sweetening agents

Summary

Summary: Substances that sweeten food, beverages, medications, etc., such as sugar, saccharine or other low-calorie synthetic products. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)

Top Publications

  1. pmc Hypothesis: could excessive fructose intake and uric acid cause type 2 diabetes?
    Richard J Johnson
    Division of Nephrology, Hypertension and Transplantation, University of Florida, P O Box 100224, Gainesville, Florida 32620 0224, USA
    Endocr Rev 30:96-116. 2009
  2. ncbi Consumption of high-fructose corn syrup in beverages may play a role in the epidemic of obesity
    George A Bray
    Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70808, USA
    Am J Clin Nutr 79:537-43. 2004
  3. ncbi Potential role of sugar (fructose) in the epidemic of hypertension, obesity and the metabolic syndrome, diabetes, kidney disease, and cardiovascular disease
    Richard J Johnson
    Division of Nephrology and Department of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA
    Am J Clin Nutr 86:899-906. 2007
  4. ncbi Soft drink consumption and risk of developing cardiometabolic risk factors and the metabolic syndrome in middle-aged adults in the community
    Ravi Dhingra
    Framingham Heart Study, 73 Mount Wayte Ave, Suite 2, Framingham, MA 01702 5803, USA
    Circulation 116:480-8. 2007
  5. ncbi Effect of fructose on body weight in controlled feeding trials: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    John L Sievenpiper
    Faculty of Health Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
    Ann Intern Med 156:291-304. 2012
  6. pmc T1R3 and gustducin in gut sense sugars to regulate expression of Na+-glucose cotransporter 1
    Robert F Margolskee
    Department of Neuroscience, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:15075-80. 2007
  7. ncbi Fructose and non-fructose sugar intakes in the US population and their associations with indicators of metabolic syndrome
    Sam Z Sun
    Office of Compliance and Ethics, Archer Daniels Midland Company, 1001 North Brush College Road, Decatur, IL 62521, USA
    Food Chem Toxicol 49:2875-82. 2011
  8. ncbi Fructose: metabolic, hedonic, and societal parallels with ethanol
    Robert H Lustig
    Division of Endocrinology, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143 0434, USA
    J Am Diet Assoc 110:1307-21. 2010
  9. pmc Fructose: pure, white, and deadly? Fructose, by any other name, is a health hazard
    George A Bray
    Pennington Biomedical Research Centre, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70808, USA
    J Diabetes Sci Technol 4:1003-7. 2010
  10. ncbi Consuming fructose-sweetened beverages increases body adiposity in mice
    Hella Jürgens
    Department of Pharmacology, German Institute of Human Nutrition, Potsdam Rehbruecke, Arthur Scheunert Allee 114 116, 14558 Nuthetal, Germany
    Obes Res 13:1146-56. 2005

Detail Information

Publications354 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc Hypothesis: could excessive fructose intake and uric acid cause type 2 diabetes?
    Richard J Johnson
    Division of Nephrology, Hypertension and Transplantation, University of Florida, P O Box 100224, Gainesville, Florida 32620 0224, USA
    Endocr Rev 30:96-116. 2009
    ..If diabetes might result from excessive intake of fructose, then simple public health measures could have a major impact on improving the overall health of our populace...
  2. ncbi Consumption of high-fructose corn syrup in beverages may play a role in the epidemic of obesity
    George A Bray
    Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70808, USA
    Am J Clin Nutr 79:537-43. 2004
    ..Thus, the increase in consumption of HFCS has a temporal relation to the epidemic of obesity, and the overconsumption of HFCS in calorically sweetened beverages may play a role in the epidemic of obesity...
  3. ncbi Potential role of sugar (fructose) in the epidemic of hypertension, obesity and the metabolic syndrome, diabetes, kidney disease, and cardiovascular disease
    Richard J Johnson
    Division of Nephrology and Department of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA
    Am J Clin Nutr 86:899-906. 2007
    ..Finally, we suggest that high intakes of fructose in African Americans may explain their greater predisposition to develop cardiorenal disease, and we provide a list of testable predictions to evaluate this hypothesis...
  4. ncbi Soft drink consumption and risk of developing cardiometabolic risk factors and the metabolic syndrome in middle-aged adults in the community
    Ravi Dhingra
    Framingham Heart Study, 73 Mount Wayte Ave, Suite 2, Framingham, MA 01702 5803, USA
    Circulation 116:480-8. 2007
    ..Consumption of soft drinks has been linked to obesity in children and adolescents, but it is unclear whether it increases metabolic risk in middle-aged individuals...
  5. ncbi Effect of fructose on body weight in controlled feeding trials: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    John L Sievenpiper
    Faculty of Health Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
    Ann Intern Med 156:291-304. 2012
    ..The contribution of fructose consumption in Western diets to overweight and obesity in populations remains uncertain...
  6. pmc T1R3 and gustducin in gut sense sugars to regulate expression of Na+-glucose cotransporter 1
    Robert F Margolskee
    Department of Neuroscience, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:15075-80. 2007
    ....
  7. ncbi Fructose and non-fructose sugar intakes in the US population and their associations with indicators of metabolic syndrome
    Sam Z Sun
    Office of Compliance and Ethics, Archer Daniels Midland Company, 1001 North Brush College Road, Decatur, IL 62521, USA
    Food Chem Toxicol 49:2875-82. 2011
    ..Relationships of sugar intakes with indicators of metabolic syndrome are important concerns for public health and safety. For individuals, dietary intake data for fructose and other sugars are limited...
  8. ncbi Fructose: metabolic, hedonic, and societal parallels with ethanol
    Robert H Lustig
    Division of Endocrinology, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143 0434, USA
    J Am Diet Assoc 110:1307-21. 2010
    ..On a societal level, the treatment of fructose as a commodity exhibits market similarities to ethanol. Analogous to ethanol, societal efforts to reduce fructose consumption will likely be necessary to combat the obesity epidemic...
  9. pmc Fructose: pure, white, and deadly? Fructose, by any other name, is a health hazard
    George A Bray
    Pennington Biomedical Research Centre, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70808, USA
    J Diabetes Sci Technol 4:1003-7. 2010
    ..Some claim that sugar is natural, but natural does not assure safety...
  10. ncbi Consuming fructose-sweetened beverages increases body adiposity in mice
    Hella Jürgens
    Department of Pharmacology, German Institute of Human Nutrition, Potsdam Rehbruecke, Arthur Scheunert Allee 114 116, 14558 Nuthetal, Germany
    Obes Res 13:1146-56. 2005
    ....
  11. pmc Sweet taste receptors in rat small intestine stimulate glucose absorption through apical GLUT2
    Oliver J Mace
    Department of Biology Area 3, University of York, York YO10 5YW, UK
    J Physiol 582:379-92. 2007
    ....
  12. ncbi A 4-wk high-fructose diet alters lipid metabolism without affecting insulin sensitivity or ectopic lipids in healthy humans
    Kim Anne Le
    Department of Physiology, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland
    Am J Clin Nutr 84:1374-9. 2006
    ..In rodents, fructose leads to insulin resistance and ectopic lipid deposition. In humans, the effects of fructose on insulin sensitivity remain debated, whereas its effect on ectopic lipids has never been investigated...
  13. pmc Effect of the artificial sweetener, sucralose, on gastric emptying and incretin hormone release in healthy subjects
    Jing Ma
    University of Adelaide, Discipline of Medicine, Royal Adelaide Hospital, North Terr, Adelaide SA 5000, Australia
    Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 296:G735-9. 2009
    ..4 mM (73.7+/-3.1 min) or 4 mM (76.7+/-3.1 min) and saline. We conclude that sucralose, delivered by intragastric infusion, does not stimulate insulin, GLP-1, or GIP release or slow gastric emptying in healthy humans...
  14. ncbi Sucrose activates human taste pathways differently from artificial sweetener
    Guido K W Frank
    University of Colorado at Denver and Health Sciences Center, Department of Psychiatry, The Children s Hospital, Aurora, CO 80045, USA
    Neuroimage 39:1559-69. 2008
    ..This could have important implications on how effective artificial sweeteners are in their ability to substitute sugar intake...
  15. ncbi Effects of high-fructose corn syrup and sucrose consumption on circulating glucose, insulin, leptin, and ghrelin and on appetite in normal-weight women
    Kathleen J Melanson
    Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, Rhode Island, USA
    Nutrition 23:103-12. 2007
    ..This study examined effects of beverages sweetened with HFCS or sucrose (Suc), when consumed with mixed meals, on blood glucose, insulin, leptin, ghrelin, and appetite...
  16. pmc Sugar-sweetened beverages, serum uric acid, and blood pressure in adolescents
    Stephanie Nguyen
    Department of Pediatrics, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA
    J Pediatr 154:807-13. 2009
    ..To evaluate whether sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, a significant source of dietary fructose, is associated with higher serum uric acid levels and blood pressure in adolescents...
  17. pmc Consumption of fructose-sweetened beverages for 10 weeks reduces net fat oxidation and energy expenditure in overweight/obese men and women
    C L Cox
    Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA, USA
    Eur J Clin Nutr 66:201-8. 2012
    ....
  18. pmc Fructose-induced leptin resistance exacerbates weight gain in response to subsequent high-fat feeding
    Alexandra Shapiro
    Dept of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Box 100267, Univ of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32610, USA
    Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 295:R1370-5. 2008
    ..Our data indicate that chronic fructose consumption induces leptin resistance prior to body weight, adiposity, serum leptin, insulin, or glucose increases, and this fructose-induced leptin resistance accelerates high-fat induced obesity...
  19. ncbi Food reward in the absence of taste receptor signaling
    Ivan E de Araujo
    Department of Neurobiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Neuron 57:930-41. 2008
    ..Our findings suggest that calorie-rich nutrients can directly influence brain reward circuits that control food intake independently of palatability or functional taste transduction...
  20. ncbi Splenda alters gut microflora and increases intestinal p-glycoprotein and cytochrome p-450 in male rats
    Mohamed B Abou-Donia
    Department of Pharmacology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27708, USA
    J Toxicol Environ Health A 71:1415-29. 2008
    ....
  21. pmc Ingestion of diet soda before a glucose load augments glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion
    Rebecca J Brown
    National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    Diabetes Care 32:2184-6. 2009
    ..The goal of this study was to determine the effect of artificial sweeteners on glucose, insulin, and glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 in humans...
  22. ncbi Fueling the obesity epidemic? Artificially sweetened beverage use and long-term weight gain
    Sharon P Fowler
    Department of Medicine, Division of Clinical Epidemiology, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas, USA
    Obesity (Silver Spring) 16:1894-900. 2008
    ..069), were significant in all 13 remaining strata. These findings raise the question whether AS use might be fueling--rather than fighting--our escalating obesity epidemic...
  23. ncbi Straight talk about high-fructose corn syrup: what it is and what it ain't
    John S White
    White Technical Research, Argenta, IL 62501, USA
    Am J Clin Nutr 88:1716S-1721S. 2008
    ..I conclude that the HFCS-obesity hypothesis is supported neither in the United States nor worldwide...
  24. pmc Nutritively sweetened beverage consumption and body weight: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized experiments
    R D Mattes
    Department of Foods and Nutrition, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA
    Obes Rev 12:346-65. 2011
    ..We recommend an adequately powered RCT with overweight persons, for whom there is suggestive evidence of an effect...
  25. pmc Nonnutritive sweetener consumption in humans: effects on appetite and food intake and their putative mechanisms
    Richard D Mattes
    Department of Foods and Nutrition, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA
    Am J Clin Nutr 89:1-14. 2009
    ..Most of the purported mechanisms by which this occurs are not supported by the available evidence, although some warrant further consideration. Resolution of this important issue will require long-term randomized controlled trials...
  26. ncbi Incretin release from gut is acutely enhanced by sugar but not by sweeteners in vivo
    Yukihiro Fujita
    Department of Cellular and Physiological Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 1Z3
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 296:E473-9. 2009
    ..Collectively, our findings do not support the concept that release of incretins from enteroendocrine cells is triggered by carbohydrates via a pathway identical to the sensation of "sweet taste" in the tongue...
  27. ncbi How bad is fructose?
    George A Bray
    Am J Clin Nutr 86:895-6. 2007
  28. pmc Artificial sweeteners produce the counterintuitive effect of inducing metabolic derangements
    Susan E Swithers
    Department of Psychological Sciences and Ingestive Behavior Research Center, Purdue University, 703 Third Street, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA
    Trends Endocrinol Metab 24:431-41. 2013
    ..Because of this interference, frequent consumption of high-intensity sweeteners may have the counterintuitive effect of inducing metabolic derangements. ..
  29. ncbi Impairment of long-term associative memory in aging snails (Lymnaea stagnalis)
    Petra M Hermann
    Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada
    Behav Neurosci 121:1400-14. 2007
    ..Together, these results present the Lymnaea feeding system as a powerful paradigm for investigations of cellular and molecular foundations of biological aging in the brain...
  30. pmc Sucrose, high-fructose corn syrup, and fructose, their metabolism and potential health effects: what do we really know?
    James M Rippe
    University of Central Florida Medical School, Orlando, FL and Rippe Lifestyle Institute, Shrewsbury, MA, USA
    Adv Nutr 4:236-45. 2013
    ..The purpose of this review is to summarize current knowledge about the metabolism, endocrine responses, and potential health effects of sucrose, HFCS, and fructose...
  31. ncbi Mammalian sweet taste receptors
    G Nelson
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    Cell 106:381-90. 2001
    ..Finally, we present a detailed analysis of the patterns of expression of T1Rs and T2Rs, thus providing a view of the representation of sweet and bitter taste at the periphery...
  32. pmc Fructose toxicity: is the science ready for public health actions?
    Luc Tappy
    Department of Physiology, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland
    Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 15:357-61. 2012
    ..This review evaluates the scientific basis for such action...
  33. ncbi Effects of carbohydrates on satiety: differences between liquid and solid food
    An Pan
    Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, and Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 14:385-90. 2011
    ..To examine the satiety effect of carbohydrates with a focus on the comparison of liquid and solid food and their implications for energy balance and weight management...
  34. pmc Mechanisms for sweetness
    John D Fernstrom
    University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
    J Nutr 142:1134S-41S. 2012
    ..In addition, information relating to low-calorie sweeteners (LCS) is discussed in the context of these issues. Particular consideration is given to the known effects of LCS on enteroendocrine cell function...
  35. ncbi Synthesis and sensory evaluation of ent-kaurane diterpene glycosides
    Indra Prakash
    Organic Chemistry Department, Global Research and Development, The Coca Cola Company, One Coca Cola Plaza, Atlanta, GA 30313, USA
    Molecules 17:8908-16. 2012
    ..Also, we report herewith the sensory evaluation of all the reduced compounds against their corresponding original steviol glycosides and sucrose for the sweetness property of these molecules...
  36. pmc Amygdala response to sucrose consumption is inversely related to artificial sweetener use
    K J Rudenga
    Interdepartmental Neuroscience Program, Yale University, SHM L 200, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
    Appetite 58:504-7. 2012
    ..This finding supports the hypothesis that artificial sweetener use may be associated with brain changes that could influence eating behavior...
  37. pmc The effects of four hypocaloric diets containing different levels of sucrose or high fructose corn syrup on weight loss and related parameters
    Joshua Lowndes
    Rippe Lifestyle Institute, 215 Celebration Place, Celebration, FL 34747, USA
    Nutr J 11:55. 2012
    ..The objective of this study was to examine the effects of four equally hypocaloric diets containing different levels of sucrose or high fructose corn syrup (HFCS)...
  38. pmc Altered processing of sweet taste in the brain of diet soda drinkers
    Erin Green
    San Diego State University University of California San Diego, Joint Doctoral Program in Clinical Psychology, San Diego, CA, USA
    Physiol Behav 107:560-7. 2012
    ..These findings may provide some insight into the link between diet soda consumption and obesity...
  39. pmc Non-nutritive sweeteners, energy balance, and glucose homeostasis
    Marta Y Pepino
    School of Medicine, Washington University in St Louis, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 14:391-5. 2011
    ..To review the recent work on potential mechanisms underlying a paradoxical positive association between the consumption of non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS) and weight gain...
  40. pmc Sugar-sweetened beverage, sugar intake of individuals, and their blood pressure: international study of macro/micronutrients and blood pressure
    Ian J Brown
    Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London W2 1PG, United Kingdom
    Hypertension 57:695-701. 2011
    ..These findings, plus adverse nutrient intakes among SSB consumers, and greater sugar-BP differences for persons with higher sodium excretion lend support to recommendations that intake of SSBs, sugars, and salt be substantially reduced...
  41. ncbi Short-term consumption of sucralose, a nonnutritive sweetener, is similar to water with regard to select markers of hunger signaling and short-term glucose homeostasis in women
    Andrew W Brown
    Department of Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Molecular Biology, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011, USA
    Nutr Res 31:882-8. 2011
    ..Therefore, sucralose may be a relatively inert nonnutritive sweetener with regard to hunger signaling and short-term glucose homeostasis...
  42. pmc Rationale for further medical and health research on high-potency sweeteners
    Susan S Schiffman
    Schiffman Consulting, 18 Heath Place, Durham, NC 27705 5713, USA
    Chem Senses 37:671-9. 2012
    ..Nine research needs are described that address some of the major unknown issues associated with ingestion of high-potency sweeteners...
  43. ncbi Sucralose - an ecotoxicological challenger?
    Ann Kristin Eriksson Wiklund
    Department of Applied Environmental Science ITM Stockholm University, SE 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden
    Chemosphere 86:50-5. 2012
    ....
  44. pmc Artificial sweeteners: a systematic review of metabolic effects in youth
    Rebecca J Brown
    National Institute of Diabetes, Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Int J Pediatr Obes 5:305-12. 2010
    ....
  45. ncbi Aspartame-fed zebrafish exhibit acute deaths with swimming defects and saccharin-fed zebrafish have elevation of cholesteryl ester transfer protein activity in hypercholesterolemia
    Jae Yong Kim
    School of Biotechnology, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 712 749, Republic of Korea
    Food Chem Toxicol 49:2899-905. 2011
    ..Saccharin-fed zebrafish had an increased atherogenic serum lipid profile with elevation of CETP activity...
  46. ncbi Factors associated with sugar-sweetened beverage intake among United States high school students
    Sohyun Park
    Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity and Obesity, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA
    J Nutr 142:306-12. 2012
    ..Our findings of significant associations of high SSB intake with frequent fast-food restaurant use and sedentary behaviors may be used to tailor intervention efforts to reduce SSB intake among high-risk populations...
  47. ncbi Intense sweeteners, energy intake and the control of body weight
    F Bellisle
    France Bellisle, INRA, CRNH Ile de France, Paris XIII Leonard de Vinci, Bobigny, France
    Eur J Clin Nutr 61:691-700. 2007
    ....
  48. ncbi Effect of the artificial sweetener, sucralose, on small intestinal glucose absorption in healthy human subjects
    Jing Ma
    Discipline of Medicine, Royal Adelaide Hospital, University of Adelaide, North Terrace, Adelaide, SA 5000, Australia
    Br J Nutr 104:803-6. 2010
    ..In conclusion, sucralose does not appear to modify the rate of glucose absorption or the glycaemic or incretin response to ID glucose infusion when given acutely in healthy human subjects...
  49. ncbi Effects of carbohydrate sugars and artificial sweeteners on appetite and the secretion of gastrointestinal satiety peptides
    Robert E Steinert
    Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Biomedicine, Clinical Research Center, University Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland
    Br J Nutr 105:1320-8. 2011
    ..Our data demonstrate that the secretion of GLP-1, PYY and ghrelin depends on more than the detection of (1) sweetness or (2) the structural analogy to glucose...
  50. ncbi Effects of oral ingestion of sucralose on gut hormone response and appetite in healthy normal-weight subjects
    H E Ford
    Division of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Hammersmith Campus, Imperial College London, London, UK
    Eur J Clin Nutr 65:508-13. 2011
    ..We conducted a randomised, single-blinded, crossover study in eight healthy subjects to investigate whether oral ingestion of sucralose could stimulate L-cell-derived GLP-1 and peptide YY (PYY) release in vivo...
  51. pmc Drinking caloric beverages increases the risk of adverse cardiometabolic outcomes in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study
    Kiyah J Duffey
    Department of Nutrition, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27516 3997, USA
    Am J Clin Nutr 92:954-9. 2010
    ..Intake of caloric beverages is hypothesized to contribute to adverse health outcomes, but the beverages and populations studied vary considerably...
  52. pmc Sugar-sweetened beverages and risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes: epidemiologic evidence
    Frank B Hu
    Departments of Nutrition and Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Physiol Behav 100:47-54. 2010
    ..Consumption of SSBs should therefore be replaced by healthy alternatives such as water, to reduce risk of obesity and chronic diseases...
  53. pmc High-intensity sweeteners and energy balance
    Susan E Swithers
    Department of Psychological Sciences, Purdue University, 703 Third Street, West Lafayette, IN 47907, United States
    Physiol Behav 100:55-62. 2010
    ....
  54. pmc Molecular mechanism of the sweet taste enhancers
    Feng Zhang
    Senomyx, Inc, San Diego, CA 92121, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:4752-7. 2010
    ..Whereas the sweeteners bind to the hinge region and induce the closure of the Venus flytrap domain of T1R2, the enhancers bind close to the opening and further stabilize the closed and active conformation of the receptor...
  55. ncbi Appetite regulation and energy balance
    Charlotte Erlanson-Albertsson
    Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Lund, Lund, Sweden
    Acta Paediatr Suppl 94:40-1. 2005
    ..The palatable food works by weakening the satiety signals and activating the hunger signals. The reward system with endogenous opiates may also be activated...
  56. ncbi Are sugars-free medicines more erosive than sugars-containing medicines? An in vitro study of paediatric medicines with prolonged oral clearance used regularly and long-term by children
    Anne Maguire
    School of Dental Sciences, University of Newcastle, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK
    Int J Paediatr Dent 17:231-8. 2007
    ..The aim of this study was to assess the erosive potential of 97 paediatric medicines in vitro...
  57. pmc Circulating concentrations of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, and soluble leukocyte adhesion molecule-1 in overweight/obese men and women consuming fructose- or glucose-sweetened beverages for 10 weeks
    Chad L Cox
    Department of Molecular Biosciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, California 95616, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 96:E2034-8. 2011
    ..Data describing the effects of fructose consumption on circulating levels of proinflammatory and prothrombotic markers in humans are unavailable...
  58. ncbi Stevioside and related compounds: therapeutic benefits beyond sweetness
    Varanuj Chatsudthipong
    Department of Physiology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Rama 6 Road, Bangkok 10400, Thailand
    Pharmacol Ther 121:41-54. 2009
    ..Although much progress has been made concerning their biological and pharmacological effects, questions regarding chemical purity and safety remain unsolved. These issues are discussed to help guide future research directions...
  59. pmc Role of dopamine D1 and D2 receptors in the nucleus accumbens shell on the acquisition and expression of fructose-conditioned flavor-flavor preferences in rats
    Sonia Y Bernal
    Neuropsychology Doctoral Subprogram, Graduate Center, City University of New York, New York, NY, USA
    Behav Brain Res 190:59-66. 2008
    ..These data indicate that NAcS D1 and D2 antagonists significantly attenuated the expression of the fructose-CFP and did not block acquisition, but hastened extinction of fructose-CFP...
  60. pmc A systematic review on the effect of sweeteners on glycemic response and clinically relevant outcomes
    Natasha Wiebe
    Department of Medicine, 13 103 Clinical Sciences Building, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2G3 Canada
    BMC Med 9:123. 2011
    ..The major metabolic complications of obesity and type 2 diabetes may be prevented and managed with dietary modification. The use of sweeteners that provide little or no calories may help to achieve this objective...
  61. ncbi Non-caloric sweeteners, sweetness modulators, and sweetener enhancers
    Grant E DuBois
    The Coca Cola Company, Atlanta, Georgia 30313, USA
    Annu Rev Food Sci Technol 3:353-80. 2012
    ..Research on PAM discovery over the past decade is summarized...
  62. ncbi Intake of sucrose-sweetened water induces insulin resistance and exacerbates memory deficits and amyloidosis in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer disease
    Dongfeng Cao
    Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294, USA
    J Biol Chem 282:36275-82. 2007
    ..These data underscore the potential role of dietary sugar in the pathogenesis of AD and suggest that controlling the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages may be an effective way to curtail the risk of developing AD...
  63. ncbi Variability in clinical practice guidelines for sweetening agents in newborn infants undergoing painful procedures
    Anna Taddio
    Department of Pharmacy Practice, Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Clin J Pain 25:153-5. 2009
    b>Sweetening agents have been recommended in position statements and consensus documents for procedural pain management in neonates; however, it is not clear if this has resulted in widespread adoption in clinical practice...
  64. ncbi Sweetness, satiation, and satiety
    France Bellisle
    Centre de Recherche en Nutrition Humaine d Ile de France, Universite Paris, Bobigny, France
    J Nutr 142:1149S-54S. 2012
    ..The brain mechanisms of food reward (in terms of "liking" and "wanting") are also addressed. Finally, we highlight the importance of reward homeostasis, which can help prevent eating in the absence of hunger, for the control of intake...
  65. ncbi NMR studies of the conformation of the natural sweetener rebaudioside A
    Wayne E Steinmetz
    Chemistry Department, Pomona College, Claremont, CA 91711, United States
    Carbohydr Res 344:2533-8. 2009
    ..Hydrogen bonding was examined using the temperature coefficients of the hydroxyl chemical shifts, ROESY and long-range COSY spectra, and proton-proton coupling constants...
  66. ncbi Intake of artificially sweetened soft drinks and risk of preterm delivery: a prospective cohort study in 59,334 Danish pregnant women
    Thorhallur I Halldorsson
    Centre for Fetal Programming, Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark
    Am J Clin Nutr 92:626-33. 2010
    ..However, the safety of artificial sweeteners has been disputed, and consequences of high intakes of artificial sweeteners for pregnant women have been minimally addressed...
  67. ncbi Synthesis of ent-kaurane diterpene monoglycosides
    Venkata Sai Prakash Chaturvedula
    Organic Chemistry Department, Global Research and Development, The Coca Cola Company, One Coca Cola Plaza, Atlanta, GA 30313, USA
    Molecules 16:8402-9. 2011
    ..Synthesis of all three steviol glycosides was performed using straightforward chemistry and their structures were characterized on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR as well as mass spectral (MS) data...
  68. ncbi Impact of change in sweetened caloric beverage consumption on energy intake among children and adolescents
    Y Claire Wang
    Department of Health Policy and Management, Columbia Mailman School of Public Health, 600 W 168th Street, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 163:336-43. 2009
    ..To estimate the net caloric impact from replacing sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) with alternatives in children and adolescents in naturalistic settings...
  69. pmc Sweet taste signaling in the gut
    Anthony Sclafani
    Department of Psychology, Brooklyn College of the City University of New York, Brooklyn, NY 11210, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:14887-8. 2007
  70. ncbi Saccharin as a sugar surrogate revisited
    James C Smith
    Department of Psychology, The Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306 1270, USA
    Appetite 38:155-60. 2002
    ..4% (19.5 mM). Furthermore, saccharin versus sucrose choice tests indicate that optimal saccharin solutions (0.2-0.4%) are "isopreferred" to only dilute sucrose solutions (2-4%). Thus, at best, saccharin is only a weak surrogate for sugar...
  71. ncbi The receptor basis of sweet taste in mammals
    S Vigues
    Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
    Results Probl Cell Differ 47:187-202. 2009
    ..In this chapter, we discuss some of the mechanisms underlying the detection of sweeteners by mammals, with a particular focus on the function and role of the T1R2:T1R3 receptor in these processes...
  72. pmc Sugar sweetened beverage consumption by Australian children: implications for public health strategy
    Katherine Hafekost
    Telethon Institute for Child Health Research, Centre for Child Health Research, The University of Western Australia, PO Box 855, West Perth, WA 6872, Australia
    BMC Public Health 11:950. 2011
    ..We sought to address this using a contemporary Australian dataset to examine purchase source, consumption pattern, dietary factors, and demographic profile of SSB consumption in children...
  73. pmc Molecular mechanism of species-dependent sweet taste toward artificial sweeteners
    Bo Liu
    Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298, USA
    J Neurosci 31:11070-6. 2011
    ..Our studies not only shed light on the molecular mechanism of species-dependent sweet taste toward artificial sweeteners, but also provide guidance for designing novel effective artificial sweet compounds...
  74. ncbi The type of caloric sweetener added to water influences weight gain, fat mass, and reproduction in growing Sprague-Dawley female rats
    Heather R Light
    Division of Animal and Nutritional Sciences, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506, USA
    Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 234:651-61. 2009
    ..Based on this study, the type of caloric sweetener added to beverages should be considered when making dietary recommendation for reducing excess body weight and related health risk...
  75. pmc SuperSweet--a resource on natural and artificial sweetening agents
    Jessica Ahmed
    Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Institute of Physiology, Structural Bioinformatics Group, Lindenberger Weg 80, 13125 Berlin, Germany
    Nucleic Acids Res 39:D377-82. 2011
    ..A sweetener classification tree and browsing features allow quick requests to be made to the database. The database is freely available at: http://bioinformatics.charite.de/sweet/...
  76. ncbi Why are sweet proteins sweet? Interaction of brazzein, monellin and thaumatin with the T1R2-T1R3 receptor
    Piero Andrea Temussi
    Computational Biology Unit, EMBL, Heidelberg, Germany
    FEBS Lett 526:1-4. 2002
    ..Docking of brazzein, monellin and thaumatin with a model of the T1R2-T1R3 sweet taste receptor shows that the most likely complexes can indeed stabilize the active form of the receptor...
  77. ncbi Replacing sweetened caloric beverages with drinking water is associated with lower energy intake
    Jodi D Stookey
    Children s Hospital Oakland Research Institute, 5700 Martin Luther King Jr Way, Oakland, CA 94609, USA
    Obesity (Silver Spring) 15:3013-22. 2007
    ..Compensatory increases in other food or beverages reportedly negate benefits of diet beverages. The purpose of this study was to evaluate drinking water as an alternative to SCBs...
  78. ncbi Lack of effect of sucralose on glucose homeostasis in subjects with type 2 diabetes
    V Lee Grotz
    Medical and Nutritional Affairs, McNeil Nutritionals, New Bruswick, NJ 08903 2400, USA
    J Am Diet Assoc 103:1607-12. 2003
    ..To investigate the effect of 3-months' daily administration of high doses of sucralose, a non-nutritive sweetener, on glycemic control in subjects with type 2 diabetes...
  79. pmc Positive allosteric modulators of the human sweet taste receptor enhance sweet taste
    Guy Servant
    Senomyx, Inc, La Jolla, CA 92121, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:4746-51. 2010
    ..These enhancers did not exhibit any sweetness when tasted on their own. Positive allosteric modulators of the human sweet taste receptor could help reduce the caloric content in food and beverages while maintaining the desired taste...
  80. ncbi Sweetness intensity and pleasantness in children, adolescents, and adults
    C de Graaf
    Division of Human Nutrition and Epidemiology, Wageningen Agricultural University, The Netherlands
    Physiol Behav 67:513-20. 1999
    ..The age effects were similar for sucrose in water and sucrose in lemonade...
  81. ncbi Sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened soft drinks in association to restrained, external and emotional eating
    K Elfhag
    Child and Adolescent Public Health Epidemiology Group, Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden
    Physiol Behav 91:191-5. 2007
    ..Light soft drinks may be perceived as an adequate substitute in the use of foods for comfort, meaning the sweet taste may be sufficient for this purpose...
  82. ncbi Isomaltulose (Palatinose): a review of biological and toxicological studies
    B A R Lina
    TNO Nutrition and Food Research, Zeist, The Netherlands
    Food Chem Toxicol 40:1375-81. 2002
    ..On the basis of the data reviewed it is concluded that the use of isomaltulose as an alternative sugar is as safe as the use of other digestible sugars consisting of glucose and fructose...
  83. ncbi Formaldehyde, aspartame, and migraines: a possible connection
    Sharon E Jacob
    Department of Dermatology and Cutaneous Surgery, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA
    Dermatitis 19:E10-1. 2008
    ..We present the first case series of aspartame-associated migraines related to clinically relevant positive reactions to formaldehyde on patch testing...
  84. pmc Obesity by choice revisited: effects of food availability, flavor variety and nutrient composition on energy intake
    Karen Ackroff
    Brooklyn College and the Graduate School of the City University of New York, Brooklyn, NY 11210, USA
    Physiol Behav 92:468-78. 2007
    ..The nature of optional foods (nutrient composition and physical form) was markedly more important than the number of food sources available to the animals, and is a better contender as the reason for "obesity by choice"...
  85. ncbi Taste-modifying sweet protein, neoculin, is received at human T1R3 amino terminal domain
    Ayako Koizumi
    Department of Applied Biological Chemistry, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 1 1 1 Yayoi, Tokyo, Japan
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 358:585-9. 2007
    ..Although T1R2-T1R3 is known to have multiple potential ligand-binding sites to receive a wide variety of sweeteners, the present study is apparently the first to identify the ATD of hT1R3 as a new sweetener-binding region...
  86. ncbi The effect of frequency of consumption of artificial sweeteners on sweetness liking by women
    A Mahar
    School of Nutrition and Dietetics, 12 University Ave, Acadia Univ, Wolfville, Nova Scotia, Canada
    J Food Sci 72:S714-8. 2007
    ..Categorization by sweetener type resulted in no significant differences between the groups, indicating that regardless of the type of sweetener consumed in a beverage, liking of sweetness will be influenced in the same manner...
  87. ncbi The effect of non-cariogenic sweeteners on the prevention of dental caries: a review of the evidence
    C Hayes
    Harvard School of Dental Medicine, Boston, MA, USA
    J Dent Educ 65:1106-9. 2001
    ..The highest caries reductions were observed in subjects using xylitol. These findings suggest that the replacement of sucrose with sorbitol and xylitol may significantly decrease the incidence of dental caries...
  88. ncbi Consumption of caloric and non-caloric versions of a soft drink differentially affects brain activation during tasting
    Paul A M Smeets
    Image Sciences Institute, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Neuroimage 54:1367-74. 2011
    ..In addition, implications for the effectiveness of non-caloric sweeteners in decreasing energy intake need to be established...
  89. ncbi Oral glucose as an analgesic to reduce infant distress following immunization at the age of 3, 5 and 12 months
    Margit Thyr
    Department of Children s Health, Bollnäs Health Centre, Bollnäs, Sweden
    Acta Paediatr 96:233-6. 2007
    ..To evaluate oral glucose as an analgesic to reduce infant distress after immunization during the first year of life and to investigate if these effects change during this period...
  90. ncbi Female rats show a bimodal preference response to the artificial sweetener sucralose
    Anthony Sclafani
    Department of Psychology, Brooklyn College of CUNY, 2900 Bedford Ave, Brooklyn, NY 11210, USA
    Chem Senses 29:523-8. 2004
    ..Both subgroups preferred saccharin to sucralose. Sucralose appears to have an aversive off-taste that reduces its palatability to rats...
  91. ncbi Consumer acceptability of low-sugar watermelon sweetened with non-calorie sweetener by a Native American community
    Julie K Collins
    USDA ARS, South Central Agricultural Research Laboratory, Lane, Oklahoma, USA
    Int J Food Sci Nutr 57:363-8. 2006
    ..The low-sugar watermelons were lower in sugar composition but were comparable with conventional melons in all other quality factors and were found acceptable in taste by a broad age group of Native American consumers...
  92. ncbi Estimated intake of intense sweeteners from non-alcoholic beverages in Denmark, 2005
    T Leth
    National Food Institute, DTU, Søborg, Denmark
    Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess 25:662-8. 2008
    ..The reduction in the European Union of the maximum permitted level for cyclamate from 400 to 250 mg l(-1) has brought the intake of cyclamate in small children down to well below the acceptable daily intake value...
  93. ncbi Consumption of SC45647 and sucralose by rats selectively bred for high and low saccharin intake
    Nancy K Dess
    Department of Psychology, Occidental College, 1600 Campus Road, Los Angeles, CA 90041, USA
    Chem Senses 34:211-20. 2009
    ..Implications for the study of variation in sweet taste are discussed...
  94. ncbi Reducing added sugar intake in Norway by replacing sugar sweetened beverages with beverages containing intense sweeteners - a risk benefit assessment
    T Husøy
    Department of Food Safety and Nutrition, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, NO 0403 Oslo, Norway
    Food Chem Toxicol 46:3099-105. 2008
    ..The highest intake of benzoic acid was observed for 1- to 2-year-old children, and benzoic acid intake in Norwegian children is therefore considered to be of special concern...
  95. ncbi Responses to basic taste qualities in rats selectively bred for high versus low saccharin intake
    N K Dess
    Occidental College, 1600 Campus Rd, 90041, Los Angeles, CA, USA
    Physiol Behav 69:247-57. 2000
    ..Additional work can clarify the psychobiological mechanisms for the phenotypic difference and, potentially, the reasons for its relationship to measures of emotionality...
  96. pmc Artificial sweetener use among children: epidemiology, recommendations, metabolic outcomes, and future directions
    Allison Sylvetsky
    Graduate Division of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, Emory University, 1462 Clifton Road, Suite 314, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Pediatr Clin North Am 58:1467-80, xi. 2011
    ....
  97. ncbi Rebaudioside A: two-generation reproductive toxicity study in rats
    Leslie L Curry
    Cargill, Incorporated, 15407 McGinty Road W MS 163, Wayzata, MN 55391, United States
    Food Chem Toxicol 46:S21-30. 2008
    ..The NOAEL for reproductive effects was 25,000ppm and the NOAEL for the survival, development, and general condition of the offspring also was considered to be 25,000ppm or 2048-2273mg/kg body weight/day...
  98. pmc Fat and carbohydrate preferences in mice: the contribution of alpha-gustducin and Trpm5 taste-signaling proteins
    Anthony Sclafani
    Dept of Psychology, Brooklyn College of the City University of New York, Brooklyn, NY 11210, USA
    Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 293:R1504-13. 2007
    ..The experience-induced rescue of fat and Polycose preferences in the KO mice likely reflects the action of a postoral-conditioning mechanism, which functions in the absence of alpha-gustducin and Trpm5...
  99. ncbi Ingestional responses to metabolic challenges in rats selectively bred for high and low saccharin intake
    Dennis A VanderWeele
    Department of Psychology, Occidental College, 1600 Campus Road, Los Angeles, CA 90041, USA
    Physiol Behav 75:97-104. 2002
    ....
  100. ncbi Chronic consumption of rebaudioside A, a steviol glycoside, in men and women with type 2 diabetes mellitus
    K C Maki
    Provident Clinical Research, 1000 West 1st Street, Bloomington, IN, United States
    Food Chem Toxicol 46:S47-53. 2008
    ..placebo. These results suggest that chronic use of 1000mg rebaudioside A does not alter glucose homeostasis or blood pressure in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus...
  101. ncbi Nutrient selection in the absence of taste receptor signaling
    Xueying Ren
    The John B Pierce Laboratory, New Haven, Connecticut 06519, USA
    J Neurosci 30:8012-23. 2010
    ....

Research Grants62

  1. Mechanisms of glucosensation mediating food choice behavior in Drosophila
    Monica Dus; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..They will also provide mammalian researchers with conserved genes to use as molecular and neurochemical markers in future studies of glucosensation, feeding, and disease. ..
  2. Modulation of Taste-Related Behavior by Molecular Mediators of Appetite &Satiety
    Cedrick D Dotson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Using a combination of genetic and pharmacological models, the proposed studies focus on investigating the general hypothesis that taste-related behavior can be modulated by metabolic hormones such as PYY and/or NPY. ..
  3. Sweet taste receptors and glucose metabolism in healthy and T2DM humans
    Karen L Teff; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Our overall hypothesis is that in healthy subjects, the STR receptor is involved in the regulation of post-prandial glucose metabolism and GLP levels but in T2DM, the STR receptor is unresponsive to activation or inhibition ..
  4. Neuropeptide Modulation of Taste Signals
    Nirupa Chaudhari; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This understanding would suggest new pharmacological possibilities to address eating disorders. ..
  5. Role of taste signaling elements in enteroendocrine cells
    Robert F Margolskee; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The experiments proposed to functionally characterize the roles of gustducin and other taste signaling elements in enteroendocrine cells have medical relevance to appetite, satiety, diabetes and obesity. ..
  6. The Role of RGS Proteins in the Regulation of Taste Transduction
    Staci P Cohen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Our results will help define the role of RGS proteins in shaping the duration and potency of tastant signaling. ..
  7. Comparative Genetics of Sweet Taste in Carnivora
    Peihua Jiang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  8. Agonist & Antagonist Activity and Binding on the TMD of hT1R3
    Marianna Max; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Understanding the sweet receptor at a molecular level will enable the design of better low calorie sweeteners. ..
  9. Development of Age-Appropriate Fast Disintegrating Pediatric Granules and Tablets
    MOJI ADEYEYE; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ....
  10. Functional characterization of endocrine taste cells
    Robert F Margolskee; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The experiments proposed to identify and functionally characterize these lingual endocrine cells have medical relevance to appetite, satiety, diabetes and obesity. ..
  11. Yale Tobacco Center of Regulatory Science
    STEPHANIE S O'MALLEY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This comprehensive effort will help the FDA develop science based policies to reduce addiction to tobacco products. ..
  12. 2011 Symposium on Flavors and Feeding
    Richard D Mattes; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..The proceedings will be published and should aid basic and applied research and policy decisions related to obesity management. ..
  13. Analysis of sweet receptor ligand binding and activation
    Marianna Max; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The studies in this proposal will enhance our understanding at the molecular level of sweet receptor function with the hope of future means to control our sweet cravings and the attendant diseases of over-consumption. ..
  14. The role of sweet taste genes in postingestive endocrine responses to sweeteners
    Alexander A Bachmanov; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Zolotarev as an extension of NIH grant R01DC000882 (09/19/2008 - 08/31/2013). PHS 398/2590 (Rev. 09/04, Reissued 4/2006) Page Continuation Format Page ..
  15. The sweet protein brazzein and its interaction with the human taste receptor
    Fariba M Assadi-Porter; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Explanation of molecular features that are essential for the brazzein-sweet receptor interaction may result in design of superior tasting non-caloric sweetener as an approach to help addressing diabetes and related disorders. ..
  16. Integration of retronasal olfaction and taste: Volatile-enhanced Sweetness
    LINDA MAY BARTOSHUK; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..g., women and men). ..
  17. Corticostriatal Processing of Taste, Motivation and Self-Control of Food Intake
    Mark Laubach; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We will combine methods for reversible inactivation and optogenetic perturbation in the cortex with multi-electrode recordings in the striatum. ..
  18. Identification of anti-cariogenic/low-glycemic activity factors from Lo Han Kuo
    CHIFU HUANG; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Thus, there appears to remain a viable market for the identification of novel sweetening agents that can be: (1) used by the general population; (2) demonstrate a anti-cariogenic capacity; (3) have a low ..
  19. Transmission of Taste Signals in Taste Buds
    Thomas E Finger; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Taken together, the proposed studies will test the role of ATP and ionotropic purinergic receptors in transmission of taste information. ..
  20. NONCARIOGENIC INTENSE NATURAL SWEETNERS
    ALAN KINGHORN; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..objective of this investigation, therefore, is to isolate novel potentially noncariogenic natural intense sweetening agents from several plant species already identified as being sweet, as well as from other sweet plants that will ..
  21. Modeling Sweet Protein-Receptor Interactions
    Meng Cui; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Replacing sugar with low-or non-caloric sweeteners may be of benefit. To design moreeffective sweeteners it is important to understand at the molecularlevel how the sweet taste receptor functions. ..
  22. The Role of the TM of T1R2 in Sweet Receptor Activation
    Marianna Max; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ....
  23. Experience induced changes in taste sensitivities for sweeteners and monosodium g
    LINDA KENNEDY; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ....
  24. NOVEL PEPTIDE DERIVED SWEETENERS
    Murray Goodman; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..Additional target molecules incorporate 1- aminocycloalkane carboxylic acid residues. In this manner, we hope to develop a precise understanding of structure-taste relationships and to design novel, safe and stable tastants...
  25. UNDERSTANDING & DEVELOPING ASYMMETRIC CATALYSIS
    CLARK LANDIS; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..Catalytic amination chemistry will be explored through fundamental investigations of N-H bond activation at electron-rich metal complexes such as phosphine- ligated, zerovalent group 8 complexes...
  26. 3-D STRUCTURES OF TWO LOW-CALORIE PROTEIN SWEETENERS
    Joachim Weickmann; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..The combination of structural information with receptor binding studies and quantitative primate taste tests should allow us to design a second generation of protein sweeteners with specific taste and stability characteristics...
  27. Mechanism of Agonism-Antagonism of Sweet Taste Receptors
    Meng Cui; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Understanding the taste response mechanisms may also be important for developing new treatment methods for patients with taste malfunctions. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  28. Molecular Mechanisms of Sweet Receptor Function
    Marianna Max; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..abstract_text> ..
  29. PHYSIOLOGY OF THE SWEET TASTE RESPONSE
    WILLIAM JAKINOVICH; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..Finally, in a further attempt to elucidate the number of receptor sites, experiments using single neurons will be conducted...
  30. Neuropharmacology of Learned Food Preferences
    Anthony Sclafani; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..It will advance our understanding of the basic mechanisms involved in the development of food preferences and may provide insights into the clinical treatment of overeating and obesity. ..
  31. MINORITY PREDOCTORAL FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM
    CEDRICK DOTSON; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..As such these behavioral experiments will provide a functional context to guide the interpretation of findings from more molecular levels of analysis. ..
  32. ALCOHOL APPETITE--A NUTRIENT CONDITIONING ANALYSIS
    Karen Ackroff; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..It will advance our basic knowledge of the psychobiology of alcohol appetite and may provide practical benefits for controlling alcohol consumption in humans. ..
  33. Lactisole inhibits the sweet taste receptor
    Peihua Jiang; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Knowledge of the structure/function relationship of T1R3 may assist in the development of novel, low caloric sweeteners to help fight against diet-related disorders such as obesity and diabetes. ..
  34. DIETARY OBESITY
    George Bray; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..We now propose these well founded, important and exciting studies which will provide critical new insights into anatomical, physiological and molecular mechanisms by which high levels of dietary fat induce obesity. ..
  35. GENETICS OF ALCOHOL RELATED INGESTIVE BEHAVIORS IN MICE
    Alexander Bachmanov; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Through these three aims, we intend to isolate loci involved in ethanol preference, identify candidate genes for these loci in mice, and specify their human orthologs. ..
  36. DRUGS OF ABUSE, REWARD COMPARISON, AND THE THALAMUS
    Patricia Sue Grigson; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..e., cocaine and heroin);and (c) Reveal that the nucleus accumbens depends upon an intact thalamocoritical loop to track cocaine's devaluation of a sweet. ..
  37. Uric Acid and Hypertension in African-Americans
    Mark Segal; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..In Aim 3 we test the hypothesis that prevention of chlorthalidone induced hyperuricemia with allopurinol improves renal blood flow and GFR and prevents microalbumineria. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  38. HIGH-THROUGHPUT SCEENS FOR ASSESSING TASTE SENSITIVITY
    JOHN GLENDINNING; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..A normative data-base for both screens will be established and made available to the scientific community. The assay procedures developed will be applicable by a single laboratory technician with limited experience. ..
  39. BEYOND RACE--EXPLAINING INEQUALITY MANIFESTED AS OBESITY
    Barry Popkin; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..This work will provide important insights in the relative importance of genetic and environmental determinants of overweight and activity. ..
  40. GUSTATORY REWARD AND DOPAMINE IN THE NUCLEUS ACCUMBENS
    Andras Hajnal; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..This knowledge is directly relevant to understanding the control of normal ingestive behavior and to the maladies related to this essential behavior, such as obesity, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder. ..
  41. XYLITOL FOR ACUTE OTITIS MEDIA PROPHYLAXIS
    Louis Vernacchio; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..A preliminary estimate of the effect size of xylitol treatment from the pilot RCT will suggest whether the effect if sufficiently large to warrant a large formal RCT to be proposed. ..
  42. Vulnerability to Drug Abuse and Treatment Efficacy: Animal Models
    Marilyn E Carroll; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The proposed research will show how enhanced drug-seeking behavior in vulnerable phenotypes can be reduced at the most critical, vulnerable phases of drug abuse through behavioral and pharmacological interventions. ..
  43. Dopamine mechanisms in development of type-2 diabetes
    Andras Hajnal; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..These studies will help determine how plasticity in the dopaminergic system affects behavioral and metabolic factors related to hyperphagia and the development of dietary-induced NIDDM. ..
  44. An Interdisciplinary Strategy for Obesity (RMI)
    Barry Popkin; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..We will apply the knowledge gained from our interdisciplinary research to achieve our long-term goal of developing novel treatment and prevention interventions for obesity. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  45. Fluoride Varnish to Prevent Caries in Toddlers - An Expanded Immunization Program
    Peter Milgrom; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Keywords: fluoride varnish, dental caries, oral health, early prevention, multi-center, toddlers. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  46. Young Adult Environmental and Physical Activity Dynamics
    Barry Popkin; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..No study heretofore has had large-scale groupings and in-depth environmental measures over time to examine these issues in a dynamic manner. ..
  47. Rapid DA-Acb signaling in ingestive behaviors
    MITCHELL ROITMAN; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..These studies will establish the range of natural stimuli that promote rapid DA-Acb signaling - setting the foundation for examining aberrant signaling underlying drug addiction. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  48. Biotech & Materials Research to Reduce Caries Disparity
    Peter Milgrom; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The conference will be co-sponsored by the Northwest/Alaska Center to Reduce Oral Health Disparities, the University of Washington UWeb Bioengineering Center, and the Salivary Diagnostics Project. ..
  49. Diet, Activity, Obesity & The Built Environment Dynamics
    Barry Popkin; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..A central issue is determining modifiable environment factors that may reduce ethnic and socioeconomic differentials in health status. ..
  50. Physical Environment Dynamics, Inequality and Obesity
    Barry Popkin; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..We will also consider issues related to sample selectivity, within race heterogeneity and acculturation. ..
  51. Planning Grant for Xylitol Trial in Caries-Active Adults
    James Bader; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ....
  52. CENTRAL GUSTATORY ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY IN MICE
    Stuart McCaughey; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..
  53. PERIPHERAL GUSTATORY PROCESSING
    MARION ELIZABETH FRANK; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Also, elimination of taste disorders would improve the quality of life that depends on enjoyment of food and drink, a universal human need contributing much to human sociality. ..
  54. CHILD HEALTH EFFECTS OF RAPID SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC CHANGE
    Barry Popkin; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Finally, we will compare results across countries to determine whether there is a consistent pattern or structure of relationships across countries at different levels of development. ..
  55. Human Salty and Bitter Taste Mechanisms
    MARION FRANK; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Greater understanding of gustatory perceptual processing in humans may lead to better management of taste disorders such as distressful salty-bitter dysgeusias and excessive salt intake. ..