reducing agents

Summary

Summary: Materials that add an electron to an element or compound, that is, decrease the positiveness of its valence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)

Top Publications

  1. ncbi NMR structure of oxidized glutaredoxin 3 from Escherichia coli
    K Nordstrand
    Center for Structural Biochemistry Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, S 141 57, Sweden
    J Mol Biol 303:423-32. 2000
  2. pmc S-nitrosylation and permeation through connexin 43 hemichannels in astrocytes: induction by oxidant stress and reversal by reducing agents
    Mauricio A Retamal
    Departamento de Ciencias Fisiologicas, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago 6513492, Chile
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:4475-80. 2006
  3. ncbi Investigating the dependence of the hypoxia-inducible factor hydroxylases (factor inhibiting HIF and prolyl hydroxylase domain 2) on ascorbate and other reducing agents
    Emily Flashman
    Chemistry Research Laboratory and the Oxford Centre for Integrative Systems Biology, University of Oxford, Mansfield Road, Oxford OX13TA, U K
    Biochem J 427:135-42. 2010
  4. ncbi Improving the fermentability of enzymatic hydrolysates of lignocellulose through chemical in-situ detoxification with reducing agents
    Björn Alriksson
    Processum Biorefinery Initiative AB, SE 891 80 Örnsköldsvik, Sweden
    Bioresour Technol 102:1254-63. 2011
  5. ncbi Graphene oxide: efficiency of reducing agents
    Siegfried Eigler
    Department of Chemistry and Pharmacy and Institute of Advanced Materials and Processes ZMP, Friedrich Alexander Universität Erlangen Nürnberg FAU, Dr Mack Str 81, 90762 Fürth, Germany
    Chem Commun (Camb) 49:7391-3. 2013
  6. ncbi Hemoprotein-mediated reduction of nitrated DNA bases in the presence of reducing agents
    Hauh Jyun Candy Chen
    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, National Chung Cheng University, Chia Yi, Taiwan
    Free Radic Biol Med 34:254-68. 2003
  7. ncbi Formation of gold nanoparticles using amine reducing agents
    J D S Newman
    Michigan State University, Department of Chemistry, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 1322, USA
    Langmuir 22:5882-7. 2006
  8. ncbi Reducing agents improve enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic substrates in the presence of pretreatment liquid
    Venkata Prabhakar Soudham
    Department of Chemistry, Umea University, Umea, Sweden
    J Biotechnol 155:244-50. 2011
  9. ncbi Reducing agents inhibit rhinovirus-induced up-regulation of the rhinovirus receptor intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in respiratory epithelial cells
    Alberto Papi
    University Medicine, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK
    FASEB J 16:1934-6. 2002
  10. pmc Differential interaction of the tyrosine phosphatases PTP-SL, STEP and HePTP with the mitogen-activated protein kinases ERK1/2 and p38alpha is determined by a kinase specificity sequence and influenced by reducing agents
    Juan José Muñoz
    The Instituto de Investigaciones Citológicas, Amadeo de Saboya 4, 46010 Valencia, Spain
    Biochem J 372:193-201. 2003

Research Grants

Detail Information

Publications262 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi NMR structure of oxidized glutaredoxin 3 from Escherichia coli
    K Nordstrand
    Center for Structural Biochemistry Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, S 141 57, Sweden
    J Mol Biol 303:423-32. 2000
    ..This could explain the observed low affinity of glutaredoxins for S-blocked glutathione analogues, in spite of the fact that glutaredoxins are highly specific reductants of glutathione mixed disulfides...
  2. pmc S-nitrosylation and permeation through connexin 43 hemichannels in astrocytes: induction by oxidant stress and reversal by reducing agents
    Mauricio A Retamal
    Departamento de Ciencias Fisiologicas, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago 6513492, Chile
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:4475-80. 2006
    ..b>Reducing agents did not affect dephosphorylation of Cx43 hemichannels but reduced dye uptake and S-nitrosylation...
  3. ncbi Investigating the dependence of the hypoxia-inducible factor hydroxylases (factor inhibiting HIF and prolyl hydroxylase domain 2) on ascorbate and other reducing agents
    Emily Flashman
    Chemistry Research Laboratory and the Oxford Centre for Integrative Systems Biology, University of Oxford, Mansfield Road, Oxford OX13TA, U K
    Biochem J 427:135-42. 2010
    ..We investigated whether alternative reducing agents (glutathione and dithiothreitol) could be used to promote HIF hydroxylase activity, and found partial ..
  4. ncbi Improving the fermentability of enzymatic hydrolysates of lignocellulose through chemical in-situ detoxification with reducing agents
    Björn Alriksson
    Processum Biorefinery Initiative AB, SE 891 80 Örnsköldsvik, Sweden
    Bioresour Technol 102:1254-63. 2011
    Inhibitory lignocellulose hydrolysates were treated with the reducing agents dithionite and sulfite to achieve improved fermentability. Addition of these reducing agents (in the concentration range 5.0-17...
  5. ncbi Graphene oxide: efficiency of reducing agents
    Siegfried Eigler
    Department of Chemistry and Pharmacy and Institute of Advanced Materials and Processes ZMP, Friedrich Alexander Universität Erlangen Nürnberg FAU, Dr Mack Str 81, 90762 Fürth, Germany
    Chem Commun (Camb) 49:7391-3. 2013
    The efficiency of reducing agents for the reduction of graphene oxide (GO) could be probed by scanning Raman spectroscopy. A film of graphene flakes derived from GO was probed to be graphene like...
  6. ncbi Hemoprotein-mediated reduction of nitrated DNA bases in the presence of reducing agents
    Hauh Jyun Candy Chen
    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, National Chung Cheng University, Chia Yi, Taiwan
    Free Radic Biol Med 34:254-68. 2003
    ..and cytochrome c, mediate reduction of 8NG and 8NX to their corresponding amino analogues in the presence of reducing agents under physiologically relevant conditions...
  7. ncbi Formation of gold nanoparticles using amine reducing agents
    J D S Newman
    Michigan State University, Department of Chemistry, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 1322, USA
    Langmuir 22:5882-7. 2006
    We report on the use of amines as reducing agents in the formation of gold nanoparticles. We can predict whether the amines will function as reducing agents in this reaction based on their redox properties...
  8. ncbi Reducing agents improve enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic substrates in the presence of pretreatment liquid
    Venkata Prabhakar Soudham
    Department of Chemistry, Umea University, Umea, Sweden
    J Biotechnol 155:244-50. 2011
    ..When the reducing agents were added to reaction mixtures without pretreatment liquid, there was a 13-39% decrease in saccharification ..
  9. ncbi Reducing agents inhibit rhinovirus-induced up-regulation of the rhinovirus receptor intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in respiratory epithelial cells
    Alberto Papi
    University Medicine, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK
    FASEB J 16:1934-6. 2002
    ..implicated in inflammatory responses via molecular signaling mechanisms, here we studied the effects of reducing agents on rhinovirus-induced ICAM-1 expression, mRNA up-regulation, promoter activation, and nuclear factor ..
  10. pmc Differential interaction of the tyrosine phosphatases PTP-SL, STEP and HePTP with the mitogen-activated protein kinases ERK1/2 and p38alpha is determined by a kinase specificity sequence and influenced by reducing agents
    Juan José Muñoz
    The Instituto de Investigaciones Citológicas, Amadeo de Saboya 4, 46010 Valencia, Spain
    Biochem J 372:193-201. 2003
    ..C-terminal regions of the PTPs, which have been termed kinase-specificity sequences, and is influenced by reducing agents. Under control conditions, PTP-SL bound preferentially to ERK1/2, whereas STEP and HePTP bound preferentially ..
  11. ncbi Reducing agents sensitize C-type nociceptors by relieving high-affinity zinc inhibition of T-type calcium channels
    Michael T Nelson
    Department of Anesthesiology, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908, USA
    J Neurosci 27:8250-60. 2007
    ..Here, we demonstrate that reducing agents as well as endogenous metal chelators sensitize C-type dorsal root ganglion nociceptors by chelating Zn2+ ..
  12. pmc Identification of two mannoproteins released from cell walls of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae mnn1 mnn9 double mutant by reducing agents
    I Moukadiri
    Sección Departamental de Microbiología, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Valencia, Burjassot, Valencia, Spain
    J Bacteriol 181:4741-5. 1999
    ..polypeptides that are extracted from purified cell walls of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae mnn1 mnn9 strain by reducing agents. Treatment of the purified cell walls of this strain with beta-mercaptoethanol releases several mannoproteins,..
  13. ncbi Strain-specific effects of reducing agents on the cell-free conversion of recombinant prion protein into a protease-resistant form
    Morikazu Imamura
    Prion Disease Research Center, National Institute of Animal Health, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
    Microbiol Immunol 55:633-40. 2011
    ..The resulting classification is similar to that derived from biological and biochemical strain-specific features...
  14. ncbi Addition of oxidizing or reducing agents to the reaction medium influences amino acid conversion to aroma compounds by Lactococcus lactis
    A Kieronczyk
    Unité de Biochimie et Structure des Protéines, INRA, Jouy en Josas, France
    J Appl Microbiol 101:1114-22. 2006
    ..The aim of this research was to investigate the impact of extracellular redox potential (Eh) on amino acid conversion to aroma compounds by Lactococcus lactis that is commonly used as a starter in the cheese industry...
  15. pmc Development of a 384-well colorimetric assay to quantify hydrogen peroxide generated by the redox cycling of compounds in the presence of reducing agents
    Paul A Johnston
    Department of Pharmacology and Chemical Biology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, 3501 Fifth Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA
    Assay Drug Dev Technol 6:505-18. 2008
    ..384-well colorimetric assay to measure H(2)O(2) generated by the redox cycling of compounds incubated with reducing agents in high-throughput screening (HTS) assay buffers...
  16. ncbi Stability of barley and malt lipid transfer protein 1 (LTP1) toward heating and reducing agents: relationships with the brewing process
    Ludivine Perrocheau
    Unité de Recherche Biopolymères, Interactions, Assemblages, INRA, rue de la Geraudiere, B P 71627, 44316 Nantes Cedex 03, France
    J Agric Food Chem 54:3108-13. 2006
    ..Glycation had no or weak effect on heat-induced unfolding. Finally, it was shown that unfolding occurred on wort boiling before fermentation and that the reducing conditions are provided by malt extract...
  17. pmc Mechanism of SN2 disulfide bond cleavage by phosphorus nucleophiles. Implications for biochemical disulfide reducing agents
    Olga Dmitrenko
    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716, USA
    J Org Chem 72:8298-307. 2007
    ....
  18. ncbi Cleavage of disulfide bonds leads to inactivation and degradation of the type IIa, but not type IIb sodium phosphate cotransporter expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes
    G Lambert
    Physiologisches Institut, Universitat Zurich Irchel, Winterurerstr 190, CH 8057 Zurich, Switzerland
    J Membr Biol 176:143-9. 2000
    ..Sequence comparisons suggest the involvement/presence of different disulfide bonds in type IIa and type IIb Na/P(i)-cotransporters...
  19. pmc Diminishing catalyst concentration in atom transfer radical polymerization with reducing agents
    Krzysztof Matyjaszewski
    Department of Chemistry, Carnegie Mellon University, 4400 Fifth Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:15309-14. 2006
    ..Additionally, various organic reducing agents (derivatives of hydrazine and phenol) are used to continuously regenerate the Cu(I) activator in activators ..
  20. ncbi Conformational regulation of alpha 4 beta 1-integrin affinity by reducing agents. "Inside-out" signaling is independent of and additive to reduction-regulated integrin activation
    Alexandre Chigaev
    Department of Pathology and The Cancer Center, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albequerque, 87131, USA
    J Biol Chem 279:32435-43. 2004
    ..and conformation: conformational changes induced by separation of the C-terminal tails, divalent ions, and reducing agents. Recently, we described a fluorescent LDV-containing small molecule that was used to monitor VLA-4 affinity ..
  21. ncbi Cysteine residues and the structure of the rat renal proximal tubular type II sodium phosphate cotransporter (rat NaPi IIa)
    G Lambert
    Physiologisches Institut, Universitat Zurich Irchel, Winterthurerstr 190, CH 8057 Zurich, Switzerland
    J Membr Biol 176:133-41. 2000
    ..A revised secondary structure is proposed which includes two partially repeated motifs that are connected by disulfide bridges formed between cysteine pairs C306-C334 and C225-C520...
  22. pmc Differential expression of the Escherichia coli autoaggregation factor antigen 43
    Mark A Schembri
    Microbial Adhesion Group, BioCentrum DTU, Technical University of Denmark, DK 2800 Lyngby, Denmark
    J Bacteriol 185:2236-42. 2003
    ..Furthermore, the redox state of OxyR influences the biofilm-forming potential of E. coli. Finally, we demonstrated that Ag43-mediated cell aggregation confers significant protection against hydrogen peroxide killing...
  23. ncbi Reduction of [VO2(ma)2]- and [VO2(ema)2]- by ascorbic acid and glutathione: kinetic studies of pro-drugs for the enhancement of insulin action
    Bin Song
    Medicinal Inorganic Chemistry Group, Department of Chemistry, University of British Columbia, 2036 Main Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z1, Canada
    Inorg Chem 41:1357-64. 2002
    ..Replacing the methyl group in maltol with an ethyl group has little influence on the reduction rate with ascorbic acid, and the kinetics are the same no matter whether [VO2(ma)2]- or [VO2(ema)2]- is reduced...
  24. ncbi Effect of reducing and oxidizing agents and pH on malt endoproteolytic activities and brewing mashes
    Berne L Jones
    Cereal Crops Research Unit, Agricultural Research Service, U S Department of Agriculture, Madison, Wisconsin 53726
    J Agric Food Chem 51:7504-12. 2003
    ..The reducing agents cysteine...
  25. pmc Identification of a redox-regulated chaperone network
    Jörg H Hoffmann
    Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA
    EMBO J 23:160-8. 2004
    ..This regulated substrate transfer ultimately links substrate release and Hsp33 inactivation to the presence of available DnaK/DnaJ/GrpE, and, therefore, to the return of cells to non-stress conditions...
  26. ncbi Liquid chromatographic determination of total homocysteine in blood plasma with photometric detection
    Alexander A Zhloba
    SC Department of Biochemistry, St Petersburg State I P Pavlov Medical University, L Tolstoy Street 6 9, St Petersburg 197089, Russia
    J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 800:275-80. 2004
    ....
  27. ncbi The effects of pH and the iron redox state on iron uptake in the intestine of a marine teleost fish, gulf toadfish (Opsanus beta)
    C A Cooper
    Division of Health and Life Sciences, King s College London, 150 Stamford Street, London, SE1 9NN, UK
    Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 143:292-8. 2006
    ..Altering luminal saline pH from 7.0 to 5.5 did not affect ferric or ferrous iron uptake, suggesting that if iron is entering via DMT1 in marine fish intestine this transporter works efficiently under circumneutral conditions...
  28. pmc Surface accessibility of the 70-kilodalton Chlamydia trachomatis heat shock protein following reduction of outer membrane protein disulfide bonds
    Jane E Raulston
    Department of Microbiology, James H Quillen College of Medicine, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, Tennessee 37614 0579, USA
    Infect Immun 70:535-43. 2002
    ..The accessibility of the Hsp70 substrate-binding domain may support the hypothesis that this protein plays a role in events following the initial stage of attachment instead of serving as a primary, surface-displayed adhesin...
  29. ncbi Poly[Lys-(AEDTP)]: a cationic polymer that allows dissociation of pDNA/cationic polymer complexes in a reductive medium and enhances polyfection
    Chantal Pichon
    Centre de Biophysique Moleculaire, CNRS UPR 4301, rue Charles Sadron, F 45071 Orléans Cedex 02, France
    Bioconjug Chem 13:76-82. 2002
    ..These results indicate that disulfide-containing cationic polymers must be borne in mind for developing polymer-base gene delivery systems...
  30. pmc Identification of a disulfide bridge linking the fourth and the seventh extracellular loops of the Na+/glucose cotransporter
    Dominique G Gagnon
    Departement de Physique, Universite de Montreal, Montreal, Canada
    J Gen Physiol 127:145-58. 2006
    ..These results strongly support the hypothesis that C255 and C511 form a disulfide bridge in human SGLT1 and that this disulfide bridge is involved in the conformational change of the free carrier...
  31. ncbi A physiochemical mechanism of hemozoin (beta-hematin) synthesis by malaria parasite
    Abhai K Tripathi
    Division of Biochemistry, Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226001 UP, India
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 290:595-601. 2002
    ..reaction conditions similar to those used for the in vitro beta-hematin formation assay, the antioxidants and reducing agents mentioned above, except the DTT and beta-mercaptoethanol, did not cause degradation of heme...
  32. ncbi Activation of glucuronidation through reduction of a disulfide bond in rat UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A6
    Shin ichi Ikushiro
    Department of Life Science, Graduate School of Science, Himeji Institute of Technology, Harima Science Garden City, Hyogo 678 1297, Japan
    Biochemistry 41:12813-20. 2002
    ..These results demonstrate that both Cys 121 and Cys 125 are responsible for the activation of the activity through the disulfide bond in rat UGT1A6...
  33. pmc Protection against electrophile and oxidant stress by induction of the phase 2 response: fate of cysteines of the Keap1 sensor modified by inducers
    Nobunao Wakabayashi
    The Lewis B and Dorothy Cullman Cancer Chemoprotection Center, Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences, School of Medicine, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:2040-5. 2004
    ....
  34. ncbi Cytoadherence of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes is mediated by a redox-dependent conformational fraction of CD36
    P Gruarin
    DIBIT, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy
    J Immunol 167:6510-7. 2001
    ..Treatment of CD36-expressing cells with reducing agents, such as DTT and N-acetylcysteine, was followed by CD36 conformational change monitorable by the appearance ..
  35. ncbi Endogenous reductants support the catalytic function of recombinant rat cyt19, an arsenic methyltransferase
    Stephen B Waters
    Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA
    Chem Res Toxicol 17:404-9. 2004
    ..Thus, cyt19 appears to possess both AsIII methyltransferase and AsV reductase activities...
  36. ncbi Jack bean urease (EC 3.5.1.5) aggregation monitored by dynamic and static light scattering
    Cristian Follmer
    Department of Biophysics, IB, and Graduate Program in Cellular and Molecular Biology, Center of Biotechnology, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av Bento Gonalves 9500, Porto Alegre CEP 91501970, RS, Brazil
    Biophys Chem 111:79-87. 2004
    ..No effect of disulfide reducing agents on protein association was observed contrasting with previous reports implicating their function in the ..
  37. ncbi Mechanism of cysteine desulfurase Slr0387 from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803: kinetic analysis of cleavage of the persulfide intermediate by chemical reductants
    Elham Behshad
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA
    Biochemistry 43:12220-6. 2004
    ..The faster turnover with TCEP provides a chemical model for activation of CD-0387 and other CDs by the presence of accessory factors that serve as efficient acceptors of the persulfide sulfur...
  38. ncbi Mechanism of integrin activation by disulfide bond reduction
    B Yan
    Program on Cell Adhesion, The Cancer Research Center, The Burnham Institute, 10901 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    Biochemistry 40:8861-7. 2001
    ..and Smith, J. W. (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275, 39964-39972]. Several independent reports show that reducing agents, such as dithiothreitol, can activate integrins...
  39. ncbi Mutational analysis of the conserved cysteines of the rat P2X2 purinoceptor
    J Dylan Clyne
    Department of Molecular, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 1048, USA
    J Neurosci 22:3873-80. 2002
    ..We also suggest that C124, C130, C147, and C158 form two disulfide bonds, but we are unable to assign specific cysteine pairs to these two bonds...
  40. ncbi Nitroxyl triggers Ca2+ release from skeletal and cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum by oxidizing ryanodine receptors
    Eunji Cheong
    Department of Cell Biology and Physiology, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    Cell Calcium 37:87-96. 2005
    ..The findings indicate that HNO is a more potent activator of RyR1 than NO and that HNO activation of RyRs may contribute to NO's activation of RyRs and to the therapeutic effects of HNO-releasing prodrugs in heart failure...
  41. pmc On the conformation of the COOH-terminal domain of the large mechanosensitive channel MscL
    Andriy Anishkin
    Department of Biology, University of Maryland College Park, 20742, USA
    J Gen Physiol 121:227-44. 2003
    ..The bundle-like assembly of cytoplasmic helices provides stability to the open conformation, and may function as a size-exclusion filter at the cytoplasmic entrance to the MscL pore, preventing loss of essential metabolites...
  42. ncbi New water-soluble phosphines as reductants of peptide and protein disulfide bonds: reactivity and membrane permeability
    Daniel J Cline
    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716, USA
    Biochemistry 43:15195-203. 2004
    ..In sum, these data suggest that there is considerable scope for the synthesis of phosphine analogues tailored for specific applications in biological systems...
  43. pmc Redox-triggered infection by disulfide-shackled human immunodeficiency virus type 1 pseudovirions
    James M Binley
    Departments of Immunology and Molecular Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    J Virol 77:5678-84. 2003
    ..Overall, this disulfide-shackled virus is a unique tool with potential utility in vaccine design, drug discovery, and elucidation of the HIV-1 entry process...
  44. pmc Intersubunit disulfide isomerization controls membrane fusion of human T-cell leukemia virus Env
    Kejun Li
    Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institute, S 141 57 Huddinge, Sweden
    J Virol 82:7135-43. 2008
    ..Thus, this extends the applicability of the isomerization model from gammaretroviruses to deltaretroviruses...
  45. ncbi Insight into the factors influencing the backbone dynamics of three homologous proteins, dendrotoxins I and K, and BPTI: FTIR and time-resolved fluorescence investigations
    Michelle Hollecker
    Centre de Biophysique Moleculaire, UPR 4301 CNRS, affiliée Université Orléans et INSERM, rue Charles Sadron, 45071 Orleans Cedex 2, France
    Biochemistry 41:15267-76. 2002
    ..The structural factors suspected to be responsible for the differences in internal flexibility of the two toxins could play a significant role in determining their functional properties...
  46. ncbi Incapacity of response to disulfide-reducing agent in Triton X-100-treated oocytes of starfish, Asterina pectinifera
    Masatoshi Mita
    Department of Biosciences, School of Science and Engineering, Teikyo University, Tochigi, Japan
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1040:413-6. 2005
    ..It is possible that a protein essential for mediating DTT-induced maturation is eliminated from the oocytes surface following Triton X-100 treatment...
  47. ncbi Biphasic reductive unfolding of ribonuclease A is temperature dependent
    Yong Bin Yan
    NMR Laboratory, Department of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China
    Eur J Biochem 269:5314-22. 2002
    ..The protein selectively follows a major unfolding kinetics pathway with the selectivity can be altered by temperature and reductive reagent concentration. Two possible explanations of the selectivity mechanism were discussed...
  48. pmc Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Env with an intersubunit disulfide bond engages coreceptors but requires bond reduction after engagement to induce fusion
    L G Abrahamyan
    Department of Molecular Biophysics and Physiology, Rush Medical College, Chicago, Illinois 60612, USA
    J Virol 77:5829-36. 2003
    ..The capture of this configuration of Env could yield a suitable antigen for vaccine development, and it may also be a target for pharmacological intervention against HIV-1 entry...
  49. ncbi Evidence for intersubunit interactions between S4 and S5 transmembrane segments of the Shaker potassium channel
    Edward J Neale
    School of Biomedical Sciences, Leeds University, Leeds LS2 9JT, United Kingdom
    J Biol Chem 278:29079-85. 2003
    ..These data indicate that the extracellular end of S4 lies in close proximity to the extracellular end of the S5 of the neighboring subunit in closed channels...
  50. ncbi Role of protein disulfide isomerase in molecular fate of thyroglobulin and its regulation by endogenous oxidants and reductants
    Xi Wen Liu
    College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Taejon, Korea
    Arch Pharm Res 25:485-92. 2002
    ....
  51. ncbi Disulfide-linked dimers of human adrenaline synthesizing enzyme PNMT are catalytically active
    Christine L Gee
    Institute for Molecular Bioscience and ARC Special Research Centre for Functional and Applied Genomics, University of Queensland, Brisbane QLD, 4072 Australia
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1750:82-92. 2005
    ..In addition, disulfide-linked dimers are as active as the monomeric enzyme indicating that the crystal structure of the protein is a valid target for inhibitor design...
  52. ncbi A disulfide relay system in the intermembrane space of mitochondria that mediates protein import
    Nikola Mesecke
    Institute für Physiologische Chemie, Universitat Munchen, Germany
    Cell 121:1059-69. 2005
    ..We suggest that this process reflects the evolutionary origin of the IMS from the periplasmic space of the prokaryotic ancestors of mitochondria...
  53. ncbi Novel function of glutathione transferase in rat liver mitochondrial membrane: role for cytochrome c release from mitochondria
    Kang Kwang Lee
    Laboratory of Molecular Genetics and Pharmacology, School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus, 207 Uehara, Nishihara, Okinawa 903 0215, Japan
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 232:109-18. 2008
    ..Furthermore, mtMGST1 activity was also inhibited by CsA and BKA. These results indicate that mtMGST1 is activated through mixed disulfide bond formation that contributes to cytochrome c release from mitochondria through the MPT pore...
  54. ncbi Effects of nitric oxide donors on vascular endothelial growth factor gene induction
    Hideo Kimura
    Division of Vascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 296:976-82. 2002
    ..SNAP, GSNO, and NOC18 induced the accumulation of HIF-1alpha protein, while others did not. These results suggest that SNAP, GSNO, and NOC compounds are suitable for pharmacological studies in HIF-1-mediated VEGF gene activation by NO...
  55. ncbi Role of disulfide bonds in regulating antigen processing and epitope selection
    Ping Li
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology and Walther Oncology Center, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis 46202, USA
    J Immunol 169:2444-50. 2002
    ..These studies indicate that disulfide bonds regulate Ag processing both locally and at distant sites, thus influencing epitope selection within the class II pathway...
  56. ncbi Highly conserved cysteines of mouse core 2 beta1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I form a network of disulfide bonds and include a thiol that affects enzyme activity
    Ten Yang Yen
    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, California 94132, USA
    J Biol Chem 278:45864-81. 2003
    ....
  57. ncbi Use of protein folding reagents
    P T Wingfield
    National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    Curr Protoc Protein Sci . 2001
    ..Sulfhydryl reagents (reducing agents) and "oxido-shuffling" (or oxidative regeneration) systems are also discussed.
  58. pmc ASIC1a-specific modulation of acid-sensing ion channels in mouse cortical neurons by redox reagents
    Xiang Ping Chu
    Robert S Dow Neurobiology Laboratories, Legacy Research, Portland, Oregon 97232, USA
    J Neurosci 26:5329-39. 2006
    ..In cultured mouse cortical neurons, application of the reducing agents dramatically potentiated, whereas the oxidizing agents inhibited the ASIC currents...
  59. ncbi Redox-dependent coronary metabolic dilation
    Shu Ichi Saitoh
    Department of Integrative Medical Sciences, Northeastern Ohio University College of Medicine, 4209 State Rte 44, Rootstown, OH 44272 0095, USA
    Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 293:H3720-5. 2007
    ..Thus coronary metabolic dilation appears to be mediated by redox-dependent signals...
  60. ncbi S-Glutathionylation regulates HDL-associated paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity
    Orit Rozenberg
    The Lipid Research Laboratory, The Technion Faculty of Medicine, The Rappaport Family Institute for Research in the Medical Sciences and Rambam Medical Center, 31096 Haifa, Israel
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 351:492-8. 2006
    ..We thus conclude that HDL-associated serum PON1 can undergo S-glutathionylation under oxidative stress with a consequent reversible inactivation...
  61. ncbi Alternative antibody Fab' fragment PEGylation strategies: combination of strong reducing agents, disruption of the interchain disulphide bond and disulphide engineering
    David P Humphreys
    UCB Celltech, 216 Bath Road, Slough, SL1 4EN, UK
    Protein Eng Des Sel 20:227-34. 2007
    ..We present evidence that PEGylated and unPEGylated Fab' molecules that lack an interchain disulphide bond retain very high levels of chemical and thermal stability and normal performance in PK and efficacy models...
  62. pmc Oxidative stress-induced expression and modulation of Phosphatase of Regenerating Liver-1 (PRL-1) in mammalian retina
    Ling Yu
    Department of Ophthalmology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1773:1473-82. 2007
    ..These findings suggest that PRL-1 is a molecular component of the photoreceptor's response to oxidative stress acting upstream of the glutathione system...
  63. pmc Opening of connexin 43 hemichannels is increased by lowering intracellular redox potential
    Mauricio A Retamal
    Núcleo Milenio Inmunología e Inmunoterapia, Departamento de Ciencias Fisiologicas, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago 4860, Chile
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:8322-7. 2007
    ..These findings suggest that lowering intracellular redox potential increases the opening of Cx43 and Cx43-EGFP hemichannels, possibly by action on cytoplasmic cysteine residues in the connexin C terminus...
  64. ncbi Engineered disulfide bonds support the functional rotation mechanism of multidrug efflux pump AcrB
    Markus A Seeger
    Institute of Physiology and Zurich Centre for Integrative Human Physiology ZIHP, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH 8057 Zurich, Switzerland
    Nat Struct Mol Biol 15:199-205. 2008
    ..Regain of function for impaired mutants was obtained upon exposure to the reducing agent DTT. The results support the presence of the asymmetric AcrB trimer in E. coli membranes and the functional rotation mechanism...
  65. ncbi Removal of the fluorescent 4-(aminosulfonyl)-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole label from cysteine-containing peptides
    S L Lauren
    Department of Protein Structure, Amgen Inc, Thousand Oaks, CA 91320, USA
    J Chromatogr A 798:47-54. 1998
    ..The ESI-MS data were consistent with the generation of a free sulfhydryl. The generation of the free sulfhydryl was further substantiated when a delabeled peptide was completely relabeled with ABD-F in the absence of reductant...
  66. ncbi Structural and functional determinants in the S5-P region of HCN-encoded pacemaker channels revealed by cysteine-scanning substitutions
    Ka Wing Au
    Department of Medicine, Queen Mary Hospital, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong
    Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 294:C136-44. 2008
    ..Based on these results, we conclude that pore residues 339-345 are important determinants of the structure-function properties of HCN channels and that the side chain of H344 is externally accessible...
  67. ncbi Effects of ATP, Mg2+, and redox agents on the Ca2+ dependence of RyR channels from rat brain cortex
    Ricardo Bull
    Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 70005, Santiago 7, Chile
    Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 293:C162-71. 2007
    ..These results strongly suggest that channel redox state determines RyR activation by Ca(2+) at physiological [ATP] and [Mg(2+)]. If RyR behave similarly in living neurons, cellular redox state should affect RyR-mediated CICR...
  68. pmc Identification and characterization of 3-substituted pyrazolyl esters as alternate substrates for cathepsin B: the confounding effects of DTT and cysteine in biological assays
    Michael C Myers
    Penn Center for Molecular Discovery, University of Pennsylvania, 1024 Vagelos Research Laboratories, Philadelphia, PA 19104 6383, USA
    Bioorg Med Chem Lett 17:4761-6. 2007
    ..Despite the confounding effects of DTT and cysteine, our studies demonstrate that the pyrazole 1 acts as alternate substrate for cathepsin B, rather than as an inhibitor...
  69. ncbi A sulfenic acid enzyme intermediate is involved in the catalytic mechanism of peptide methionine sulfoxide reductase from Escherichia coli
    S Boschi-Muller
    UMR CNRS UHP 7567, Maturation des ARN et Enzymologie Moléculaire, Faculte des Sciences, Bld des Aiguillettes, BP 239, 54506 Vandoeuvre les Nancy, France
    J Biol Chem 275:35908-13. 2000
    ....
  70. ncbi The residual pro-part of cathepsin C fulfills the criteria required for an intramolecular chaperone in folding and stabilizing the human proenzyme
    B Cigic
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia, and Unizyme Laboratories, Dr Neergaads vej 17, DK 2970 Horsholm, Denmark
    Biochemistry 39:12382-90. 2000
    ..It thus fulfills the criteria required of an intramolecular chaperone. It may also be involved in stabilizing the tetrameric structure of the mature enzyme...
  71. ncbi Reduction of dehydroascorbic acid at low pH
    Luka Wechtersbach
    Department of Food Science and Technology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
    J Biochem Biophys Methods 70:767-72. 2007
    ..The simple experimental procedure and low probability of artefacts are major benefits of this method, over those currently applied in a routine assay of vitamin C, performed on large number of samples...
  72. ncbi Intracellular folding pathway of the cystine knot-containing glycoprotein hormone alpha-subunit
    R J Darling
    Department of Pharmacology, Eppley Institute for Research in Cancer and Allied Diseases, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska 68198, USA
    Biochemistry 40:577-85. 2001
    ..Based on these findings, we describe a model for the intracellular folding pathway of GPH-alpha and discuss how these findings may provide insight into the folding mechanisms of other cystine knot-containing proteins...
  73. ncbi Influence of proteasome and redox state on heat shock-induced activation of stress kinases, AP-1 and HSF
    L Tacchini
    Institute of General Pathology and C.N.R. Center for Research on Cell Pathology, School of Medicine, University of Milan, via L. Mangiagalli, 31, 20133, Milan, Italy
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1538:76-89. 2001
    ..Similarly, the thiol-reducing agents N-(2-mercaptoethyl)-1,3-diaminopropane and dithiothreitol strongly activated both JNK and p38 MAPK in cells ..
  74. ncbi Distributions of intramolecular distances in the reduced and denatured states of bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A. Folding initiation structures in the C-terminal portions of the reduced protein
    A Navon
    Faculty of Life Sciences, Bar Ilan University, Ramat Gan 52900, Israel, and Baker Laboratory of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853-1301, USA
    Biochemistry 40:105-18. 2001
    ....
  75. ncbi Thioether-bonded constructs of Fab'gamma and Fc gamma modules utilizing differential reduction of interchain disulfide bonds
    K S Kan
    Biological Sciences, University of North London, London, United Kingdom. Tenovus Research Laboratory, Southampton University Hospitals, Southampton, United Kingdom
    J Immunol 166:1320-6. 2001
    ..Immunotherapy of a guinea-pig leukemia confirmed the ability of these constructs to kill target cells in vivo...
  76. ncbi Methylmercury-mediated inhibition of 3H-D-aspartate transport in cultured astrocytes is reversed by the antioxidant catalase
    J W Allen
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston-Salem, NC 27157-1083, USA
    Brain Res 902:92-100. 2001
    ..This study suggests that methylmercury-induced overproduction of H2O2 is a mechanism for inhibition of glutamate transport and transporter expression in cultured astrocytes...
  77. pmc A single mutation at Tyr143 of human S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase renders the enzyme thermosensitive and affects the oxidation state of bound cofactor nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide
    Robert Beluzić
    Division of Molecular Medicine, Institute Ruder Boskovic, Bijenicka 54, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
    Biochem J 400:245-53. 2006
    ..In summary, a single mutation in the AdoHcyase affecting both the oxidation state of bound co-factor NAD and enzyme stability is present in a human with AdoHcyase deficiency...
  78. ncbi A simple procedure for purifying the major chloroplast fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase from spinach (Spinacia oleracea) and characterization of its stimulation by sub-femtomolar mercuric ions
    A R Ashton
    Lehrstuhl fur Pflanzenphysiologie, Universitat Bayreuth, Germany
    Arch Biochem Biophys 357:207-24. 1998
    ..1.3.11] from spinach leaf extract to homogeneity is described. No thiol-reducing agents were present during the purification and the enzyme is > 99% in the oxidized form...
  79. pmc Proteomic profiling of amniotic fluid in preterm labor using two-dimensional liquid separation and mass spectrometry
    Emmanuel Bujold
    Perinatology Research Branch, NICHD NIH DHSS, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 21:697-713. 2008
    ..The purpose of this study was to analyze the differences in protein composition of the amniotic fluid of patients in preterm labor...
  80. ncbi Hydride, hydrogen atom, proton, and electron transfer driving forces of various five-membered heterocyclic organic hydrides and their reaction intermediates in acetonitrile
    Xiao Qing Zhu
    State Key Laboratory of Elemento organic Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, China
    J Am Chem Soc 130:2501-16. 2008
    ..002 V for 1H-5H and from 0.310 to 0.638 V for 6H-7H, implying that 1H-5H should be strong one-electron reducing agents and 6H-7H should be weak one-electron reducing agents; the standard reduction potential scale of Z+ ranges ..
  81. pmc Characterization of 83-kilodalton nonmuscle caldesmon from cultured rat cells: stimulation of actin binding of nonmuscle tropomyosin and periodic localization along microfilaments like tropomyosin
    S Yamashiro-Matsumura
    Department of Biochemistry, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854
    J Cell Biol 106:1973-83. 1988
    ..5 A, and sedimentation coefficient (S20,w) of 3.5 in the presence of reducing agents. These values give a native molecular weight of 87,000 and a frictional ratio of 2...
  82. ncbi Alternative anaerobic enrichments to the bacteriological analytical manual culture method for isolation of Shigella sonnei from selected types of fresh produce
    Andrew P Jacobson
    U S Food and Drug Administration, Division of Microbiological Studies, HFS 5 16, 5100 Paint Branch Pkwy, College Park, MD 20740, USA
    J AOAC Int 87:1115-22. 2004
    ..The alternative anaerobic methods included the use of reducing agents in Shigella broth and reducing culture container headspace volume to minimize atmospheric effects on oxygen ..
  83. ncbi Hemolysis of human red blood cells induced by the combination of diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) and divalent metals: modulation by anaerobiosis, certain antioxidants and oxidants
    I Ginsburg
    Department of Oral Biology, Hebrew University Hadassah School of Dental Medicine, Jerusalem, Israel
    Free Radic Res 31:79-91. 1999
    ..by mixtures of DDC + (Cu:Co) was strongly inhibited by anaerobiosis (flushing with nitrogen gas), by the reducing agents glutathione, N-acetyl cysteine, mercaptosuccinate, ascorbate, TEMPO, and alpha-tocopherol, by the PLA2 ..
  84. ncbi Phenoloxidase and cytotoxicity in the compound ascidian Botryllus schlosseri
    L Ballarin
    Dipartimento di Biologia, Universita di Padova, Italy
    Dev Comp Immunol 22:479-92. 1998
    ..The addition of either reducing agents L-cysteine and ascorbic acid or reactive oxygen species scavenger enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase ..
  85. ncbi Effect of pathogenic cysteine mutations on FGFR3 transmembrane domain dimerization in detergents and lipid bilayers
    Min You
    Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218, USA
    Biochemistry 46:11039-46. 2007
    ..propensities of the mutant TM domains in detergents and in lipid bilayers, in the presence and absence of reducing agents, and compare them to previous measurements of wild-type...
  86. ncbi Modern concepts of treatment and prevention of chemical injuries
    Richard F Edlich
    Distinguished Professor Emeritus of Plastic Surgery and Biomedical Engineering, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA
    J Long Term Eff Med Implants 15:303-18. 2005
    ..Specific chemical changes depend on the agent, including acids, alkalis, corrosives, oxidizing and reducing agents, desiccants, vesicants, and protoplasmic poisons...
  87. ncbi Further characterization of a novel phospholipase B (phospholipase A2--lysophospholipase) from intestinal brush-border membranes
    S Pind
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Toronto, Ont, Canada
    Biochem Cell Biol 69:346-57. 1991
    ..sulphate gels was dramatically affected by the percentage of acrylamide and the presence or absence of reducing agents in the gels...
  88. ncbi Continuous production of L-phenylalanine by Rhodotorula glutinis immobilized cells using a column reactor
    Ahmed I El-Batal
    National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt aelbatel
    Acta Microbiol Pol 51:153-69. 2002
    ..and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) stabilization in the presence of several optimum effectors and reducing agents under bioconversion of transcinnamic acid (t-CA) conditions during repeated batch operations...
  89. ncbi Ascorbic acid and Mg-ATP co-regulate dopamine beta-monooxygenase activity in intact chromaffin granules
    M Levine
    Laboratory of Cell Biology and Genetics, National Institute of Diabetes, Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Bethesda, Maryland 20892
    J Biol Chem 263:19353-62. 1988
    ..Other physiologic reducing agents were not able to increase norepinephrine biosynthesis in the presence or absence of Mg-ATP...
  90. pmc An ERp60-like protein from the filarial parasite Dirofilaria immitis has both transglutaminase and protein disulfide isomerase activity
    R Chandrashekar
    Heska Corporation, Fort Collins, CO 80525, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95:531-6. 1998
    ..are of great physiological significance because they are highly resistant to proteolysis, denaturants, and reducing agents. Prior studies have demonstrated the presence of isopeptide bonds in the sheath and cuticle of filarial ..
  91. ncbi A GTP-dependent vertebrate-type phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase from Mycobacterium smegmatis
    B Mukhopadhyay
    Department of Microbiology, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA
    J Biol Chem 276:16137-45. 2001
    ..optimum temperature, 70 degrees C), very stable upon storage at 4 degrees C, stimulated by thiol-containing reducing agents, and inhibited by oxalate and by alpha-ketoglutarate...
  92. pmc Inhibition of multiple phases of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication by a dithiane compound that attacks the conserved zinc fingers of retroviral nucleocapsid proteins
    W G Rice
    Laboratory of Antiviral Drug Mechanisms, National Cancer Institute Frederick Cancer Research and Development Center, Frederick, Maryland 21702 1201, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 41:419-26. 1997
    ..Unfortunately, reaction of these disulfide-based benzamides with reducing agents yields two monomeric structures (two R-SH structures) that can dissociated and no longer react with the zinc ..
  93. ncbi Purification and characterization of extremely thermophilic and thermostable 5'-methylthioadenosine phosphorylase from the archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus. Purine nucleoside phosphorylase activity and evidence for intersubunit disulfide bonds
    G Cacciapuoti
    Institute of Biochemistry of Macromolecules, Faculty of Medicine, Second University of Naples, Italy
    J Biol Chem 269:24762-9. 1994
    ..b>Reducing agents are not required for catalytic activity...
  94. ncbi Evidence for heterogeneous forms of the snake venom metalloproteinase jararhagin: a factor contributing to snake venom variability
    A M Moura-da-Silva
    Laboratorio de Imunopatologia, Instituto Butantan, SP 05503 900, Sao Paulo, Brazil
    Arch Biochem Biophys 409:395-401. 2003
    ..and the autolysis of isolated jararhagin under the conditions of varying pH, calcium ion concentration, and reducing agents. From our results, jararhagin isolated from venom appears as two forms: a predominant form that is stable to ..
  95. ncbi Homo- and heterotetrameric forms of the membrane-bound metalloendopeptidases meprin A and B
    C M Gorbea
    Department of Biochemistry, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg 24061 0308
    Arch Biochem Biophys 290:549-53. 1991
    ..as determined after sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) in the absence of reducing agents. The subunits in all three oligomers were linked by disulfide bridges...
  96. ncbi [Effects of hydroxyl radicals on purified angiotensin I converting enzyme]
    B Michel
    Institut de Pharmacologie, , , Strasbourg
    Arch Mal Coeur Vaiss 91:1013-9. 1998
    ..oxidation of thiol groups in the ACE molecule could be involved in the action of GRH, the effects of thiol reducing agents: mercaptoethanol and dithiotreitol (DTT) were investigated...
  97. ncbi Role of extracellular cysteine residues in dimerization/oligomerization of the human prostacyclin receptor
    Vincent Giguere
    Division of Rheumatology, Faculty of Medecine and Clinical Research Center, Universite de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada J1H 5N4
    Eur J Pharmacol 494:11-22. 2004
    ..The reducing agents dithiothreitol and 2-mercaptoethanol were highly efficient in converting the receptor from its oligomeric ..
  98. ncbi Formation of acetaldehyde-derived DNA adducts due to alcohol exposure
    Hsu Sheng Yu
    Department of Environmental Health, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kitakyushu 807 8555, Japan
    Chem Biol Interact 188:367-75. 2010
    ..a Schiff base N(2)-ethylidene-2'-deoxyguanosine (N(2)-ethylidene-dG) adduct, which may be converted by reducing agents to N(2)-ethyl-2'-deoxyguanosine (N(2)-ethyl-dG) in vivo, and strongly blocked translesion DNA synthesis...
  99. pmc Identification and initial topological analysis of the Rickettsia prowazekii ATP/ADP translocase
    G V Plano
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of South Alabama, College of Medicine, Mobile 36688
    J Bacteriol 173:3389-96. 1991
    ..The SDS-solubilized translocase aggregated upon heating at 100 degrees C in the presence of disulfide bond-reducing agents. Similar concentrations of disulfide bond-reducing agents inhibited the exchange transport of adenine ..
  100. ncbi Analysis of polysulfides in drinking water distribution systems using headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry
    Ina Kristiana
    Curtin Water Quality Research Centre, Curtin University, Kent Street, Bentley 6102, Perth, Australia
    J Chromatogr A 1217:5995-6001. 2010
    Sulfide and polysulfides are strong nucleophiles and reducing agents that participate in many environmentally significant processes such as the formation of sulfide minerals and volatile organic sulfur compounds...
  101. ncbi [Properties of metabolic substance produced by group A Streptococcus from two food-borne epidemic]
    Jun Suzuki
    Department of Food Biochemistry, School of Life and Environmental Science, Azabu University
    Kansenshogaku Zasshi 83:380-5. 2009
    ..Hemolysins produced by both strains did not depend on reducing agents and were not inhibited by gamma-globulin or cholesterol, indicating the streptolysin S (SLS) rather than ..

Research Grants62

  1. Epithelial-fibroblast Interactions in Lung Fibrosis
    Timothy S Blackwell; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..on development of lung fibrosis in the setting of underlying ER stress and investigate whether ER stress reducing agents can block fibrotic remodeling...
  2. Heme/Copper and Heme/Nonheme Iron O(2) and NO Reactivity
    Kenneth D Karlin; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Systematically varied reducing agents and acids will be employed in the investigations in order to elucidate those factors crucial for this process,..
  3. Countermeasure for Chlorine Inhalation
    SIGRIDUR G SUMAN; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..However, reduction of protein chloramines in tissues exposed to hypochlorite may be more difficult using the reducing agents now available...
  4. Cx43 Hemichannels: Gating, Modification and Function
    Michael V L Bennett; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Aim 2 is to identify sites of modification of Cx43 by oxidizing and reducing agents and by metabolic inhibition (Ml), treatments that affect voltage dependence and open probability...
  5. REDOX PHARMACOLOGY OF T CHANNELS IN DRG NEURONS
    SLOBODAN TODOROVIC; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Thus, increase in excitability of sensory neurons that are enriched in T-type calcium channels by reducing agents may contribute to their hyperalgesic effect in vivo...
  6. Engineering Disulfide-Free Antibody Scaffolds for Intracellular and in vitro Expr
    PAUL STEPHEN MARINEC; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..via high throughput in vitro transcription and translation (IVTT) methodologies, as these protocols require reducing agents to preserve protein synthesis activity...
  7. METABOLISM AND NUTRITION OF IRON AND OTHER TRACE METALS
    PAUL SALTMAN; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..transport regulate and control Fe(lll) and Cu(ll) metabolism; 2) How Fe(lll) and Cu(ll) in the presence of reducing agents cause pathological damage to cells and tissue by "oxidative stress"; 3) The role of low molecular weight ..
  8. DETERMINATION OF A NEW GROWTH FACTOR IN BREAST MILK
    DAVID TAPPER; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..has shown these specific growth factor activities to be acid- and heat-stable and resistant to reducing agents. Partial purification of these specific predictive growth factor activities by ion exchange, HPLC, ..
  9. Stabilizing HIV-1 Trimers by Linking gp120 Subunits
    James M Binley; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..To test whether a V-V disulfide bridge is present, we will evaluate trimer stability to ionic detergents and reducing agents. Native PAGE binding studies will be used to assess trimer authenticity as indicated by nAb binding ..
  10. Stabilizing HIV-1 Trimers by Linking gp120 Subunits
    James M Binley; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..To test whether a V-V disulfide bridge is present, we will evaluate trimer stability to ionic detergents and reducing agents. Native PAGE binding studies will be used to assess trimer authenticity as indicated by nAb binding ..
  11. MECHANISMS AND MODULATION OF ACCELLULAR HbA TOXICITY
    Joel M Friedman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of Hb, generation of bioactive NO by Hb, injection of nanoparticles releasing NO or GSNO, and the infusion of reducing agents and haptoglobin can be used effectively to limit toxicity derived from the oxidative reactions of acellular ..
  12. CHELATE CONJUGATED RADIOLABELED MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES
    Richard Reba; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..The chemical parameters such as reducing agents, the pH values of the medium, buffer systems, the concentrations of the reactants and transchelating agents ..
  13. CHEMISTRY AND BIOLOGY OF INSULIN-LIKE VANADIUM COMPOUNDS
    DEBBIE CRANS; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Systems In Vitro (Part A, phosphatase inhibition, protein interaction, lipophilicity and effects of cellular reducing agents), In Cell Culture (Part B, cell growth and viability, speciation of vanadium compounds in cells, stimulation ..
  14. HMG COA REDUCTASE INHIBITORS IN THE ELDERLY
    CLARENCE DAVIS; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..HMG CoA reductase inhibitors are effective cholesterol-reducing agents with minimal adverse effects and would serve well as the drug class of interest...
  15. BRAIN ANGIOTENSIN RECEPTOR FUNCTION CONTROL AND ANATOMY
    Robert Speth; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..The rationale for these studies derives from recent observations that sulfhydryl reducing agents inhibit binding to one of the brain AII receptor subtypes...
  16. ANGIOTENSIN RECEPTOR SUBTYPES IN THE RAT BRAIN
    Brian Rowe; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..Studies of AII receptors in peripheral tissues indicate a subtype whose binding is enhanced by sulfhydryl reducing agents (SH-RA) while several receptor populations in the central nervous system are largely unaffected by SH-RAS...
  17. BIOCHEMICAL CHANGES IN SENESCENT HUMAN FIBROBLASTS
    Leon Heppel; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..Stability difficulties will be attached in various ways, including the use of reducing agents, heavy metal chelators, high concentrations of glycerol, etc...
  18. B. anthracis Peptidoglycan Deacetylase as a Drug Target
    David Pritchard; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..the enzymes will be determined, including their pH optima, metal ion requirements, if any, and the effect of reducing agents on enzyme activity...
  19. DELIVERY OF COPPER TO CELLS BY SERUM PROTEINS
    Maria Linder; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..release of copper from the membrane to cytosolic components will be explored with appropriate chelating and reducing agents. The intracellular pathways the Cu and the protein take after uptake will be followed, using the same ..
  20. Mechanisms of Inhibitory Glycine Receptor Modulation
    KWEE THIO; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..act: 1) GlyR and gamma-aminobutyric acidA (GABAA) receptors interact through the cytoskeleton; 2) Sulfhydryl reducing agents inhibit GlyR by chelating extracellular zinc; 3) Potentiation and inhibition of GlyR currents by barbiturates ..
  21. NITRO REDUCTION IN DNA AND PROTEIN TOXICITIES
    ANTONIO ALEGRIA; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..reactions by QSDs will be tested in the absence and presence of air and in the absence and presence reducing agents. Correlations will be sought between the QSDs reactivities detected in this work and anoxic or aerobic ..
  22. Thioether cross-linked 4E10 peptide epitope from gp41
    FRANK ROBEY; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..bonds that would remain intact in intra and extracellular environments rich in degradative enzymes and reducing agents. With this "Deadlock" technology, from a single linear peptide we have been able to form vast numbers of ..
  23. THE GASTRIC ACID PUMP AS A TARGET FOR ULCER TREATMENT
    George Sachs; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The results of the proposed research will further improve the agents used for the treatment of acid-related diseases and also our knowledge of the ATPase and cellular events involved in regulation of its activity. ..
  24. GASTRIC ENTEROCHROMAFFIN-LIKE CELL IN ULCER DISEASE
    George Sachs; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Hence this approach will provide additional insights into mechanisms of regulation of gastric secretion and enable illuminated interpretation of the pathophysiology of peptic ulcer disease. ..
  25. PP2A-Like Constitutive ERK/MAPK Phosphatase in Brain
    Timothy Foley; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ....
  26. Molecular Analysis of Metalloprotease Disintegrin ADAM12
    Anna Zolkiewska; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The results of our studies may help understand the biology of satellite cells and their role in muscle growth and repair. ..
  27. Intramyocellular Lipid: Effects of Race and Diet
    Jeanine Albu; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..In this regard these studies may help to identify mechanisms for race-ethnic disparities in the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and therefore respond to the NIH PA number 04-074. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  28. Structure/Function Studies on Flavoproteins
    Irina Sevrioukova; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable]..
  29. Methamphetamine Neurotoxicity and Microglial Activation
    DONALD KUHN; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..A better understanding of the mechanisms by which METH causes persistent damage to the DA neuronal system could lead to more targeted therapies and would open newer lines of investigation into this and other neurotoxic drugs of abuse. ..
  30. Molybdenum Pterin-Dithiolene Complexes for Model Studies of the Catalytic Site of
    SHARON BURGMAYER; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The goal of this project is to gain a more detailed understanding of how the unique ligand environment of molybdenum in molybdoenzymes is critical to the enzyme activity. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  31. Mechanism of PTK Substrate Recognition and Specificity
    Gongqin Sun; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..This work will not only reveal detailed information as to how Csk recognizes Src, but may also provide the basis for a general model of PTK substrate specificity and a new paradigm for PTK inhibitor design. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  32. Flavoenzymes in Pyrimidine Metabolism
    Bruce A Palfey; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Our studies of the rates of the chemical reactions will identify important parts of the proteins, how they move during reactions, how they speed the synthesis of products, and how these reactions might be blocked. ..
  33. Regulation of Oxidative Stress in the mdx Diaphragm
    JOHN LAWLER; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  34. Sensitivity Mechanisms in Chromium Toxicity
    Anatoly Zhitkovich; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  35. Metalloid transporters and drug resistance in Leishmania
    Rita Mukhopadhyay; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Drug uptake will be determined by using ICP-MS. The proposed research will greatly improve human health and advance basic research in the field of drug action and resistance in parasitic protozoa. ..
  36. Tissue Factor-factor Vlla signaling
    Usha Pendurthi; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The proposed studies will provide valuable information in understanding how TF contributes to tumorigenesis. These studies will also provide clues on potential therapeutic targets for prevention of cancer progression. ..
  37. Electron Dense Labels for Macromolecular Imaging
    M G Finn; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Successful methods will then be applied to important protein systems that have thus far resisted structural characterization by electron microscopy. ..
  38. Repair of DNA Damages Induced by Ionizing Radiation
    Susan Wallace; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The ultimate goal is to develop strategies based on structure/function relationships that would increase the effective dose to the tumor without damaging the normal tissue. ..
  39. Metal Carcinogenesis: New Concepts
    Anatoly Zhitkovich; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  40. Molecular Neurobiology of Drug Abuse
    DONALD KUHN; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Kuhn will remain extensively engaged in scientific mentoring activities. ..
  41. Calcium Release and Cellular Calcium Signaling Domains
    Susan Hamilton; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..We anticipate that a network of scientific collaborations will begin to develop as a consequence of this workshop. ..
  42. Reduction of Alkylating Quinones and Nitroarenes
    ANTONIO ALEGRIA; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Undergraduate students will participate in this project, thus improving their qualifications to pursue biomedical research careers. ..
  43. LASER DESORPTION MASS SPECTROMETRY ON POROUS SILICON
    M G Finn; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ....
  44. NOVEL APPROACHES TO ANTIFOLATE CHEMOTHERAPY
    Andre Rosowsky; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The focus will be on enhancing polyglutamation of the lead compound dmAMT by modification of the B-ring and/or pABA moiety. ..
  45. Improved Renal Preservation
    GREGORY FAHY; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The ability to preserve kidneys with less damage prior to transplantation will significantly reduce the costs and risks of post-transplant dialysis, reduce rejection episodes, and increase the net organ supply. ..
  46. Proteomic analyses of breast cancer refractoriness
    BRIAN AGNEW; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..These protein targets will be ideal candidates for the rational design of diagnostic indicators and/or therapeutic intervention. ..
  47. PKC SIGNALING AND THE TREATMENT OF BIPOLAR DISORDER
    DONALD KUHN; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ....
  48. MITOCHONDRIAL PROTEIN IMPORT IN AFRICAN TRYPANOSOMES
    Minu Chaudhuri; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Understanding of this developmental process will elucidate one of the major aspects of trypanosomal parasitism. This in turn will help us to design rational trypanocidal chemotherapeutic strategies. ..
  49. MICROARRAY ANALYSIS OF HUMAN COCAINE ADDICTS
    DONALD KUHN; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Microarray-based scanning of the human genome has the potential to establish those genes or gene clusters that define the addictive phenotype, leading the way to proteomic-based studies of the bases of addiction. ..
  50. LIPOPHILIC ANTIFOLATES AND AIDS OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS
    Andre Rosowsky; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Analogs of PT653 with a COOH, NH2, or OH group on the tricyclic moiety, and prodrugs thereof, will be made with the goal of improving aqueous solubility without sacrificing potency or selectivity. ..
  51. ESTROGEN MODULATION OF BRAIN ABETA METABOLISM IN VIVO
    Samuel Gandy; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ....
  52. NEUROSCIENCE TRAINING IN DRUG ABUSE
    DONALD KUHN; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..
  53. 9th International Workshop on "Radiation Damage to DNA"
    Susan Wallace; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  54. Structural Studies of Metabolic Membrane Proteins
    Joanne Yeh; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Our specific aims are to obtain atomic resolution structures of both membrane proteins, both of which are likely to be novel targets for antibiotic design and therapy. ..
  55. 2006 Muscle: Excitation/Contraction Coupling Gordan Conference
    Susan Hamilton; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..This has become particularly relevant since recent work has demonstrated the muscle possesses calcium refilling pathways similar to those of non-excitable cells. ..
  56. Extended Cardiac Preservation
    GREGORY FAHY; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Should that be the case, the combination product, URS with an intermittent perfusion system, will be tested with greater priority. ..
  57. Structure and Function of S. Epidermidis Adhesins
    MARIA BOWDEN; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..epidermidis human tropism. Finally, we will examine the role of another SdrG-like protein, SdrF, as a virulence factor in S. epidermidis infections. ..
  58. THERMODYNAMICS OF BIOCHEMICAL SYSTEMS
    ROBERT ALBERTY; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..This quantitative treatment of the literature data on biochemical reactions will uncover errors because deltafG'0 values can be determined by use of two or more biochemical reactions, which should give the same answer. ..
  59. Cornea Preservation by Vitrification
    GREGORY FAHY; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..In phase III we will launch commercial products and services. ..
  60. Stuy of palmitoylation-defective rhodopsin
    Zhongyan Wang; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..
  61. OBESITY IN BLACK WOMEN
    Jeanine Albu; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ....