caustics

Summary

Summary: Strong alkaline chemicals that destroy soft body tissues resulting in a deep, penetrating type of burn, in contrast to corrosives, that result in a more superficial type of damage via chemical means or inflammation. Caustics are usually hydroxides of light metals. SODIUM HYDROXIDE and potassium hydroxide are the most widely used caustic agents in industry. Medically, they have been used externally to remove diseased or dead tissues and destroy warts and small tumors. The accidental ingestion of products (household and industrial) containing caustic ingredients results in thousands of injuries per year.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Pharyngocolonic anastomosis for esophageal reconstruction in corrosive esophageal stricture
    Yao Guang Jiang
    Thoracic Surgery Department, Daping Hospital, Chongqing, China
    Ann Thorac Surg 79:1890-4. 2005
  2. ncbi Ingestion of caustic substances: a 15-year experience
    Carlos Arévalo-Silva
    Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Hadassah Hebrew University Hospital, Jerusalem 91120, Israel
    Laryngoscope 116:1422-6. 2006
  3. pmc Corrosive injury to upper gastrointestinal tract: Still a major surgical dilemma
    Siew Min Keh
    The Royal National Nose, Throat and Ear Hospital, London, WC1X 8DA, United Kingdom
    World J Gastroenterol 12:5223-8. 2006
  4. ncbi What is new in esophageal injury (infection, drug-induced, caustic, stricture, perforation)?
    Fabio Pace
    Gastroenterology Unit, IRCSS Hospital Humanitas, Milan, Italy
    Curr Opin Gastroenterol 25:372-9. 2009
  5. ncbi Caustic ingestions in children
    Marsha Kay
    Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Children s Hospital, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio 44195, USA
    Curr Opin Pediatr 21:651-4. 2009
  6. ncbi Prediction of bleeding and stricture formation after corrosive ingestion by EUS concurrent with upper endoscopy
    Han Mo Chiu
    Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan
    Gastrointest Endosc 60:827-33. 2004
  7. pmc Chemical injuries of the oesophagus: aetiopathological issues in Nigeria
    Martins O Thomas
    Lagos University Teaching Hospital College of Medicine of University of Lagos, Nigeria
    J Cardiothorac Surg 4:56. 2009
  8. ncbi Post-corrosive late complications in esophagus and stomach--role of the esophageal rest
    Andon Chibisev
    University Clinic for Toxicology, Clinical Centre, Skopje, Republic of Macedonia
    Med Arh 64:320-3. 2010
  9. ncbi Biological treatment of refinery spent caustics under halo-alkaline conditions
    Marco de Graaff
    Sub Department of Environmental Technology, Wageningen University, Bomenweg 2, Wageningen, The Netherlands
    Bioresour Technol 102:7257-64. 2011
  10. ncbi Evaluation of caustics and household detergents exposures in an emergency service
    M A Arıcı
    Dokuz Eylul University, School of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology, Izmir, Turkey
    Hum Exp Toxicol 31:533-8. 2012

Detail Information

Publications192 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Pharyngocolonic anastomosis for esophageal reconstruction in corrosive esophageal stricture
    Yao Guang Jiang
    Thoracic Surgery Department, Daping Hospital, Chongqing, China
    Ann Thorac Surg 79:1890-4. 2005
    ..The aim of our study is to observe the outcome of pharyngocolonic anastomosis in esophageal reconstruction for diffuse corrosive esophageal stricture involving hypopharynx...
  2. ncbi Ingestion of caustic substances: a 15-year experience
    Carlos Arévalo-Silva
    Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Hadassah Hebrew University Hospital, Jerusalem 91120, Israel
    Laryngoscope 116:1422-6. 2006
    ..The objective of this study was to analyze the circumstance, demographic features, clinical findings, and complications of caustic ingestion in relation to the type and amount of caustic substance...
  3. pmc Corrosive injury to upper gastrointestinal tract: Still a major surgical dilemma
    Siew Min Keh
    The Royal National Nose, Throat and Ear Hospital, London, WC1X 8DA, United Kingdom
    World J Gastroenterol 12:5223-8. 2006
    ..Each patient must be evaluated individually as the clinical picture varies widely. Signs and symptoms alone are an unreliable guide to injury...
  4. ncbi What is new in esophageal injury (infection, drug-induced, caustic, stricture, perforation)?
    Fabio Pace
    Gastroenterology Unit, IRCSS Hospital Humanitas, Milan, Italy
    Curr Opin Gastroenterol 25:372-9. 2009
    ..We will focus separately on infectious, drug-induced and caustic injury of the esophagus and their possible complications such as stricture and perforation...
  5. ncbi Caustic ingestions in children
    Marsha Kay
    Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Children s Hospital, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio 44195, USA
    Curr Opin Pediatr 21:651-4. 2009
    ..The purpose of this review is to outline the current epidemiology, mechanism of injury, clinical manifestations, management and long-term complications of caustic ingestions in pediatric patients...
  6. ncbi Prediction of bleeding and stricture formation after corrosive ingestion by EUS concurrent with upper endoscopy
    Han Mo Chiu
    Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan
    Gastrointest Endosc 60:827-33. 2004
    ..The role of EUS in corrosive injury has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to determine whether concurrent catheter-probe EUS provides additional information that predicts complications after corrosive injury...
  7. pmc Chemical injuries of the oesophagus: aetiopathological issues in Nigeria
    Martins O Thomas
    Lagos University Teaching Hospital College of Medicine of University of Lagos, Nigeria
    J Cardiothorac Surg 4:56. 2009
    ..Chemical injuries of the oesophagus occur worldwide. There is paucity of information on aetiopathological profile of chemical injuries of the oesophagus in Nigeria...
  8. ncbi Post-corrosive late complications in esophagus and stomach--role of the esophageal rest
    Andon Chibisev
    University Clinic for Toxicology, Clinical Centre, Skopje, Republic of Macedonia
    Med Arh 64:320-3. 2010
    ....
  9. ncbi Biological treatment of refinery spent caustics under halo-alkaline conditions
    Marco de Graaff
    Sub Department of Environmental Technology, Wageningen University, Bomenweg 2, Wageningen, The Netherlands
    Bioresour Technol 102:7257-64. 2011
    The present research demonstrates the biological treatment of refinery sulfidic spent caustics in a continuously fed system under halo-alkaline conditions (i.e. pH 9.5; Na(+)= 0.8M)...
  10. ncbi Evaluation of caustics and household detergents exposures in an emergency service
    M A Arıcı
    Dokuz Eylul University, School of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology, Izmir, Turkey
    Hum Exp Toxicol 31:533-8. 2012
    ..The aim of this study was to analyse the caustic and household detergent exposure cases were admitted to the Department of Emergency Medicine at Dokuz Eylul University Hospital (EMDEU) between 1993 and 2008...
  11. ncbi Predictors of esophageal stricture in children with unintentional ingestion of caustic agents
    Tsung Yi Chen
    Department of Pediatrics, Chang Gung Children s Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan 833, ROC
    Chang Gung Med J 26:233-9. 2003
    ..It was hoped that risk factors for the early prediction of esophageal stricture in such patients could be identified in this study...
  12. ncbi Corrosive oesophagitis in Nigeria: clinical spectrums and implications
    A O A Ogunleye
    Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria
    Trop Doct 32:78-80. 2002
    ..Government regulations permitting the sales and procurement of corrosive substances should be strictly enforced and, if not yet in place, should be enacted without further delay...
  13. ncbi Unusual presentation and complication of caustic ingestion. Case report
    Catalina Lionte
    Medical Clinic, Emergency Clinic Hospital, Str Ion Creanga 90, Iasi, Romania
    J Gastrointestin Liver Dis 16:109-12. 2007
    ..The complications were related to the amount of caustic soda ingested...
  14. ncbi Treatment of caustic ingestion: an analysis of 239 cases
    R C M Mamede
    Department of Ophthalmology, Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, SP, Brazil
    Dis Esophagus 15:210-3. 2002
    ..When 2-3 tablespoons are ingested, corticosteroids, in addition to being unable to prevent the formation of esophageal stenosis, increase the risk of other complications...
  15. ncbi Corrosive ingestion in adults
    Kovil Ramasamy
    The Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai Services, City Hospital Center at Elmhurst, New York, New York, USA
    J Clin Gastroenterol 37:119-24. 2003
    ..Stricture formation is more common in patients with second and third degree burns. Corticosteroids may help prevent stricture formation. Esophageal carcinoma may develop beginning 30 to 40 years after the time of injury...
  16. ncbi Critical pH level of lye (NaOH) for esophageal injury
    Ozlen Atug
    Department of Gastroenterology, Marmara University School of Medicine, Istanbul, Turkey
    Dig Dis Sci 54:980-7. 2009
    ..Here, we explore the effects of lye on esophageal epithelial structure and function using rabbit esophageal epithelium as a model of lye ingestion...
  17. ncbi Minimally invasive management of children with caustic ingestion: less pain for patients
    Unal Bicakci
    Ondokuz Mayis University, Samsun, Turkey
    Pediatr Surg Int 26:251-5. 2010
    ..In this study, we evaluate a minimally invasive management consisting of flexible endoscopy, balloon dilatation and intralesional steroid injection in children, with a history of caustic ingestion...
  18. ncbi Caustic ingestion in children: is endoscopy always indicated? The results of an Italian multicenter observational study
    Pietro Betalli
    Pediatric Surgery Clinic, University of Padova, Padova, Italy
    Gastrointest Endosc 68:434-9. 2008
    ..The ingestion of caustic substances can represent a serious medical problem in children...
  19. pmc Caustic ingestion in adults: the role of endoscopic classification in predicting outcome
    Hao Tsai Cheng
    Division of Digestive Therapeutic Endoscopy, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Tao Yuan, Taiwan
    BMC Gastroenterol 8:31. 2008
    ..The objective of this study was to report our clinical experience and to evaluate the role of a 6-point EGD classification system of injury in predicting outcomes in adult patients diagnosed with caustic agent ingestion...
  20. ncbi A standardised protocol for the acute management of corrosive ingestion in children
    Didem Baskin
    Department of Pediatric Surgery, Sisli Etfal Education and Research Hospital, Pehlivanyani Sok 7 4, 34934 Mecidiyeköy, Istanbul, Turkey
    Pediatr Surg Int 20:824-8. 2004
    ..Limiting oral intake and avoiding foreign bodies in the oesophagus seem to provide a good success rate; however, further prospective studies are needed to decrease the incidence of corrosive oesophageal strictures...
  21. ncbi Corrosive esophageal strictures: long-term effectiveness of balloon dilation in 117 patients
    Jin Hyoung Kim
    Department of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Korea
    J Vasc Interv Radiol 19:736-41. 2008
    ..To retrospectively evaluate the long-term results of balloon dilation in the treatment of corrosive esophageal strictures and to identify prognostic factors associated with clinical outcome...
  22. ncbi Ingestion of caustic substances and its complications
    R C Mamede
    Head and Neck Surgery Service, Department of Surgery, Orthopedics and Traumatology, Faculdade de Medicine de Ribeirão Preto, Ribeirao Preto, Brazil
    Sao Paulo Med J 119:10-5. 2001
    ..Caustic substances cause tissue destruction through liquefaction or coagulation reactions and the intensity of destruction depends on the type, concentration, time of contact and amount of the substance ingested...
  23. ncbi What is the utility of selected clinical and endoscopic parameters in predicting the risk of death after caustic ingestion?
    G P Rigo
    Gastrointestinal Unit, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy
    Endoscopy 34:304-10. 2002
    ..We evaluated the usefulness of selected clinical and endoscopic parameters in predicting the risk of death after ingestion of caustic substances...
  24. ncbi Conservative treatment of caustic esophageal strictures in children
    H Z Gündoğdu
    Department of Pediatric Surgery, Hacettepe University Children s Hospital, Ankara, Turkey
    J Pediatr Surg 27:767-70. 1992
    ..of conservative treatment has been higher in patients younger than 8 years of age, and in strictures due to caustics other than lye involving upper third portion and less than five cm of an esophageal segment...
  25. ncbi Ingestion of caustic substances by adults
    Salim Satar
    Emergency Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cukurova University, 01330 Yuregir, Adana, Turkey
    Am J Ther 11:258-61. 2004
    ..It is important that efforts should be made to educate the public about the dangers of caustic substances so that their threat may be diminished...
  26. ncbi Oesophageal strictures caused by the ingestion of corrosive agents: effectiveness of balloon dilatation in children
    E Y Doo
    Department of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Korea
    Clin Radiol 64:265-71. 2009
    ..To evaluate the safety and clinical effectiveness of balloon dilatation in children for oesophageal strictures caused by the ingestion of corrosive agents...
  27. ncbi Is it necessary to resect the diseased esophagus in performing reconstruction for corrosive esophageal stricture?
    Y T Kim
    Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Seoul National University Hospital, Cancer Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea
    Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 20:1-6. 2001
    ..The question of whether or not a resection of the diseased esophagus should be included in the surgical reconstruction procedure of the undilatable esophageal stricture continues to be a controversial...
  28. ncbi Two-stage coloesophagoplasty in children with caustic burns of the esophagus: hemodynamic basis of delayed cervical anastomosis--theory and fact
    Orkan Ergun
    Department of Pediatric Surgery, Ege University Faculty of Medicine, Izmir, Turkey
    J Pediatr Surg 39:545-8. 2004
    ..This study was carried out to survey the outcome in patients with corrosive burns of the esophagus who had undergone 2-stage coloesophagoplasty procedures...
  29. ncbi Thoracoscopic esophagectomy in children
    E K Cury
    Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein and the Division of Pediatric Surgery, Department of Surgery, , , Brazil
    J Pediatr Surg 36:E17. 2001
    ..Although very feasible, it should not be attempted without sufficient training and should be carried out only in specialized medical centers and by surgeons with adequate experience with open esophagectomy...
  30. ncbi Long-term functional results of transhiatal oesophagectomy and colonic interposition for caustic oesophageal stricture
    I E Bassiouny
    Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt
    Eur J Pediatr Surg 12:243-7. 2002
    ....
  31. ncbi Minimally invasive esophagectomy for caustic esophageal stricture in children
    Benedict C Nwomeh
    Children s Hospital of Pittsburgh, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    J Pediatr Surg 39:e1-6. 2004
    ....
  32. ncbi Increasing tendency in caustic esophageal burns and long-term polytetrafluorethylene stenting in severe cases: 10 years experience
    Cuneyt Atabek
    Department of Pediatric Surgery, Gulhane Military Medical Academy, 06010 Etlik Ankara, Turkey
    J Pediatr Surg 42:636-40. 2007
    ..Our small uncontrolled pilot series suggests that intraluminal polytetrafluorethylene stenting may be an effective treatment method to reduce the need for major surgical reconstruction of recalcitrant esophageal strictures...
  33. ncbi Esophageal reconstruction after caustic injury: is there still a place for right coloplasty?
    Hervé Bothereau
    Department of Digestive and Endocrine Surgery, Saint Louis Hospital, 1 avenue Claude Vellefaux, 75010, Paris, France
    Am J Surg 193:660-4. 2007
    ..Through a systematic policy of using the right colon as an esophageal substitute, the authors analyze the reliability of this transplant for reconstruction after digestive caustic injury...
  34. ncbi Effectiveness of bougie dilation for the management of corrosive esophageal strictures
    M Ilkin Naharci
    Departments of Internal Medicine, Gulhane Medical School, Etlik, Ankara, Turkey
    Acta Gastroenterol Belg 69:372-6. 2006
    ..The aim of this study was firstly to determine the relation between agent, inflammation and stricture, and secondly investigate the efficiency of dilation in patients having esophageal stricture due to corrosive oesophagitis...
  35. ncbi [Topical mitomycin C treatment of a benign oesophageal stricture following caustic ingestion in a four-year-old boy]
    T Frohlich
    Pädiatrische Gastroenterologie, Kinder und Jugendklinik, Universitatsklinikum Erlangen, Loschgestrasse 15, 91054 Erlangen
    Z Gastroenterol 45:255-8. 2007
    ..We report the successful use of mitomycin C in a young boy in whom we could achieve ongoing relief of dysphagia after the unsuccessful long-term use of frequent endoscopic dilatations...
  36. ncbi Corrosive oesophagitis in children following ingestion of sodium hydroxide granules--a case report
    Petr Janousek
    ENT Clinic of the 2nd Medical Faculty, Charles University, Paediatric ENT Department, V Uvalu 84, PRAHA 5 Motol, 150 06 Prague 2MF CU, Czech Republic
    Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 69:1429-32. 2005
    ..We include a brief description of the diagnostico-therapeutic algorithm applied to each such patient that was developed through interdepartmental research in Motol Faculty Hospital...
  37. ncbi Caustic gastroesophageal lesions in childhood: an analysis of 473 cases
    Yasar Dogan
    Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey
    Clin Pediatr (Phila) 45:435-8. 2006
    ..Caustic ingestion of alkali substances such as oven cleaner seem to cause more severe injuries. Early admission to the hospital with clinical and endoscopic evaluation and early surgery when required may reduce morbidity and mortality...
  38. ncbi The effectiveness of sucralfate against stricture formation in experimental corrosive esophageal burns
    Z Gunyuz Temir
    Department of Pediatric Surgery, Dr Behcet Uz Children s Hospital, 35210 IIzmir, Turkey
    Surg Today 35:617-22. 2005
    ..In this study, the effectiveness of sucralfate against stricture formation in experimental corrosive esophageal burn is reported...
  39. ncbi [Esophagoscopy in pediatric surgery]
    G Scalfari
    Clinica Chirurgica Pediatrica, Dipartimento di Scienze Pediatriche Mediche e Chirurgiche, Policlinico Universitario Pad NI, Viale Gazzi, 98100 Messina
    Pediatr Med Chir 26:119-23. 2004
    ..They show the importance of this procedure in pediatric population, which provides clear diagnostic answers and represents a good alternative to traditional surgical procedures...
  40. ncbi Trimetazidine reduces the degree of fibrosis in alkali burns of the esophagus
    Vahit Yukselen
    Department of Gastroenterology, Adnan Menderes University School of Medicine, 09100 Aydin, Turkey
    J Pediatr Surg 40:505-9. 2005
    ..The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of trimetazidine (TMZ), an antioxidant agent, on the prevention of stricture development after esophageal caustic injuries in rat...
  41. ncbi The use of a retrievable self-expanding stent in treating childhood benign esophageal strictures
    Chi Zhang
    Department of Pediatric Surgery, Shanghai Children Medical Center, Xinhua Hospital, Shanghai Second Medical University, Shanghai 200092, P R China
    J Pediatr Surg 40:501-4. 2005
    ..The aim of the current study was to investigate whether esophageal stents could be used safely and effectively in the treatment of esophageal stenosis in children...
  42. ncbi Acute pancreatitis as an unusual complication of corrosive ingestion
    Sandeep Nijhawan
    J Gastrointestin Liver Dis 16:345-6. 2007
  43. ncbi Corrosive oesophagitis in children following ingestion of sodium hydroxide granules--a case report
    Petr Janousek
    ENT Clinic of the 2nd Medical Faculty, Charles University, Motol, Prague 2MF CU, Paediatric ENT Department, Prague, Czech Republic
    Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 69:1257-60. 2005
    ..We include a brief description of the diagnostico-therapeutic algorithm applied to each such patient that was developed through interdepartmental research in Motol Faculty Hospital...
  44. ncbi Corrosive injuries of esophagus and stomach--issues in management
    Shashideep Singhal
    Gastroenterology Division, Department of Medicine, Maulana Azad Medical College and Lok Nayak Hospital, New Delhi, India
    Trop Gastroenterol 27:34-40. 2006
  45. ncbi Prevention of stricture with intraluminal stenting through laparotomy after corrosive esophageal burns
    Ru Wen Wang
    Department of Thoracic Surgery, Daping Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400042, PR China
    Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 30:207-11. 2006
    ..We sought to present our experience in preventing esophageal stricture formation using modified intraluminal stenting in patients with caustic burns...
  46. ncbi Role of caffeic acid phenethyl ester, an active component of propolis, against NAOH-induced esophageal burns in rats
    Ayse Ocakci
    Department of Health High School, Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Zonguldak, Turkey
    Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 70:1731-9. 2006
    ....
  47. ncbi Colopharyngoplasty for the treatment of severe pharyngoesophageal caustic injuries: an audit of 58 patients
    Mircea Chirica
    Department of General, Endocrine, and Digestive Surgery, Saint Louis Hospital, Paris, France
    Ann Surg 246:721-7. 2007
    ..The aim of this study was to describe the technique of colopharyngoplasty for the reconstruction of concomitant esophageal and pharyngeal caustic injuries and to evaluate the postoperative course and late functional outcomes...
  48. pmc Nonsurgical management of severe esophageal and gastric injury following alkali ingestion
    R D Abaskharoun
    Division of Gastroenterology, Queen s University, Kingston, Canada
    Can J Gastroenterol 21:757-60. 2007
    ..The role of endoscopy, steroids and acid suppression in the management of such patients is also explored...
  49. pmc Thoracoscopic-assisted esophagectomy and laparoscopic gastric pull-up for lye injury
    Timothy D Kane
    University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Department of Surgery, Division Pediatric Surgery, Children s Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 2583, USA
    JSLS 11:474-80. 2007
    ..We describe 2 children with severe esophageal strictures following lye ingestion, who successfully underwent esophagectomy and gastric pull-up utilizing combined thoracoscopic and laparoscopic techniques...
  50. ncbi [Portal pneumatosis after placement of a nasojejunal tube in a patient with esophagitis and caustic gastritis]
    Belen Perez Gallardo
    Gastroenterol Hepatol 31:105-6. 2008
  51. ncbi Role of allopurinol on oxidative stress in caustic burn: cure for stricture?
    Ozer Makay
    Department of General Surgery, Ege University Hospital, Ege University, Bornova, Izmir 35100, Turkey
    Pediatr Surg Int 23:1105-12. 2007
    ....
  52. ncbi Corrosive injury of the oesophagus in children
    Petr Janousek
    ENT Clinic of the 2nd Medical Faculty, Paediatric ENT Department, Charles University, Motol, Prague 2MF CU, Czech Republic
    Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 70:1103-7. 2006
    ..This study examined a cohort of pediatric patients treated for suspected corrosive injury of the oesophagus in the ENT department between 1994 and 2003...
  53. ncbi [Laryngoplasty with cutaneous tube--methods of surgical treatment in caustic stenosis]
    Irina Achim
    Centrul Medical MEDAS Bucureşti
    Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi 111:175-8. 2007
    ..In all these cases, the anatomical integrity of the recurrent nerve and his branches was preserved in order to obtain a good respiratory function...
  54. ncbi Effects of time of contact and concentration of caustic agent on generation of injuries
    Gustavo M Mattos
    Ribeirão Preto Medical SchoolRibeirão Preto Medical School, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil
    Laryngoscope 116:456-60. 2006
    ..We analyze the effects of concentration and time of contact on the aggressiveness of CS to the esophagus of live animals...
  55. ncbi Are the laws or applications insufficient to prevent children from the hazards of corrosive materials?
    Tarik Gunduz
    Department of Forensic Medicine Eskisehir, Faculty of Medicine, Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Turkey
    Saudi Med J 27:409-12. 2006
  56. ncbi Colchicine in experimental alkaline burns of the rat esophagus: an old drug, a new indication?
    Vahit Yukselen
    Department of Gastroenterology, Faculty of Medicine, Adnan Menderes University, 09100, Aydin, Turkey
    Pediatr Surg Int 22:363-8. 2006
    ..An experimental study was performed to investigate the efficacy of colchicine in the prevention of fibrosis in the alkaline burn of the esophagus in rats...
  57. ncbi Laparoscopic transhiatal esophago-gastrectomy after corrosive injury
    G Dapri
    Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, European School of Laparoscopic Surgery, Saint Pierre University Hospital, Brussels, Belgium
    Surg Endosc 21:2322-5. 2007
    ....
  58. ncbi Infliximab in experimental alkali burns of the oesophagus in the rat
    V Yukselen
    Department of Gastroenterology, Faculty of Medicine, Adnan Menderes University, Aydin, Turkey
    Acta Gastroenterol Belg 71:21-6. 2008
    ..We aimed to investigate the efficacy of infliximab, a chimeric TNF-alpha antibody, in the prevention of fibrosis in an experimental alkaline burn of the oesophagus in the rat...
  59. ncbi Prevention of esophageal strictures in a caustic burn model using halofuginone, an inhibitor of collagen type I synthesis
    Dan Arbell
    Department of Pediatric Surgery, Hadassah University Hospital, Kyriat Hadassah, PO Box 12000, 91120 Jerusalem, Israel
    Laryngoscope 115:1632-5. 2005
    ..We tried to assess whether HF would have an effect on the formation of strictures after inducing caustic esophageal...
  60. ncbi [Therapeutic management and clinical course of severe caustic oesophageal burns in children treated with methyl-prednisolone. Experience at a digestive endoscopic unit]
    Sonia Mazigh Mrad
    Service de Médecine Infantile C, Hopital d Enfants de Tunis
    Tunis Med 82:951-7. 2004
    ..We found no difference between the children treated before the 24th hours and those treated after the 24 hours and those treated with less than 21 bolus and those with more than 21 bolus...
  61. ncbi [Accidental caustic ingestion in Tunisian child. Study of 330 cases]
    Jalel Chemli
    Service de pédiotrie du CHU Sahloul
    Tunis Med 82:411-9. 2004
    ..Three patients of the A group and five of the B group developed stenosis with statistically meaningful difference (p=0.44). Among these eight patients, six required oesophagoplasty and two had a good evolution after esophageal dilation...
  62. ncbi Radiological spectrum of late sequelae of corrosive injury to upper gastrointestinal tract. A pictorial review
    B Nagi
    Sections of Radio diagnosis, Clinical Gastroenterology and Pediatric Gastroenterology, Department of Gastroenterology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India
    Acta Radiol 45:7-12. 2004
    ..To evaluate the radiological spectrum of sequelae of corrosive acid and alkali injury to the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract using barium contrast examination...
  63. ncbi Endoscopic treatment of upper airway and digestive tract lesions caused by caustic agents
    Roberto Saetti
    Airways Endoscopic Surgery Unit, Padua General Hospital, Padua, Italy
    Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 112:29-36. 2003
    ....
  64. ncbi The effect of halofuginone, a specific inhibitor of collagen type 1 synthesis, in the prevention of esophageal strictures related to caustic injury
    Mehmet Faik Ozçelik
    Department of General Surgery, Istanbul University, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, 34622 Istanbul, Turkey
    Am J Surg 187:257-60. 2004
    ..To assess the effects of halofuginone, a specific inhibitor of synthesis of collagen type 1, which is the major constituent of fibrosis, on esophageal stricture formation due to caustic ingestion...
  65. ncbi [Gastric conservation in severe caustic lesions of the digestive tract: is it legitimate?]
    F R Pruvot
    Service de Chirurgie Digestive et Transplantations, CHU hôpital Claude Huriez, avenue Michel Polonovski 59037 Lille cedex, France
    Ann Chir 128:11-7. 2003
    ..To evaluate advantages and drawbacks of a controlled conservative management of patients with severe gastric caustic injuries...
  66. ncbi [High doses of steroids in the management of caustic esophageal burns in children]
    S Boukthir
    Service de Médecine Infantile C, Hopital d Enfants de Tunis, Bab Saadoun, 1007 Tunis Jebbari, Tunisie
    Arch Pediatr 11:13-7. 2004
    ..Esophageal burns are frequent in some countries. Esophageal stricture is a severe complication after caustic ingestion. Its frequency is estimated to 5% and reaches 47% in severe esophagitis...
  67. ncbi The role of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in the diagnosis and treatment of caustic ingestion, esophageal strictures, and achalasia in children
    M J Wilsey
    Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine and Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, Texas 77030-2399, USA
    Gastrointest Endosc Clin N Am 11:767-87, vii-viii. 2001
    ..This article focuses on the role of endoscopy in the diagnosis and care of caustic ingestion, balloon dilation of esophageal strictures, and new developments in the treatment of achalasia in children...
  68. ncbi [Extensive digestive caustic burns: what are the limits for resection? A series of 12 patients]
    N Munoz-Bongrand
    Service de Chirurgie Digestive et Endocrinienne, Hopital Saint Louis, AP HP, Universite Paris VII, France
    Ann Chir 128:373-8. 2003
    ..To report the results of oesogastric resections extended to surrounding organs following caustic ingestion, and to precise indications for resection and results of reconstruction...
  69. ncbi Detection of caustic oesophageal injury with technetium 99m-labelled sucralfate
    A J Millar
    Department of Paediatric Surgery, University of Cape Town, Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa
    J Pediatr Surg 36:262-5. 2001
    ..CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that technetium 99m sucralfate swallow is an accurate technique for assessing oesophageal injury after ingestion of caustic substances. In addition, it may be used to document healing...
  70. ncbi [50 years after ante-thoracic esophagoplasty]
    S I Rapoport
    Klin Med (Mosk) 80:58-60. 2002
    ..Fifty years after antethoracic esophagoplasty the patient's quality of life was rather satisfactory...
  71. ncbi [Clinical-epidemiological characteristics in caustics ingestion patients in the Hipólito Unanue National Hospital]
    María Alba Rodríguez
    Servicio de Gastroenterología del Hospital Nacional Hipólito Unanue, Peru
    Rev Gastroenterol Peru 23:115-25. 2003
    ..The ingestion of caustic substances represents a serious problem, often with devastating consequences on the esophagus and the stomach...
  72. ncbi Is there a difference between the management of grade 2b and 3 corrosive gastric injuries?
    Chittinad Havanond
    Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Thammasart University, Bangkok, Thailand
    J Med Assoc Thai 85:340-4. 2002
    ..To evaluate the differences between treatment of patients with grade 2b or grade 3 gastric injuries...
  73. ncbi Gastric corrosive injury
    Han Mo Chiu
    National Taiwan University Hospital, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan
    Gastrointest Endosc 57:237. 2003
  74. ncbi A novel approach for preventing esophageal stricture formation: sphingosylphosphorylcholine-enhanced tissue remodeling
    Aydin Yagmurlu
    Department of Pediatric Surgery, Ankara University, School of Medicine, Gumus Cad D 14 4 Konutkent 1 06530, Ankara, Turkey
    Pediatr Surg Int 20:778-82. 2004
    ..Furthermore, SPC is effective in preventing caustic esophageal strictures. These effects of SPC occur through its proliferative and specifically its remodeling effects on wound healing...
  75. ncbi [Upper gastrointestinal tract injury caused by ingestion of caustic substances]
    E García Díaz
    Servicio de Aparato Digestivo Hospital Universitario Virgen de Valme, Sevilla
    Gastroenterol Hepatol 24:191-5. 2001
    ....
  76. ncbi Surgical management of corrosive strictures of stomach
    Shaleen Agarwal
    Department of Surgical Gastroenterology, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, India
    Indian J Gastroenterol 23:178-80. 2004
    ..Corrosive injuries of the upper aero-digestive tract are a frequent cause of morbidity in India. We report here our institution's experience in managing patients with corrosive strictures of the stomach...
  77. ncbi Esophageal replacement using a reversed gastric tube for lye stricture in a child: report of a case
    Keiichiro Tanaka
    Department of Surgery, Jikei University School of Medicine, 3 25 8 Nishi shinbashi, Minato ku, Tokyo 105 8461, Japan
    Surg Today 34:868-70. 2004
    ..Therefore, we performed esophageal replacement using a reversed gastric tube, which successfully relieved the obstruction, although she still had slight gastroesophageal reflux 6 months postoperatively...
  78. ncbi The results of caustic ingestions
    Cemalettin Ertekin
    Department of Trauma and Emergency Surgery, Istanbul Medical Faculty, Istanbul, Turkey
    Hepatogastroenterology 51:1397-400. 2004
    ..The purpose of this study is to assess the outcomes of patients who had a history of the ingestion of caustic substances...
  79. ncbi Early and late term management in caustic ingestion in children: a 16-year experience
    F Gun
    I U Istanbul School of Medicine, Department of Pediatric Surgery, Istanbul, Turkey
    Acta Chir Belg 107:49-52. 2007
    ..In conclusion, after caustic ingestion, esophageal rest combined with supporting treatment seems to provide a good success rate with respect to prevention of stricture development and other troublesome complications...
  80. ncbi Venomous snakes of Saudi Arabia and the Middle East: a keynote for travellers
    M Ismail
    Graduate Studies and Research, October6 University, 6th of October City, Main Center 111, Egypt
    Int J Antimicrob Agents 21:164-9. 2003
    ..Traditional manipulations like local incision and suction, use of caustics, oxidizing agents and cryotherapy and the injudicious use of tourniquets are evaluated and criticized...
  81. ncbi [Epistaxis in patients with hereditary hemorrhagic teleangiectasia]
    Ljiljana Jovancevic
    Klinicki centar Novi Sad, Novi Sad, Klinika za bolesti uva, grla i nosa
    Med Pregl 59:443-9. 2006
    ..For those with severe disease, most treatments offer just a hemorrhage-free interval. Experienced otorhinolaryngologists who treat epistaxis in these patients often use the adage "to do as little as possible for as long as possible"...
  82. ncbi Development of a job exposure matrix (JEM) for the textile industry in Shanghai, China
    Karen J Wernli
    Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington 98109 1024, USA
    J Occup Environ Hyg 3:521-9. 2006
    ..Dyeing processes had the highest frequency of exposures, including solvents, acids, bases and caustics, bleaching agents, dyes, dye chemicals and intermediates, and formaldehyde...
  83. ncbi [Nutrition therapy for adult patients with caustic injuries to gastrointestinal tract]
    N A Muñoz Botero
    Grupo de Terapia Nutricional, Hospital El Tunal, Bogota, Colombia
    Nutr Hosp 25:231-7. 2010
    ..To present here the experience of our Nutrition Therapy Team of the Hospital El Tunal, for the nutritional management of adult patients with caustic injuries to gastrointestinal tract...
  84. ncbi The interference component of the acoustic field corresponding to the Long-Range Ocean Acoustic Propagation Experiment
    Natalie S Grigorieva
    St Petersburg State Marine Technical University, St Petersburg, Russia
    J Acoust Soc Am 125:1919-29. 2009
    ..the sound channel axis cannot be formally described in terms of geometrical acoustics due to repeated cusped caustics along the axis. In neighborhoods of these cusped caustics, a very complicated interference pattern is observed...
  85. ncbi Inhibition of microbiological sulfide oxidation by methanethiol and dimethyl polysulfides at natron-alkaline conditions
    Pim L F van den Bosch
    Sub Department of Environmental Technology, Wageningen University, Bomenweg 2, P O Box 8129, 6700 EV Wageningen, The Netherlands
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 83:579-87. 2009
    To avoid problems related to the discharge of sulfidic spent caustics, a biotechnological process is developed for the treatment of gases containing both hydrogen sulfide and methanethiol...
  86. ncbi Phenolic refinery wastewater biodegradation by an expanded granular sludge bed reactor
    F J Almendariz
    Department of Biotechnology, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana Av San Rafael Atlixco No 186 Col Vicentina, Iztapalapa, C P 09340, Mexico, DF
    Water Sci Technol 52:391-6. 2005
    Refinery spent caustics (SC) were diluted with sour waters (SW) in a ratio 1:7, neutralized with CO2 (SC/SW(CO2)) and 83% of H2S was striped during this procedure, remaining an aromatic portion that contained 2123, 2730 and 1379 mg L(-1) ..
  87. ncbi [M.A. Mendes de Leon (1856-1924), a founding father of gynaecology]
    F B Lammes
    Universiteit van Amsterdam, Peppinghof 3, 1391 BA Abcoude
    Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 152:956-63. 2008
    ..He treated this with curettage and drastic caustics, sometimes after using a dilation knife (hysterotome) for the cervix...
  88. ncbi A detailed analysis about penumbra caustics
    Regis Marchiano
    Universite Pierre et Marie Curie Paris 6, and CNRS, UMR 7179, Institut Jean le Rond d Alembert, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05, France
    J Acoust Soc Am 127:2129-40. 2010
    ..In particular, the numerical simulations show the presence of a triple point inside the pressure field. Finally, the theory and the numerical simulations are applied to explain the apparent paradox of non-causality around fold caustic...
  89. ncbi Role of caustics in the formation of networks of amplitude zeros for partially developed speckle fields
    Oleg V Angelsky
    Department of Correlation Optics, Chernivtsi University, Chernivtsi 58012, Ukraine
    Appl Opt 43:5744-53. 2004
    ..Amplitude and phase structures in the vicinity of caustics for a coherent radiation field scattered at a surface with large inhomogeneities were investigated...
  90. ncbi The vertical structure of shadow-zone arrivals at long range in the ocean
    Lora J Van Uffelen
    Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093
    J Acoust Soc Am 125:3569. 2009
    ..show significant acoustic energy penetrating several hundred meters into geometric shadow zones below cusps (caustics) of timefronts computed using climatological databases [B. D. Dushaw et al., IEEE J. Ocean. Eng...
  91. ncbi Interactive approximate rendering of reflections, refractions, and caustics
    Wei Hu
    Institute of High Performance Computing, Department of Computer Science and Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China
    IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph 13:46-57. 2007
    Reflections, refractions, and caustics are very important for rendering global illumination images. Although many methods can be applied to generate these effects, the rendering performance is not satisfactory for interactive applications...
  92. ncbi Caustics mapping: an image-space technique for real-time caustics
    Musawir A Shah
    School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Engineering III, University of Central Florida, Orlando 32816, USA
    IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph 13:272-80. 2007
    In this paper, we present a simple and practical technique for real-time rendering of caustics from reflective and refractive objects...
  93. doi Properties of caustics produced by a positive lens: meridional rays
    Maximino Avendaño-Alejo
    Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnologico, Apdo Postal 70 186, C P 04510, Distrito Federal, Mexico
    J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis 27:2252-60. 2010
    ..Furthermore, we apply the formulas to evaluate the circle of least confusion for a positive lens...
  94. ncbi Reconciling semiclassical and Bohmian mechanics. I. Stationary states
    Bill Poirier
    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, and Department of Physics, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 1061, USA
    J Chem Phys 121:4501-15. 2004
    ..and smooth, well-behaved trajectories, but also by multivalued representational functions that are ill behaved at caustics. In contrast, quantum trajectory methods--based on Bohmian mechanics (quantum hydrodynamics)--are characterized ..
  95. doi Vision ray calibration for the quantitative geometric description of general imaging and projection optics in metrology
    Thorsten Bothe
    Bremer Institut für angewandte Strahltechnik GmbH, Klagenfurter Strasse 2, 28359 Bremen, Germany
    Appl Opt 49:5851-60. 2010
    ..corrections fail in the presence of nonsymmetric or high-spatial-frequency distortions and in describing caustics efficiently. These problems are solved by our vision ray calibration (VRC), which is proposed in this paper...
  96. ncbi The dependence of the intensity of surface scattered signals on surface wave characteristics
    James Preisig
    Dept of Appl Ocean Phys and Eng, Woods Hole Oceanograph Inst, Woods Hole, MA 02543, of California, La Jolla, CA 92093Univ of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand
    J Acoust Soc Am 125:2579. 2009
    ..physical basis for the intensity of surface scattered signals for both isolated specular scattering points and caustics developed in [C. T. Tindle and G. B. Deane, J. Acoust. Soc. Am...
  97. ncbi Characterization of DNAPL from the U.S. DOE Savannah River Site
    Wenqian Dou
    Center for the Environment, Clarkson University, United States
    J Contam Hydrol 97:75-86. 2008
    ..from the fuel and target fabrication facilities that were discharged to this settling basin included acids, caustics, metals and chlorinated solvents...
  98. ncbi Respiratory agents: irritant gases, riot control agents, incapacitants, and caustics
    Craig R Warden
    Oregon Health and Science University, UHN52, Department of Emergency Medicine, 3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, OR 97201, USA
    Crit Care Clin 21:719-37, vi. 2005
    ..These agents have a lower rate of lethality when compared to other chemical agents but could produce many casualties that may overwhelm the emergency medical system...
  99. ncbi Freak waves in the linear regime: a microwave study
    R Hohmann
    Fachbereich Physik der Philipps Universität Marburg, D 35032 Marburg, Germany
    Phys Rev Lett 104:093901. 2010
    ..Semiclassical simulations confirm that caustics in the ray dynamics are responsible for these structures...
  100. doi Enhanced twinkling in left-handed media
    P C Ingrey
    School of Mathematical Sciences, University Park, University of Nottingham, NG7 2RD, England, UK
    Opt Lett 35:3802-4. 2010
    ..This generates caustics that are brighter, fluctuate more, and cause Gaussian speckle at distances closer to the interface than in right-..
  101. ncbi Uniform Semiclassical Approximation for the Wigner 6j-Symbol in Terms of Rotation Matrices (dagger)
    Robert G Littlejohn
    University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 7300
    J Phys Chem A 113:14904-22. 2009
    ..The approximation is uniform in the sense that it applies for all values of the quantum numbers, even those near caustics. The derivation of the new approximation is not given, but the geometrical ideas supporting it are discussed and ..