disinfectants

Summary

Summary: Substances used on inanimate objects that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. Disinfectants are classed as complete, destroying spores as well as vegetative forms of microorganisms, or incomplete, destroying only vegetative forms of the organisms. They are distinguished from antiseptics, which are local anti-infective agents used on humans and other animals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)

Top Publications

  1. pmc Antiseptics and disinfectants: activity, action, and resistance
    G McDonnell
    STERIS Corporation, St Louis Operations, St Louis, Missouri 63166, USA
    Clin Microbiol Rev 12:147-79. 1999
  2. ncbi Occurrence, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity of regulated and emerging disinfection by-products in drinking water: a review and roadmap for research
    Susan D Richardson
    National Exposure Research Laboratory, US Environmental Protection Agency, Athens, GA 30605, USA
    Mutat Res 636:178-242. 2007
  3. ncbi Efficiency of water disinfectants against Legionella pneumophila and Acanthamoeba
    Mathieu Dupuy
    Universite de Poitiers, Laboratoire de Chimie et Microbiologie de l Eau, CNRS UMR 6008, 40 Avenue du Recteur Pineau, 86022 Poitiers Cedex, France
    Water Res 45:1087-94. 2011
  4. ncbi Long-term survival of Legionella pneumophila in the viable but nonculturable state after monochloramine treatment
    Laëtitia Alleron
    Laboratoire de Chimie et de Microbiologie de l Eau, University of Poitiers, 86022, Poitiers Cedex, France
    Curr Microbiol 57:497-502. 2008
  5. pmc Epidemiologic background of hand hygiene and evaluation of the most important agents for scrubs and rubs
    Gunter Kampf
    Bode Chemie GmbH and Co, Scientific Affairs, Melanchthonstrasse 27, 22525 Hamburg, Germany
    Clin Microbiol Rev 17:863-93, table of contents. 2004
  6. pmc Mycobacterium avium infections of Acanthamoeba strains: host strain variability, grazing-acquired infections, and altered dynamics of inactivation with monochloramine
    David Berry
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 2125, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 76:6685-8. 2010
  7. ncbi Impact of the amount of hand rub applied in hygienic hand disinfection on the reduction of microbial counts on hands
    P Goroncy-Bermes
    Schülke and Mayr GmbH, Norderstedt, Germany
    J Hosp Infect 74:212-8. 2010
  8. ncbi Inactivation of enteric microorganisms with chemical disinfectants, UV irradiation and combined chemical/UV treatments
    J Koivunen
    Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Kuopio, POB 1627, FIN 70211 Kuopio, Finland
    Water Res 39:1519-26. 2005
  9. ncbi Literature review--efficacy of various disinfectants against Legionella in water systems
    B R Kim
    Ford Research Laboratory, Dearborn, MI 48121, USA
    Water Res 36:4433-44. 2002
  10. pmc Inactivation of murine norovirus by chemical biocides on stainless steel
    Thomas Magulski
    Mikrolab GmbH, Norderoog 2, D 28259 Bremen, Germany
    BMC Infect Dis 9:107. 2009

Detail Information

Publications313 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc Antiseptics and disinfectants: activity, action, and resistance
    G McDonnell
    STERIS Corporation, St Louis Operations, St Louis, Missouri 63166, USA
    Clin Microbiol Rev 12:147-79. 1999
    Antiseptics and disinfectants are extensively used in hospitals and other health care settings for a variety of topical and hard-surface applications...
  2. ncbi Occurrence, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity of regulated and emerging disinfection by-products in drinking water: a review and roadmap for research
    Susan D Richardson
    National Exposure Research Laboratory, US Environmental Protection Agency, Athens, GA 30605, USA
    Mutat Res 636:178-242. 2007
    Disinfection by-products (DBPs) are formed when disinfectants (chlorine, ozone, chlorine dioxide, or chloramines) react with naturally occurring organic matter, anthropogenic contaminants, bromide, and iodide during the production of ..
  3. ncbi Efficiency of water disinfectants against Legionella pneumophila and Acanthamoeba
    Mathieu Dupuy
    Universite de Poitiers, Laboratoire de Chimie et Microbiologie de l Eau, CNRS UMR 6008, 40 Avenue du Recteur Pineau, 86022 Poitiers Cedex, France
    Water Res 45:1087-94. 2011
    ..With this aim, we compared various water disinfectants against trophozoites of three Acanthamoeba strains and L. pneumophila alone or in co-culture...
  4. ncbi Long-term survival of Legionella pneumophila in the viable but nonculturable state after monochloramine treatment
    Laëtitia Alleron
    Laboratoire de Chimie et de Microbiologie de l Eau, University of Poitiers, 86022, Poitiers Cedex, France
    Curr Microbiol 57:497-502. 2008
    ..VBNC L. pneumophila could persist for long periods and should be resuscitated by amoeba. These cells constitute potential sources of contamination and should be taken into account in monitoring water networks...
  5. pmc Epidemiologic background of hand hygiene and evaluation of the most important agents for scrubs and rubs
    Gunter Kampf
    Bode Chemie GmbH and Co, Scientific Affairs, Melanchthonstrasse 27, 22525 Hamburg, Germany
    Clin Microbiol Rev 17:863-93, table of contents. 2004
    ....
  6. pmc Mycobacterium avium infections of Acanthamoeba strains: host strain variability, grazing-acquired infections, and altered dynamics of inactivation with monochloramine
    David Berry
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 2125, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 76:6685-8. 2010
    ..Exposure of M. avium in coculture with Acanthamoeba castellanii to monochloramine yielded inactivation kinetics markedly similar to those observed for A. castellanii alone...
  7. ncbi Impact of the amount of hand rub applied in hygienic hand disinfection on the reduction of microbial counts on hands
    P Goroncy-Bermes
    Schülke and Mayr GmbH, Norderstedt, Germany
    J Hosp Infect 74:212-8. 2010
    ..In conclusion, the applied volume for hygienic hand rub should not fall below 3 mL in order to achieve maximum benefit...
  8. ncbi Inactivation of enteric microorganisms with chemical disinfectants, UV irradiation and combined chemical/UV treatments
    J Koivunen
    Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Kuopio, POB 1627, FIN 70211 Kuopio, Finland
    Water Res 39:1519-26. 2005
    ..Microbial cultures were added into a synthetic wastewater-like test medium and treated by chemical disinfectants with a 10 min contact time, UV irradiation or the combination of chemical and UV treatments...
  9. ncbi Literature review--efficacy of various disinfectants against Legionella in water systems
    B R Kim
    Ford Research Laboratory, Dearborn, MI 48121, USA
    Water Res 36:4433-44. 2002
    ..Therefore, available publications on various disinfectants and disinfection processes used for the inactivation of Legionella bacteria were reviewed...
  10. pmc Inactivation of murine norovirus by chemical biocides on stainless steel
    Thomas Magulski
    Mikrolab GmbH, Norderoog 2, D 28259 Bremen, Germany
    BMC Infect Dis 9:107. 2009
    ..Murine norovirus (MNV) as a surrogate for human NoV was used to study the efficacy of active ingredients of chemical disinfectants for virus inactivation on inanimate surfaces.
  11. pmc Drinking water contaminants and adverse pregnancy outcomes: a review
    Frank Bove
    Division of Health Studies, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 110:61-74. 2002
    ..Nevertheless, the findings of excess NTDs, oral clefts, cardiac defects, and choanal atresia in studies that evaluated TCE-contaminated drinking water deserve follow-up...
  12. ncbi Bacterial adaptation and resistance to antiseptics, disinfectants and preservatives is not a new phenomenon
    A D Russell
    Welsh School of Pharmacy, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF10 3XF, UK
    J Hosp Infect 57:97-104. 2004
  13. ncbi Alcoholic ingredients in skin disinfectants increase biofilm expression of Staphylococcus epidermidis
    Johannes K M Knobloch
    Institut fur Medizinische Mikrobiologie und Immunologie, Universitatsklinikum Hamburg Eppendorf, Martinistrasse 52, D 20246 Hamburg, Germany
    J Antimicrob Chemother 49:683-7. 2002
    ..We investigated the effect of three common alcoholic skin disinfectants, ethanol, n-propanol and isopropanol, on the biofilm formation of 37 clinical, icaADBC-positive S...
  14. ncbi Resistance of bacterial biofilms to disinfectants: a review
    A Bridier
    AgroParisTech, UMR Micalis, F 91300 Massy, France
    Biofouling 27:1017-32. 2011
    ..This review will discuss the mechanisms identified as playing a role in biofilm resistance to disinfectants, as well as novel anti-biofilm strategies that have recently been explored.
  15. ncbi Surrogate viruses for testing virucidal efficacy of chemical disinfectants
    J Steinmann
    Mikrolab GmbH, Norderoog 2, D 28259 Bremen, Germany
    J Hosp Infect 56:S49-54. 2004
    ..infections like hepatitis B and C viruses and norovirus do not replicate sufficiently in cell culture systems, disinfectants with suspected efficacy against these viruses must be evaluated by different methods...
  16. ncbi Biofilms in vitro and in vivo: do singular mechanisms imply cross-resistance?
    P Gilbert
    School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK
    J Appl Microbiol 92:98S-110S. 2002
    ..In such situations the competition, for nutrients and space, between community members of disparate sensitivities far outweighs any potential benefits bestowed by the changes in an individual's antimicrobial susceptibility...
  17. pmc The biocide chlorine dioxide stimulates biofilm formation in Bacillus subtilis by activation of the histidine kinase KinC
    Moshe Shemesh
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA
    J Bacteriol 192:6352-6. 2010
    ..Importantly, strains unable to make a matrix were hypersensitive to ClO(2), indicating that biofilm formation is a defensive response that helps protect cells from the toxic effects of the biocide...
  18. ncbi Fungicidal effects of chemical disinfectants, UV light, desiccation and heat on the amphibian chytrid Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis
    Megan L Johnson
    School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland 4810, Australia
    Dis Aquat Organ 57:255-60. 2003
    ..The aim was to evaluate the fungicidal effects of chemical disinfectants, sterilising ultraviolet (UV) light, heat and desiccation, using methods that were feasible for either ..
  19. pmc Outbreaks associated with contaminated antiseptics and disinfectants
    David J Weber
    Department of Hospital Epidemiology, University of North Carolina Health Care System, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 7030, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 51:4217-24. 2007
  20. ncbi Amoebae in domestic water systems: resistance to disinfection treatments and implication in Legionella persistence
    V Thomas
    Department of Public Health Environment, School of Pharmacy, University of Paris, Chatenay Malabry Cedex, France
    J Appl Microbiol 97:950-63. 2004
    ..Monitoring of microbial changes during and after application of various disinfection treatments in a model domestic water system...
  21. ncbi Comparison of the efficacy of a hydrogen peroxide dry-mist disinfection system and sodium hypochlorite solution for eradication of Clostridium difficile spores
    F Barbut
    National Reference Laboratory for Clostridium difficile, Hopital Saint Antoine, Assistance Publique Hopitaux de Paris, Paris
    Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 30:507-14. 2009
    ..To compare a hydrogen peroxide dry-mist system and a 0.5% hypochlorite solution with respect to their ability to disinfect Clostridium difficile-contaminated surfaces in vitro and in situ...
  22. ncbi Difficulties in bringing point-of-use water treatment to scale in rural Guatemala
    Stephen P Luby
    Enteric Diseases Epidemiology Branch, Division of Foodborne Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, National Center for Zoonotic, Vectorborne and Enteric Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 78:382-7. 2008
    ..Even after efficacy was demonstrated within their community and an aggressive sophisticated marketing approach, few households purchased flocculant-disinfectant for point-of-use water treatment...
  23. ncbi The response of Escherichia coli to exposure to the biocide polyhexamethylene biguanide
    Michael J Allen
    School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Museum Avenue, PO Box 911, Cardiff CF10 3US, UK
    Microbiology 152:989-1000. 2006
    ....
  24. ncbi Prolonged treatment of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium with commercial disinfectants selects for multiple antibiotic resistance, increased efflux and reduced invasiveness
    Kimon A G Karatzas
    Zoonotic Infections Group, Division of Veterinary Pathology, Infection and Immunity, School of Clinical Veterinary Science, University of Bristol, Langford House, Langford, Bristol BS40 5DU, UK
    J Antimicrob Chemother 60:947-55. 2007
    To study how disinfectants affect antimicrobial susceptibility and phenotype of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium SL1,344.
  25. ncbi Chlorination byproducts and nitrate in drinking water and risk for congenital cardiac defects
    Marie I Cedergren
    Division of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Department of Health and Environment, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linkoping University, Linkoping SE 581 85, Sweden
    Environ Res 89:124-30. 2002
    ..The individual risk for congenital cardiac defect caused by chlorine dioxide and trihalomethanes is small but as a large population is exposed to public drinking water, the attributable risk for cardiac defects may not be negligible...
  26. ncbi Assessment of enzymatic cleaning agents and disinfectants against bacterial biofilms
    Mona Augustin
    Department of Basic Veterinary Sciences, Section of Veterinary Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, Finland
    J Pharm Pharm Sci 7:55-64. 2004
    ..This study was undertaken to examine the efficacy of the disinfectants including Bio-Ow, Econase CE, Gamanase GC 140, IndiAge 44L, Mannanase AMB, Multifect P-3000, Neutrase, Pandion,..
  27. ncbi Bacterial biocide resistance
    H N Tumah
    Jordan University of Science and Technology, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Irbid, Jordan
    J Chemother 21:5-15. 2009
    ..Nonsusceptibility associated with biofilmforming bacterial cells can be considered an intrinsic nonsusceptibility mechanism resulting from physiological (phenotypic) adaptation cells...
  28. ncbi Comparative transcriptomics of the response of Escherichia coli to the disinfectant monochloramine and to growth conditions inducing monochloramine resistance
    David Berry
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Michigan, 1351 Beal Ave, 107 EWRE Bldg, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 2125, USA
    Water Res 44:4924-31. 2010
    ..These results contribute to the understanding of the bacterial response to disinfectants by characterizing the overlap between growth condition associated stress responses and monochloramine-..
  29. ncbi Additional disinfectants effective against the amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis
    R Webb
    Amphibian Disease Ecology Group, School of Public Health, Tropical Medicine and Rehabilitation Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville 4811, Australia
    Dis Aquat Organ 74:13-6. 2007
    ..Identifying efficient and practical disinfectants effective against B...
  30. ncbi Evaluation of the Shore A hardness of silicone for facial prosthesis as to the effect of storage period and chemical disinfection
    Aimée Maria Guiotti
    Department of Dental Materials and Prosthodontics, Santa Fé do Sul Dental School, Faculdades Integradas de Santa Fé do Sul, Santa Fé do Sul, Brazil
    J Craniofac Surg 21:323-7. 2010
    ..However, the hardness was stable from 6 months to 1 year. It was concluded that the silicone is within the values of Shore A hardness reported in the literature, regardless of the storage period, pigmentation, and chemical disinfection...
  31. ncbi Efficacy and limitation of a chlorhexidine-based decolonization strategy in preventing transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in an intensive care unit
    Rahul Batra
    Directorate of Infection, Guy s and St Thomas National Health Service Foundation Trust, London, UK
    Clin Infect Dis 50:210-7. 2010
    ..We report on the effect of an antiseptic protocol on acquisition of both endemic MRSA and an outbreak strain of MRSA sequence type 239 (designated TW)...
  32. ncbi Resistance of Legionella pneumophila serotype 1 biofilms to chlorine-based disinfection
    I R Cooper
    School of Pharmacy and Biomolecular Sciences, University of Brighton, Brighton, UK
    J Hosp Infect 74:152-9. 2010
    ..This research provides an insight into the resistance afforded to L. pneumophila against high levels of chlorine by the formation of biofilms and has implications for the delivery of potable water...
  33. ncbi Role of copper in reducing hospital environment contamination
    A L Casey
    University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, The Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TH, UK
    J Hosp Infect 74:72-7. 2010
    ..The use of copper-containing materials for surfaces in the hospital environment may therefore be a valuable adjunct for the prevention of HCAIs and requires further evaluation...
  34. ncbi Fluorescent assay based on resazurin for detection of activity of disinfectants against bacterial biofilm
    Alberto Mariscal
    Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Malaga University, Boulevard Louis Pasteur, 12, 29071 Malaga, Spain
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 82:773-83. 2009
    ..respiration indicator, has been developed to assay the antibacterial activity of various substances used as disinfectants against bacterial biofilm growth on clinical devices...
  35. ncbi Drugs in the environment: emission of drugs, diagnostic aids and disinfectants into wastewater by hospitals in relation to other sources--a review
    K Kümmerer
    Institute of Environmental Medicine and Hospital Epidemiology, University Hospital Freiburg, Germany
    Chemosphere 45:957-69. 2001
    ..Additionally, antibiotics and disinfectants are supposed to disturb the wastewater treatment process and the microbial ecology in surface waters...
  36. ncbi Organotins: a review of their reproductive toxicity, biochemistry, and environmental fate
    Jones Bernardes Graceli
    Departament of Morphology, UFES Federal University of Espírito Santo, Espirito Santo, Brazil
    Reprod Toxicol 36:40-52. 2013
    ..With these risks in mind, it is important to improve our knowledge of organotins' effects on environmental health...
  37. ncbi Impact of non-rinse skin cleansing with chlorhexidine gluconate on prevention of healthcare-associated infections and colonization with multi-resistant organisms: a systematic review
    S Karki
    Infectious Disease Epidemiology Unit, Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia
    J Hosp Infect 82:71-84. 2012
    ..The topical use of chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) is intended to reduce bacterial density on patients' skin...
  38. pmc Sustained reduction of microbial burden on common hospital surfaces through introduction of copper
    Michael G Schmidt
    Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Charleston, South Carolina, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 50:2217-23. 2012
    ....
  39. ncbi Hydrogen peroxide vapour decontamination of surfaces artificially contaminated with norovirus surrogate feline calicivirus
    K Bentley
    Microbiology Services Division, Health Protection Agency, Porton Down, Salisbury, UK
    J Hosp Infect 80:116-21. 2012
    ..As the virus is reported to be environmentally stable, effective decontamination following an outbreak is required to prevent recurrent outbreaks...
  40. ncbi Evaluation of the sporicidal activity of different chemical disinfectants used in hospitals against Clostridium difficile
    S Speight
    HPA Microbiological Services Division, Porton Down, Salisbury, UK
    J Hosp Infect 79:18-22. 2011
    ..Thirty-two disinfectants were tested against spores of C...
  41. ncbi Larvicidal activity of synthetic disinfectants and antibacterial soaps against mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae)
    Rui De Xue
    Anastasia Mosquito Control District, 500 Old Beach Road, St Augustine, FL 32080, USA
    J Med Entomol 50:137-9. 2013
    ..000053 ppm resulted in 90% mortality of the introduced fourth instar larvae of Cx. quinquesfasicatus in the outdoor pools. In laboratory and field bioassays, the antibacterial soap resulted in significant larval mosquito mortality...
  42. pmc Reducing Legionella colonization in water systems with monochloramine
    Brendan Flannery
    Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 12:588-96. 2006
    ..Increasing use of monochloramine in water supplies throughout the United States may reduce Legionella transmission and incidence of Legionnaires' disease...
  43. ncbi Free chlorine and monochloramine application to nitrifying biofilm: comparison of biofilm penetration, activity, and viability
    Woo Hyoung Lee
    School of Energy, Environmental, Biological and Medical Engineering, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221, USA
    Environ Sci Technol 45:1412-9. 2011
    ..Free chlorine and monochloramine are commonly used as secondary drinking water disinfectants, but monochloramine is perceived to penetrate biofilm better than free chlorine...
  44. ncbi Mechanisms of antimicrobial action of antiseptics and disinfectants: an increasingly important area of investigation
    A D Russell
    Welsh School of Pharmacy, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF10 3XF, UK
    J Antimicrob Chemother 49:597-9. 2002
  45. ncbi Antibacterial efficacy of disinfectants against some gramnegative bacteria
    V Majtan
    Institute of Preventive and Clinical Medicine, Limbova 14, 833 01 Bratislava 37, Slovak Republic
    Cent Eur J Public Health 10:104-6. 2002
    The antibacterial effect of 11 new commercially manufactured disinfectants on clinical isolates of Salmonella typhimurium DT104, Serratia marcescens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was studied...
  46. ncbi Antimicrobial activity and effectiveness of a combination of sodium hypochlorite and hydrogen peroxide in killing and removing Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms from surfaces
    G A DeQueiroz
    Audubon Sugar Institute, Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, St Gabriel, LA 70776, USA
    J Appl Microbiol 103:794-802. 2007
    ..aeruginosa biofilms on aluminum or stainless steel surfaces...
  47. ncbi Biodiversity of amoebae and amoebae-resisting bacteria in a drinking water treatment plant
    Vincent Thomas
    Center for Research on Intracellular Bacteria, Institute of Microbiology, Faculty of Biology and Medicine, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland
    Environ Microbiol 10:2728-45. 2008
    ..As amoebae mainly multiply in sand and GAC filters, optimization of filter backwash procedures probably offers a possibility to better control these protists and the risk associated with their intracellular hosts...
  48. ncbi Comparative analysis of antibiotic and antimicrobial biocide susceptibility data in clinical isolates of methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa between 1989 and 2000
    R J W Lambert
    R2 Scientific, Sharnbrook, Bedfordshire, UK
    J Appl Microbiol 97:699-711. 2004
    ..To analyse population minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) data from clinical strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa for changes over a 10-year period and to look for correlations between the antimicrobials tested...
  49. ncbi Mortality from lymphohematopoietic malignancies among workers in formaldehyde industries
    Michael Hauptmann
    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Natl Cancer Inst 95:1615-23. 2003
    ..We extended follow-up of a cohort of industrial workers to evaluate the association between formaldehyde exposure and lymphohematopoietic cancers...
  50. ncbi Efficacy of electrolyzed water and an acidic formulation compared with regularly used chemical sanitizers for tableware sanitization during mechanical and manual ware-washing protocols
    Aldo Handojo
    Department of Food Science and Technology, The Ohio State University, 2015 Fyffe Road, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA
    J Food Prot 72:1315-20. 2009
    ..4 and >6.0 log CFU per tableware item, respectively. This study revealed that NEW and the acidic formulation are as effective as the other chemical sanitizers for food contact surface sanitization in manual and mechanical ware washing...
  51. ncbi Mixed species biofilms of Listeria monocytogenes and Lactobacillus plantarum show enhanced resistance to benzalkonium chloride and peracetic acid
    Stijn van der Veen
    Top Institute Food and Nutrition TIFN, Nieuwe Kanaal 9A, 6709 PA Wageningen, The Netherlands
    Int J Food Microbiol 144:421-31. 2011
    ..strains EGD-e and LR-991, with Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 as secondary species, and their resistance to the disinfectants benzalkonium chloride and peracetic acid...
  52. pmc Hypervirulent Clostridium difficile PCR-ribotypes exhibit resistance to widely used disinfectants
    Lisa F Dawson
    Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 6:e25754. 2011
    ..We assessed sporulation and susceptibility of three PCR-ribotypes; 012, 017 and 027 to four classes of disinfectants; chlorine releasing agents (CRAs), peroxygens, quaternary ammonium compounds (QAC) and biguanides...
  53. ncbi Disinfection of Acinetobacter baumannii-contaminated surfaces relevant to medical treatment facilities with ultraviolet C light
    Vipin K Rastogi
    BioDefense Team, Research and Technology Directorate, U S Army Edgewood Chemical and Biological Center, Aberdeen Proving Grounds, MD 21010, USA
    Mil Med 172:1166-9. 2007
    ..These results establish that metal surfaces can be decontaminated with UVC irradiation and boiling treatment is effective for scrub decontamination...
  54. ncbi Legionella pneumophila associated with the protozoan Hartmannella vermiformis in a model multi-species biofilm has reduced susceptibility to disinfectants
    R M Donlan
    Epidemiology and Laboratory Branch, Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta 30333, USA
    Biofouling 21:1-7. 2005
    Legionella pneumophila will infect biofilm-associated protozoa, and in this way might be protected from disinfectants in potable water systems...
  55. ncbi Clinical effectiveness of alcohol-based products in increasing hand hygiene compliance and reducing infection rates: a systematic review
    A Stout
    NHS Quality Improvement Scotland, Glasgow, UK
    J Hosp Infect 66:308-12. 2007
    ....
  56. ncbi Decontamination of rooms, medical equipment and ambulances using an aerosol of hydrogen peroxide disinfectant
    B M Andersen
    Department of Hospital Infection, Ulleval University Hospital, Oslo, Norway
    J Hosp Infect 62:149-55. 2006
    ..This is especially important for inner parts of medical equipment that cannot be ventilated during the decontamination process...
  57. pmc Resistance of Listeria monocytogenes biofilms to sanitizing agents in a simulated food processing environment
    Y Pan
    North Carolina Agricultural Research Service, Department of Food Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 7624, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 72:7711-7. 2006
    ..These data suggest that the resistance of the treated biofilms to sanitizing agents may be due to attributes of extracellular polymeric substances and is not an intrinsic attribute of the cells in the biofilm...
  58. ncbi Efficacy of various spray disinfectants on irreversible hydrocolloid impressions
    H S Westerholm
    USAF Medical Center, Lackland Air Force Base, Texas
    Int J Prosthodont 5:47-54. 1992
    ..25% sodium hypochlorite and Impresept in all tests except against B subtilis. Full-strength sodium hypochlorite (5.25%) was the most effective disinfectant overall and required the shortest contact time...
  59. pmc Effectiveness of alcohol-based hand disinfectants in a public administration: impact on health and work performance related to acute respiratory symptoms and diarrhoea
    Nils Olaf Hübner
    Institute of Hygiene and Environmental Medicine, Walter Rathenau Strasse 49 A 17487 Greifswald, Germany
    BMC Infect Dis 10:250. 2010
    ..Hand disinfection is acknowledged as key element for infection control, but its effect in open, work place settings is unclear...
  60. ncbi Airborne hydrogen peroxide for disinfection of the hospital environment and infection control: a systematic review
    M E Falagas
    Alfa Institute of Biomedical Sciences AIBS, Athens, Greece
    J Hosp Infect 78:171-7. 2011
    ..This was associated with control of a nosocomial outbreak in two studies, eradication of persistent environmental contamination with MRSA and decrease in C. difficile infection in each of the remaining two studies...
  61. ncbi Development and application of an in vitro susceptibility test for Acanthamoeba species isolated from keratitis to polyhexamethylene biguanide and chlorhexidine
    Sandhya Narasimhan
    Microbiology Research Center, Vision Research Foundation, Sankara Nehralaya, 18 College Road, Chennai 600 006, India
    Cornea 21:203-5. 2002
    ..To develop a reliable in vitro drug susceptibility test against Acanthamoeba isolates and to determine the minimum cysticidal concentration (MCC) of the drug...
  62. ncbi The effect of Virkon S fogging on survival of Salmonella enterica and Staphylococcus aureus on surfaces in a veterinary teaching hospital
    Magdalena Dunowska
    Animal Population Health Institute, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA
    Vet Microbiol 105:281-9. 2005
    ..Also, fogging would potentially minimize microbial contamination in the hard to reach areas...
  63. ncbi Validation of biocides against duck hepatitis B virus as a surrogate virus for human hepatitis B virus
    A Sauerbrei
    Institute of Virology and Antiviral Therapy, Friedrich Schiller University, Jena, Germany
    J Hosp Infect 64:358-65. 2006
    ..Indirect immunofluorescent staining allows reliable detection of DHBV infectivity, whereas the hepadnavirucidal effect can be evaluated by quantitative PCR...
  64. pmc Influence of the diversity of bacterial isolates from drinking water on resistance of biofilms to disinfection
    Lúcia Chaves Simões
    IBB Institute for Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Centre of Biological Engineering, University of Minho, Braga, Portugal
    Appl Environ Microbiol 76:6673-9. 2010
    ..calcoaceticus were the most susceptible. A. calcoaceticus formed single biofilms susceptible to SHC; however, its presence in multispecies biofilms increased their resistance to disinfection...
  65. ncbi Exposure to disinfection by-products, fetal growth, and prematurity: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    James Grellier
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom
    Epidemiology 21:300-13. 2010
    ..Exposure to total trihalomethanes in drinking water has been associated with several adverse birth outcomes relating to fetal growth and prematurity...
  66. ncbi Ethylene oxide and breast cancer incidence in a cohort study of 7576 women (United States)
    Kyle Steenland
    National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health NIOSH, Cincinnati, Ohio 30322, USA
    Cancer Causes Control 14:531-9. 2003
    ..ETO causes mammary tumors in mice, and has been associated with breast cancer incidence in one small epidemiologic study...
  67. ncbi Exposure of Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to triclosan induces a species-specific response, including drug detoxification
    Andrew M Bailey
    Antimicrobial Agents Research Group, School of Immunity and Infection, The Medical School, The University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
    J Antimicrob Chemother 64:973-85. 2009
    ..In this work, we investigate the effect of triclosan exposure in order to ascertain the response of two species to the presence of this widely used biocide...
  68. ncbi Fast, broad-range disinfection of bacteria, fungi, viruses and prions
    Michael Beekes
    P24, Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies, Robert Koch Institut, Nordufer 20, 13353 Berlin, Germany
    J Gen Virol 91:580-9. 2010
    Effective disinfectants are of key importance for the safe handling and reprocessing of surgical instruments...
  69. ncbi Occurrence, synthesis, and mammalian cell cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of haloacetamides: an emerging class of nitrogenous drinking water disinfection byproducts
    Michael J Plewa
    College of Agricultural, Consumer and Environmental Sciences, Department of Crop Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, 1101 West Peabody Drive, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA
    Environ Sci Technol 42:955-61. 2008
    ..Log P was not a factor for monohaloacetamides but may play a role in the genotoxicity of trihaloacetamides and possible activation of dihaloacetamides by intracellular GSH and -SH compounds...
  70. ncbi A randomized controlled trial of household-based flocculant-disinfectant drinking water treatment for diarrhea prevention in rural Guatemala
    Megan E Reller
    Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 69:411-9. 2003
    ..In a setting where diarrhea was a leading cause of death, intermittent use of home water treatment with flocculant-disinfectant decreased the incidence of diarrhea...
  71. ncbi Occurrence of a new generation of disinfection byproducts
    Stuart W Krasner
    Metropolitan Water District of Southern California, 700 Moreno Avenue, La Verne, California 91750 3399, USA
    Environ Sci Technol 40:7175-85. 2006
    ..was discovered or confirmed at full-scale plants on the formation and control of DBPs with alternative disinfectants to chlorine...
  72. ncbi Evaluation of the efficacy of disinfection procedures against Burkholderia cenocepacia biofilms
    E Peeters
    Laboratory for Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium
    J Hosp Infect 70:361-8. 2008
    ..There was no relation between the ability of the disinfectants to remove biofilm biomass and their potential to kill biofilm cells...
  73. ncbi Household exposures to drinking water disinfection by-products: whole blood trihalomethane levels
    L C Backer
    Division of Environmental Hazards and Health Effects, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341, USA
    J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol 10:321-6. 2000
    ..The results from this study indicate that household activities such as bathing and showering are important routes for human exposure to THMs...
  74. pmc Household based treatment of drinking water with flocculant-disinfectant for preventing diarrhoea in areas with turbid source water in rural western Kenya: cluster randomised controlled trial
    John A Crump
    Foodborne and Diarrhoeal Diseases Branch, Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road, MS A 38, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    BMJ 331:478. 2005
    ..To compare the effect on prevalence of diarrhoea and mortality of household based treatment of drinking water with flocculant-disinfectant, sodium hypochlorite, and standard practices in areas with turbid water source in Africa...
  75. ncbi The effects of biocides (antiseptics and disinfectants) on the endospores of Rhinosporidium seeberi
    S N Arseculeratne
    Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka
    Indian J Med Microbiol 24:85-91. 2006
    No data exists on the activity of biocides (antiseptics and disinfectants) on Rhinosporidium seeberi that causes rhinosporidiosis in humans and animals. On account of the inability to culture R...
  76. ncbi Biocide abuse and antimicrobial resistance--a cause for concern?
    A P Fraise
    Hospital Infection Research Laboratory, City Hospital NHS Trust, Dudley Road, Birmingham B18 7QH, UK
    J Antimicrob Chemother 49:11-2. 2002
  77. pmc Frequency of disinfectant resistance genes and genetic linkage with beta-lactamase transposon Tn552 among clinical staphylococci
    Maan Singh Sidhu
    MATFORSK, Norwegian Food Research Institute, N 1430 As, Norway
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 46:2797-803. 2002
    ..These results indicate that qac resistance genes are common and that linkage between resistance to disinfectants and penicillin resistance occurs frequently in clinical isolates in Norway...
  78. ncbi Induction of mexCD-oprJ operon for a multidrug efflux pump by disinfectants in wild-type Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1
    Yuji Morita
    Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University, Tsushima, Okayama 700 8530, Japan
    J Antimicrob Chemother 51:991-4. 2003
    ..MexCD-OprJ was induced by clinically important disinfectants such as benzalkonium chloride and chlorhexidine gluconate, and by some cytotoxic agents such as ..
  79. ncbi Susceptibility of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae to antimicrobial agents and home disinfectants
    Silvana G Fidalgo
    Department of Microbiology, The University of Western Australia, Nedlands, Australia
    Pathology 34:462-5. 2002
    ..There are little recent data pertaining to antimicrobial susceptibility, or susceptibility to disinfectants that might be used in the environment. The aim of this study was to determine the susceptibility of E...
  80. pmc Rapid evaluation of the mycobactericidal efficacy of disinfectants in the quantitative carrier test EN 14563 by using fluorescent Mycobacterium terrae
    Katrin Steinhauer
    Schülke and Mayr GmbH, Department of Product Development Hygiene Bioscience, Robert Koch Str 2, 22851 Norderstedt, Germany
    Appl Environ Microbiol 76:546-54. 2010
    ..carrier test EN 14563 provides an international standard for evaluation of the mycobactericidal activity of disinfectants under practical conditions...
  81. ncbi Virucidal efficacy of disinfectant actives against feline calicivirus, a surrogate for norovirus, in a short contact time
    Kelly Whitehead
    Reckitt Benckiser Inc, Center of Innovation, Microbiology and Virology Department, Montvale, NJ 07645, USA
    Am J Infect Control 38:26-30. 2010
    ..Presently, there are a limited number of disinfectants effective against norovirus...
  82. ncbi Evaluation of the effectiveness of common hospital hand disinfectants against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, glycopeptide-intermediate S. aureus, and heterogeneous glycopeptide-intermediate S. aureus
    Mandy Wootton
    NPHS Microbiology Cardiff, University Hospital Wales, United Kingdom
    Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 30:226-32. 2009
    ..aureus (GISA) in hospitals poses a significant challenge to hospital infection control teams. The use of disinfectants for both surface and hand cleaning is an essential part of the infection control measures.
  83. ncbi Efficacy of ozone on survival and permeability of oral microorganisms
    M Nagayoshi
    Department of Operative Dentistry and Endodontics, Kyushu Dental College, Kitakyushu, Japan
    Oral Microbiol Immunol 19:240-6. 2004
    ..These results suggest that ozonated water should be useful in reducing the infections caused by oral microorganisms in dental plaque...
  84. pmc Viability of Acanthamoeba after exposure to a multipurpose disinfecting contact lens solution and two hydrogen peroxide systems
    K Hiti
    Department of Ophthalmology, University of Graz, Austria
    Br J Ophthalmol 86:144-6. 2002
    ..Contact lens cases contaminated with Acanthamoeba are a major risk factor for an infection of the eye. In this study the anti-Acanthamoeba activity of three different contact lens storage solutions was tested...
  85. ncbi The inactivation of avian influenza virus subtype H5N1 isolated from chickens in Thailand by chemical and physical treatments
    Suwarak Wanaratana
    Department of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Chulalongkorn University, 39 Henri Dunant Rd, Patumwan, Bangkok 10330, Thailand
    Vet Microbiol 140:43-8. 2010
    ..survival of avian influenza virus (AIV) subtype H5N1 under various physical and chemical treatments, including disinfectants, temperature and pH...
  86. ncbi Importance of environmental decontamination--a critical view
    M Dettenkofer
    University Medical Center Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany
    J Hosp Infect 65:55-7. 2007
    ..With respect to environmental surfaces, the final assessment of whether use of disinfectants rather than detergents alone reduces nosocomial infection rates in different clinical settings still awaits ..
  87. ncbi Mechanisms of actions of sodium hypochlorite in cleaning and disinfection processes
    Satoshi Fukuzaki
    Industrial Technology Center of Okayama Prefecture, 5301 Haga, Okayama 701 1296, Japan
    Biocontrol Sci 11:147-57. 2006
    ..NaOCl) is the most widely used disinfectant in the food industry despite the increasing availability of other disinfectants. Sodium hypochlorite fulfills many requirements as the ideal disinfectant and furthermore it has an excellent ..
  88. ncbi Assessment of the susceptibility of lactic acid bacteria to biocides
    Stefania Arioli
    DeFENS Department of Food, Environmental and Nutritional Sciences, University of Milan, Italy
    Int J Food Microbiol 163:1-5. 2013
    ..Moreover, no systematic co-tolerance between two or more tested biocides was found; that is, strains displaying high MIC values and thus low sensitivity to one of the biocides did not show higher MIC values for the other biocides...
  89. pmc Harnessing prions as test agents for the development of broad-range disinfectants
    Katja Wagenführ
    P24 Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies, Robert Koch Institut, Berlin, Germany
    Prion 6:1-6. 2012
    The development of disinfectants with broad-range efficacy against bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa and prions constitutes an ongoing challenge...
  90. ncbi The antiviral action of common household disinfectants and antiseptics against murine hepatitis virus, a potential surrogate for SARS coronavirus
    Christine Dellanno
    Reckitt Benckiser, Montvale, NJ 07645, USA
    Am J Infect Control 37:649-52. 2009
    ..The World Health Organization recommended the use of household disinfectants, which have not been previously tested against SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV), to disinfect potentially ..
  91. ncbi Compliance with hand hygiene on surgical, medical, and neurologic intensive care units: direct observation versus calculated disinfectant usage
    Simone Scheithauer
    Department of Infection Control and Infectious Diseases, III University Hospital Aachen, 52074 Aachen, Germany
    Am J Infect Control 37:835-41. 2009
    ..Although there have been several reports on compliance rates (CRs) to HH recommendations, data for intensive care units (ICUs) in general and for shift- and indication-specific opportunities in particular are scarce...
  92. pmc Efficacy of hospital germicides against adenovirus 8, a common cause of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis in health care facilities
    William A Rutala
    Department of Hospital Epidemiology, University of North Carolina Health Care System, Chapel Hill, NC 27514, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 50:1419-24. 2006
    ..Twenty-one different germicides (including disinfectants and antiseptics) were selected for this study based on their current uses in health care...
  93. ncbi [Comparison of susceptibility of spores of Bacillus subtilis and Czech strains of Clostridium difficile to disinfectants]
    M Votava
    Mikrobiologický ustav LF MU a FN u svaté Anny, Brno
    Epidemiol Mikrobiol Imunol 58:36-42. 2009
    ..by Clostridium difficile ribotype 027 is the disinfection of a patient environment by reliable sporicidal disinfectants. Sporicidal activity of particular agents is tested on spores of Bacillus subtilis...
  94. ncbi Suitability of two commercial preparations for disinfections against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in veterinary medicine
    Ayhan Yilmaz
    Klinik fur Vogel, Reptilien, Amphibien und Fische, Justus Liebig Universitat Giessen, Germany
    Dtsch Tierarztl Wochenschr 116:180-5. 2009
    Two commercially available preparations from the disinfectants list of the German Veterinary Association (Deutsche Veterinärmedizinische Gesellschaft e. V...
  95. ncbi Comparison of two screening level risk assessment approaches for six disinfectants and pharmaceuticals
    Annemarie P van Wezel
    National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, BA, The Netherlands
    Chemosphere 47:1113-28. 2002
    For three examples of both groups (the disinfectants biphenylol, 4-chloro-m-cresol and triclosan and the pharmaceuticals ivermectin, ibuprofen and oxytetracycline) a relative initial risk assessment (RIRA) was performed assuming a ..
  96. ncbi Virucidal efficacy of povidone-iodine-containing disinfectants
    A Sauerbrei
    Institute of Virology and Antiviral Therapy, Jena University Hospital, Jena, Germany
    Lett Appl Microbiol 51:158-63. 2010
    ..The objective of this study was to evaluate virucidal efficacy of the commercially available povidone-iodine formulations Betaisodona solution and Betaseptic Mundipharma (Mundipharma)...
  97. ncbi In vitro inactivation of feline calicivirus (FCV) by chemical disinfectants: resistance variation among field strains
    Barbara Di Martino
    Department of Scienze Biomediche Comparate, University of Teramo, Piazza Aldo Moro, 45, 64100 Teramo, Italy
    Arch Virol 155:2047-51. 2010
    ....
  98. ncbi Adsorption of active ingredients of surface disinfectants depends on the type of fabric used for surface treatment
    R Bloss
    BODE Chemie GmbH, Development, Hamburg, Germany
    J Hosp Infect 75:56-61. 2010
    ..of benzalkonium chloride (BAC), glutardialdehyde and propan-1-ol from working solutions of three surface disinfectants to four different types of fabric (A: white pulp and polyester; B: viscose rayon; C: polyester; D: mixture of ..
  99. ncbi Correlation between reduced susceptibility to disinfectants and multidrug resistance among clinical isolates of Acinetobacter species
    Kumiko Kawamura-Sato
    Department of Medical Technology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Health Science, Nagoya, Japan
    J Antimicrob Chemother 65:1975-83. 2010
    The aim of this study was to investigate the susceptibility profiles to disinfectants and antimicrobial agents of 283 non-repetitive Acinetobacter clinical isolates obtained in 97 Japanese hospitals in March 2002.
  100. ncbi Inactivation of avian influenza viruses by chemical agents and physical conditions: a review
    P De Benedictis
    OIE, FAO and National Reference Laboratory for Avian Influenza and Newcastle Disease, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie, Viale dell Universita 10, 35020 Legnaro, Padova, Italy
    Zoonoses Public Health 54:51-68. 2007
    ..In this paper, the physical and chemical methods of inactivating AI viruses are reviewed, with particular emphasis on the practicalities of using such methods in the poultry industry...
  101. ncbi A disc-based quantitative carrier test method to assess the virucidal activity of chemical germicides
    Syed A Sattar
    Center for Research on Environmental Microbiology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ont, Canada K1H8M5
    J Virol Methods 112:3-12. 2003
    ..The method has been used with several types of human and animal pathogenic viruses to test the activity of all major classes of chemical germicides against them...

Research Grants66

  1. New Sterilization Method for Contact Lenses and Cases
    DON ELROD; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..improve patient compliance by simplifying their lens care regime and offer significant advantages over current disinfectants-at two orders of magnitude lower concentration the proposed biocide is more effective than hydrogen peroxide ..
  2. Novel vaccine against Norovirus
    Xi Jiang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The wide spread nature of NVs due to the low infection dose and the high stability and resistance to disinfectants makes NVs an easy agent for bioterrorist attack...
  3. Antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and antispore paints
    YUYU contact SUN; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..problems, in this proposed project, we will use polymeric N-halamines, a class of widely used water and food disinfectants, as antimicrobial additives to provide biocidal effects against bacteria (including drug-resistant species), ..
  4. MepRA, A Substrate-Responsive Repressor-MATE MDR Efflux Pump Tandem in S. aureus
    GLENN WILLIAM KAATZ; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Typical substrates for MATE pumps include mono- and bivalent organic cations such as biocides and disinfectants, fluoroquinolones, and anticancer agents. Acquisition of MDR S...
  5. Disinfectant-resistant mycobacteria
    Mary Jackson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..and host-pathogen interactions, there is thus some concern that the widespread use of GTA and related aldehyde disinfectants in clinical settings is impacting on the selection of resistant populations of RGM with possible consequences ..
  6. A Better High-level Disinfectant for Endoscopes and Other Medical Equipments/Devi
    Neera Satsangi; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Disinfectant for Endoscopes and Other Medical Equipments/Devices NARRATIVE Current commercial high-level disinfectants (HLDs) have several limitations, including the exposure of personnel involved in their transportation, storage ..
  7. A Novel Nanocomposite Photocatalyst for Water Treatment
    ANUNCIA GONZALEZ MARTIN; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The use of alternative disinfectants is gaining popularity since they lower the levels of regulated DBPs...
  8. Impact of Occupational Exposure to Disinfectant or Cleaning Agents on Asthma
    Carlos A Camargo; Fiscal Year: 2013
    Abstract Recent efforts to prevent healthcare-associated infections have led to increased use of disinfectants and cleaning agents. Studies suggest that occupational groups with regular exposure to these agents (e.g...
  9. Structural Analysis of Multidrug Transport
    Mark E Girvin; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..making up the functional cycle of the SMR from Staph aureus that provides resistance against common disinfectants, and identify the binding determinants for multiple drugs and inhibitors using solution NMR by: 1) Developing ..
  10. Control and Impacts of Diseases in Zebrafish Research Facilities
    MICHAEL LAWRENCE KENT; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..present study is to improve the health of zebrafish used in research facilities by investigating efficacy of disinfectants and antibiotics to reduce or eliminae infections. Evaluation of impacts of chronic infections by M...
  11. A Better & Stable Cold High-Level Disinfectant Formulation for Medical Equipments
    RAJIV SATSANGI; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Unfortunately, no ideal high-level disinfectants (HLDs) exist, as all products in market have limitations...
  12. 5th ASM Conference on Biofilms
    HAVVA FITNAT YILDIZ; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Many infectious bacteria live in slimy colonies called biofilms where they are protected from antibiotics and disinfectants and can avoid our immune systems;however, some biofilms are useful to mankind and are used to clean up toxic ..
  13. Antibiofilm tubing to reduce occupational exposure to biohazards in dentistry
    Yuyu Sun; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..N-halamines have antimicrobial efficacy similar to that of hypochlorite bleach, one of the most widely used disinfectants in dental and hospital settings, but N-halamines are more stable, less corrosive, and have much less tendency ..
  14. Enhanced Disinfection of Medical Facilities
    DANIEL AVERY; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Aging and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) compromised populations are more prone to infection. Chemical disinfectants (e.g...
  15. Parenteral HCV Transmission: Assessing Risks and Prevention Strategies in vitro
    Robert Heimer; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..equipment, (2) the duration of HCV viability in injection equipment of equipment, (3) the potential for disinfectants to inactivate HCV, and (4) the potential for exposure to infectious HCV in various drug preparation and ..
  16. In vitro refinements for Cryptosporidium parvum
    STEVE UPTON; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..purifiable oocysts, and 4) more easily studying parasite development in vitro following exposure of oocysts to disinfectants without pre-exposing oocysts to solvents or reagents beforehand...
  17. MINIATURE SYSTEM FOR REMOVAL OF DISINFECTION BYPRODUCTS
    JINSEONG KIM; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Unfortunately, disinfection byproducts (DPBs) are formed when chlorine and other disinfectants are used in water treatment plants...
  18. ASM Conference on Biofilms 2007
    Paul Stoodley; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Many infectious bacteria live in slimy colonies called biofilms where they are protected from antibiotics and disinfectants and can avoid our immune systems, however, some biofilms are useful to mankind and are used to clean up toxic ..
  19. Medical Instrument Compatible Disinfectant Generator
    CHARLES TENNAKOON; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..by comparing disinfection capabilities and material compatibility with currently used disinfectants. In addition, the proposed Phase I work is designed to generate parametric data to design and build a device ..
  20. ANIMAL REDUCED IMPROVEMENT REQUEST FOR TWU
    Lynda Uphouse; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..procedural rooms, 2 diet preparation facilities, 2 food and bedding storage areas, a storage a for detergents, disinfectants and cleaning equipment, a 'dirty' cage/bottle washing area, a 'clean' area and a 3-room 'biohazard' suite...
  21. MULTIPLE ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE (MAR) REGULON
    Stuart Levy; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..It provides resistance to antibiotics, disinfectants, organic solvents, and oxidative stress...
  22. NOVEL APPARTUS FOR THE DISINFECTION OF BURN WOUNDS
    Thomas Rogers; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..Ozone technology is beginning to emerge as the preferred alternative to chlorine and chlorine based disinfectants, a market worth billions of dollars annually...
  23. Antimicrobial Dental Devices and Waterlines
    TED REID; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Current disinfection methods (prolonged flushing, daily draining, filters, and chemical disinfectants) require regular maintenance and application, which may be impracticable in a busy Dental practice...
  24. REACTIVE OXYGEN USE IN BIOFILM CONTROL
    David Putnam; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..The latter is attacked via novel deployment of two common generic disinfectants to engender a third potent biocide...
  25. Green Cleaning: Exposure Characterization and Adoption Process Among Custodians
    MARTIN G CHERNIACK; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..study is designed to investigate the use and impact of environmentally preferably cleaning products (EPPs) and disinfectants among custodians, to assess their health effects, and to implement effective strategies to prevent exposures ..
  26. Efflux pump mechanisms for drug recognition/extrusion
    Edward Yu; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..specificity among all known multidrug transporters, ranging from most of the currently used antibiotics, disinfectants, dyes, detergents, to simple solvents...
  27. UNIQUE NON-TOXIC DISINFECTANT FOR DIALYZER REUSE
    NORMAN BRUCKNER; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..The disinfectants most commonly used for reprocessing hemodialyzers include formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde and peracetic acid-..
  28. Disinfectant Efficacy on Surface Bacteria and Biofilms
    Brett Baker; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..I project is investigating an innovative disinfectant product designed to improve on the limited efficacy of disinfectants used in hospitals...
  29. 2006 Drinking Water Disinection By-Product (DBP) Gordon Conference
    Susan Richardson; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Issues to be covered include new reproductive/developmental toxicological issues, human exposure, chemistry of formation, and remaining cancer issues. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  30. Catheter Dwell Time and Risk of Bloodstream Infections in Hospitalized Neonates
    Aaron M Milstone; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..This project will help to develop evidence-based strategies to prevent bloodstream infections among vulnerable infants hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit. ..
  31. Mechanisms Causing Cryptorchidism and Fetal Transformation of Testicular Cells
    D N Rao Veeramachaneni; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Results will clarify the interaction of genetics and EDAs as cause of cryptorchidism. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  32. Evalulation of Echinacea in a Human Rhinovirus Challenge
    Ronald Turner; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ....
  33. Incidence, risk factors, and consequences of neonatal hypothermia in Nepal
    LUKE MULLANY; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Examination of alternate cutoffs for defining hypothermia severity may improve design of low-cost technologies for identification and subsequent management of hypothermic infants in the community. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  34. Student Travel to the Environmental Mutagen Society
    Michael Plewa; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Awards will be made without regard to gender, race or ethnicity. ..
  35. Student Travel to the Environmental Mutagen Society
    Michael Plewa; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Awards will be made without regard to gender, race or ethnicity or disability. ..
  36. Fetal Basis of Sexual Dysfunction: Brain Differentiation
    D N Rao Veeramachaneni; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..By using a relevant and yet practical animal model the proposed studies will advance the knowledge base in pollutant-induced sexual/erectile dysfunction, an area pivotal to reproductive health/success in humans. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  37. Student Travel to the Environmental Mutagen Society
    Michael Plewa; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Awards will be made without regard to gender, race, ethnicity or disability. ..
  38. Calcineurin and Aspergillus fumigatus Pathogenesis
    WILLIAM STEINBACH; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..I will also test the non-immunosuppressive calcineurin inhibitor analogs to decrease the total level of immunosuppression and therefore increase the overall antifungal efficacy of exploiting the calcineurin pathway. ..
  39. SCREEN DEVELOPMENT FOR ANTIMICROBIAL PRODRUGS
    Kim Lewis; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..RESEARCH GRANT TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Numbers Face Page 1 Description, ..
  40. Epidemiologic Evaluation of Perfluorooctyl Compounds
    James Raymer; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..If the exposure effect is limited to a sensitive subset of the general population, our study is more likely to detect an association compared to studies that sample on PFOA/PFOS exposure status in an occupational setting. ..
  41. IRON, ZINC AND FOLATE AND PRETERM DELIVERY
    David Savitz; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..Although all are strongly suspected of influencing risk of preterm delivery, this study should provide evidence relevant to screening practice for infection and vitamin use during pregnancy. ..
  42. Stopping URIs and FLU in the Family: the Stuffy Trial
    Elaine Larson; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ....
  43. PSEUDOMONAS AUTOINDUCER BIOSYNTHESIS AND DRUG DISCOVERY
    Herbert Schweizer; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..These studies should provide a better understanding of the quorum sensing pathways and lead to the identification of novel anti microbial targets and antimicrobials effective against gram-negative pathogens. ..
  44. Studies of the Flp operon in A. actinomycetemcomitans
    Elaine Haase; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The information gained by these studies will ultimately aid in the development of novel strategies for preventing colonization of Aa and subsequent periodontal disease. ..
  45. NOVEL METHODS FOR DISCOVERY OF ANTI-MICROBIALS
    Kim Lewis; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Determination of chemical structure will be performed by a combination of MS and NMR methods. ..
  46. BIODEFENSE THERAPEUTICS FROM UNCULTURED MICROORGANISMS
    Kim Lewis; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Determination of chemical structure will be performed by a combination of MS and NMR methods. ..
  47. Genetic Transformation of Cryptosporidium parvum
    Giovanni Widmer; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Approach: Transformation by electroporation of sporozoites with GFP expression plasmids; detection of transformants in cell culture by fluorescent microscopy, anti-GFP antibodies, or reverse-transcriptase PCR. ..
  48. Genetic Tools for Pathogenic Bacteria
    Herbert Schweizer; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ....
  49. Impact of Hand Hygiene Guideline on Infections and Costs
    Elaine Larson; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..
  50. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF EXERTION, STRESS, AND PRETERM DELIVERY
    David Savitz; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..
  51. Staff Hand Hygiene and Nosocomial Infections in Neonates
    Elaine Larson; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ....
  52. Regulation and function of Pseudomonas drug efflux pumps
    Herbert Schweizer; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Aim 3: Probe other, perhaps global regulators of efflux operon expression, specifically MexS and PA4878. ..
  53. Human Sensory Irritation From Volitile Organic Compounds
    William Cain; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..F) The effect of inflammation upon chemesthetic sensitivity. G) Through measurement of the NMP, confirmation of the peripheral basis for a) temporal phenomena, b) differences in potency, and c) effects of inflammation. ..
  54. Measurement of Fluid Flow Across the Ocular Ciliary Body
    OSCAR CANDIA; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  55. Non-antiobiotic resistance markers for bacteria
    Herbert Schweizer; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..pseudomallei, F. tularensis and Y. pestis, as well as other bacterial pathogens for which one faces similar restrictions regarding use of antibiotic selection markers for genetic manipulation. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  56. Functional Genomics of Cryptosporidium parvum
    Giovanni Widmer; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..parvum. A comparison of the host cell response to C. parvum type 1 and type 2 will be performed to probe the molecular basis of the observed difference in virulence between types. ..
  57. A prospective study of diet and adult gliomas
    Dominique Michaud; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..This study should contribute substantially to our understanding of the relation between diet and the risk of adult gliomas, and might provide opportunities for prevention of this deadly disease. ..
  58. Interdisciplinary Research:Antimicrobial Resistance(RMI)
    Elaine Larson; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..In the final year, plans for a sustainable Consortium on antimicrobial resistance will be formalized. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  59. N-acetylcysteine pharmacokinetics--hemodialysis patients
    Richard Ward; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  60. Crystalline Silica and RSP Control Methods Effectiveness during Concrete Grinding
    Farhang Akbar Khanzadeh; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..For quality control, 28 blank, 30 background and 20 bulk samples will also be collected. Multiple analyses of variance will be used to analyze the data to find the desired combination of factors. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  61. The 17th Annual Conference of the International Society of Exposure of Analysis
    Clifford Weisel; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The primary outcome of the meeting will be the advancement of knowledge of human exposure science. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  62. Occupational Asthmagens in Cleaners: A Focus Group Study
    Ahmed Arif; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The information from the focus group interviews will be used to develop JEM and a draft survey instrument for use among cleaners. ..
  63. DISPARITIES IN ASTHMA AMONG ELDERLY IN WEST TEXAS
    Ahmed Arif; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..A similar comparison will be made to evaluate urban/rural differences. ..
  64. Genetic Susceptibility to Mercury-Induced Immune Dysfunction in Autism & ASD
    Ellen Silbergeld; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  65. Role of Genomic Imprinting in Developmental Neurotoxici*
    Ellen Silbergeld; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..2. To utilize high throughput methods to examine patterns of DNA methylation in candidate genes in sperm and zygote in order to detect the presence of male-mediated effects on imprinted genes involved in early development. ..