irritants

Summary

Summary: Drugs that act locally on cutaneous or mucosal surfaces to produce inflammation; those that cause redness due to hyperemia are rubefacients; those that raise blisters are vesicants and those that penetrate sebaceous glands and cause abscesses are pustulants; tear gases and mustard gases are also irritants.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Animal models to test respiratory allergy of low molecular weight chemicals: a guidance
    Josje H E Arts
    TNO Quality of Life, Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, P O Box 360, 3700 AJ Zeist, The Netherlands
    Methods 41:61-71. 2007
  2. ncbi Fragrance material review on cis-beta-damascone
    J Lalko
    Research Institute for Fragrance Materials, Inc, 50 Tice Boulevard, Woodcliff Lake, NJ 07677, USA
    Food Chem Toxicol 45:S192-8. 2007
  3. ncbi The anti-nociceptive effect and the possible mechanism of acupoint stimulation caused by chemical irritants in the bee venom pain model
    Hui Sheng Chen
    Department of Neurology, General Hospital of Shen Yang Military Region, Shen Yang 110016, PR China
    Brain Res 1355:61-9. 2010
  4. pmc Doxycycline hydrogels with reversible disulfide crosslinks for dermal wound healing of mustard injuries
    SivaNaga S Anumolu
    Department of Pharmaceutics, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854 8022, USA
    Biomaterials 32:1204-17. 2011
  5. ncbi Formaldehyde and chemosensory irritation in humans: a controlled human exposure study
    Isabelle Lang
    Institute and Out patient Clinic of Occupational and Social Medicine, University of Heidelberg, Vossstrasse 2, 69115 Heidelberg, Germany
    Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 50:23-36. 2008
  6. pmc Mechanism of dinitrochlorobenzene-induced dermatitis in mice: role of specific antibodies in pathogenesis
    Elizabeth Yan Zhang
    Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, School of Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Kansas, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 4:e7703. 2009
  7. ncbi Topical treatment with povidone iodine reduces nitrogen mustard-induced skin collagenolytic activity
    Uri Wormser
    Faculty of Sciences, Berman Building, The Hebrew University, Edmond Safra Campus, Givat Ram, 91904 Jerusalem, Israel
    Arch Toxicol 76:119-21. 2002
  8. ncbi Development of a 3D human in vitro skin co-culture model for detecting irritants in real-time
    I Canton
    Department of Engineering Materials, University of Sheffield, Kroto Research Institute, Broad Lane, Sheffield, S3 7HQ, UK
    Biotechnol Bioeng 106:794-803. 2010
  9. pmc Interleukin 10 but not interleukin 4 is a natural suppressant of cutaneous inflammatory responses
    D J Berg
    Department of Immunology, DNAX Research Institute of Cellular and Molecular Biology, Palo Alto, California 94304, USA
    J Exp Med 182:99-108. 1995
  10. ncbi TRPM5-expressing solitary chemosensory cells respond to odorous irritants
    Weihong Lin
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Maryland Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD 21250, USA
    J Neurophysiol 99:1451-60. 2008

Detail Information

Publications235 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Animal models to test respiratory allergy of low molecular weight chemicals: a guidance
    Josje H E Arts
    TNO Quality of Life, Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, P O Box 360, 3700 AJ Zeist, The Netherlands
    Methods 41:61-71. 2007
    ..The dermal route as sensitisation route has the advantage of the respiratory tract not being exposed to the allergen prior to challenge which facilitates the distinction between irritant and allergic effects...
  2. ncbi Fragrance material review on cis-beta-damascone
    J Lalko
    Research Institute for Fragrance Materials, Inc, 50 Tice Boulevard, Woodcliff Lake, NJ 07677, USA
    Food Chem Toxicol 45:S192-8. 2007
    ..A toxicologic and dermatologic review of cis-beta-damascone when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented...
  3. ncbi The anti-nociceptive effect and the possible mechanism of acupoint stimulation caused by chemical irritants in the bee venom pain model
    Hui Sheng Chen
    Department of Neurology, General Hospital of Shen Yang Military Region, Shen Yang 110016, PR China
    Brain Res 1355:61-9. 2010
    ..The present study was designed to determine whether the injection of other chemical irritants, such as formalin and complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA), into the ZSL acupoint can produce anti-nociceptive and ..
  4. pmc Doxycycline hydrogels with reversible disulfide crosslinks for dermal wound healing of mustard injuries
    SivaNaga S Anumolu
    Department of Pharmaceutics, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854 8022, USA
    Biomaterials 32:1204-17. 2011
    ..In conclusion, PEG-based doxycycline hydrogels are promising for dermal wound healing application of mustard injuries...
  5. ncbi Formaldehyde and chemosensory irritation in humans: a controlled human exposure study
    Isabelle Lang
    Institute and Out patient Clinic of Occupational and Social Medicine, University of Heidelberg, Vossstrasse 2, 69115 Heidelberg, Germany
    Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 50:23-36. 2008
    ..The set up of the study included formaldehyde exposures with and without peaks, the presence and absence of a masking agent, and evaluation of the influence of personality factors...
  6. pmc Mechanism of dinitrochlorobenzene-induced dermatitis in mice: role of specific antibodies in pathogenesis
    Elizabeth Yan Zhang
    Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, School of Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Kansas, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 4:e7703. 2009
    ..At present, very little is known about the role of antigen-specific antibodies and B cells in the development of dinitrochlorobenzene-induced hypersensitivity reactions, and this is the subject of the present investigation...
  7. ncbi Topical treatment with povidone iodine reduces nitrogen mustard-induced skin collagenolytic activity
    Uri Wormser
    Faculty of Sciences, Berman Building, The Hebrew University, Edmond Safra Campus, Givat Ram, 91904 Jerusalem, Israel
    Arch Toxicol 76:119-21. 2002
    ..Since proteolytic activity is involved in skin damage caused by chemical irritants, we have studied the effect of iodine on mechlorethamine (HN2)-induced skin collagenolytic activities in the ..
  8. ncbi Development of a 3D human in vitro skin co-culture model for detecting irritants in real-time
    I Canton
    Department of Engineering Materials, University of Sheffield, Kroto Research Institute, Broad Lane, Sheffield, S3 7HQ, UK
    Biotechnol Bioeng 106:794-803. 2010
    ..We used two irritants [sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and potassium diformate (Formi] at sub-toxic concentrations and studied ..
  9. pmc Interleukin 10 but not interleukin 4 is a natural suppressant of cutaneous inflammatory responses
    D J Berg
    Department of Immunology, DNAX Research Institute of Cellular and Molecular Biology, Palo Alto, California 94304, USA
    J Exp Med 182:99-108. 1995
    ..Based on these studies, we have concluded that IL-10, but not IL-4, is a natural suppressant of irritant responses and of CH, and it limits immunopathologic damage in the skin...
  10. ncbi TRPM5-expressing solitary chemosensory cells respond to odorous irritants
    Weihong Lin
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Maryland Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD 21250, USA
    J Neurophysiol 99:1451-60. 2008
    Inhaled airborne irritants elicit sensory responses in trigeminal nerves innervating the nasal epithelium, leading to protective reflexes. The sensory mechanisms involved in the detection of odorous irritants are poorly understood...
  11. pmc Filaggrin deficiency confers a paracellular barrier abnormality that reduces inflammatory thresholds to irritants and haptens
    Tiffany C Scharschmidt
    Department of Dermatology, Dermatology Service, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, University of California, San Francisco, Calif 94121, USA
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 124:496-506, 506.e1-6. 2009
    ..Yet additional acquired stressors might be necessary because the same mutations can result in a noninflammatory disorder, ichthyosis vulgaris...
  12. ncbi The incidence of respiratory symptoms and diseases among pulp mill workers with peak exposures to ozone and other irritant gases
    Paul K Henneberger
    National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, MS H2800, 1095 Willowdale Rd, Morgantown, WV 26505, USA
    Chest 128:3028-37. 2005
    ....
  13. ncbi Pain in the trigeminal system: irritation of the nasal mucosa using short- and long-lasting stimuli
    Thomas Hummel
    Smell and Taste Clinic, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University of Dresden Medical School, Germany
    Int J Psychophysiol 47:147-58. 2003
    ..g. induced by environmental agents...
  14. ncbi The cough hypersensitivity syndrome: a novel paradigm for understanding cough
    Alyn H Morice
    Cardiovascular and Respiratory Studies, Hull York Medical School, Castle Hill Hospital, University of Hull, Cottingham, East Yorkshire, HU16 5JQ, UK
    Lung 188:S87-90. 2010
    ..However, the similarities between the different phenotypes far outweigh differences in a unifying diagnosis of the cough hypersensitivity syndrome, providing a more rational understanding of chronic cough...
  15. ncbi Incidence of asthma among workers exposed to sulphur dioxide and other irritant gases
    E Andersson
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Box 414, SE 405 30 Goteborg, Sweden
    Eur Respir J 27:720-5. 2006
    ..8 (2.6-13) compared with unexposed males. In conclusion, repeated peak exposure to sulphur dioxide increased the incidence of asthma during work in sulphite pulp mills, which supports the hypothesis of irritant-induced asthma...
  16. ncbi Sensitivity to environmental irritants and capsaicin cough reaction in patients with a positive methacholine provocation test before and after treatment with inhaled corticosteroids
    Ylva Ekstrand
    Department of Internal Medicine Respiratory Medicine and Allergology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden
    J Asthma 48:482-9. 2011
    ..The cough sensitivity to inhaled capsaicin is known to reflect the reactivity of these airway sensory nerves...
  17. ncbi Different characteristics of reactive oxygen species production by human keratinocyte cell line cells in response to allergens and irritants
    Dong Hyun Kim
    Department of Dermatology, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, Seongnam, Korea
    Exp Dermatol 21:99-103. 2012
    ..However, the role of ROS in keratinocytes in response to allergens and irritants has not yet been elucidated...
  18. ncbi Effects of prostaglandin antagonist phloretin derivatives on mouse ear edema induced with different skin irritants
    G Blazso
    Department of Pharmacodynamics, Albert Szent Gyorgyi Medical University, Szeged, Hungary
    Prostaglandins 50:161-8. 1995
    Edema was induced in one ear of male mice of the CFLP strain with solutions of different skin irritants (croton oil 10 microL/35 micrograms, dithranol 10 microL/30 micrograms, capsaicin 10 microL/40 micrograms or arachidonic acid to 10 ..
  19. ncbi Validation of a mouse model of chemical-induced asthma using trimellitic anhydride, a respiratory sensitizer, and dinitrochlorobenzene, a dermal sensitizer
    Jeroen A J Vanoirbeek
    Laboratory of Pneumology, Unit of Lung Toxicology, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 117:1090-7. 2006
    ..Occupational asthma can be caused by chemicals. Previously, we established a murine model of immunologically mediated chemical-induced asthma using toluene diisocyanate...
  20. ncbi Assessment of upper respiratory tract and ocular irritative effects of volatile chemicals in humans
    Richard L Doty
    Smell and Taste Center, University of Pennsylvania, Medical Center, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Crit Rev Toxicol 34:85-142. 2004
    ....
  21. ncbi Kinetic analysis on the in vitro cytotoxicity using Living Skin Equivalent for ranking the toxic potential of dermal irritants
    K Sugibayashi
    Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Josai University, 1 1 Keyakidai, Sakado, Saitama 350 0295, Japan
    Toxicol In Vitro 16:759-63. 2002
    The extent of cytotoxicity injured by several skin irritants was kinetically measured and analyzed in a three-dimensional cultured human skin model, Living Skin Equivalent-002 (LSE)...
  22. ncbi Toxicology of nasal irritants
    Dennis Shusterman
    Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Upper Airway Biology Laboratory, University of California, San Francisco, 1301 S 46th Street, Bldg 112, Richmond, CA 94804, USA
    Curr Allergy Asthma Rep 3:258-65. 2003
    ..The spectrum of irritant-related upper airway health effects is reviewed in this article...
  23. ncbi Characterisation of chemosensory trigeminal receptors in the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss: responses to chemical irritants and carbon dioxide
    Jessica J Mettam
    University of Liverpool, School of Biological Sciences, Liverpool L69 7ZB, UK
    J Exp Biol 215:685-93. 2012
    ..trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, but it is not known whether these receptors are responsive only to noxious, chemical irritants or have a general chemosensory function...
  24. ncbi Occupational airways diseases from chronic low-level exposures to irritants
    John R Balmes
    Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, Box 0843, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    Clin Chest Med 23:727-35, vi. 2002
    ..Such exposures, however, do not occur frequently; chronic or recurrent exposures to lower levels of irritants are much more common...
  25. ncbi Quantitative assessment of primary skin irritants in vitro in a cytotoxicity model: comparison with in vivo human irritation tests
    K P Wilhelm
    proDERM Institute for Applied Dermatological Research GmbH, Industriestrasse 1, 22869 Schenefeld, Hamburg, Germany
    Br J Dermatol 145:709-15. 2001
    ..While great efforts have been made in recent years to develop in vitro methods for assessing skin irritation potential, there are relatively few data that correlate in vitro data with in vivo data...
  26. ncbi Respiratory irritants in Australian bushfire smoke: air toxics sampling in a smoke chamber and during prescribed burns
    Annemarie J B M De Vos
    School of Population Health, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA, 6009, Australia
    Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 56:380-8. 2009
    ....
  27. ncbi Occupational voice disorders due to workplace exposure to irritants--a review of the literature
    N R Williams
    Health and Safety Executive, Birmingham B4 7NP, UK
    Occup Med (Lond) 52:99-101. 2002
    ..This paper describes the results of a literature review looking at the reporting of cases of occupationally acquired voice disorders due to exposure to irritants in the workplace.
  28. ncbi Fluorescence confocal laser scanning microscopy for in vivo imaging of epidermal reactions to two experimental irritants
    Christian Suihko
    Department of Dermatology, Linkoping University Hospital, Linkoping, Sweden
    Skin Res Technol 14:498-503. 2008
    ..Images are horizontal optical sections parallel to the skin surface. Fluorescence CLSM has hitherto not been applied to experimental contact dermatitis...
  29. ncbi Vulvar susceptibility to contact irritants and allergens: a review
    Miranda A Farage
    Feminine Care and Family Care Research and Development, The Procter and Gamble Company, 6110 Center Hill Avenue, Box 136, Cincinnati, OH, 45224, USA
    Arch Gynecol Obstet 272:167-72. 2005
    ..majora exhibits elevated hydration, occlusion and frictional properties, which may increase susceptibility to irritants and contact sensitizers...
  30. ncbi CXCL8 secretion by dendritic cells predicts contact allergens from irritants
    M J Toebak
    Department of Dermatology, VU University Medical Centre, De Boelelaan 1117, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Toxicol In Vitro 20:117-24. 2006
    ..copper sulphate, chrome-(III)-chloride, potassium dichromate, p-phenylenediamine and dinitrochlorobenzene) and irritants (sodium dodecyl sulphate, dimethylsulphoxide, benzalkoniumchloride and propane-1-ol)...
  31. ncbi Contact allergens and irritants in household washing and cleaning products
    Michela Magnano
    Division of Dermatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Geriatrics and Nephrology, University of Bologna, Via Massarenti 1, 40138 Bologna, Italy michela
    Contact Dermatitis 61:337-41. 2009
    Household cleaning products often contain potential allergens and irritants but allergic contact dermatitis from these products in general consumers is rarely reported in the literature.
  32. ncbi Percutaneous penetration characteristics and release kinetics of contact allergens encapsulated in ethosomes
    Jakob Torp Madsen
    Department of Dermatology, Odense University Hospital, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark
    Cutan Ocul Toxicol 30:38-44. 2011
    ..The relationship between the percutaneous penetration/absorption and sensitization/elicitation phases of contact allergy is not well elucidated...
  33. ncbi Induction of adipose differentiation related protein and neutral lipid droplet accumulation in keratinocytes by skin irritants
    Emmanuela Corsini
    Laboratory of Toxicology, Department of Pharmacological Sciences, University of Milan, Italy
    J Invest Dermatol 121:337-44. 2003
    ..investigate mechanistic bases of human skin irritation response, we recently identified the upregulation by skin irritants of adipose differentiation related protein (ADRP) in reconstituted human epidermis...
  34. pmc Menthol attenuates respiratory irritation responses to multiple cigarette smoke irritants
    Daniel N Willis
    Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut, USA
    FASEB J 25:4434-44. 2011
    ..we investigated the effects of menthol on the respiratory sensory irritation response in mice elicited by smoke irritants (acrolein, acetic acid, and cyclohexanone)...
  35. ncbi The use of noncancer endpoints as a basis for establishing a reference concentration for formaldehyde
    Joel Bender
    Patient Advocates, Ltd, 4601 Ginger Trail, Toledo, Ohio 43623, USA
    Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 35:23-31. 2002
    ..do not appear to impact asthmatics even though these individuals are thought to be more sensitive to irritants. Mild, reversible changes in pulmonary function (forced expiratory volume at 1 s and midexpiratory flow) can ..
  36. ncbi Contact allergens and irritants show discrete differences in the activation of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells: consequences for in vitro detection of contact allergens
    Frank Straube
    Novartis Pharma AG, 4002, Basel, Switzerland
    Arch Toxicol 79:37-46. 2005
    ..test systems have been described that may be applied routinely to discriminate between contact allergens and irritants in vitro...
  37. ncbi Risk assessment of sensory irritants in indoor air--a case study in a French school
    Roman Meininghaus
    INERIS, Parc Technologique ALATA, F 60550 Verneuil en Halatte, France
    Environ Int 28:553-7. 2003
    ..Numerous airborne sensory irritants (aldehydes, organic acids, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), SO(2), NH(3)) were identified and quantified in ..
  38. ncbi Strong irritants masquerading as skin allergens: the case of benzalkonium chloride
    David A Basketter
    Safety and Environmental Assurance Centre, Unilever Colworth Laboratory, Sharnbrook, Bedford, UK
    Contact Dermatitis 50:213-7. 2004
    ..versus allergic contact dermatitis (ACD), it is important to distinguish properly which chemicals are simply irritants from those which are both irritant and allergenic on skin...
  39. ncbi Local lymph node assay (LLNA) for detection of sensitization capacity of chemicals
    G Frank Gerberick
    The Procter and Gamble Company, Central Product Safety Department, Miami Valley Innovation Center, P O Box 538707, Cincinnati, OH 45253, USA
    Methods 41:54-60. 2007
    ....
  40. ncbi Chemical allergy: considerations for the practical application of cytokine profiling
    Rebecca J Dearman
    Syngenta Central Toxicology Laboratory, Alderley Park, Macclesfield, Cheshire SK10 4TJ, United Kingdom
    Toxicol Sci 71:137-45. 2003
    ..The purpose of this brief review article is to consider the approaches available and to highlight key procedural issues...
  41. ncbi Chemical reactivity indices and mechanism-based read-across for non-animal based assessment of skin sensitisation potential
    David W Roberts
    School of Pharmacy and Chemistry, Liverpool John Moores University, England
    J Appl Toxicol 28:443-54. 2008
    ..An illustration of the types of quantitative mechanistic models that could be built using databases of kinetic measures of reactivity, hydrophobicity and existing in vivo bioassay data is also given...
  42. ncbi A proposed approach for setting occupational exposure limits for sensory irritants based on chemosensory models
    Shannon H Gaffney
    ChemRisk, Inc, 25 Jessie Street, Suite 1800 San Francisco, CA 94105, USA
    Ann Occup Hyg 51:345-56. 2007
    ..However, often there is inadequate knowledge about the toxicology of these chemicals to set an OEL and their irritation potencies are usually not recognized until they are manufactured or used in large quantities...
  43. pmc Evaluation and application of the RD50 for determining acceptable exposure levels of airborne sensory irritants for the general public
    Yu Kuwabara
    Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, California Environmental Protection Agency, Oakland, California 94612, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 115:1609-16. 2007
    ..Past studies reported good correlations (R(2)) between RD(50)s and the occupational exposure limits, particularly threshold limit values (TLVs)...
  44. ncbi Upper airway irritation, odor perception and health risk due to airborne chemicals
    Pamela Dalton
    Monell Chemical Senses Center, 3500 Market Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 3308, USA
    Toxicol Lett 140:239-48. 2003
    ....
  45. ncbi Relationship of asthma to irritant gas exposures in pulp and paper mills
    H W Glindmeyer
    Department of Medicine, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70112 2699, USA
    Respir Med 97:541-8. 2003
    ..Documented gassings were not associated with significantly increased rate, and none of 447 gassed persons developed RADS...
  46. ncbi Intracellular expression of cytokines and granzyme B in auricular lymph nodes draining skin exposed to irritants and sensitizers
    Hyun Ok Ku
    Toxicology and Chemistry Division, National Veterinary Research and Quarantine Service, Anyang 430 824, Republic of Korea
    Toxicology 250:116-23. 2008
    ..of cytokines and granzyme B (GzmB), a cytotoxic lymphocyte product, to discriminate between sensitizers and irritants and to characterize the chemical sensitizers when used as supplemental indicators in LLNA endpoints...
  47. ncbi Inhaled formaldehyde: evaluation of sensory irritation in relation to carcinogenicity
    Josje H E Arts
    TNO Quality of Life, Zeist, P O Box 360, 3700 AJ Zeist, The Netherlands
    Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 44:144-60. 2006
    ..In addition, a Benchmark dose (BMD) analysis of sensory irritation was used to estimate response incidences at different formaldehyde concentrations...
  48. ncbi Local effects in the respiratory tract: relevance of subjectively measured irritation for setting occupational exposure limits
    Josje H E Arts
    TNO Quality of Life, P O Box 360, 3700 AJ Zeist, The Netherlands
    Int Arch Occup Environ Health 79:283-98. 2006
    ..For odorous irritants, a clear-cut distinction between odour and irritation is difficult to make...
  49. ncbi Immediate sensory nerve-mediated respiratory responses to irritants in healthy and allergic airway-diseased mice
    John B Morris
    University of Connecticut Pulmonary Research Consortium, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Storrs, Connecticut 06269, USA
    J Appl Physiol (1985) 94:1563-71. 2003
    The immediate responses of the upper respiratory tract (URT) to the irritants acrolein and acetic acid were examined in healthy and allergic airway-diseased C57Bl/6J mice. Acrolein (1...
  50. ncbi Cytokine fingerprinting of chemical allergens: species comparisons and statistical analyses
    R J Dearman
    Syngenta Central Toxicology Laboratory, Alderley ParkMacclesfield, Cheshire SK10 4TJ, UK
    Food Chem Toxicol 40:1881-92. 2002
    ..For the prospective assessment of chemical respiratory allergens as a function of induced cytokine secretion profiles, however, these data suggest that the use of the BALB/c strain mouse will provide the more robust method...
  51. ncbi Read-across to rank skin sensitization potential: subcategories for the Michael acceptor domain
    Terry Wayne Schultz
    Department of Comparative Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, The University of Tennessee, 2407 River Drive, Knoxville, TN 37996 4543, USA
    Contact Dermatitis 60:21-31. 2009
    ..Eliminating animal testing for skin sensitization is a significant challenge in consumer safety risk assessment. To be able to perform resilient risk assessments in the future, one will need alternative approaches to fill the data gaps...
  52. ncbi Occupational exposure to inhalative irritants and methacholine responsiveness
    P Leuenberger
    Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital Lausanne, Switzerland
    Scand J Work Environ Health 26:146-52. 2000
    Occupational exposures to inhalative irritants have been associated with an increased reporting of respiratory symptoms in previous studies. Methacholine responsiveness represents a continuous measure of airway responsiveness...
  53. ncbi The skin sensitization potential of four alkylalkanolamines
    H W Leung
    Applied Toxicology Group, Union Carbide Corporation, Danbury, Connecticut 06817, USA
    Vet Hum Toxicol 40:65-7. 1998
    ..None of the remaining 3 alkylalkanolamines exhibited clear skin responses suggestive of sensitization...
  54. pmc Role of metabolic activation and the TRPA1 receptor in the sensory irritation response to styrene and naphthalene
    Michael J Lanosa
    Toxicology Program, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269, USA
    Toxicol Sci 115:589-95. 2010
    ..Thus, these results support the hypothesis that styrene and naphthalene vapors initiate the sensory irritation response through TRPA1 detection of their CYP450 metabolites...
  55. ncbi Dendritic cells differently respond to haptens and irritants by their production of cytokines and expression of co-stimulatory molecules
    S Aiba
    Department of Dermatology, Tohoku University School of Medicine, Aobaku, Japan
    Eur J Immunol 27:3031-8. 1997
    ..They also suggest that these chemicals stimulate DC by different mechanisms. By these responses, DC may modulate the final immune response to chemicals...
  56. ncbi Use of IL-18 production in a human keratinocyte cell line to discriminate contact sensitizers from irritants and low molecular weight respiratory allergens
    Emanuela Corsini
    Department of Pharmacological Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Laboratory of Toxicology, University of Milan, Milan, Italy
    Toxicol In Vitro 23:789-96. 2009
    ..respiratory allergens (diphenylmethane diisocyanate, trimellitic anhydride, ammonium hexachloroplatinate) and to irritants (sodium lauryl sulphate, salicylic acid, phenol). Cell associated IL-18 were evaluated 24 later...
  57. ncbi Differential modulation of CXCR4 and CD40 protein levels by skin sensitizers and irritants in the FSDC cell line
    Bruno Miguel Neves
    Faculdade de Farmacia, Universidade de Coimbra, Rua do Norte, Coimbra, Portugal
    Toxicol Lett 177:74-82. 2008
    ..first time, a fetal skin-derived dendritic cell line (FSDC) as a model to discriminate between sensitizers and irritants, through analysis of their effects on CD40 and CXCR4 protein expression...
  58. ncbi Irritant-induced occupational asthma
    S M Tarlo
    Gage Research Institute, University of Toronto, Canada
    Chest 96:297-300. 1989
    ..154 consecutive workers assessed for occupational asthma to clarify the relative frequency of asthma induced by irritants in the workplace and to determine whether such asthma was clearly distinguishable from other forms of ..
  59. ncbi Evaluation of the sensory irritation test (Alarie test) for the assessment of respiratory tract irritation
    Peter M J Bos
    TNO Nutrition and Food Research, P O Box 360, 3700 AJ Zeist, The Netherlands
    J Occup Environ Med 44:968-76. 2002
    ..It was concluded that the Alarie test is inappropriate to evaluate respiratory tract irritation. In addition, the available data do not support a quantitative potency ranking for man based on the RD50 obtained with experimental animals...
  60. ncbi Use of a B cell marker (B220) to discriminate between allergens and irritants in the local lymph node assay
    G Frank Gerberick
    The Procter and Gamble Company, Miami Valley Laboratories, P O Box 538707, Cincinnati, Ohio 4523 8707, USA
    Toxicol Sci 68:420-8. 2002
    ..endpoint for the local lymph node assay (LLNA) to differentiate between allergenic responses and those few irritants that induce low-level proliferation in the DLN...
  61. ncbi Hen egg chorioallantoic membrane bioassay: an in vitro alternative to draize eye irritation test for pesticide screening
    A S Kishore
    Director, International Institute of Biotechnology and Toxicology IIBAT, Padappai 601 301, Tamil Nadu, India
    Int J Toxicol 27:449-53. 2008
    ..There was good correlation between the HECAM assay and the in vivo Draize eye irritation test. The proposed HECAM assay, which reduces the requirement for laboratory animals, could be a painless alternative to the Draize test...
  62. ncbi Effects of mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate on the respiratory tract in BALB/c mice
    S Thor Larsen
    Department of Chemical Working Environment, National Institute of Occupational Health, Lersø Parkallé 105, DK 2100 Copenhagen O, Denmark
    Hum Exp Toxicol 23:537-45. 2004
    ..7 mg/m3 MEHP. Based on worst case inhalation scenario in the general population, no airway irritation is expected from non-occupational levels of MEHP originating from DEHP...
  63. ncbi Dendritic cells: biology of the skin
    Mascha J Toebak
    Department of Dermatology, VU University Medical Centre, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Contact Dermatitis 60:2-20. 2009
    ..Several DC-based assays have been described to discriminate allergens from irritants. Unfortunately, current in vitro methods are not sufficiently resilient to identify allergens and therefore need ..
  64. ncbi Gender related differences of low level exposure to occupational irritants--a three-year follow-up of chemical industry workers
    A Hursidić-Radulović
    Occupational Health Unit, Health Center Crnomerec, Zagreb, Croatia
    Coll Antropol 26:109-18. 2002
    ..year period to evaluate gender related differences on respiratory effects of low concentrations of occupational irritants. Measurements were performed annually and the results of ventilatory test were compared to predicted normal ..
  65. ncbi Sensory irritation: risk assessment approaches
    Gunnar Damgård Nielsen
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhage Ø, Denmark
    Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 48:6-18. 2007
    ..In published studies, the combined UF is up to 300, highlighting the need of evidence-based UFs. Combined effects of sensory irritants can be considered additive as a first approximation.
  66. pmc Modulation of airway sensitivity to inhaled irritants: role of inflammatory mediators
    L Y Lee
    Department of Physiology, University of Kentucky Medical Center, Lexington, Kentucky 40536 0298, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 109:585-9. 2001
    ..RARs) are primarily responsible for eliciting the defense reflexes in protecting the lungs against inhaled irritants. In anesthetized animals, inhalation of cigarette smoke, one of the common inhaled irritants, into the lungs ..
  67. ncbi Do indoor chemicals promote development of airway allergy?
    G D Nielsen
    National Institute of Occupational Health Denmark, Copenhagen, Denmark
    Indoor Air 17:236-55. 2007
    ..If buildings are kept clean, dry and free of combustion products, the important question may be would it be profitable to look for lifestyle factors and non-chemical indoor exposures in order to abate airway allergy?..
  68. ncbi Short-term respiratory effects of cleaning exposures in female domestic cleaners
    M Medina-Ramón
    Respiratory and Environmental Health Research Unit, Municipal Institute of Medical Research IMIM, Dr Aiguader 80, E 08003 Barcelona, Spain
    Eur Respir J 27:1196-203. 2006
    ..It is concluded that exposure to certain irritant cleaning products aggravates lower respiratory tract symptoms in female domestic cleaners with asthma or chronic bronchitis...
  69. ncbi Effects of long-term exposure to volatile irritants on sensory thresholds, negative mucosal potentials, and event-related potentials
    Pamela Dalton
    Monell Chemical Senses Center, Philadelphia, PA, USA
    Behav Neurosci 120:180-7. 2006
    ..In summary, repetitive exposure to an irritant vapor results in a specific desensitization to irritancy from that chemical, which appears to originate at a peripheral level...
  70. ncbi Organic compounds in office environments - sensory irritation, odor, measurements and the role of reactive chemistry
    P Wolkoff
    National Institute of Occupational Health, Copenhagen Ø, Denmark
    Indoor Air 16:7-19. 2006
    ..Chemically non-reactive VOCs are considered non-irritants at typical indoor air levels...
  71. ncbi Quantitative structure-activity relationship models for prediction of sensory irritants (logRD50) of volatile organic chemicals
    Feng Luan
    Department of Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, China
    Chemosphere 63:1142-53. 2006
    Quantitative classification and regression models for prediction of sensory irritants (logRD50) of volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) have been developed...
  72. ncbi Cytokine transcript profiling in CD34+-progenitor derived dendritic cells exposed to contact allergens and irritants
    Geert R Verheyen
    Centre of Expertise in Environmental Toxicology, Flemish Institute for Technological Research VITO, Boeretang 200, B 2400 Mol, Belgium
    Toxicol Lett 155:187-94. 2005
    ..to the chemical sensitizers nickel sulphate, oxazolone, 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) and eugenol, and to the irritants sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and benzalkonium sulphate (BC)...
  73. pmc Up-regulation of the chemokine CCL21 in the skin of subjects exposed to irritants
    Yanina Eberhard
    Immunology, Department of Clinical Biochemistry, School of Chemical Science, National University of Cordoba, Argentina
    BMC Immunol 5:7. 2004
    ..This study was carried out to investigate the involvement of CCL21 in human skin after challenge with irritant agents responsible for inducing Irritant Contact Dermatitis (ICD)...
  74. ncbi Responses of superficial dorsal horn neurons to intradermal serotonin and other irritants: comparison with scratching behavior
    Steven L Jinks
    Section of Neurobiology, University of California Davis, 1 Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    J Neurophysiol 87:1280-9. 2002
    ..They might nonetheless contribute to neural pathways that distinguish between pain and itch based on some neural mechanism such as frequency coding...
  75. ncbi Sensory irritation testing
    Rosalind C Anderson
    J Occup Environ Med 45:467-8; author reply 468. 2003
  76. ncbi OEESC-2005--summing up on the theme irritants and wet work
    Mari Ann Flyvholm
    Skin Allergy and Irritation, National Institute of Occupational Health, Denmark
    Contact Dermatitis 55:317-21. 2006
    The aim of this paper was to summarize the presentations and discussions on the theme Irritants and Wet Work at the second conference on Occupational and Environmental Exposures of Skin to Chemicals held in Stockholm June 2005 (OEESC-..
  77. ncbi Does Haber's law apply to human sensory irritation?
    Dennis Shusterman
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine Program, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98104, USA
    Inhal Toxicol 18:457-71. 2006
    ..The implications of these complex temporal dynamics for risk assessment and standard setting have been incompletely explored to date...
  78. ncbi Odor, irritation and perception of health risk
    Pamela Dalton
    Monell Chemical Senses Center, 3500 Market Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 3308, USA
    Int Arch Occup Environ Health 75:283-90. 2002
    ....
  79. pmc Signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 is essential in the induction of contact hypersensitivity
    H Yokozeki
    Department of Dermatology, School of Medicine, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo 113 8519, Japan
    J Exp Med 191:995-1004. 2000
    ..Our data suggest that the STAT6 signal plays a critical role in the induction phase of CHS...
  80. ncbi Assessment of ocular and nasal irritation in asthmatics resulting from fragrance exposure
    R E Opiekun
    Monell Chemical Senses Center, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Clin Exp Allergy 33:1256-65. 2003
    Many asthmatics report worsening of symptoms following exposure to odours and sensory irritants commonly found in household and cosmetic products...
  81. ncbi A nonradioisotopic endpoint for measurement of lymph node cell proliferation in a murine allergic contact dermatitis model, using bromodeoxyuridine immunohistochemistry
    Jong Kwon Lee
    Division of Immunotoxicology, Department of Toxicology, Korea Food and Drug Administration, National Institute of Toxicology Research, Seoul 122 704, South Korea
    J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods 48:53-61. 2002
    ..However, it would be advantageous to have an alternative endpoint to the usual radioisotopic-dependent measures. In the present study, we investigated the development of a nonradioisotopic endpoint for LLNA using immunohistochemistry...
  82. ncbi Environmental allergens and irritants in schools: a focus on asthma
    Susan R Tortolero
    Center for Health Promotion and Prevention Research, School of Public Health, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, 7000 Fannin, 26th Floor, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    J Sch Health 72:33-8. 2002
    ..5 ng/g), with 10% of rooms over the recommended threshold. Almost two-thirds of classrooms had mold spore counts > 10,000 col/g (median, 14,400 col/g; range, 2,000-52,000 col/g)...
  83. ncbi Sensitivity of vagal afferent endings to chemical irritants in the rat lung
    C Y Ho
    Department of Physiology, University of Kentucky, Medical Center, 800 Rose Street, Lexington, KY 40536, USA
    Respir Physiol 127:113-24. 2001
    ..velocity of the vagal afferents arising from the rat lungs and their sensitivities to capsaicin, other chemical irritants, and lung inflation...
  84. ncbi The role of odor and irritation, as well as risk perception, in the setting of occupational exposure limits
    Dennis J Paustenbach
    ChemRisk, Inc, 25 Jessie Street, Suite 1800, San Francisco, CA 94105, USA
    Int Arch Occup Environ Health 79:339-42. 2006
    ..Special focus was directed at those settings where a small fraction of persons report unacceptable responses to concentrations well below the OEL...
  85. ncbi Pulmonary alterations associated with inhalation of occupational and environmental irritants
    V Castranova
    Health Effects Laboratory Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV 26505, USA
    Int Immunopharmacol 2:163-72. 2002
    Many gases, vapors, or particles found in occupational and/or environmental settings can act as irritants. In the present study, sensory irritants are characterized by the stimulation of neuropeptide release from sensory nerves in the ..
  86. ncbi Irritant contact dermatitis: is there an immunologic component?
    Cheryl Y Levin
    Department of Dermatology, University of California at San Francisco Medical Center, 94143 0989, USA
    Int Immunopharmacol 2:183-9. 2002
    Irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) describes a multifactorial disease resulting from exposure to occupational irritants. Though often characterized as a localized reaction, there are at least 10 forms of ICD, several of which possess ..
  87. ncbi Chemosensory detectability of 1-butanol and 2-heptanone singly and in binary mixtures
    J E Cometto-Muniz
    Department of Surgery Otolaryngology, San Diego, University of California, La Jolla 92093 0957, USA
    Physiol Behav 67:269-76. 1999
    ..91 or higher. The outcome lends support, as a first approximation, to the notion of chemosensory agonism, in the sense of dose additivity, between the members of binary mixtures presented at perithreshold levels...
  88. ncbi Adult-onset asthma and wheeze among irritant-exposed bleachery workers
    Eva Andersson
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Goteborg, Sweden
    Am J Ind Med 43:532-8. 2003
    ..The aim was to investigate if occupational exposure to irritant gases, especially repeated peak exposure (gassings), increased the risk of obstructive airways disease...
  89. pmc Inhaled environmental/occupational irritants and allergens: mechanisms of cardiovascular and systemic responses. Introduction
    D B Yeates
    Department of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 109:479-81. 2001
    ..Not only will this information stimulate the thinking of researchers, but it will also provide an improved foundation for funding agencies and advisory groups to frame research strategies, programs, and priorities...
  90. ncbi Fragrance material review on methyl-beta-ionone
    A Lapczynski
    Research Institute for Fragrance Materials, Inc, 50 Tice Boulevard, Woodcliff Lake, NJ 07677, USA
    Food Chem Toxicol 45:S290-3. 2007
    ..A toxicologic and dermatologic review of methyl-beta-ionone when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented...
  91. ncbi Fragrance material review on phenethyl salicylate
    A Lapczynski
    Research Institute for Fragrance Materials Inc, 50 Tice Boulevard, Woodcliff Lake, NJ 07677, USA
    Food Chem Toxicol 45:S467-71. 2007
    ..A toxicologic and dermatologic review of phenethyl salicylate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented...
  92. ncbi Fragrance material review on ethyl hexyl salicylate
    A Lapczynski
    Research Institute for Fragrance Materials, Inc, 50 Tice Boulevard, Woodcliff Lake, NJ 07677, USA
    Food Chem Toxicol 45:S393-6. 2007
    ..A toxicologic and dermatologic review of ethyl hexyl salicylate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented...
  93. ncbi Fragrance material review on cinnamyl acetate
    S P Bhatia
    Research Institute for Fragrance Materials, Inc 50 Tice Boulevard, Woodcliff Lake, NJ 07677, USA
    Food Chem Toxicol 45:S53-7. 2007
    ..A toxicologic and dermatologic review of cinnamyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented...
  94. ncbi In vitro differentiation of skin sensitizers by cell signaling pathways
    L M Koeper
    Bayer HealthCare AG, Toxicology, Aprather Weg, D 42096, Wuppertal, Germany
    Toxicology 242:144-52. 2007
    ..Activation of PLCgamma and STAT1 were never detected. In conclusion, MAP-kinase activation provides a promising in vitro tool for the discrimination between sensitizers and irritants.
  95. ncbi Fragrance material review on trans-2-hexenyl salicylate
    A Lapczynski
    Research Institute for Fragrance Materials, Inc, 50 Tice Boulevard, Woodcliff Lake, NJ 07677, USA
    Food Chem Toxicol 45:S406-9. 2007
    ..A toxicologic and dermatologic review of trans-2-hexenyl salicylate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented...
  96. ncbi Fragrance material review on beta-ionone
    J Lalko
    Research Institute for Fragrance Materials, Inc, 50 Tice Boulevard, Woodcliff Lake, NJ 07677, USA
    Food Chem Toxicol 45:S241-7. 2007
    ..A toxicologic and dermatologic review of beta-ionone when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented...
  97. ncbi Fragrance material review on hexyl salicylate
    A Lapczynski
    Research Institute for Fragrance Materials Inc, 50 Tice Boulevard, Woodcliff Lake, NJ 07677, USA
    Food Chem Toxicol 45:S410-7. 2007
    ..A toxicologic and dermatologic review of hexyl salicylate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented...
  98. ncbi Fragrance material review on ethyl salicylate
    A Lapczynski
    Research Institute for Fragrance Materials, Inc, 50 Tice Boulevard, Woodcliff Lake, NJ 07677, USA
    Food Chem Toxicol 45:S397-401. 2007
    ..A toxicological and dermatological review of ethyl salicylate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented...
  99. ncbi Fragrance material review on pentyl salicylate
    A Lapczynski
    Research Institute for Fragrance Materials, Inc, 50 Tice Boulevard, Woodcliff Lake, NJ 07677, USA
    Food Chem Toxicol 45:S460-6. 2007
    ..A toxicologic and dermatologic review of pentyl salicylate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented...
  100. ncbi Fragrance material review on dihydro-beta-ionone
    J Lalko
    Research Institute for Fragrance Materials, Inc, 50 Tice Boulevard, Woodcliff Lake, NJ 07677, USA
    Food Chem Toxicol 45:S225-8. 2007
    ..A toxicologic and dermatologic review of dihydro-beta-ionone when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented...
  101. ncbi Fragrance material review on cinnamyl isobutyrate
    S P Bhatia
    Research Institute for Fragrance Materials, Inc 50 Tice Boulevard, Woodcliff Lake, NJ 07677, USA
    Food Chem Toxicol 45:S74-7. 2007
    ..A toxicologic and dermatologic review of cinnamyl isobutyrate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented...

Research Grants64

  1. SUPPORT CONTRACT FOR THE NTP INTERAGENCY CENTER/VALIDATION OF ALT METHODS
    David Allen; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..hen's egg test [unreadable] chorioallantoic membrane test methods for identifying moderate and mild ocular irritants and for identifying substances that do not cause sufficient eye injury to require ocular hazard labeling (non-..
  2. SUPPORT CONTRACT FOR THE NTP INTERAGENCY CENTER/VALIDATION OF ALT METHODS
    David Allen; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..hen's egg test [unreadable] chorioallantoic membrane test methods for identifying moderate and mild ocular irritants and for identifying substances that do not cause sufficient eye injury to require ocular hazard labeling (non-..
  3. Expanding Vietnamese Community and Academic Infrastructure for Health Research
    Bang H Nguyen; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..cancer diagnosis;breast, cervical, colorectal, liver, and lung cancer;liver cirrhosis;cardiovascular diseases;tobacco-related diseases;and other diseases caused by exposure to carcinogens, endocrine disruptors and respiratory irritants.
  4. MECHANISMS OF GASTROINTESTINAL GROWTH AND TRANSFORMATION
    Juanita L Merchant; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Elevated levels of plasma serotonin stimulate fluid secretion and gut motility to expel the infectious or toxic irritants. Although an essential component of the innate immune response, these gut functions contribute to patient ..
  5. Mapping Orofacial Nociceptive Pathways and Alterations Due to Inflammation
    JOSHUA EMRICK; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..g., ion channels) serves to delineate nociceptor subgroups (e.g., TRPV1/heat, TRPM8/cold, and TRPA1/chemical irritants) (Basbaum, Bautista et al. 2009)...
  6. 3D Skin Model to Test Toxic and Sensitizing Potentials of Environmental Chemicals
    Akira Takashima; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..system that is composed of KCs, DCs, and fibroblasts (FBs) and that allows simultaneous detection of skin irritants (measured by ATP release) and skin sensitizers (measured by fluorescence signals)...
  7. Environmental Chitin Exposure in the Pathogenesis of Asthma
    Rene M Roy; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Chitin is a common thread among these irritants, since it is present in the exoskeleton of arthropods, the shells of crustaceans, and the cell wall of fungi...
  8. Discovery of Novel Anti-Inflammatory Phytochemicals on Human Cell Platforms
    ERIK MILLS SCHWIEBERT; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..potent extracts and purified small molecules that protect human skin, respiratory, and kidney cells from harmful irritants and pathogens that cause a myriad of diseases, disorders and syndromes in the human patient...
  9. Role of TRP Channels in Environmental Irritant-Induced Headache
    Gerry S Oxford; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Increased exposure to chemical irritants in the air we breathe may be responsible for the increased incidence of migraine as well as more recently ..
  10. Genetic Mapping Of Novel Molecular Players in Itch
    RACHEL BETH BREM; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..protective function by warning against harmful agents in the environment such as insects, toxic plants or other irritants. Pruritus can also be a debilitating condition that accompanies numerous skin, systemic, and nervous system ..
  11. Nicotine Modulation of Parasympathetic Cardiac Neurons
    David Mendelowitz; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Stimulation of the diving reflex by exposing the nasal mucosa to water or air-borne chemical irritants evokes a pronounced bradycardia with heart rate decreasing up to 51% upon a single facial submersion...
  12. Functional and Lymphocytic Markers of Respiratory Morbidity in Hyperoxic Preemies
    RITA MARIE RYAN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..and adaptive immune systems resulting in increased susceptibility to respiratory infections and environmental irritants, and leading to respiratory morbidity in the first year of life...
  13. Exploiting toxins to probe sensory signaling
    David Julius; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Other important examples include the use of natural irritants, such as capsaicin (from chili peppers) and menthol (from mint leaves) to identify ion channels that detect heat ..
  14. Regulation of esophageal gene expression and function by KLF5 and p53
    Jonathan P Katz; Fiscal Year: 2013
    PROJECT SUMMARY The esophageal lining is regularly exposed to irritants such as alcohol, cigarette smoke, hot beverages, dietary nitroso-compounds, and refluxate of gastro-duodenal contents, and disorders of the esophagus are ..
  15. TRPA1 Channels in Sensory Neurons as Targets for Environmental Irritants
    Sven Eric Jordt; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..research is to reveal the molecular and cellular basis of sensory neural activation by hazardous environmental irritants. Sensory nerve endings in the lung, skin, eyes and mucous membranes are activated by environmental toxicants, ..
  16. Home and community exposures in COPD exacerbation: A pilot case cross-over study
    Susan R Sama; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Beyond these, little is known about exposures to respiratory irritants and other pollutants in the home, community and work that might exacerbate COPD...
  17. The Role of IL-6 Receptor in Irritant Dermatitis
    RANDLE MICHAEL GALLUCCI; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..differential gene expression in skin of WT, IL-6KO and Tg(IL6) mice during ICD induced by several common irritants will be assessed...
  18. Impact of Receptor Polymorphisms on Sensations from Common Oral Irritants
    JOHN EDWARD HAYES; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..genetics to examine how genetic variation in taste and pain receptors in the mouth may alter response to oral irritants that are commonly found in the food supply...
  19. Mechanisms of airway neurogenic inflammation by asthma-inducing allergens
    Armen N Akopian; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Though avoiding allergens and irritants while utilizing inhaled corticosteroids may help some patients, these preventatives are still ineffective in ..
  20. Counter-irritation by Menthol: Molecular Targets and Role in Airway Disease
    John B Morris; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..in smoke of mentholated cigarettes, strongly inhibited the respiratory irritation response to tobacco smoke irritants in mice...
  21. The role of IL-6 in jet fuel irritant dermatitis
    RANDLE MICHAEL GALLUCCI; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..While irritants may cause overt damage to the skin, both types of dermatitis produce very similar inflammatory responses...
  22. Relating Diesel Exhaust Exposure to Respiratory and Immune Outcomes in Early Life
    Paloma I Beamer; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..development as a result of altered immune responses to viral infection, allergic sensitization, or environmental irritants. Vehicle exhaust is the primary source of air pollution in urban environments, where asthma prevalence rates are ..
  23. Novel Use of Confocal Microscopy on Cultured Porcine Corneas for Pre-Clinical Tes
    Michelle Piehl; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..The EpiOcular" will be used to establish whether "stingers" would be considered "non-irritants" by industry standards...
  24. Nasal solitary chemosensory cells linking irritation to inflammation
    Marco Tizzano; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Inhaled irritants can activate either chemo-responsive free nerve endings or solitary chemosensory cells (SCCs) which are ..
  25. Role of Il-13 Receptors in Atopic Dermatitis
    Gurjit K Khurana Hershey; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..immunologic responses, and skin barrier dysfunction) and environmental factors such as allergens, irritants, and infectious agents...
  26. An integrative statistics-guided image-based multi-scale lung model
    Ching Long Lin; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Hot spots are the locations where inhaled particles, toxins, irritants, or bacteria accumulate in the lungs...
  27. Structure and Mechanisms of Styrene Monooxygenase
    George T Gassner; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..which catalyze epoxidation and hydroxylation reactions to yield strong alkylating agents and pulmonary irritants such as styrene oxide and vinyl phenols...
  28. Cellular Physiology of Sensory Ion Channels
    David Julius; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Such substances include exogenous environmental irritants, as well as endogenous pro-algesic agents that are produced or released in response to injury or disease...
  29. Local Immunoregulation of Carcinogenesis
    Michael Girardi; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..is an irrefutable association of chronic inflammation and cancer in epithelial tissues continually exposed to irritants, toxins, and carcinogens...
  30. Green Housing Study: Measures of Housing Factors and Pediatric Respiratory Health
    Tiina Reponen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..control housing. The reduction of irritants and allergens in green vs...
  31. Comparative effectiveness of environmental intervention and standard care in abil
    Emily Dimango; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..asthmatic patients whether environmental intervention aimed at reducing exposure to indoor allergens and irritants is more effective in reducing NAEPP step based therapy than usual care over a 48 week study period, ii) ..
  32. Reducing Chemical Exposures in Nail Salons Using an Owner-to-Worker Intervention
    THU THUY QUACH; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..that contain a multitude of hazardous compounds including carcinogens, endocrine disruptors and respiratory irritants. However, available training materials lack comprehensive information about safety precautions that salons can ..
  33. Histamine and Neutrophil Influx in the Pathogenesis of Acute Lung Injury
    CRAIG ALEXANDER SMUDA; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..common pathologic consequence of numerous forms of insult to the lung, including acute exposure to environmental irritants. The influx of neutrophils in response to the initiating stimuli of ALI is a hallmark of the pathologic process ..
  34. Regulation of Immune Responses by IgE and Mast Cells
    Hans Oettgen; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..ll. The "priming" function of IgE antibodies for mast cell responses to chemical irritants and secretagogues and the mechanism of monomeric IgE signaling will be characterized in cultured mast cells and ..
  35. Nasal Solitary Chemoreceptor Cells: Detection of Pathogenic Bacteria
    Sue Kinnamon; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Activation of the trigeminal nerve either directly by irritants or through the agency of these cells evokes protective airway reflexes such as sneezing, coughing or apnea...
  36. Localized Vulvodynia Pathogenesis: Fibroblast, Yeast, and Melanocortin
    Richard P Phipps; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..arises 1) in a region of the genital tract predisposed to inflammation, 2) in the presence of specific irritants such as yeast, that are 3) exacerbated by genetic predisposition...
  37. Reducing Workplace Chemical Exposures in Nail Salon Workers using an Owner-to-Wor
    THU THUY QUACH; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of hazardous compounds including carcinogens, endocrine disruptors, reproductive toxins and respiratory irritants. However, available training materials lack comprehensive information about safety precautions that salons can ..
  38. Human Corneal Model for Ocular Irritation Assay
    Yulia Kaluzhny; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..An assay and prediction model (PM) was developed which allowed the CFT tissue to distinguish between irritants and non-irritants with 100% accuracy...
  39. Painless and TRPA1: TRP teamwork supports chemical nociception in Drosophila
    VINCENT CARDIN PANZANO; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Numerous plants and animals rely on damaging chemicals to ward off predators, and environmental, chemical irritants have been implicated in human inflammatory disorders, such as asthma...
  40. COMMUNITY BASED STUDY ON OCCUPATIONAL ASTHMA, ECRHS-OA
    Manolis Kogevinas; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..respiratory health effects, with particular emphasis on specific exposures of predominantly female occupations (irritants, detergents and other asthmagens), and of other high risk major occupations which have not been adequately ..
  41. Xenobiotics detection in olfactory epithelium
    Weihong Lin; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Second, the MOE metabolizes and removes inhaled xenobiotics, which include high levels of odorous irritants, air pollutants and microorganisms...
  42. MECHANISMS OF ANTI-NOCICEPTIVE EFFECT OF PROSTAGLANDIN METABOLITE
    Gina M Story; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..ion channel TRPA1 is a proposed cold- and mechanically-gated channel that is also activated by a variety of irritants, inflammatory mediators and products of cellular stress...
  43. DRUG SELF-ADMINISTRATION BY INHALATION IN THE PRIMATE
    Ronald Wood; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..We intend to study physiological affects associated with brief or low-level exposures to upper airway irritants in primates during self-administration and conditioned performance studies. Performance effects...
  44. LUNG AND AIRWAY AFFERENTS AND THEIR REFLEX ROLE
    JOHN COLERIDGE; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..3) To examine the response of bronchial C-fibers to inhalation of cigarette smoke, particular irritants and halothane...
  45. Replacement Ocular Battery (ROBatt)
    GEORGE L DEGEORGE; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..This tiered strategy follows a decision tree that allows for a thorough interrogation of possible ocular irritants. Although four assays are recommended, in most cases only two or three will be used depending on the degree of ..
  46. INDIVIDUAL FACTORS IN NASAL IRRITANT SENSITIVITY
    Dennis Shusterman; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..reactivity (the tendency of individuals to experience reflex-mediated physiologic changes when exposed to irritants)...
  47. TGF-BETA FOR PLEURODESIS
    Kirk Lane; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..These compounds currently fall in to two categories, irritants or cytotoxins...
  48. NASAL IRRITANT SENSITIVITY AND ALLERGIC RHINITIS
    Dennis Shusterman; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..Marked variation in individual sensitivity to airborne irritants has been reported epidemiologically and clinically, with some observers linking nasal reactivity to irritants ..
  49. EFFECTS OF TREATMENT ON EARLY ONSET PERIODONTITIS
    Frank Roberts; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..following scaling and root planing may be due to factors other than just the removal of plaque, calculus, and irritants. This project will enhance our understanding of the effects of root debridement on host defense systems and help ..
  50. Regulaton of Urothelial Growth
    Tung Tien Sun; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..defects can result in a loss of the permeability barrier function allowing the penetration of some urine irritants into the bladder wall thus causing pain in interstitial cystitis...
  51. GENETICS OF CHEMOSENSORY RESPONSES TO SALTS AND ACIDS
    Alexander Bachmanov; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..monosodium glutamate (MSG), inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP)], acids (hydrochloric, citric and L-glutamic) and irritants (capsaicin and menthol) in thirty inbred mouse strains using 48-h-two-bottle preference tests...
  52. A DRUG RELEASING URINARY CATHETER
    Robert Whalen; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..Test specimens of each candidate formulation will then be evaluated for their potential as mucosal irritants in an adult rabbit animal model for a 7 day period of contact...
  53. MUCOCILIARY TRANSPORT--INHIBITORY NEURAL REGULATION
    DONOVAN YEATES; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Inhalation of acidic irritants, such as SO2, primarily activate inhibitory neural pathways that suppress ciliary activity yet via cause a ..
  54. IRRITANTS EFFECTS ON EPIDERMAL ANTIGEN PRESENTATION
    Anthony Gaspari; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..b>Irritants and allergens damage the epidermis, resulting in the release of self-antigens...
  55. BRAIN REGULATING GASTRIC ACID FUNCTION BY NEUROPEPTIDES
    YVETTE TACHE; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..function, particularly as it relates to the gastric responses to sham feeding, 2-deoxy-D-glucose, and mild irritants; (2) to prove that medullary TRH-induced vagal cholinergic gastric responses are mediated or modulated by ..
  56. TOXIC RESPONSES OF NASAL MUCOSA TO INHALED IRRITANTS
    John Morris; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..The characteristic decrease in breathing frequency that results from such sensory irritants is well studied, however, the local nasal mucosal effects are very poorly defined despite the fact that ..
  57. HAEMOPHILUS--RAMIFICATIONS OF PILUS MEDIATED ADHERENCE
    GRAHAM KRASAN; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..process is prior injury of the respiratory mucosa associated with respiratory viral infections and environmental irritants (e.g. smoking)...
  58. A genetic screen for modulators of nociception
    AJAY K DHAKA; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..tools to characterize genetic mutations that alter the behavioral response to heat, cold, mechanical or chemical irritants. Our preliminary data demonstrate that we can identify mutations affecting distinct pain modalities...
  59. RIBONUCLEOSIDES FOR PREDICTION OF SKIN IRRITATION
    WILLIAM REIFENRATH; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..that alterations in ribonucleosides from excised skin will serve as sensitive indicators of exposure to skin irritants. We further propose to conduct such tests using a novel diffusion cell array based on standard 24 well culture ..
  60. GENETIC FINGERPRINTS OF IRRITANT CONTACT DERMATITIS
    Paul Bergstresser; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..of relatively large numbers (> 18,000) of genes in mouse skin after application of compounds known to be irritants (and allergens)...
  61. SULFUR OXIDES EFFECTS ON LUNG FUNCTION IN ASTHMATICS
    Jane Koenig; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..For instance, it is suspected that young children may be especially sensitive to inhaled irritants due to their small airway size and immature immunologic system...
  62. Pathophysiology of Mucus Hypersecretion in Asthma
    Christopher Evans; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..provides a viscoelastic barrier that acts as a primary defense mechanism against pathogens and noxious irritants. The lungs of humans with asthma and of animal models of asthma are rich in mucin-containing goblet cells and ..
  63. Cytokine pathways and orofacial pain
    Ke Ren; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Aim 1 will characterize the development of orofacial hyperaIgesia/allodynia induced by inflammatory irritants. Aim 2 will investigate the activation of cytokines and related pathways in the CNS after injection of ..
  64. NUTRIENT INDUCED GASTRIC PROTECTION--ROLE OF CCK
    David Mercer; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..digestive process, but also promote intestinal health and render the gut more resistant to damage from luminal irritants that often accompany a meal...