chemical warfare agents

Summary

Summary: Chemicals that are used to cause the disturbance, disease, or death of humans during war.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Ricin poisoning: a comprehensive review
    Jennifer Audi
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Environmental Health, Division of Environmental Hazards and Health Effects, Health Studies Branch, Emory University, USA
    JAMA 294:2342-51. 2005
  2. ncbi Cutaneous and ocular late complications of sulfur mustard in Iranian veterans
    Majid Shohrati
    Research Center of Chemical Injuries, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
    Cutan Ocul Toxicol 26:73-81. 2007
  3. pmc Mechanisms mediating the vesicant actions of sulfur mustard after cutaneous exposure
    Michael P Shakarjian
    Department of Environmental Health Science, School of Health Sciences and Practice, Institute of Public Health, New York Medical College, Valhalla, New York 10595, USA
    Toxicol Sci 114:5-19. 2010
  4. ncbi Cutaneous challenge with chemical warfare agents in the SKH-1 hairless mouse. (I) Development of a model for screening studies in skin decontamination and protection
    F Dorandeu
    Département de toxicologie et risque chimique, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des Armées, Centre de Recherches du Service de Sante des Armees, La Tronche, France
    Hum Exp Toxicol 30:470-90. 2011
  5. pmc Post-exposure targeting of specific epitopes on ricin toxin abrogates toxin-induced hypoglycemia, hepatic injury, and lethality in a mouse model
    James K Roche
    Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, University of Virginia Health Sciences Center, Charlottesville, VA, USA
    Lab Invest 88:1178-91. 2008
  6. ncbi Temporal changes in respiratory dynamics in mice exposed to phosgene
    Alfred M Sciuto
    Pharmacology Division, Neurotoxicology Branch, U S Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense, 3100 Ricketts Point Road, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010 5400, USA
    Inhal Toxicol 14:487-501. 2002
  7. ncbi Control of nerve agent-induced seizures is critical for neuroprotection and survival
    Tsung Ming Shih
    Pharmacology and Comparative Medicine Divisions, US Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010 5400, USA
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 188:69-80. 2003
  8. ncbi Stand-off tissue-based biosensors for the detection of chemical warfare agents using photosynthetic fluorescence induction
    C A Sanders
    Chemical Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 6194, USA
    Biosens Bioelectron 16:439-46. 2001
  9. pmc Lipopolysaccharide enhances the cytotoxicity of 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide
    William L Stone
    Department of Pediatrics, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, Tennessee 37614 0578, USA
    BMC Cell Biol 4:1. 2003
  10. ncbi Exposure to nerve agents: from status epilepticus to neuroinflammation, brain damage, neurogenesis and epilepsy
    Marcio de Araujo Furtado
    Center for Military Psychiatry and Neuroscience, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA
    Neurotoxicology 33:1476-90. 2012

Detail Information

Publications318 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Ricin poisoning: a comprehensive review
    Jennifer Audi
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Environmental Health, Division of Environmental Hazards and Health Effects, Health Studies Branch, Emory University, USA
    JAMA 294:2342-51. 2005
    ..Ricin is one of the most potent and lethal substances known, particularly when inhaled. The ease with which the native plant (Ricinus communis) can be obtained and the toxin extracted makes ricin an attractive weapon...
  2. ncbi Cutaneous and ocular late complications of sulfur mustard in Iranian veterans
    Majid Shohrati
    Research Center of Chemical Injuries, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
    Cutan Ocul Toxicol 26:73-81. 2007
    ..Also this agent is causes of chronic and delayed destructive lesions in the ocular surface and cornea, leading to progressive visual deterioration and ocular irritation...
  3. pmc Mechanisms mediating the vesicant actions of sulfur mustard after cutaneous exposure
    Michael P Shakarjian
    Department of Environmental Health Science, School of Health Sciences and Practice, Institute of Public Health, New York Medical College, Valhalla, New York 10595, USA
    Toxicol Sci 114:5-19. 2010
    ..Successful therapy for SM poisoning will depend on following new mechanistic leads to develop drugs that target one or more of its sites of action...
  4. ncbi Cutaneous challenge with chemical warfare agents in the SKH-1 hairless mouse. (I) Development of a model for screening studies in skin decontamination and protection
    F Dorandeu
    Département de toxicologie et risque chimique, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des Armées, Centre de Recherches du Service de Sante des Armees, La Tronche, France
    Hum Exp Toxicol 30:470-90. 2011
    Exposure to lethal chemical warfare agents (CWAs) is no longer only a military issue due to the terrorist threat...
  5. pmc Post-exposure targeting of specific epitopes on ricin toxin abrogates toxin-induced hypoglycemia, hepatic injury, and lethality in a mouse model
    James K Roche
    Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, University of Virginia Health Sciences Center, Charlottesville, VA, USA
    Lab Invest 88:1178-91. 2008
    ..These data identify critical events for liver injury and healing in ricin intoxication, as well as a new means and specific targets for post-exposure therapeutic intervention...
  6. ncbi Temporal changes in respiratory dynamics in mice exposed to phosgene
    Alfred M Sciuto
    Pharmacology Division, Neurotoxicology Branch, U S Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense, 3100 Ricketts Point Road, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010 5400, USA
    Inhal Toxicol 14:487-501. 2002
    ..Potential therapeutic intervention may include compounds that produce bronchodilation and mechanical ventilation support if warranted...
  7. ncbi Control of nerve agent-induced seizures is critical for neuroprotection and survival
    Tsung Ming Shih
    Pharmacology and Comparative Medicine Divisions, US Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010 5400, USA
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 188:69-80. 2003
    ..All nerve agents were capable of producing neuropathology. Seizure control was strongly associated with protection against acute lethality and brain pathology...
  8. ncbi Stand-off tissue-based biosensors for the detection of chemical warfare agents using photosynthetic fluorescence induction
    C A Sanders
    Chemical Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 6194, USA
    Biosens Bioelectron 16:439-46. 2001
    ..immobilized whole-cell photosynthetic microorganisms have been developed for the detection of airborne chemical warfare agents and simulants...
  9. pmc Lipopolysaccharide enhances the cytotoxicity of 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide
    William L Stone
    Department of Pediatrics, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, Tennessee 37614 0578, USA
    BMC Cell Biol 4:1. 2003
    ..The ability of LPS and other inflammatory agents (such as TNF-alpha and IL-1beta) to modulate the toxicity of CEES is likely to be an important factor in the design of effective treatments...
  10. ncbi Exposure to nerve agents: from status epilepticus to neuroinflammation, brain damage, neurogenesis and epilepsy
    Marcio de Araujo Furtado
    Center for Military Psychiatry and Neuroscience, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA
    Neurotoxicology 33:1476-90. 2012
    ..These studies are very necessary for current military and civilian treatment regimens, against OP nerve agent exposure, which fail to prevent SE resulting in severe neuropathology and epilepsy...
  11. ncbi Delayed ocular, pulmonary, and cutaneous complications of mustards in patients in the city of Sardasht, Iran
    Mohammad Ghassemi-Broumand
    Department of Optometry, Faculty of Rehabilitation, Shahid Beheshti University M C, Tehran, Iran
    Cutan Ocul Toxicol 27:295-305. 2008
    ..In conclusion, late mild pulmonary complications were more frequent than mild ocular and cutaneous complications; however, moderate ocular complications were more frequent than moderate pulmonary and cutaneous complications...
  12. pmc 2-Chloroethyl ethyl sulfide causes microvesication and inflammation-related histopathological changes in male hairless mouse skin
    Anil K Jain
    Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Colorado Denver, 12700 East 19th Avenue, Box C238 P 15 Research 2, Aurora, CO 80045, USA
    Toxicology 282:129-38. 2011
    ....
  13. ncbi Identification of hypoglycemia in mice as a surrogate marker of ricin toxicosis
    Seth H Pincus
    Department of Microbiology, Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana 59717, USA
    Comp Med 52:530-3. 2002
    ..In an effort to develop a non-lethal model of ricin toxicosis, we studied the biochemical effects of the administration of ricin in mice...
  14. ncbi Nerve agents
    Jonathan Newmark
    Deputy Joint Program Executive Officer for Medical Systems, Joint Program Executive Office for Chemical Biological Defense, Falls Church, Virginia 22041 3203, USA
    Neurologist 13:20-32. 2007
    Nerve agents, the deadliest of the classic chemical warfare agents, primarily function as acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and cause a rapidly progressive cholinergic crisis...
  15. pmc Improved stability of a protein vaccine through elimination of a partially unfolded state
    Colleen A McHugh
    United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Department of Cell Biology and Biochemistry, 1425 Porter Street, Frederick, MD 21702, USA
    Protein Sci 13:2736-43. 2004
    ....
  16. ncbi Prolonged inflammatory gene response following soman-induced seizures in mice
    Franck Dhote
    Département de Toxicologie CRSSA, 24 Avenue des Maquis du Gresivaudan, F 38 702 La Tronche, France
    Toxicology 238:166-76. 2007
    ..In conclusion, the present study indicates a quick neuro-inflammatory gene response that does not subside over 7 days suggesting a potential role in the neurological consequences of soman-induced status epilepticus...
  17. ncbi Soman-induced interleukin-1 beta mRNA and protein in rat brain
    I Svensson
    Swedish Defence Research Agency, Division of NBC Defence, Umea
    Neurotoxicology 22:355-62. 2001
    ..This effect, which is highly correlated to convulsions, implicates IL-1beta as a possible mediator for long-term brain damage observed after soman intoxication...
  18. ncbi Biochemical and behavioral effects of soman vapors in low concentrations
    Jiri Bajgar
    Purkyne Military Medical Academy, Department of Toxicology, Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic
    Inhal Toxicol 16:497-507. 2004
    ..Summarizing, long-term effects (4 wk) were observed after inhalation exposure of guinea pigs to sublethal concentrations of soman...
  19. ncbi Central neuro-inflammatory gene response following soman exposure in the rat
    A J Williams
    Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Division of Neurosciences, Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA
    Neurosci Lett 349:147-50. 2003
    ..In conclusion, an acute and transient upregulation of the inflammatory gene response is activated following soman exposure that may be involved in the soman-induced brain injury process...
  20. ncbi Ricin. Mechanisms of cytotoxicity
    Michael J Lord
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
    Toxicol Rev 22:53-64. 2003
    ....
  21. ncbi Structural insights into the dual activities of the nerve agent degrading organophosphate anhydrolase/prolidase
    Nand K Vyas
    Verna and Marrs McLean Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    Biochemistry 49:547-59. 2010
    ..Both structures provide new understanding of ligand recognition and the prolidase and organophosphorus hydrolase catalytic activities of OPAA...
  22. ncbi Sulfur mustard toxicity: history, chemistry, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics
    Kamyar Ghabili
    Tuberculosis and Lung Disease Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
    Crit Rev Toxicol 41:384-403. 2011
    ..In the present article we review this knowledge and relate the molecular-biological basis of SM toxicity, as far as it has been elucidated, to the pathological effects on exposure victims...
  23. ncbi Acute and chronic effects of sulfur mustard on the skin: a comprehensive review
    Mostafa Ghanei
    Research Center of Chemical Injuries, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Mollasadra St, Tehran, Iran
    Cutan Ocul Toxicol 29:269-77. 2010
    Sulfur mustard (2,2-dichlorodiethyl sulfide, SM) is one of the vesicant classes of chemical warfare agents that causes blistering in the skin and mucous membranes, where it can have lingering long-term effects for up to ten years (1)...
  24. ncbi Apoptosis in sulfur mustard treated A549 cell cultures
    D Steinritz
    Bundeswehr Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Neuherbergstrasse 11, 80937 Munich, Germany
    Life Sci 80:2199-201. 2007
    ..In summary, our studies demonstrate that AChE activity may be a potential marker of apoptosis in A549 cells after SM injury. To what extent AChE is involved in apoptosis regulation during SM poisoning has to be further investigated...
  25. ncbi Soman-induced convulsions: the neuropathology revisited
    Valerie Baille
    Centre de Recherches du Service de Sante des Armees, Departement de Toxicologie, BP87, 38702 La Tronche Cedex, France
    Toxicology 215:1-24. 2005
    ..In soman poisoning as well as in other cerebral pathologies, premature conclusions on this question can potentially be misleading and might even lead to detrimental therapies...
  26. pmc Chemical weapons
    Demetrius Evison
    Defence Science and Technology Laboratories, Porton Down, Salisbury, Wiltshire, SP4 0JQ
    BMJ 324:332-5. 2002
  27. ncbi Chemical warfare and the Gulf War: a review of the impact on Gulf veterans' health
    James R Riddle
    Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense, Health Affairs, The Pentagon, Washington, DC, USA
    Mil Med 168:606-13. 2003
    ..The deployment or war-related health impact from life-threatening experiences of the Gulf War, including the perceived exposure to chemical warfare agents, should be considered as an important cause of morbidity among Gulf War veterans.
  28. ncbi Long-term effects of chemical weapons on respiratory tract in Iraq-Iran war victims living in Babol (North of Iran)
    Kh Bijani
    Department of Internal Medicine, Shahid Beheshti Hospital, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran
    Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 53:422-4. 2002
    ..The clinical evaluations, radiography, and PFTs revealed that the most prevalent effects of chemical weapons on respiratory tract were chronic obstructive lung disease, presenting as many types of obstructive involvement...
  29. ncbi Injury induced by chemical warfare agents: characterization and treatment of ocular tissues exposed to nitrogen mustard
    Eyal Banin
    Department of Ophthalmology, Hebrew University Hadassah School of Medicine, Jerusalem, Israel
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 44:2966-72. 2003
    ..The purpose of the present study was to examine the efficacy of novel metallocomplexes, known to inhibit the formation of highly reactive free radicals, to reduce ocular injury induced by nitrogen mustard (NM)...
  30. ncbi Mustard gas or sulfur mustard: an old chemical agent as a new terrorist threat
    Monica Wattana
    Department of Emergency Medicine, University of California, Irvine, Orange, California, USA
    Prehosp Disaster Med 24:19-29; discussion 30-1. 2009
    Sulfur mustard is a member of the vesicant class of chemical warfare agents that causes blistering to the skin and mucous membranes. There is no specific antidote, and treatment consists of systematically alleviating symptoms...
  31. ncbi Determination of chemical warfare agents and related compounds in environmental samples by solid-phase microextraction with gas chromatography
    Stanisław Popiel
    Military University of Technology, Institute of Chemistry, 2 Kaliski Street, 00 908 Warsaw, Poland
    J Chromatogr A 1218:8457-79. 2011
    ..GC) permits both the qualitative and quantitative analysis of toxic industrial compounds, pesticides and chemical warfare agents (CWAs), including their degradation products, in air, water and soil samples...
  32. ncbi Amidine-oximes: reactivators for organophosphate exposure
    Jarosław Kalisiak
    Human BioMolecular Research Institute, 5310 Eastgate Mall, San Diego, California 92121, United States
    J Med Chem 54:3319-30. 2011
    ..In addition, 15d was tested in a post-treatment experiment (145 μmol/kg, ip, administration 5 min after sarin model compound exposure). In both cases, amidine-oximes afforded 100% 24 h survival in an animal model of OP exposure...
  33. ncbi Illness experience of Gulf War veterans possibly exposed to chemical warfare agents
    Linda A McCauley
    Center for Research on Occupational and Environmental Toxicology, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon 97201, USA
    Am J Prev Med 23:200-6. 2002
    During the 1991 Gulf War, some Allied troops were potentially exposed to chemical warfare agents as the result of the detonation of Iraqi munitions at Khamisiyah.
  34. ncbi Reactivators of acetylcholinesterase inhibited by organophosphorus nerve agents
    Guillaume Mercey
    Equipe de Chimie Bio Organique, COBRA CNRS UMR 6014 and FR 3038, rue Lucien Tesnière, 76131 Mont Saint Aignan, France
    Acc Chem Res 45:756-66. 2012
    ..States, the specter of a chemical threat against civilian populations has renewed research interest in chemical warfare agents, their mechanisms of action, and treatments that reverse their effects...
  35. ncbi Syntheses and in vitro evaluations of uncharged reactivators for human acetylcholinesterase inhibited by organophosphorus nerve agents
    Julien Renou
    COBRA CNRS UMR 6014 and FR 3038, rue Lucien Tesnière, 76821 Mont Saint Aignan, France
    Chem Biol Interact 203:81-4. 2013
    ..Moreover, one of seven described compounds presents an ability to reactivate tabun-inhibited hAChE equivalent to those of 2-PAM...
  36. ncbi Oral administration of diphenylarsinic acid, a degradation product of chemical warfare agents, induces oxidative and nitrosative stress in cerebellar Purkinje cells
    Koichi Kato
    Research Unit of Environmental Toxicology and Carcinogenesis, Nihon University College of Pharmacy, Chiba, Japan
    Life Sci 81:1518-25. 2007
    ....
  37. ncbi Technological advancements for the detection of and protection against biological and chemical warfare agents
    Lisa M Eubanks
    Department of Chemistry, The Skaggs Institute for Chemical Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Chem Soc Rev 36:458-70. 2007
    ..review, we describe methods that have been developed both for the specific detection of biological and chemical warfare agents in a field setting, as well as potential therapeutic approaches for treating exposure to these toxic ..
  38. pmc Sulfur mustard analog, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide-induced skin injury involves DNA damage and induction of inflammatory mediators, in part via oxidative stress, in SKH-1 hairless mouse skin
    Anil K Jain
    Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Denver School of Pharmacy, Aurora, CO 80045, USA
    Toxicol Lett 205:293-301. 2011
    ..This study could help in identifying countermeasures that alone or in combination, can target the unveiled pathways for reducing skin injury in humans by SM...
  39. ncbi [Analytical and on-site detection methods for chemical warfare agents]
    Yasuo Seto
    National Research Institute of Police Science, Kashiwa City, Japan
    Yakugaku Zasshi 126:1279-99. 2006
    b>Chemical warfare agents (CWAs) are fast acting and sometimes lethal, even at low levels, and can be classified into nerve gases, blister agents, choking agents, blood agents, vomit agents, tear gases, and incapacitating agents...
  40. ncbi Nonquaternary reactivators for organophosphate-inhibited cholinesterases
    Jarosław Kalisiak
    Human BioMolecular Research Institute, 5310 Eastgate Mall, San Diego, California 92121, United States
    J Med Chem 55:465-74. 2012
    ..e., a dose of 36 μmol/kg, i.p.), 7b and 12e protected 100% of the animals challenged with the sarin nerve agent model compound that caused lethality in 6/11 animals without amidine-oxime...
  41. ncbi Sardasht-Iran cohort study of chemical warfare victims: design and methods
    Tooba Ghazanfari
    Department of Immunology, Medical Faculty, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran
    Arch Iran Med 12:5-14. 2009
    ..This paper describes the design and methodology of Sardasht-Iran Cohort Study...
  42. ncbi Regulation of 1-alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 on interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 induced by sulfur mustard (HD) on human skin cells
    Carmen M Arroyo
    Drug Assessment Division, Comparative Medicine, US Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010 5400, USA
    Pharmacol Toxicol 92:204-13. 2003
    ....
  43. ncbi Analysis of biological samples for chemical warfare agents
    John R Barr
    J Anal Toxicol 32:1. 2008
  44. pmc Toxicity of the organophosphate chemical warfare agents GA, GB, and VX: implications for public protection
    N Munro
    Health Sciences Research Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 6383 USA
    Environ Health Perspect 102:18-38. 1994
    ..Control limits for exposure via surface contact of drinking water are needed, as are detection methods for low levels in water or foodstuffs...
  45. ncbi Treatment of chemical warfare agents by zero-valent iron nanoparticles and ferrate(VI)/(III) composite
    Radek Zboril
    Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Department of Physical Chemistry, 17 Listopadu 1192 12, 771 46 Olomouc, Czech Republic
    J Hazard Mater 211:126-30. 2012
    ..The applicability of these environmentally friendly iron based materials in treatment of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) has been tested with three representative compounds, sulfur mustard (bis(2-chlorethyl) sulfide, HD)..
  46. pmc Effects of textural properties on the response of a SnO2-based gas sensor for the detection of chemical warfare agents
    Soo Chool Lee
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702 701, Korea
    Sensors (Basel) 11:6893-904. 2011
    ..1-0.5 ppm)...
  47. ncbi Putative role of proteolysis and inflammatory response in the toxicity of nerve and blister chemical warfare agents: implications for multi-threat medical countermeasures
    F M Cowan
    US Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010 5400, USA
    J Appl Toxicol 23:177-86. 2003
    Despite the contrasts in chemistry and toxicity, for blister and nerve chemical warfare agents there may be some analogous proteolytic and inflammatory mediators and pathological pathways that can be pharmacological targets for a single-..
  48. ncbi Carbon nanotube/polythiophene chemiresistive sensors for chemical warfare agents
    Fei Wang
    Department of Materials Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA
    J Am Chem Soc 130:5392-3. 2008
    ....
  49. ncbi Long-term health effects of exposure to sarin and other anticholinesterase chemical warfare agents
    William F Page
    Medical Follow up Agency, Institute of Medicine, 500 Fifth Street, N W, Washington, DC 20001, USA
    Mil Med 168:239-45. 2003
    ..In this study, the health effects of self-reported, nonexperimental exposure, which are subject to recall bias, were greater than the health effects of experimental exposure...
  50. ncbi Medical management of cutaneous sulfur mustard injuries
    John S Graham
    Medical Toxicology Branch Analytical Toxicology Division, U S Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010, USA
    Toxicology 263:47-58. 2009
    ..There are currently no standardized or optimized methods of casualty management. New strategies are needed to provide for optimal and rapid wound healing...
  51. ncbi Medical management of incidents with chemical warfare agents
    Thomas Zilker
    Department of Clinical Toxicology, II, Medical Clinic, Technical University, Ismaninger Str 22, 81664 Munich, Germany
    Toxicology 214:221-31. 2005
    Successful management of incidents with chemical warfare agents strongly depends on the speed of medical help and the ability of helpers to react properly...
  52. pmc Impact of psychological problems in chemical warfare survivors with severe ophthalmologic complication, a cross sectional study
    Gholamhosein Ghaedi
    Shahed University, Tehran, Iran
    Health Qual Life Outcomes 10:36. 2012
    ..This study has evaluated the most prominent influences on the psychological health status of patients with severe SM induced ocular injuries...
  53. ncbi Long-term ocular consequences of sulfur mustard in seriously eye-injured war veterans
    Hassan Ghasemi
    Department of Ophthalmology, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran
    Cutan Ocul Toxicol 28:71-7. 2009
    ..Although many descriptive studies about SM-induced ocular injuries are present in the medical literature, few of them have been conducted over a large group with serious ocular involvement...
  54. ncbi Skin hydration and transepidermal water loss in patients with a history of sulfur mustard contact: a case-control study
    Seyyed Masoud Davoudi
    Research Center of Chemical Injuries, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
    J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 23:940-4. 2009
    ..Skin lesions are among the most common complications of contact with sulfur mustard...
  55. ncbi A mediational model of PTSD in World War II veterans exposed to mustard gas
    M Kay Jankowski
    New Hampshire Dartmouth Psychiatric Research Center, Lebanon, NH 03766, USA
    J Trauma Stress 17:303-10. 2004
    ..These findings contribute to our understanding of PTSD in older veterans, and have relevance for early intervention services to prevent PTSD among those at risk for exposure to toxic agents...
  56. ncbi Sarin: health effects, metabolism, and methods of analysis
    A W Abu-Qare
    Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Food Chem Toxicol 40:1327-33. 2002
    ..Further research to examine effects of sarin on the cellular and the molecular levels, gene transcription, endocrine system as well as its long-term impact is needed...
  57. ncbi Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, physical health, and health care utilization 50 years after repeated exposure to a toxic gas
    Julian D Ford
    Department of Psychiatry, MC1410, University of Connecticut Health Center, 263 Farmington Avenue, Farmington, Connecticut 06030, USA
    J Trauma Stress 17:185-94. 2004
    ..Implications for researchers, mental health clinicians, and health care providers are discussed...
  58. ncbi Impact of pruritus on quality of life in sulfur mustard-exposed Iranian veterans
    Yunes Panahi
    Research Center of Chemical Injuries Baqiyatallah Medical Sciences University Molla Sadra St PO Box 19945 581, Tehran, Iran
    Int J Dermatol 47:557-61. 2008
    ..One of the foremost negative impacts of this agent is chronic pruritus, which plagues chemically injured veterans for life and can downgrade their quality of life...
  59. ncbi The use of chemical weapons. Conducting an investigation using survey epidemiology
    H Hu
    Channing Laboratory, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass
    JAMA 262:640-3. 1989
    ....
  60. ncbi Genomic analysis of rodent pulmonary tissue following bis-(2-chloroethyl) sulfide exposure
    James F Dillman
    Applied Pharmacology and Neurotoxicology Branches, U S Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense, 3100 Ricketts Point Road, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland 21010 5400, USA
    Chem Res Toxicol 18:28-34. 2005
    ..Thus, SM exposure induces transcriptional changes that reveal the cellular response to this potent alkylating agent...
  61. ncbi Improving the catalytic activity of hyperthermophilic Pyrococcus prolidases for detoxification of organophosphorus nerve agents over a broad range of temperatures
    Casey M Theriot
    Department of Microbiology, North Carolina State University, 4548 Gardner Hall, Campus Box 7615, Raleigh, NC 27695 7615, USA
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 87:1715-26. 2010
    ..has potential for application for decontamination of organophosphorus compounds in certain pesticides and chemical warfare agents under harsh conditions...
  62. pmc Effective countermeasure against poisoning by organophosphorus insecticides and nerve agents
    Edson X Albuquerque
    Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 655 West Baltimore Street, Baltimore, 21201, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:13220-5. 2006
    ..Thus, a galantamine-based therapy emerges as an effective and safe countermeasure against OP poisoning...
  63. ncbi Nerve agents: a comprehensive review
    Sage W Wiener
    NYC Poison Control Center, Bellevue Hospital Center, New York University Medical Center, and New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA
    J Intensive Care Med 19:22-37. 2004
    ..Nerve agents are perhaps the most feared of potential agents of chemical attack. The authors review the history, physical characteristics, pharmacology, clinical effects, and treatment of these agents...
  64. pmc Human carboxylesterase 1 stereoselectively binds the nerve agent cyclosarin and spontaneously hydrolyzes the nerve agent sarin
    Andrew C Hemmert
    Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 3290, USA
    Mol Pharmacol 77:508-16. 2010
    ..These results provide important insights toward the long-term goal of designing novel forms of hCE1 to act as protein-based therapeutics for nerve agent detoxification...
  65. ncbi A novel approach for medical countermeasures to nerve agent poisoning in the guinea-pig
    Janet Wetherell
    Biomedical Sciences Department, Dstl Porton Down, Salisbury, Wiltshire SP4 0JQ, UK
    Neurotoxicology 27:485-91. 2006
    ....
  66. ncbi Ricin as a weapon of mass terror--separating fact from fiction
    Leo J Schep
    National Poisons Centre, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand
    Environ Int 35:1267-71. 2009
    ..Ricin as a toxin is deadly but as an agent of bioterror it is unsuitable and therefore does not deserve the press attention and subsequent public alarm that has been created...
  67. ncbi Bronchiolitis obliterans following exposure to sulfur mustard: chest high resolution computed tomography
    Mostafa Ghanei
    Baqiyatallah Medical Sciences University, Chemical Warfare Victims Research Center, Mollasadra Street, Tehran, Iran
    Eur J Radiol 52:164-9. 2004
    ..We undertook this study to evaluate the chest high resolution computerized tomography (HRCT) as a diagnostic tool in patients with documented exposure to SM and chronic respiratory symptoms...
  68. ncbi Bronchiolitis obliterans in a survivor of a chemical weapons attack
    Jason W W Thomason
    JAMA 290:598-9. 2003
  69. ncbi The acute toxicity, tissue distribution, and histopathology of inhaled ricin in Sprague Dawley rats and BALB/c mice
    Janet M Benson
    Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM 87108, USA
    Inhal Toxicol 23:247-56. 2011
    ..Results of this study demonstrate differences exist in pulmonary deposition, clearance rates, and tissue dose and histopathological changes between rats and mice inhaling ricin...
  70. ncbi Medical aspects of sulphur mustard poisoning
    Kai Kehe
    Bundeswehr Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Neuherbergstr 11, D 80937 Munich, Germany
    Toxicology 214:198-209. 2005
    Sulphur mustard is one of the major chemical warfare agents developed and used during World War I. Large stockpiles are still present in several countries. It is relatively easy to produce and might be used as a terroristic weapon...
  71. ncbi Anticonvulsants for nerve agent-induced seizures: The influence of the therapeutic dose of atropine
    Tsung Ming Shih
    Pharmacology Branch, Research Division, United States Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense, 3100 Ricketts Point Rd, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010 5400, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 320:154-61. 2007
    ..The findings indicate that the dose of atropine given as antidotal therapy can significantly influence measures of nerve agent toxicity and responsiveness to anticonvulsant therapy...
  72. ncbi Alteromonas prolidase for organophosphorus G-agent decontamination
    T C Cheng
    Environmental Technology Team, US Army Edgewood Research, Development and Engineering Center, Aberdeen, MD 21010, USA
    Chem Biol Interact 119:455-62. 1999
    ..Large-scale production of this G-agent degrading enzyme is now feasible with the availability of an over-producing recombinant cell line. Use of this enzyme for development of a safe and non-corrosive decontamination system is discussed...
  73. ncbi Toxicogenomic studies of the rat brain at an early time point following acute sarin exposure
    Tirupapuliyur V Damodaran
    Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, Duke University Medical Center, P O Box 3813, Durham, NC, 27710, USA
    Neurochem Res 31:367-81. 2006
    ..Our model (based on current and previous studies) indicates that both degenerative and regenerative pathways are activated early and contribute to the level of neurodegeneration at a later time, leading to neuro-pathological alterations...
  74. ncbi Modulation of sulfur mustard induced cell death in human epidermal keratinocytes using IL-10 and TNF-alpha
    Aziz Qabar
    US Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense, 3100 Ricketts Point Road, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010, USA
    J Biochem Mol Toxicol 19:213-25. 2005
    ..We, therefore, identify IL-10 and TNF-alpha signal transduction pathways and their components as possible candidates for early therapeutic intervention against sulfur mustard induced cell injury...
  75. ncbi Purification, characterization and toxicity profile of ricin isoforms from castor beans
    Payal Sehgal
    Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Defence Research and Development Establishment, Jhansi Road, Gwalior, India
    Food Chem Toxicol 48:3171-6. 2010
    ..The present study shows that anti-ricin I and II antibodies can be used for detection of entire ricin isoforms...
  76. ncbi Neuronal structures involved in the induction and propagation of seizures caused by nerve agents: implications for medical treatment
    Trond Myhrer
    Norwegian Defence Research Establishment, Protection Division, NO 2027, Kjeller, Norway
    Toxicology 239:1-14. 2007
    ..Studies of radiolabeled ligands to map subreceptors may provide specification of wanted drug properties to guide the choice among existing agents or to synthesize novel ones...
  77. pmc Crystal structures of human carboxylesterase 1 in covalent complexes with the chemical warfare agents soman and tabun
    Christopher D Fleming
    Department of Chemistry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA
    Biochemistry 46:5063-71. 2007
    ..Taken together, these data provide important structural details toward the goal of engineering hCE1 into an organophosphate hydrolase and protein-based therapeutic for nerve agent exposure...
  78. ncbi Ricin poisoning
    Sally M Bradberry
    National Poisons Information Service Birmingham Centre, West Midlands Poisons Unit, City Hospital, Birmingham, UK
    Toxicol Rev 22:65-70. 2003
    ..Management is supportive. Prophylactic immunisation against ricin toxicity is a developing research initiative, although presently not a realistic option in a civilian context...
  79. ncbi Incidence of lung, eye, and skin lesions as late complications in 34,000 Iranians with wartime exposure to mustard agent
    Shahriar Khateri
    Chemical Warfare Victims Unit, Organization of Veterans Affairs, Tehran, Iran
    J Occup Environ Med 45:1136-43. 2003
    ....
  80. ncbi Oxidative stress associated hepatic and renal toxicity induced by ricin in mice
    O Kumar
    Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Defence Research and Development Establishment, Gwalior 474002, India
    Toxicon 41:333-8. 2003
    ..These results indicate that ricin produces hepatoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and oxidative damage at 24 h of post treatment. The hepatotoxicity was more prominent than nephrotoxicity...
  81. ncbi Fluorescent detection of chemical warfare agents: functional group specific ratiometric chemosensors
    Shi Wei Zhang
    Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA
    J Am Chem Soc 125:3420-1. 2003
    ..Very weak emission was observed by the addition of HCl. Another indicator based on pyridyl naphthalene exhibits a large shift in its emission spectrum after reaction with DFP, which provides for quantitative ratiometric detection...
  82. ncbi Biomonitoring of exposure to chemical warfare agents: a review
    D Noort
    Division of Chemical and Biological Protection, TNO Prins Maurits Laboratory, P O Box 45, 2280 AA, Rijswijk, The Netherlands
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 184:116-26. 2002
    In this report an overview of the methods currently available for detection of exposure to a number of chemical warfare agents (CWA), i.e., sulfur mustard, lewisite and nerve agents, is presented...
  83. pmc Nerve agent analogues that produce authentic soman, sarin, tabun, and cyclohexyl methylphosphonate-modified human butyrylcholinesterase
    Cynthia Gilley
    Human BioMolecular Research Institute, San Diego, California 92121, USA
    Chem Res Toxicol 22:1680-8. 2009
    ..However, the soman and sarin thiomethyl compounds yielded two types of adducts, one of which was thiomethyl phosphonate, a modification not found after treatment with authentic soman and sarin...
  84. ncbi Future considerations for the medical management of nerve-agent intoxication
    Pål Aas
    Department of Physiology, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway
    Prehosp Disaster Med 18:208-16. 2003
    The use of chemical warfare agents against civilians and unprotected troops in international conflicts or by terrorists against civilians is considered to be a real threat, particularly following the terrorist attacks on 11 September ..
  85. ncbi Analysis of active ricin and castor bean proteins in a ricin preparation, castor bean extract, and surface swabs from a public health investigation
    David M Schieltz
    Emergency Response and Air Toxicants Branch, Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
    Forensic Sci Int 209:70-9. 2011
    ..To the best of our knowledge following a review of the available literature, this report describes the most detailed analysis of a white powder for a public health or forensic investigation involving ricin...
  86. pmc Intrapulmonary delivery of ricin at high dosage triggers a systemic inflammatory response and glomerular damage
    John Wong
    Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Oregon Health and Science University, 3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Rd, Portland, OR 97239, USA
    Am J Pathol 170:1497-510. 2007
    ..A sublethal dose of ricin failed to induce damage to 28S rRNA in kidney or other extrapulmonary organs...
  87. pmc Role of MAP kinases in regulating expression of antioxidants and inflammatory mediators in mouse keratinocytes following exposure to the half mustard, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide
    Adrienne T Black
    Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ, USA
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 245:352-60. 2010
    ..Inhibiting the capacity of keratinocytes to generate eicosanoids may be important in limiting inflammation and protecting the skin from vesicant-induced oxidative stress and injury...
  88. pmc Primary brain targets of nerve agents: the role of the amygdala in comparison to the hippocampus
    Vassiliki Aroniadou-Anderjaska
    Department of Anatomy, Physiology and Genetics, Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD 20814, USA
    Neurotoxicology 30:772-6. 2009
    ..In vivo experiments are now required to confirm the primary role that the amygdala seems to play in nerve agent-induced seizure generation...
  89. ncbi Molecular toxicology of sulfur mustard-induced cutaneous inflammation and blistering
    K Kehe
    Bundeswehr Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Neuherbergstr 11, D 80937 Munich, Germany
    Toxicology 263:12-9. 2009
    ..This review briefly summarizes the skin toxicity of SM, its proposed toxicodynamic actions and strategies for the development of improved medical therapy...
  90. ncbi Seizure duration following sarin exposure affects neuro-inflammatory markers in the rat brain
    S Chapman
    Department of Pharmacology, Israel Institute for Biological Research, P O Box 19, Ness Ziona 74100, Israel
    Neurotoxicology 27:277-83. 2006
    ..The timing of the anticonvulsive treatment was shown to be crucial in modulation of the neuro-inflammatory response, and may implicate the consequent long-term brain damage...
  91. pmc Quality of life in chemical warfare survivors with ophthalmologic injuries: the first results form Iran Chemical Warfare Victims Health Assessment Study
    Batool Mousavi
    Janbazan Medical and Engineering Research Center JMERC, Tehran, Iran
    Health Qual Life Outcomes 7:2. 2009
    ..The aim of this study was to assess the health related quality of life (HRQOL) in people who had ophthalmologic complications due to the sulfur mustard gas exposure during the war...
  92. ncbi An international collaborative pathologic study of surgical lung biopsies from mustard gas-exposed patients
    Mostafa Ghanei
    Research Center of Chemical Injuries, Baqiyatallah Medical Science University, Mollasadra Street, PO Box 19945 546, Tehran, Iran
    Respir Med 102:825-30. 2008
    ..This study is the first to examine the histopathologic spectrum of changes in a large number of surgical lung biopsies from patients exposed to SM...
  93. ncbi Enhanced degradation of chemical warfare agents through molecular engineering of the phosphotriesterase active site
    Craig M Hill
    Department of Chemistry, P O Box 30012, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77842 3012, USA
    J Am Chem Soc 125:8990-1. 2003
    ..These studies demonstrate that substantial changes in substrate specificity can be achieved by relatively minor changes to the primary amino acid sequence...
  94. ncbi Belief in exposure to terrorist agents: reported exposure to nerve or mustard gas by Gulf War veterans
    John A Stuart
    Department of Psychiatry, Center for the Study of Traumatic Stress, Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, Maryland 20814 4799, USA
    J Nerv Ment Dis 191:431-6. 2003
    ..This knowledge will aid in better responding to rapid demands that may be placed on our health care delivery systems in times of potential terrorist activity...
  95. ncbi Exposures recorded for participants in the UK Chemical Warfare Agent Human Research Programme, 1941-1989
    T J Keegan
    Department of Public Health, University of Oxford, OX3 7LF, UK
    Ann Occup Hyg 53:83-97. 2009
    ..who participated between 1941 and 1989 in British research at Porton Down on the effects of exposure to chemical warfare agents and to defences against those agents...
  96. ncbi Delayed complications of sulfur mustard poisoning in the skin and the immune system of Iranian veterans 16-20 years after exposure
    Mehrdad Hefazi
    Department of Dermatology, Imam Reza Hospital, Mashhad, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran
    Int J Dermatol 45:1025-31. 2006
    ..We aimed to study the association between late cutaneous and immunological complications of SM poisoning...
  97. ncbi Sulfur mustard-induced apoptosis in hairless guinea pig skin
    Robert K Kan
    Comparative Pathology Branch, Comparative Medicine Division, U S Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland 21010 5400, USA
    Toxicol Pathol 31:185-90. 2003
    ....
  98. ncbi Reconstructing exposures from the UK chemical warfare agent human research programme
    Tj Keegan
    Department of Public Health, University of Oxford, Oxford OX7 3LF, UK
    Ann Occup Hyg 51:441-50. 2007
    ..The resulting cohort study has the potential to provide information which will assist in understanding the long-term health impact of chemical warfare agent exposure on these veterans...
  99. ncbi Gene expression profiles of the rat brain both immediately and 3 months following acute sarin exposure
    Tirupapuliyur V Damodaran
    Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Biochem Pharmacol 71:497-520. 2006
    ..Our model also predicts that besides dose and duration of post-treatment period, age and possibly other factors may be playing important roles in the regulation of pathways, leading to the neurotoxicity...
  100. ncbi An overview of biological markers of exposure to chemical warfare agents
    Robin M Black
    Defence Science and Technology Laboratory, Porton Down, Salisbury, SP4 0JQ, United Kingdom
    J Anal Toxicol 32:2-9. 2008
    An overview is given of biological markers of exposure to chemical warfare agents. Metabolites, protein, and/or DNA adducts have been identified for most nerve agents and vesicants and validated in experimental animals or in a small ..
  101. ncbi Symptoms of Gulf War veterans possibly exposed to organophosphate chemical warfare agents at Khamisiyah, Iraq
    L A McCauley
    Center for Research on Occupational and Environmental Toxicology, Oregon Health Sciences University, Portland 97201, USA
    Int J Occup Environ Health 7:79-89. 2001
    ..To evaluate the prevalence of past and current symptoms known to be associated with exposure to these chemical warfare agents, the authors conducted a computer-assisted telephone survey of 2,918 U.S. Gulf War veterans...

Research Grants64

  1. Targeting Injury Pathways to Counteract Pulmonary Agent and Vesicant Toxicity
    Sven Eric Jordt; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In summary, we hypothesize that TRP channels are major targets of chemical warfare agents, mediating local and systemic injury and inflammation through neuronal and local cellular signaling...
  2. Wearable Technology for Assessment of Personal Exposure to Volatile Organic Compo
    Stephen L Coy; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..several other potential applications such as military uses (detection of many types of explosives and of chemical warfare agents), medical uses (breath analysis), and law enforcement uses (narcotics)...
  3. Protection against sarin-induced neurotoxicity via an in vivo caspase inhibitor
    David R Cool; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..and progressive neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration are correlated with low-level exposure to chemical warfare agents (CWAs), such as sarin...
  4. The Impact of Genetic Variability on Human Susceptibility to Chlorpyrifos
    ALICE LANGFORD CRANE; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Organophosphorus (OP) pesticides are extensively used worldwide and share a common mechanism with OP chemical warfare agents. These compounds inhibit the enzymes acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butylrylcholinesterase (BChE)...
  5. Role of monoacylglycerol lipase in coordinating diverse lipid signaling pathways
    DANIEL KOJI NOMURA; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..on elucidating off-targets of organophosphorus (OP) nerve agents that are used as insecticides and chemical warfare agents. This yielded in 12 publications that 1) established a role for the unannotated serine hydrolase KIAA1363 ..
  6. Synthesis of methylating ligands that reactivate aged acetylcholinesterase
    DANIEL M QUINN; Fiscal Year: 2012
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Organophosphorus (OP) chemical warfare agents, such as sarin and soman, are acutely toxic compounds that act by inhibiting the activity of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE) at nerve-nerve and ..
  7. Evaluation of Neuroprotective Effects of AEOL10150 against Chemical Threat Agents
    Manisha N Patel; Fiscal Year: 2012
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Chemical warfare agents are a threat to both the civilian population and military personnel and there is an urgent need for rapid development of medical countermeasures...
  8. Biosensor for real-time chemical monitoring
    John R Cashman; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..to detect biomarkers of OP exposure to provide information to protect populations at risk for exposure to chemical warfare agents or OP pesticides...
  9. Role of monoacylglycerol lipase in coordinating diverse lipid signaling pathways
    DANIEL KOJI NOMURA; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..on elucidating off-targets of organophosphorus (OP) nerve agents that are used as insecticides and chemical warfare agents. This yielded in 12 publications that 1) established a role for the unannotated serine hydrolase KIAA1363 ..
  10. ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE-CATALYZED HYDROLYSIS
    Daniel Quinn; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..AChE is the physiological target of chemical warfare agents such as sarin and soman, which are among the most toxic substances ever invented by man...
  11. Rapid development of in vivo models for countermeasure discovery: organophosphate
    Randall T Peterson; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..As novel chemical threats emerge (in the form of novel chemical warfare agents or environmental pollutants), the speed with which we are able to understand and counteract each threat ..
  12. Novel Organophosphorous Hydrolases for Decontamination
    Andrew Mesecar; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Currently, over 100,000 tons of chemical warfare agents are stockpiled worldwide, and thousands-of-tons of OP pesticides are released into the environment ..
  13. Neuroprotective effects of AEOL 10150 against organophosphate toxicity
    Manisha N Patel; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Chemical warfare agents are a threat to both the civilian population and military personnel and there is an urgent need for rapid development of medical countermeasures...
  14. Noninvasive Methemoglobin Monitoring Technology
    LEONARD WINCHESTER; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The sensor also has applications in transfusion medicine and in the defense against chemical warfare agents and cyanide poisoning...
  15. Data Mining Assisted Discovery of Novel Organophosphorou
    Robert Turner; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Currently, over 100,000 tons of chemical warfare agents are stockpiled worldwide...
  16. Nanoparticle Modified Textiles for Protective Clothing
    RUYA OZER; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..is feasible to permanently anchor these nanoparticles onto cotton fabric and they are effective against chemical warfare agents as well as pathogenic microorganisms...
  17. Novel Organophosphorous Hydrolases for Decontamination
    Andrew Mesecar; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Currently, over 100,000 tons of chemical warfare agents are stockpiled worldwide, and thousands-of-tons of OP pesticides are released into the environment ..
  18. CBW PROTECTIVE CLOTHING FOR CIVILIAN PROTECTION
    SHANTHA SARANGAPANI; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The phase I material shows no breakthrough flux of mustard and nerve agents (HD and GB) (actual chemical warfare agents) for over 48 hrs, which exceeds the current 8hrs criteria for suits, as verified by an Army certified ..
  19. Microwave remediation of hazardous medical wastes
    PRASANNA CHANDRASEKHAR; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..for destruction of three types of wastes - Infectious Medical Wastes; Biological Warfare agents; and Chemical Warfare agents. Our technology, developed in collaboration with one of the world's premier university microwave ..
  20. High Throughput Bioengineering of Detoxification Enzymes
    Margaret Bradley; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Enzymes focuses on organophosphate hydrolases, which have immediate value for mediation or detection of chemical warfare agents (CW; i.e...
  21. Reactive Materials for Protective Clothing
    WAHEGURU SINGH; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..is feasible to permanently anchor these nanoparticles onto cotton fabric and they are effective against chemical warfare agents as well as pathogenic microorganisms...
  22. Compact Chemical Sensor for Measurement of Internal Dose of Environmental Agents
    WAYNE WEIMER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..organic compounds, polybrominated diphenyls (PBDEs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and toxic industrial chemical exposure such as organophosphonate pesticides, cyanide, and chemical warfare agents and their metabolites.
  23. CBW PROTECTIVE CLOTHING FOR CIVILIAN PROTECTION
    SHANTHA SARANGAPANI; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..The composite material will be subjected to standardized permeation tests involving simulants of chemical warfare agents. These tests will result in the selection of the best material for further testing with real agents...
  24. PON1 and Developmental Sensitivity to OP Pesticides
    Nina T Holland; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..These data will support planning for the National Children's Study, identify subpopulations susceptible to chemical warfare agents, and inform policy decisions for implementation of the Food Quality Protection Act.
  25. Personal Monitor to Detect Exposure to Toxic Agents
    Hal Cantor; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..persons in direct contact with OP compounds, as well as soldiers and civilians potentially exposed to chemical warfare agents. Towards these goals, AST has developed a passive first generation micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) ..
  26. A High-Resolution Differential Mobility Analyzer to Study Biomolecules
    CHAMINDA GAMAGE; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..It is also used for the detection of airborne chemical agents such as explosives, chemical warfare agents, narcotics and toxic industrial chemicals and for the study of aerosol particles...
  27. Detection of Multiple Chemical Warfare Agents
    ROBERT CORCORAN; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..these issues are not a problem, most analytical methods suffer from the problem that they can only detect chemical warfare agents that are expected. This is a significant problem in the case of the highly toxic nerve agents (e.g...
  28. A Cost-Effective OPH Multilayer Modified Microcantilever for Detection of OPs
    Karen Xu; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..b>Chemical warfare agents are 1 of the major threats to homeland security...
  29. Biosensors for metabolic engineering
    Jay Keasling; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..also may be used to detect toxic chemicals in the environment such as groundwater contamination or chemical warfare agents. We propose the development of chemical sensor/actuator systems to detect target analytes...
  30. Immunofluorometric Drug Detection System
    GREGORY ZELTSER; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..detection, the IDDS device also can be used for detection of pathogens in body fluids; rapid immunoassay for hormones, medications, and metabolites; and military surveillance and and monitoring of biological and chemical warfare agents.
  31. MODEL STUDIES OF LOW BARRIER HYDROGEN BONDS IN CATALYSIS
    Eric Anslyn; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..The significance of such a result goes beyond an increased basic science understanding of enzymology, and has clear ramifications in the design of synthetic catalysts for biomedical and synthetic applications. ..
  32. DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICITY OF OP INSECTICIDES
    Janice Chambers; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  33. Metabolism and Age-Related Organophosphate Toxicity
    Janice Chambers; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..These results will indicate the contribution of detoxication to toxicity level, and will allow more accurate predictions of age-related differences in toxicity. ..
  34. Pesticide Toxicity to the Nervous and Endocrine Systems
    Janice Chambers; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ....
  35. Quantitating Absorption of Complex Chemical Mixtures
    Jim Riviere; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..abstract_text> ..
  36. Globally Harmonized In Vitro Skin Irritation Assay
    Patrick Hayden; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Successful completion of these Phase I Aims will constitute the pre-validation process for establishing the feasibility of proceeding to full formal validation in Phase II studies. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  37. Comparative In Vivo Biodistribution of Characterized Manufactured Nanomaterials
    Nancy A Monteiro Riviere; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..These coordinated studies will provide data to link physical chemical characterizations to in vivo MNM disposition. ..
  38. Lovelace Respiratory Symposium 2003
    Rogene Henderson; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Future topics will be developed with the same sensitivity to meeting the information needs of our audience. Continuing medical education credits are available through the University of New Mexico School of Medicine. ..
  39. Patient & Provider Perspectives on Homeopathic Treatment
    Iris Bell; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Findings from this proposed study should help clarify the proper premises and parameters on which to base future prospective qualitative and quantitative research in homeopathy. ..
  40. High-Speed Neonatal Screening by Photoionization MS/MS
    JACK SYAGE; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The principal advantages are (i) minimization of ion suppression by LPPI vs ESI, (ii)increased rate of MS/MS analysis by QitTof vs triple quadrupole MS, and (iii) simplification of the sample preparation requirements. ..
  41. Microwave-Assisted Electrospray Ionization for LC/MS
    JACK SYAGE; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Finally this project has the potential for explosive commercial growth, which will stimulate economic development. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  42. Proteomic Analyses of Human Trabecular Meshwork
    Sanjoy Bhattacharya; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The long-term goal of this proposal is to better understand mechanisms of glaucoma pathogenesis and facilitate the development of effective therapies for limiting disease progression. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  43. Tissue Engineered In Vitro Human Airway Models of Asthma and COPD
    Patrick Hayden; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  44. Genetic Determinants of Nickel-induced Lung Injury
    GEORGE LEIKAUF; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Determination of the relative roles of the genetic loci linked to nickel sulfate exposure is likely to improve our understanding of the mechanisms involved in acute lung injury. ..
  45. Noise, Solvents, and Hearing Loss
    Peter Rabinowitz; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..A nested case control study will match cases of hearing loss identified in the cohort with controls by age at hire, year of hire, sex, and gender, to further explore these relationships. ..
  46. CHOLINERGIC INSECTICIDE TOXICOLOGY
    JOHN CASIDA; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ....
  47. GABAERGIC INSECTICIDE TOXICOLOGY
    JOHN CASIDA; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ....
  48. Growth Factor Protection in Acute Lung Injury
    GEORGE LEIKAUF; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The name of the principal investigator/program director must be provided at the top of each printed page and each continuation page. RESEARCH GRANT TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Numbers Face Page 1 Description, ..
  49. Role of FACIT Collagens in Hypertension
    Donald Gerecke; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..We propose to examine the role of these collagens in the hypertensive rat model using a variety of biochemical and molecular biological techniques. ..
  50. MURINE MODELS OF OCCUPATIONAL COPD
    GEORGE LEIKAUF; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..The well-characterized mouse model generated by this proposal will be useful in the further understanding of the relationship between occupational exposures, genetic markers, inflammatory responses, and COPD. ..
  51. ISOTOPIC PROBES OF ENZYME REACTION MECHANISMS
    FRANK RAUSHEL; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..These investigations will complement concurrent efforts to direct the evolution of new and enhanced activities from present-day proteins. ..
  52. GENETIC DETERMINATION OF ACUTE LUNG INJURY
    GEORGE LEIKAUF; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Significance: This investigation seeks to uncover novel genes not previously associated with survival during acute lung injury. Such findings could provide new biological information and insights into this severe clinical condition. ..
  53. TREATMENT AND CLINICAL COURSE OF COMPLEX PTSD
    Julian Ford; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ....
  54. Nicotinic Receptors in Septally Innervated Hippocampus
    EDSON ALBUQUERQUE; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ....
  55. Mechanisms and Control of Urea Biosynthesis
    FRANK RAUSHEL; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  56. PORPHYRIN AND CORRINOID BIOSYNTHESIS
    FRANK RAUSHEL; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Finally, the multi-enzyme synthesis of advanced intermediates and of B12 itself will be addressed. ..
  57. In Vitro Culture Model of the Human Blood-Brain Barrier
    Patrick Hayden; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Further characterization and validation will proceed during Phase Il, and the model will be used to study strategies for modulation of BBB function. ..
  58. A Dual Electrospray/Photoionization Source
    JACK SYAGE; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..There is already interest in this technology by commercial MS vendors. If we are successful with the Phase II work, we are confident of finding a commercialization partner for the ES/PI source. ..
  59. In Vitro Model of the Human Alveolar Epithelium
    Patrick Hayden; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Longer-term lot-to-lot reproducibility and multi-laboratory validation of the model according to ICCVAM guidelines will be conducted in Phase II studies. ..
  60. Nuclease-Resistant Aptamers for Anthrax Opsonization
    John Bruno; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Such shielded aptamers could even be used in inhalers to enhance alveolar macrophage phagocytosis. ..
  61. Nuclease-Resistant Aptamers to Botox and Anthrax Toxins
    John Bruno; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Such reagents could also be used in environmental biosensors or diagnostic test kits for detection of BOTOX and anthrax toxins in body fluids or environmental samples. ..
  62. Pharmacology and Regulation of Nicotinic Receptor Subtypes
    Kenneth Kellar; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..