1. Pilot and definitive studies to evaluate Insertional Mutagenesis
    LU TAYLOR; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Toxicogenomic studies are designed to determine whether the use of genomic technology can detect potential carcinogens in a shorter time frame...
  2. Studies to Evaluate the Toxicological Potential of Test Articles
    LU TAYLOR; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Toxicogenomic studies are designed to determine whether the use of genomic technology can detect potential carcinogens in a shorter time frame...
  3. Role and Regulation of INrf2
    ANIL KUMAR JAISWAL; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..and investigate in vivo roles of INrf2 in coordinated activation of antioxidant genes and susceptibility to carcinogens;and test the hypothesis that ubiquitin ligase factors Cul3-Rbx1 are part of INrf2:Nrf2 auto-regulatory loop ..
  4. 24th Annual Fanconi Anemia Research Fund Scientific Symposium
    GROVER CARLTON BAGBY; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..instability of the somatic cells in the FA patient means that exposure to ionizing radiation, environmental carcinogens and chemotherapeutic agents pose unique risks to the patient...
  5. Expanding Vietnamese Community and Academic Infrastructure for Health Research
    Bang H Nguyen; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..cancer diagnosis;breast, cervical, colorectal, liver, and lung cancer;liver cirrhosis;cardiovascular diseases;tobacco-related diseases;and other diseases caused by exposure to carcinogens, endocrine disruptors and respiratory irritants.
  6. Novel Reagents and Methods for Rapid and High Throughput Detection of Aflatoxin C
    ALAN AI PING WEI; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..robust and reproducible and, eventually, adaptable to full automation" for "carcinogenic agents, exposure to carcinogens". (e.g., PA-09-187)...
  7. CPG METHYLATION AND MUTATION
    Gerd P Pfeifer; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Using genome-wide methylation profiling, we will analyze the extent by which chemical carcinogens can induce DNA methylation changes...
  8. Microsomal Cytochromes P450 and their Interactions with their Redox Partners
    Lucy A Waskell; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..P450 determine the toxicity, duration of action, and elimination of the vast majority of therapeutic agents, carcinogens, and environmental agents to which humans are exposed...
  9. NITROGEN HETEROCYCLES: METABOLIC EFFECTS AND TOXICITY
    Raymond F Novak; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..is critically important in human health, because it increases oxidative stress, catalyzes the metabolism of carcinogens, therapeutic agents, eicosanoids, and fatty acids, reflects an altered phenotype, and is a biomarker of ..
  10. MECHANISMS OF RADIORESISTANCE AND CELL CYCLE PROGRESSION
    Howard B Lieberman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..should impact on basic research and public health where DNA damaging agents are prevalent environmental carcinogens that can induce genomic instability and cancer, and at the same time the work should reveal novel targets for ..
  11. Molecular Mechanisms of Chemoprevention: NRF2 Signaling
    Thomas W Kensler; Fiscal Year: 2013
    Cancer prevention involving reduction or elimination of human exposure to environmental carcinogens may not always be possible...
  12. Molecular Epidemiology of DNA Repair in Head and Neck Cancer
    Qingyi Wei; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Tobacco carcinogens cause a variety of DNA damage in the target cells, which may lead to uncontrolled cell growth, but the cells ..
  13. DNA Damage Checkpoint and Cancer
    Toru Ouchi; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..reactions and DNA replication, and through exposure of cells to environmental mutagens including chemical carcinogens, UV light and gamma-radiation...
  14. Roles of NF-kB/Rel in the pathogenesis of breast cancer
    Gail E Sonenshein; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..PI proposes to test the central hypothesis that genetic and epigenetic alterations mediated by environmental carcinogens converge to induce or enhance the activity of multiple NF-?B complexes, thereby promoting a more invasive ..
  15. Enhanced Membrane Systems for Supplying Quality Drinking Water
    Andrew Feiring; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Additionally, chlorine combines with natural organics like humic acid to produce carcinogens such as THMs (trihalomethanes). Chlorine is also less effective at killing viruses...
  16. Chemoprevention of urinary bladder carcinogenesis by flavokawain A
    Xiaolin Zi; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Because exposure to carcinogens is the major risk factor for bladder cancer and many potentially protective compounds contained in plant-..
  17. DNA REPAIR IN A HORMONE RESPONSIVE GENE
    Michael J Smerdon; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..insight into the cell's defense mechanism for resisting neoplastic transformation by environmental carcinogens. PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: DNA damage is detrimental to all living cells and repair of these lesions in ..
  18. Influence of Heme on Hepatic Cytochrome P450 Turnover
    Maria Almira Correia; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..P450s), hemoprotein enzymes engaged in the breakdown and clearance of endo- and xenobiotics such as drugs, carcinogens, toxins, natural and chemical products...
  19. Host Defense Mechanisms in Polyaromatic Hydrogen Carcinogenesis
    Craig A Elmets; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This is especially true for polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), carcinogens that are present in cigarette smoke, charcoal broiled food, and were found in burning oilfields during the ..
  20. Activating liver carcinogens in yeast by expressing CYP450 polymorphisms
    MICHAEL THOMAS FASULLO; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Individual response to liver carcinogens shows great variability...
  21. HEPATIC DEGRADATION OF CYTOCHROME P450 ENZYMES
    Maria Almira Correia; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..e. drugs, carcinogens, toxins, natural and chemical products...
  22. Role of Id1 in NSCLC Progression and Metastasis
    Srikumar P Chellappan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Many tobacco-specific carcinogens present in cigarette smoke cause DNA damage, leading to the mutation of vital genes like Ras, p53 and Rb...
  23. Prevention of Esophageal Cancer with Berries
    Gary Stoner; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..and alcohol use, consumption of salty and moldy foods that are frequently contaminated with N-nitrosamine carcinogens, vitamin and trace mineral deficiencies, and diets high in starch but low in fruits and vegetables...
  24. Apple peel extract inhibits Cr(VI)-induced lung cancer
    Zhuo Zhang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Cr(VI)-containing compounds are well established environmental carcinogens. Although the mechanisms of Cr(VI) carcinogenesis remain to be investigated, various studies indicate that Cr(VI)-induced ..
  25. Cancer induction in the ovary by an environmental pollutant, dibenzo[a,l]pyrene
    Kun Ming Chen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Presence of DNA adducts in tissues exposed to environmental carcinogens is crucial to the initiation of the carcinogenic process, and therefore the detection of DNA adducts derived ..
  26. Genomic profiling of yeast resistance to AFB1, a P450-activated carcinogen
    MICHAEL THOMAS FASULLO; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..However, human susceptibility to environmental carcinogens is highly variable. Low penetrant alleles may increase the risk for particular environmental-associated cancers...
  27. Molecular Analysis of Alcohol Effects on Human Oral Epithelium Cells'Epigenome
    Alison Urvalek; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Our central hypothesis is that alcohol and carcinogens found in tobacco will induce genome-wide aberrant epigenetic changes that will alter gene expression of normal ..
  28. Prevention of EtOH-induced promotion of hepatocarcinogenesis by genistein/soy
    Martin J J Ronis; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..increasing the rate of development of tumors initiated as a result of exposure to dietary and environmental carcinogens such as nitrosamines found in alcoholic beverages and cigarette smoke or via hepatitis infection...
  29. Factors for Epigenetic Silencing of Lung Cancer Genes
    Steven Belinsky; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..in critical genes involved in the bioactivation, detoxification, and repair of DNA damage stemming from tobacco carcinogens and the subsequent acquisition of somatic genetic and epigenetic changes in critical regulatory genes...
  30. Green tea effects on gene expression in tobacco users
    Joel L Schwartz; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In addition to containing antioxidants that can directly inactivate carcinogens, GT has shown the ability, largely in vitro, to induce apoptosis in cancer cells, cause cell cycle arrest and ..
  31. Mdig gene and histone demethylation in lung cancer
    Fei Chen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..the lung cell proliferation and carcinogenic transformation induced by environmental and occupational hazards/carcinogens. The central hypothesis is that Mdig promotes cell growth and transformation by functioning as a histone ..
  32. Participation in Cytochrome b5 in Anesthetic Metabolism
    Lucy A Waskell; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..P450 determine the toxicity, duration of action, and elimination of the vast majority of therapeutic agents, carcinogens, and environmental agents to which humans are exposed...
  33. 3D human skin models
    Meenhard Herlyn; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Major carcinogens for mouse skin such as DMBA and the phorbol ester PMA/TPA commonly used in classical two-stage carcinogenesis ..
  34. Detoxification of Electrophilic Chemical Threat Agents by Nucleophilic Scavengers
    Michael C MacLeod; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..In this respect they are similar to many widely studied chemical carcinogens, and therefore strategies that have been used to detoxify these carcinogens should be applicable to the mustard ..
  35. Case-Cohort Study of Cancers in Excess in Poultry Workers
    Eric S Johnson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..identified by NIOSH in its Occupational Safety and Health Research program), but also to other occupational carcinogens, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, heterocyclic amines, nitrosamines, benzene, etc...
  36. Diet and Alcohol Induced Epigenetic Changes in Oral Cavity Carcinogenesis Model
    Lorraine J Gudas; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We will gain valuable information about how the epigenome of stem/progenitor cells is influenced by carcinogens, alcohol, and drugs, such as zebularine and 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, which have been shown both to inhibit ..
  37. Chemoprevention by black raspberry in oral cancer induced by DB[a,l]P in mice
    KARAM E EL-BAYOUMY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..An attractive animal model would be one where tumors resulting from chronic exposure of the animal to chemical carcinogens present in cigarette smoke, would recapitulate the biochemical, molecular and cellular alterations observed in ..
  38. Biomarkers of NNK in prediction of lung cancer development in smokers
    Jian Min Yuan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The variation in the susceptibility to lung cancer among smokers not only depends on their exposure to tobacco carcinogens, but also upon genetic, dietary, and other environmental factors. Tobacco- specific nitrosamines (i.e...
  39. Socioeconomic status and smoking exposure in Appalachia
    Joshua E Muscat; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..studies demonstrate that there is a wide degree of variation in biological exposure to tobacco smoke toxins and carcinogens per cigarette smoked...
  40. The Environment as a Variable to Calibrate Mouse Models of Human Disease
    John M Essigmann; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Exposure to genotoxic carcinogens via both external and internal environments increases risks for major human cancers...
  41. Intra- and Extra-Chromosomal Probes for Mutagenesis by Carcinogens
    John M Essigmann; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..are (1) its emphasis on in vivo analysis of the biology of DNA adducts, many of which are produced by human carcinogens and (2) the emphasis on rigorous synthetic methodology for preparation of adduct containing oligonucleotides ..
  42. GLUTATHIONE TRANSFERASES IN HUMANS: DIETARY INFLUENCES
    Johanna Lampe; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..g., carcinogens) and endogenous compounds (e.g., sex steroid hormones) implicated in cancer risk...
  43. Waterpipe tobacco smoke: toxicant exposure and effects
    THOMAS EVAN EISSENBERG; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..S. These deaths are caused by inhaled smoke toxicants like carcinogens, carbon monoxide (CO), and nitric oxide (NO)...
  44. Validation of Biomarkers to Distinguish Aggressive from Indolent Prostate Cancer
    George Wilding; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..There is no approved biomarker that can distinguish often lethal PCas from the indolent ones. Natural carcinogens such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced in large excess in a majority of PCa tissues...
  45. Apigenin restores TSP-1 expression in UVB-irradiated keratinocytes
    Jill C Pelling; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..a nonmutagenic flavonoid found in fruits and vegetables, inhibits NMSC induced by UV exposure and chemical carcinogens (7,8)...
  46. Bacterial and Chemical Carcinogens in Gastric Oncogenesis
    D Scott Merrell; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..resulting weakening of normal repair mechanisms of epithelial cells may potentiate the effects of dietary carcinogens and be counteracted by protective dietary phytoestrogens;(2) an imbalance between the functions of effector and ..
  47. Synthesis, StructUre and Replication of Carcirogen-Modified Oligonucleotides
    Carmelo J Rizzo; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Exposure to carcinogens is often a result of environmental or work conditions, diet or smoking...
  48. The Role of de novo Cytosine DNA Methyltransferases 3a &3b in Gene Methylation
    Ivo Teneng; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Exposure to tobacco carcinogens induces morphological transformation involving induction of epithelial to mesenchymal transition in HBECs that ..
  49. Liquid Crystal-Based End-of-Service-Life-Indicator for Toluene Vapor
    BHARAT R ACHARYA; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..from organic solvents that are recognized by National Institute of Occupational Safety and Hygiene (NIOSH) as carcinogens, reproductive hazards, and/or neurotoxins...
  50. Genotypes and Phenotypes of Apoptosis and Risk of Head and Neck Cancer
    Qingyi Wei; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Tobacco carcinogens cause a variety of DNA damage in the target cells, which may lead to uncontrolled cell growth, but the cells ..
  51. Reactive oxygen species in Ni(II) carcinogenesis
    Xianglin Shi; Fiscal Year: 2012
    Nickel-containing compounds are human carcinogens. The mechanisms of their carcinogenic actions remain to be investigated. Recent studies have indicated that reactive oxygen species (ROS) may play an important role...
  52. Lysophosphatidic Acid in Oncogenesis
    Xianjun Fang; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..function of LPA4 will be further explored by examining the susceptibility of LPA4 null mice to chemical carcinogens. These proposed studies together will establish the role of LPA4 in tumor suppression and may lead to ..
  53. Sequence Distribution of Tobacco Carcinogen-DNA Adducts
    Natalia Y Tretyakova; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..have revealed that MeC is capable of increasing the reactivity of guanine bases in MeCG dinucleotides towards carcinogens. Remarkably, the majority of lung cancer mutational "hot spots" observed within the p53 tumor suppressor gene ..
  54. Characterization of persistent hyperemic foci and their role in photocarcinogenes
    Raymond L Konger; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We show that focal areas of hyperemia occur following the application of chemical carcinogens or ultraviolet (UV) light to mouse skin...
  55. Childhood Leukemia and Home Environmental Exposures
    Patricia A Buffler; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..attempts to link leukemia risks to children's home exposures relied upon indirect measuresof exposures to carcinogens, based on interviews of households and outdoor levels predicted by Geographic Information Systems (GIS)...
  56. Genetic and Epigenetic Biomarkers for SCC of the Lung
    Steven A Belinsky; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..of reduced gene expression will be assessed by quantifying chromosome aberrations formed following exposure to carcinogens that induce either single- (BPDE1) or double-strand breaks (bleomycin) in DNA...
  57. The Role of Peroxiredoxin1 &Reactive Oxygen Species in Breast Tumor Initiation
    Carola Anke Neumann; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..where H2O2 levels are elevated as found in aging, tobacco smoking, ionizing radiation and environmental carcinogens. By studying breast cancer prone mice lacking Prdx1 we should help to find more specific preventive treatments ..
  58. Liquid Chromatograph-Triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer
    Peyton Jacob; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Some supported projects involve tobacco toxicology, such as exposure to secondhand smoke and specific carcinogens. Our resource is also available for non-tobacco related projects, but the majority our funded studies and ..
  59. The Effect of Genetic Diversity on Mechanism-Based Inactivation of CYP2D6
    Laura L Furge; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..in metabolism of steroids, vitamins, eiconsanoids, and xenobiotics such as drugs, complex plant alkaloids, carcinogens, and other small molecules...
  60. Body Burden of PAHs and Cardiovascular Disease in the United States
    JOHN DAVIS CLARK; Fiscal Year: 2010
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are environmental and occupational carcinogens that are produced by the incomplete combustion of organic material, such as that from tobacco, coal, and ..
  61. Elimination of Carcinogen-Induced Tumor Stem Cells by ATF5 Loss of Function.
    JAMES ANGELASTRO; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Long-term objectives are to determine whether brain neoplasm, arising from environmental carcinogens, promotes transformations of neural stem cells to tumor stem cells that in turn support the growth of tumors...
  62. Homogenous HTS Assays to Screen for Inhibitors of Keap1-Nrf2 Interaction
    Longqin Hu; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..It has been demonstrated that Nrf2 knockout mice are more sensitive to toxicological effects of carcinogens, drugs, and inflammatory stresses while Keap1 knockout mice exhibited high levels of Nrf2, high constitutive ..
  63. DNA Repair Capacity and Risk of Pre-malignant Lesion in Lung Epithelium
    Hua Zhao; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and myeloperoxidase (MPO)-related metabolic activation of chemical carcinogens, is a crucial etiological factor in this carcinogenic response...
  64. SPECIES DIFFERENCE IN THE BIOTRANSFORMATION OF AFLATOXIN
    David Eaton; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..have demonstrated that biologically active, natural components of the diet may confer resistance to chemical carcinogens via induction and/or inhibition of biotransformation enzymes...
  65. MITDNA MUTAGENESIS BY ENVIRONMENTAL CARCINOGENS
    Keshav Singh; Fiscal Year: 2003
    Human mitochondrial DNA (mitDNA) is extremely vulnerable to attack by environmental carcinogens because it contains no introns, has no protective histones and is continuously exposed to reactive free radicals produced within the ..
  66. HEPATOBILIARY DISPOSITION IN TOXICOLOGY
    Curtis Klaassen; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..acetate is dependent on the sulfotransferase-mediated bioactivation of these compounds into mutagens and carcinogens. The goal of the present proposal is to determine which rat and human sulfotransferase enzymes are responsible ..
  67. INTESTINAL AND COLONIC CYTOCHROME P450 GENE EXPRESSION
    Peter Traber; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..lining the small intestine and colon are exposed to many ingested xenobiotics including drugs and environmental carcinogens. Cytochrome P450 isoenzymes, which are encoded by a large superfamily of related genes play an important role ..
  68. ORAL CANCER--DNA POLYMORPHISMS IN CARCINOGEN METABOLISM
    Stephen Schwartz; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..Oral carcinogens derived from these exposures include N-nitrosamines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, aromatic amines, ..
  69. Carcinogenic Metals And Their Interactions With Other Toxicants
    Max Costa; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..metals have unique as well as multiple mechanisms in causing cancers and can synergize with other environmental carcinogens (i.e...
  70. NUTRITIONAL INFLUENCES ON COLON CANCER IN THE TAMARIN
    Lynne Ausman; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..In man, colo-rectal cancer is believed to be caused by unknown carcinogens, co-carcinogens, and promoting agents...
  71. Green tea catechins in precancerorus prevention
    HWA CHAIN WANG; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..GTCs) in precancerous prevention of human breast cancers associated with long-term exposures to environmental carcinogens. Carcinogenesis of breast epithelial cells from non-cancerous to precancerous and cancerous stages is a multi-..
  72. FUNCTIONAL CHARACTERIZATION OF AGT GENETIC POLYMORPHISM
    Jun yan Hong; Fiscal Year: 2001
    A large number of environmental carcinogens and toxicants are alkylating agents. Human O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (AGT, EC 2.1.1...
  73. Sequence Distribution of Tabacco Carcinogen-DNA Adducts
    Natalia Tretyakova; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Furthermore, MeC is capable of increasing the reactivity of guanine bases in MeCG dinucleotides towards carcinogens. Remarkably, the majority of lung cancer mutational "hot spots" observed within the p53 tumor suppressor gene ..
  74. MECHANISM OF METAL ANTAGONISTIC EFFECT ON BPDE MUTANTS
    DAVID REINHOLD; Fiscal Year: 1999
    The long term goal of this research is to understand how multiple carcinogens interact with cells to produce cancer...
  75. DNA Damage and Tobacco-Induced Lung Cancer
    ERIC MOON SHONG TANG; Fiscal Year: 2009
    b>Carcinogens generated in tobacco smoke (TS) are able to cause DNA damage and mutations that may initiate lung carcinogenesis...
  76. ANAEROBIC METABOLISM OF MUTAGENS IN HUMAN FOODS
    David Kingston; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..common organ-site cancer in the United States, is believed to be caused, at least in part, by environmental carcinogens. One important class of environmental carcinogens is the "dietary carcinogens" formed during the cooking or "..
  77. GLUTATHIONE TRANSFERASES IN HUMANS: DIETARY INFLUENCES
    Johanna Lampe; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..in animals and cells have demonstrated that bioactive components of plant foods confer resistance to chemical carcinogens via induction or inhibition of biotransformation enzymes...
  78. Prevention of Head and Neck Carcinogenesis with a Plant-Derived Compound
    Rebecca Leeman; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Summary: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is thought to be caused by the effects of environmental carcinogens including tobacco, alcohol, betel quid, organic solvents, coal dust, welding fumes, asbestos, and polycyclic ..