Genomes and Genes
Summary: Agents that mimic neural transmission by stimulation of the nicotinic receptors on postganglionic autonomic neurons. Drugs that indirectly augment ganglionic transmission by increasing the release or slowing the breakdown of acetylcholine or by non-nicotinic effects on postganglionic neurons are not included here nor are the nonspecific cholinergic agonists.
Publications198 found, 100 shown here
- Sensations from initial exposure to nicotine predicting adolescent smoking in China: a potential measure of vulnerability to nicotineXinguang Chen
Institute for Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Research, University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine, Alhambra CA, USA
Nicotine Tob Res 5:455-63. 2003..Self-reported sensations from initial exposure to nicotine may be a useful indicator of an individual's vulnerability to nicotine. This information can be used for adolescent smoking prevention and cessation interventions...
- Persistent nicotine treatment potentiates amplification of the dihydrofolate reductase gene in rat lung epithelial cells as a consequence of Ras activationJinjin Guo
Cancer Research Center, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02118, USA
J Biol Chem 280:30422-31. 2005..Under p53-deficient conditions, the establishment of a full oncogenic transformation, in response to long term nicotine exposure, is achieved through the cooperation of multiple signaling pathways...
- Repeated nicotine exposure enhances responding with conditioned reinforcementPeter Olausson
Department of Psychiatry, Laboratory of Molecular Psychiatry, Yale University, 34 Park Street, New Haven, CT 06508, USA
Psychopharmacology (Berl) 173:98-104. 2004..Clinical observations indicate that smoking depends strongly upon conditioned reinforcement (i.e., cues support smoking behavior); however, little is known about the effects of repeated nicotine exposure on these processes...
- Euphoriant effects of nicotine in smokers: fact or artifact?Reuven Dar
Department of Psychology, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, 69978, Israel
Psychopharmacology (Berl) 191:203-10. 2007..However, the assumption that these sensations are pleasurable was not tested and may have biased the results...
- Application of a nurse-managed inpatient smoking cessation programPatricia M Smith
Cardiac Rehabilitation Program, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA, USA
Nicotine Tob Res 4:211-22. 2002....
- Treatment of adolescent smokers with the nicotine patchKaren Hanson
Department of Psychiatry, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55414, USA
Nicotine Tob Res 5:515-26. 2003..The results of this study suggest that the nicotine patch is a promising medication and a larger clinical trial of the nicotine patch among adolescents is warranted...
- Smoking cessation treatment among dually diagnosed individuals: preliminary evaluation of different pharmacotherapiesAndrew J Saxon
VA Puget Sound Health Care System, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98108, USA
Nicotine Tob Res 5:589-96. 2003..Additional research is needed to assess medication effects in randomized trials, to explore effects of more intensive treatments, and to assess possible harm reduction from smoking interventions within this population...
- Determinants of the rate of nicotine metabolism and effects on smoking behaviorElaine Johnstone
Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Cancer Research UK Medical Statistics Group, Centre for Statistics in Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
Clin Pharmacol Ther 80:319-30. 2006....
- Adrenergic blocker carvedilol attenuates the cardiovascular and aversive effects of nicotine in abstinent smokersMehmet Sofuoglu
Department of Psychiatry and Veterans Administration Connecticut Healthcare System, School of Medicine, Yale University, West Haven, CT 06515, USA
Behav Pharmacol 17:731-5. 2006..Attenuation of the rating of 'bad effects' by carvedilol suggests that noradrenergic activation may also mediate the aversive effects of nicotine...
- Rate of nicotine onset from nicotine replacement therapy and acute responses in smokersKenneth A Perkins
Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
Nicotine Tob Res 6:501-7. 2004..patch differentially affected cardiovascular responses and perhaps craving but did not influence withdrawal, subjective ratings, and smoking reinforcement...
- Role of nicotine pharmacokinetics in nicotine addiction and nicotine replacement therapy: a reviewJ Le Houezec
Pharmacia R and D Consumer HealthCare, Rennes, France
Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 7:811-9. 2003..Combination therapy (e.g., patch+gum, patch+inhaler), higher dosage, temporary abstinence or smoking reduction (using NRT to reduce smoke intake) may be needed to help more smokers to quit...
- Effects of topiramate on cue-induced cigarette craving and the response to a smoked cigarette in briefly abstinent smokersMalcolm S Reid
Department of Psychiatry, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA
Psychopharmacology (Berl) 192:147-58. 2007..However, less is known about topiramate effects on nicotine withdrawal and craving and its interactions with a smoked cigarette...
- Nicotine addiction: insights from recent animal studiesA M Mathieu-Kia
Rockefeller University, Laboratory on the Biology of Addictive Diseases, Box 171, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021 6399, USA
Psychopharmacology (Berl) 162:102-18. 2002..Recent preclinical behavioral and neurobiological research has characterized important behavioral features and has identified neurobiological substrates that may underlie nicotine reinforcement and addiction...
- Efficacy of the nicotine inhaler in smoking reduction: A double-blind, randomized trialStephen I Rennard
Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198 5125, USA
Nicotine Tob Res 8:555-64. 2006..In conclusion, the nicotine inhaler can help smokers who are unable or unwilling to quit to reduce daily cigarette consumption, which may be a health benefit on its own and may further promote quitting...
- Designing smoking cessation services for school-age smokers: A survey and qualitative studyAndrew Molyneux
Division of Respiratory Medicine, University of Nottingham, City Hospital, Nottingham, UK
Nicotine Tob Res 8:539-46. 2006..Our findings indicate that young smokers would favor school-based services offering confidential professional counseling and NRT...
- Acute effects of nicotine withdrawal syndrome in pilots during flightGeorge Giannakoulas
1st Department of Cardiology, AHEPA Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece
Aviat Space Environ Med 74:247-51. 2003..Pilots who smoke are occasionally obliged to abstain from nicotine intake during flight and may during this period exhibit certain symptoms leading to performance decrement...
- Latent class typology of nicotine withdrawal: genetic contributions and association with failed smoking cessation and psychiatric disordersHong Xian
Department of Internal Medicine, Division of General Medical Sciences, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO, USA
Psychol Med 35:409-19. 2005..However, relatively little is known about how to characterize the severity of withdrawal, including whether withdrawal subtypes exist in male smokers. If so, do these subtypes represent quantitative or qualitative differences?..
- The effect of over-the-counter sales of the nicotine patch and nicotine gum on smoking cessation in CaliforniaMark B Reed
Alcohol and Other Drugs Initiatives Research, San Diego State University, CA 92108, USA
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 14:2131-6. 2005..The results of this study suggest that removing the prescription status of NRT products resulted in an immediate increase in quit attempts and smoking abstinence with the use of nicotine gum or patches...
- Clinical inquiries. What is the most effective nicotine replacement therapy?Lisa J Diefenbacher
Department of Family Medicine, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, Mississippi, USA
J Fam Pract 52:492-4. 2003
- Human functional neuroimaging in nicotine and tobacco research: basics, background, and beyondF Joseph McClernon
Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
Nicotine Tob Res 6:941-59. 2004..We address limitations of studies to date and identify opportunities for future research...
- Treating nondepressed smokers with alcohol dependence in sustained full remission: nicotine patch therapy tailored to baseline serum cotinineRichard D Hurt
Nicotine Dependence Center, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, 200 First Street South West, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA
J Stud Alcohol 66:506-16. 2005....
- Nicotine and familial vulnerability to schizophrenia: a discordant twin studyMichael J Lyons
Department of Psychology, Boston University, Massachusetts 02215, USA
J Abnorm Psychol 111:687-93. 2002..Results are consistent with the hypothesis that nicotine use is influenced by familial vulnerability to schizophrenia, not just clinical schizophrenia per se...
- [Smoking cessation]Saloua Azzabi
Service de Pneumologie, Hopital Charles Nicolle, Tunis
Tunis Med 80:172-7. 2002..The nicotinic sustitution by transdermic track (patch) will give good results providing it is prescribed within the framework of a medical help to wean away from smoking tobacco...
- Smoking cessation program and CYP2A6 polymorphismShinichi Ozaki
Department of Environmental Health, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kitakyushu, 807 8555, Japan
Front Biosci 11:2590-7. 2006..Although treatment of nicotine patch is efficacious to smoking cessation, cases with CYP2A619934/19934 might be more sensitive to nicotine adverse effects and more difficult to quit smoking once they have smoking habit...
- Nicotine, cotinine, withdrawal, and craving patterns during smoking and nicotine nasal spray use: results from a pilot study with African American menPatricia L Mabry
SAIC Frederick, Inc, support to Tobacco Control Research Branch TCRB, Behavioral Research Program BRP, Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences DCCPS, National Cancer Institute Bethesda, MD
Nicotine Tob Res 9:65-82. 2007..When predicting nicotine, cotinine, withdrawal, and cravings, we observed significant interactions between route of nicotine intake and a variety of independent variables...
- Sleep effects of a 24-h versus a 16-h nicotine patch: a polysomnographic study during smoking cessationL Staner
FORENAP Research Institute for Neuroscience, Pharmacology and Psychiatry, 27, rue du 4eme RSM, 68250 Rouffach, France
Sleep Med 7:147-54. 2006..This study was designed to compare the effects on sleep of nicotine patches applied either for 24 h (Nicopatch) or 16 h (Nicorette)...
- Nicotine dependence criteria of the DIS and DSM-III-R: a factor analysisAleksandras Radzius
National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Intramural Research Program, Baltimore, MD, USA
Nicotine Tob Res 6:303-8. 2004....
- Light smoking and dependence symptoms in high-school studentsSimona Soresi
Istituto di Medicina Generale e Pneumologia, Universita di Palermo, Via Trabucco, 180, 90146 Palermo, Italy
Respir Med 99:996-1003. 2005..Dependence appeared more influenced by the smoking history than by nicotine content. Respiratory symptoms were similar in "light" and HN cigarette smokers...
- Does the DRD2-Taq1 A polymorphism influence treatment response to bupropion hydrochloride for reduction of the nicotine withdrawal syndrome?Sean P David
Center for Primary Care and Prevention, Brown University Medical School, Providence, RI 02860, USA
Nicotine Tob Res 5:935-42. 2003..These data suggest that bupropion attenuates specific symptoms of the nicotine withdrawal syndrome and that this effect may be modified by genotype for the dopamine D2 receptor...
- Effects of quitting smoking on EEG activation and attention last for more than 31 days and are more severe with stress, dependence, DRD2 A1 allele, and depressive traitsDavid Gilbert
Department of Psychology, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, Carbondale, IL 62901 6502, USA
Nicotine Tob Res 6:249-67. 2004..Thus, findings support the situation x trait adaptive response model of abstinence effects and emphasize the value of multiple dependent measures when characterizing abstinence responses...
- Postintervention effect of nicotine replacement therapy for smoking reduction: a randomized trial with a 5-year follow-upJean Francois Etter
Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland
J Clin Psychopharmacol 27:151-5. 2007..However, reducing cigarette consumption was associated with a higher chance of subsequently quitting smoking. Nicotine replacement therapy in unmotivated smokers had no deleterious effect on dependence levels and smoking behavior...
- Naltrexone and nicotine patch smoking cessation: a preliminary studySuchitra Krishnan-Sarin
Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06519, USA
Nicotine Tob Res 5:851-7. 2003..These preliminary results suggest that naltrexone augmentation of nicotine patch therapy using procedures designed to optimize the concurrent use of these two medications may be beneficial for smoking cessation...
- What's new in nicotine & tobacco research?Richard Hébert Eb
Nicotine Tob Res 6:191-8. 2004
- The effectiveness of nicotine-patch therapy for smoking cessation in patients with schizophreniaKuei Ru Chou
National Defense Medical Center, School of Nursing, Nei Hu, Taipei 114, Taiwan, ROC
Int J Nurs Stud 41:321-30. 2004..The point-prevalence rates of abstinence from smoking were an abstinence of 26.9% at 8 weeks and 26.9% at a 3-month follow-up. At the 3-month follow-up, the rate of continuous smoking abstinence in the nicotine-patch group was 23.1%...
- Extinguishing the rewarding value of smoke cues: pharmacological and behavioral treatmentsJed E Rose
VA Medical Center, and Department of Psychiatry, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27705, USA
Nicotine Tob Res 6:523-32. 2004....
- Potential reduction exposure products and FDA tobacco and regulation: a CNS call to actionJanie Heath
School of Nursing and Health Studies, Georgetown University, Washington, DC, USA
Clin Nurse Spec 18:40-8; quiz 49-50. 2004..This article provides an overview of PREPs and strategies to help clinical nurse specialists (CNSs) address tobacco harm reduction issues...
- Level of nicotine replacement during a quit-smoking attemptElaine Johnstone
Nicotine Tob Res 6:377-9. 2004
- Electronic monitoring of long-term use of the nicotine nasal spray and predictors of success in a smoking cessation programMarie Paule Schneider
Medical Outpatient Clinic, University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland
Nicotine Tob Res 5:719-27. 2003..Mean daily consumption of the nicotine nasal spray remained lower than expected in most participants, particularly in failures...
- High rate of smoking abstinence in COPD patients: Smoking cessation by hospitalizationBritt Marie Sundblad
Lung and Allergy Research, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
Nicotine Tob Res 10:883-90. 2008..Despite high costs for this aggressive smoking cessation program, beneficial economic effects are likely to be obtained in the long run...
- What's new in Nicotine & Tobacco Research?Richard Hebert
Nicotine Tob Res 9:309-13. 2007
- What's new in nicotine & tobacco research?Richard Hebert
Nicotine Tob Res 6:577-81. 2004
- The subjective effects of nicotine: methodological issues, a review of experimental studies, and recommendations for future researchDavid Kalman
Department of Psychiatry, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA
Nicotine Tob Res 4:25-70. 2002..The review concludes with a discussion of putative mechanisms that may mediate the interaction between nicotine and moderating variables on affect and with suggestions for future research...
- Reactivity to nicotine cues over repeated cue reactivity sessionsSteven D LaRowe
Center for Drug and Alcohol Programs, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Medical University of South Carolina MUSC, Charleston SC, 29425, USA
Addict Behav 32:2888-99. 2007..Results suggest that, under the described experimental parameters, craving can be reliably elicited over repeated cue reactivity sessions...
- Nicotine's effects on attentional efficiency in alcoholicsSara Jo Nixon
Department of Psychiatry, McKnight Brain Institute, Newell, Gainesville, Florida 32611, USA
Alcohol Clin Exp Res 31:2083-91. 2007..The current study was conducted to address this question and to test the hypothesis that alcoholics who are regular smokers are more sensitive to the effects of nicotine on cognition as compared to regular smoking community controls...
- Nicotine metabolite ratio as a predictor of cigarette consumptionNeal L Benowitz
Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143 1220, USA
Nicotine Tob Res 5:621-4. 2003..This finding supports the hypothesis that the rate of nicotine metabolism is a determinant of the level of cigarette consumption and supports the use of the 3-HC:cotinine ratio as a noninvasive marker of nicotine metabolism...
- What's new in nicotine & tobacco research?Richard Hebert
Nicotine Tob Res 10:747-55. 2008
- Pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation during pregnancyNeal Benowitz
San Francisco General Hospital Medical Center, The Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143 1220, USA
Nicotine Tob Res 6:S189-202. 2004
- Both smoking reduction with nicotine replacement therapy and motivational advice increase future cessation among smokers unmotivated to quitMatthew J Carpenter
Department of Psychology, University of Vermont, USA
J Consult Clin Psychol 72:371-81. 2004..01). Results indicate smoking reduction using NRT does not undermine cessation but rather increases the likelihood of quitting to a degree similar to motivational advice...
- Bupropion SR and counseling for smoking cessation in actual practice: predictors of outcomeGary E Swan
Center for Health Sciences, SRI International, Menlo Park, CA 94025, USA
Nicotine Tob Res 5:911-21. 2003..The results are discussed in terms of their implications for the need for more effective treatments in general, and the role of individual differences in the likelihood of returning to smoking following treatment for quitting...
- The impact of smoking cessation on objective and subjective markers of sleep: review, synthesis, and recommendationsIan M Colrain
Human Sleep Research Program, SRI International, Menlo Park, CA 94025, USA
Nicotine Tob Res 6:913-25. 2004....
- A comparison of urinary biomarkers of tobacco and carcinogen exposure in smokersSharon E Murphy
Transdisciplinary Tobacco Use Research Center, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 13:1617-23. 2004..Whereas urinary concentrations of 1-hydroxypyrene were consistent across the four visits, the levels were not correlated with NNAL, anatabine, nicotine, or any nicotine metabolites...
- Rabbit retinal ganglion cells express functional alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptorsChristianne E Strang
Department of Vision Science, University of Alabama, Birmingham, AL 35294 4390, USA
Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 289:C644-55. 2005..We also demonstrate through physiological responses that subsets of GCs express more than one nAChR subtype...
- Assessment of chronic exposure to cigarette smoke and its change during pregnancy by segmental analysis of maternal hair nicotineSimona Pichini
Clinical Biochemistry Dept Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Roma, Italy
J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol 13:144-51. 2003..Finally, chronic exposure to cigarette smoke during pregnancy, assessed by maternal hair nicotine, correlated negatively with anthropometric parameters of newborns...
- Prenatal administration of nicotine results in dopaminergic alterations in the neocortexK Muneoka
Department of Neuropsychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Kagoshima University, Japan
Neurotoxicol Teratol 21:603-9. 1999..Furthermore, the region-specific reductions in the DOPAC content suggests that the exposure to a high dose of nicotine in utero might cause a predisposition to diseases related to a dopaminergic dysfunction in the frontal cortex...
- Sympathetic activation increases basilar arterial blood flow in normotensive but not hypertensive ratsHsi Hsien Chang
Institute of Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 302:H1123-30. 2012..This increased blood flow in defensive mechanism diminishes in genetic and nongenetic hypertensive rats due most likely to decreased parasympathetic nitrergic nerve terminals...
- Pharmacology of nicotine: addiction, smoking-induced disease, and therapeuticsNeal L Benowitz
Department of Medicine, Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Medical Service, San Francisco General Hospital Medical Center, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143 1220, USA
Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 49:57-71. 2009..Pharmacotherapeutic approaches to tobacco addiction include nicotine replacement, bupropion, and varenicline, the latter a selective nicotine receptor partial agonist...
- Lipopolysaccharide and dose of nicotine determine the effects of nicotine on murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cellsSu Xian Hu
Department of Respiratory Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xiamen University, Xiamen 361003, PR China
Mol Med Rep 5:1005-10. 2012..5-0.165 ng/ml) achieved an anti-apoptotic effect on imDCs. All data presented here indicate that the controversial effects of nicotine on DCs may be due to the LPS of the nicotinic environment and the dose of nicotine used...
- Sex differences in nicotine effects and self-administration: review of human and animal evidenceK A Perkins
Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pennsylvania, USA
Nicotine Tob Res 1:301-15. 1999..Identification of specific factors responsible for these sex differences may lead to improved interventions for smoking cessation and other substance abuse in women...
- A ganglionic stimulant, 1,1-dimethyl-4-phenylpiperazinium, caused both cholinergic and adrenergic responses in the isolated mouse atriumKenta Ochi
Department of Veterinary Medicine, Rakuno Gakuen University, Ebetsu, Hokkaido 069 8501, Japan
Eur J Pharmacol 704:7-14. 2013..M2 and M3 muscarinic receptors and β1-adrenoceptor are thought to be involved in these actions...
- Oral nicotine administration decreases tumor necrosis factor-alpha expression in fat tissues in obese ratsR H Liu
Third Department of Internal Medicine, Miyazaki Medical College, Japan
Metabolism 50:79-85. 2001..Decreased islet size may be a secondary phenomenon induced by ameliorated insulin resistance, because the cellularity and fibroelastic tissues were not affected by the nicotine...
- The effect of nicotine in vitro on the integrity of tight junctions in Caco-2 cell monolayersV E McGilligan
Northern Ireland Centre for Food and Health NICHE, Biomedical Sciences, University of Ulster, Coleraine BT52 1SA, Northern Ireland, UK
Food Chem Toxicol 45:1593-8. 2007..These findings may help explain the mechanism of action of nicotine treatment and indeed smoking in reducing epithelial gut permeability...
- Pharmacologic consequences of the vascular permeability of chromaffin cell transplants in CNS pain modulatory regionsJ Sagen
Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Illinois, Chicago 60680
Exp Neurol 102:290-7. 1988..abstract truncated at 250 words)..
- Predictors of risk for smoking relapse in men and women: a prospective examinationMotohiro Nakajima
Department of Biobehavioral Health and Population Sciences, University of Minnesota Medical School, Duluth, MN 55812, USA
Psychol Addict Behav 26:633-7. 2012..These findings remained significant after statistically controlling for smoking-related variables, providing preliminary evidence that different factors may be associated with nicotine withdrawal and smoking relapse in men and women...
- Comprehensive evaluation of variability in nicotine metabolism and CYP2A6 polymorphic alleles in four ethnic populationsMiki Nakajima
Department of Drug Metabolism and Toxicology, Division of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa University, Kakuma machi, Kanazawa, Japan
Clin Pharmacol Ther 80:282-97. 2006..This comprehensive study of 4 populations extends our understanding of nicotine metabolism and the impact of genetic polymorphisms of the CYP2A6 gene...
- Oxidative mechanisms contributing to the developmental neurotoxicity of nicotine and chlorpyrifosDan Qiao
Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 206:17-26. 2005..The balance between neuroprotectant and neurotoxicant actions of nicotine may be particularly important in situations where exposure to tobacco smoke is combined with other prooxidant insults...
- Nicotine lowers the secretion of the Alzheimer's amyloid beta-protein precursor that contains amyloid beta-peptide in ratTadanobu Utsuki
Laboratory of Neurosciences, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Aging, Gerontology Research Center, 5600 Nathan Shock Dr, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
J Alzheimers Dis 4:405-15. 2002..These results suggest that within the brain, levels of total sAPP, sAPPgamma and, accordingly, Abeta are subject to cholinergic manipulation, offering therapeutic potential at the level of AbetaPP processing to decrease Abetadeposition...
- Nicotine exposure during the third trimester equivalent of human gestation: time course of effects on the central cholinergic system of ratsAndré Luis Nunes-Freitas
Laboratorio de Neurofisiologia, Departamento de Ciencias Fisiologicas, Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Centro Biomedico, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro 20550 170, Brazil
Toxicol Sci 123:144-54. 2011..In addition, detrimental effects are observable even long after the exposure has been interrupted...
- Tetanus and botulinum A toxins inhibit stimulated F-actin rearrangement in chromaffin cellsP Marxen
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical School, Hannover, Germany
Neuroreport 2:33-6. 1991..Thus, the toxins act somewhere between the rise in intracellular free Ca2+ and the rearrangement of F-actin...
- Smokers' expectancies for nicotine replacement therapy vs. cigarettesLaura M Juliano
Department of Psychology, American University, Washington, DC 20016, USA
Nicotine Tob Res 6:569-74. 2004..In summary, cigarette smokers' positive expectancies about cigarettes do not appear to generalize to NRT products, which may limit their use and effectiveness...
- Interoceptive conditioning with the nicotine stimulus: extinction learning as a method for assessing stimulus similarity across dosesRobert J Polewan
Department of Psychology, University of Nebraska Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588 0308, USA
Behav Pharmacol 24:45-54. 2013..6 mg/kg showed partial transfer. Extinction with 0.05 mg/kg dose did not show transfer to either training dose. These findings indicated that conclusions regarding stimulus similarity across nicotine doses can vary with testing protocol...
- The effects of short-term nicotine administration on behavioral and oxidative stress deficiencies induced in a rat model of Parkinson's diseaseAlin Ciobica
Alexandru Ioan Cuza University, Deptartment of Biology, B dul Carol I, 11, 700506, Iasi, Romania
Psychiatr Danub 24:194-205. 2012..Also, recent reports had suggested that nicotine from smoke may contribute, at least in some parts, to the apparent neuroprotective effect of tobacco use in Parkinson's disease...
- Lobeline attenuates neonatal ethanol-mediated changes in hyperactivity and dopamine transporter function in the prefrontal cortex in ratsA M Smith
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 0082, USA
Neuroscience 206:245-54. 2012..Collectively, these findings provide support that lobeline may be a useful pharmacotherapy for some of the deficits associated with neonatal ethanol exposure...
- Gene-environment interaction in nicotine addiction: the need for a large-scale, collaborative effortGary E Swan
Center for Health Sciences, SRI International, Menlo Park, California, USA
Subst Use Misuse 39:2083-5. 2004
- Gestational nicotine treatment modulates cell death/survival-related pathways in the brains of adolescent female ratsJinxue Wei
Department of Psychiatry and Neurobehavioral Sciences, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22911, USA
Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 14:91-106. 2011....
- Industry research on the use and effects of levulinic acid: a case study in cigarette additivesLois Keithly
Massachusetts Department of Public Health Tobacco Control Program, Boston, MA 02108, USA
Nicotine Tob Res 7:761-71. 2005..The use of levulinic acid illustrates the need for regulatory authority over tobacco products as well as better understanding of the role of additives in cigarettes and other tobacco products...
- Smoke constituent exposure and smoking topography of adolescent daily cigarette smokersTeresa Wood
Capital University School of Nursing, Columbus, Ohio, USA
Nicotine Tob Res 6:853-62. 2004..Results indicated adolescents had considerable smoke constituent exposure and nicotine dependence suggesting the importance of appropriate smoking cessation treatment...
- Environmental tobacco smoke and risk of spontaneous abortionLena George
Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, SE 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden
Epidemiology 17:500-5. 2006..The aim of this study was to investigate risk of early spontaneous abortion related to ETS and active smoking as defined by plasma cotinine levels...
- Calcium transient evoked by nicotine in isolated rat vagal pulmonary sensory neuronsJennings Xu
Department of Physiology, University of Kentucky Medical Center, Lexington, KY 40536 0298, USA
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 292:L54-61. 2007..6% of the RARs tested. In conclusion, nicotine exerts a direct stimulatory effect on vagal pulmonary sensory nerves, and the effect is probably mediated through an activation of the NnAChRs expressed on the membrane of these neurons...
- Airway irritation and cough evoked by inhaled cigarette smoke: role of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptorsL Y Lee
Department of Physiology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 0298, USA
Pulm Pharmacol Ther 20:355-64. 2007..This stimulatory effect of nicotine is primarily responsible for the airway irritation and cough evoked by inhaled cigarette smoke, and is mediated through an activation of the NnAChRs...
- Nicotine treatment induces expression of matrix metalloproteinases in human osteoblastic Saos-2 cellsTomoko Katono
Nihon University Graduate School of Dentistry, 1 8 13, Kanda Surugadai, Tokyo 101 8310, Japan
Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai) 38:874-82. 2006..These results suggest that nicotine stimulates bone matrix turnover by increasing production of tPA and MMP-1, 2, 3, and 13, thereby tipping the balance between bone matrix formation and resorption toward the latter process...
- Hypnosis for smoking cessation: a randomized trialTimothy P Carmody
San Francisco Veterans Affairs Medical Center, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA
Nicotine Tob Res 10:811-8. 2008..It was concluded that hypnosis combined with NP compares favorably with standard behavioral counseling in generating long-term quit rates...
- Death due to ingestion of nicotine-containing solution: case report and review of the literatureBiagio Solarino
Department of Internal Medicine and Public Medicine, University of Bari, Bari, Italy
Forensic Sci Int 195:e19-22. 2010..2 microg/mL). Blood alcohol was determined to be 2.1 g/L in femoral venous blood. Only a paucity of fatal cases of nicotine poisoning has been reported in the literature so far...
- Neuropeptide y gates a stress-induced, long-lasting plasticity in the sympathetic nervous systemQian Wang
Department of Biology, Pennsylvania State University, State College, Pennsylvania 16802, USA
J Neurosci 33:12705-17. 2013..We conclude that the sympathetic limb of the stress response exhibits an activity-dependent form of long-lasting plasticity. ..
- Dynamic behavior of semivolatile organic compounds in indoor air. 2. Nicotine and phenanthrene with carpet and wallboardM D Van Loy
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California-Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720-1710, USA
Environ Sci Technol 35:560-7. 2001..The rates of desorption are much faster for phenanthrene than for nicotine. Model simulations predict average nicotine levels in a typical smoking residence that are consistent with published data...
- The patch testLynne Wallis
Nurs Stand 17:18. 2003
- Is the hair nicotine level a more accurate biomarker of environmental tobacco smoke exposure than urine cotinine?W K Al-Delaimy
Department of Public Health, Wellington School of Medicine, Wellington, New Zealand
J Epidemiol Community Health 56:66-71. 2002..The aim of this study was to compare the two biomarkers of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS); urine cotinine and hair nicotine, using questionnaires as the standard...
- Nicotine alters the usual reciprocity between meal size and meal number in female ratG Miyata
Neuroscience Program, Surgical Metabolism and Nutrition Laboratory, Department of Surgery, University Hospital, SUNY HSC at Syracuse, 750 Adams Street, Syracuse, NY 13210, USA
Physiol Behav 74:169-76. 2001..Stopping nicotine led to normalization of IMI and MZ. Data show that nicotine alters the usual reciprocal regulation between MZ and MN and leads to a prolongation of the estrous cycle...
- Combined effects of cocaine and nicotine on cardiovascular performance in a canine modelM C Mehta
Department of Medicine, Section of Cardiology, West Virginia University School of Medicine, Robert C. Byrd Health Sciences Center, Morgantown 26506-9157, USA
Clin Cardiol 24:620-6. 2001..In combination, cocaine plus nicotine administration had synergistic excitatory effects in dogs. A reversed drug combination, that is, nicotine plus cocaine, attenuated the excitatory effects of nicotine...
- Cell migration/chemotaxis: biphasic dose responsesE J Calabrese
Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health and Health Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst 01003, USA
Crit Rev Toxicol 31:615-24. 2001..The assessment included evaluations of the quantitative features of the dose-response relationship, mechanistic foundations of the biphasic responsiveness and clinical applications...
- Regulation of atrial natriuretic peptide secretion by cholinergic and PACAP neurons of the gastric antrumWilliam R Gower
Laboratory Services, James A Haley Veterans Administration Hospital, Tampa, Florida 33612, USA
Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 284:G68-74. 2003..ANP secretion in the antrum is thus regulated by intramural cholinergic and PACAP neurons; cholinergic neurons inhibit and PACAP neurons stimulate ANP secretion...
- Structural elements near the C-terminus are responsible for changes in nicotinic receptor gating kinetics following patch excisionG Akk
Department of Anesthesiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
J Physiol 527:405-17. 2000..This finding suggests that there is an interaction between these two regions in determining the modulation of gating kinetics...
- The development and expression of locomotor sensitization to nicotine in the presence of ibogaineC Zubaran
Section of Behavioural Pharmacology, Institute of Psychiatry, King s College London, UK
Behav Pharmacol 11:431-6. 2000..4 mg/kg of nicotine (n = 10). Thus, there was no evidence that ibogaine may retard or suppress sensitization to nicotine...
- Plasma catecholamines in Buerger's disease: effects of cigarette smoking and surgical sympathectomyR Roncon-Albuquerque
Department of Angiology and Vascular Surgery, University of Porto, 4200 Porto, Portugal
Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 24:338-43. 2002..to study the influence of tobacco exposure and sympathectomy on basal sympathoadrenal function of patients with Buerger's disease...
- Tobacco Craving Questionnaire: reliability and validity of a new multifactorial instrumentStephen J Heishman
Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics Branch, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore MD 21224, USA
Nicotine Tob Res 5:645-54. 2003..These preliminary data suggest that the TCQ is a reliable and valid instrument for assessing tobacco craving in individuals not attempting to reduce or quit smoking...
- Secretory and radioligand binding studies on muscarinic receptors in bovine and feline chromaffin cellsJ J Ballesta
Departmento de Neuroquimica, Universidad de Alicante, Facultad de Medicina, Spain
J Physiol 418:411-26. 1989..However, it is unclear why the bovine behaves differently from the feline chromaffin cell as far as the muscarine-evoked effects are concerned.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)..
- Differential effect of nitric oxide synthase inhibition on sigmoid colon longitudinal and circular muscle responses to nicotine and nerve stimulation in vitroH C McKirdy
Department of Surgery, University of Wales College of Medicine, Cardiff, UK
Br J Surg 91:229-34. 2004..Nicotine has been shown to release nitric oxide from nerves in human sigmoid colon. This effect has been used to investigate the innervation and functional relationship of the longitudinal and circular muscle layers...
- The effect of methoxsalen on nicotine and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) metabolism in vivoEdward M Sellers
Department of Pharmacology, and Centre for Research in Women s Health, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Nicotine Tob Res 5:891-9. 2003..CYP2A6 inhibition may have potential as an exposure reduction or cessation strategy in tobacco dependence...
- Maternal antioxidants prevent β-cell apoptosis and promote formation of dual hormone-expressing endocrine cells in male offspring following fetal and neonatal nicotine exposureJennifer E Bruin
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
J Diabetes 4:297-306. 2012..The aim of the present study was to determine whether an antioxidant intervention could prevent nicotine-induced β-cell loss...
- Renoprotective effects of long-term oral nicotine in a rat model of spontaneous proteinuriaPramod K Agarwal
Dept of Internal Medicine, Experimental Nephrology, University Medical Center Groningen, Antonius Deusinglaan 1, Groningen, The Netherlands
Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 302:F895-904. 2012..We further suggest evaluating nicotine as a potential additional therapeutic option for treating proteinuric kidney diseases...
- Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor expression and susceptibility to cholinergic immunomodulation in human monocytes of smoking individualsEsmerij P van der Zanden
Tytgat Institute for GI and Liver Research, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Neuroimmunomodulation 19:255-65. 2012....
- Nicotine-induced chondrogenic differentiation of human bone marrow stromal cells in vitroXiaozhou Ying
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical College, 109 Xue Yuan Xi Road, Wenzhou, China
Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 20:2329-36. 2012..The aims of the study were to examine the effects of nicotine (0, 10(-7), 10(-6) and 10(-5) M) on the proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation of BMSCs from three healthy donors in vitro...
- Attentional Bias & Affect in Stress-Vulnerable SmokersDavid Gilbert; Fiscal Year: 2007..An EEG stress response index (alpha asymmetry) will be used in a subgroup of subjects during each of the 3 proposed studies. ..
- Nicotine: Cognition-Affect InteractionsDavid Gilbert; Fiscal Year: 2005..The new knowledge derived from these studies will be useful in developing empirical model-based treatment strategies aimed at increasing smoking abstinence. ..
- NRT & Bupropion Mechanisms of Efficacy in SmokersDavid G Gilbert; Fiscal Year: 2010..Note,* To avoid final-session mood and arousal effects subjects will actually quit for 67 days, but biobehavioral measures will be collected on the 66 day of abstinence ..
- Tobacco Smoking, Nicotine and Negative Affect ReliefKenneth Perkins; Fiscal Year: 2009..In sum, this research will help address the fundamental question of why cigarette smoking is reinforcing. ..
- DISCRIMINATIVE STIMULUS EFFECTS OF NICOTINEKenneth Perkins; Fiscal Year: 2001....
- Affect, Context, and Placebo Responses to NicotineKenneth Perkins; Fiscal Year: 2005..Secondary analyses may identify important individual characteristics associated with placebo responses, aiding in the prediction of which smokers ultimately are likely to benefit most from manipulation of placebo effects. ..
- SEX DIFFERENCES IN NICOTINE REINFORCEMENT: HUMAN/ANIMALKenneth Perkins; Fiscal Year: 2003....
- INDIVIDUAL VARIATION IN NICOTINE SENSITIVITY IN HUMANSKenneth Perkins; Fiscal Year: 2003..e., in nicotine-naive individuals). Results will provide directions for future research on vulnerability to tobacco dependence and for targeted efforts to prevent smoking onset. ..
- Cocaine Withdrawal and Pharmacotherapy ResponseMehmet Sofuoglu; Fiscal Year: 2010..This proposal, by testing the efficacy of carvedilol and investigating the influence of withdrawal severity on carvedilol's efficacy, may result in development of more effective treatments for cocaine addiction. ..
- CVD RISK FACTORS AND BRAIN MORPHOLOGY IN NHLBI TWINSGary Swan; Fiscal Year: 2001....
- Impact of Smoking Cessation on SleepGary Swan; Fiscal Year: 2008..The results of this project will be particularly important for the development of targeted treatment approaches designed to ameliorate sleep disruption as part of an overall smoking cessation strategy. ..
- PHARMACOKINETICS OF NICOTINE IN TWINSGary Swan; Fiscal Year: 2002..Ultimately, this knowledge may lead to more informed and more finely targeted treatment of individuals who are either susceptible to nicotine addiction or are already addicted to this substance. ..
- Candidate Genes for Smoking In Related and Unrelated IndividualsOvide Pomerleau; Fiscal Year: 2007..abstract not provided ..
- Treatment of Nicotine Dependence in Health Care SettingGary Swan; Fiscal Year: 2009....
- Progestrone and the Effects of NicotineMehmet Sofuoglu; Fiscal Year: 2006..By characterizing the progesterone effects on nicotine dependence, this study may provide a better understanding of the mechanisms which mediate the sex and menstrual cycle phase effects on nicotine dependence. ..
- Effects of family smoking history in never-smokersOvide Pomerleau; Fiscal Year: 2006....
- Biometric and Measured Genetic Research on SmokingGary Swan; Fiscal Year: 2007..Such knowledge will confer new insights about the etiology and progression of smoking and should improve the current understanding of smoking, which is still largely descriptive. ..
- DIFFERENTIATION OF PHENOTYPES FOR SMOKINGOvide Pomerleau; Fiscal Year: 2003..abstract_text> ..
- Safety of Nicotine Reduction StrategyNeal Benowitz; Fiscal Year: 2009..The proposed research is needed to guide governmental regulators as to how best to regulate nicotine in cigarettes and is an essential first step in examining the feasibility of a national regulation program. ..
- GABA Medications for Tobacco AddictionMehmet Sofuoglu; Fiscal Year: 2009..The findings of this study will provide valuable information to develop new pharmacotherapies for smoking cessation. ..
- MOLECULAR MECHANISMS OF GLUTAMATE RECEPTOR CHANNELSAnthony Auerbach; Fiscal Year: 2007..Accordingly, we will better understand the mechanisms by which transmitters, drugs, and other ligands shape the cellular responses of neurons that express these important receptor-channel proteins. ..
- Community-Based Participatory Approach to Farmworker Housing, Exposures & HealthThomas A Arcury; Fiscal Year: 2010....
- Role of TRPV1 in Airway Hypersensitivity Induced by InflammationLu Yuan Lee; Fiscal Year: 2010..The results obtained from these studies should bring a new insight into the pathogenesis and therapeutic strategy for alleviating the airway hypersensitivity. ..
- Effect of Perinatal Nicotine Exposure on the Development of Autonomic ResponsesJANE ELIZABETH BLOOD SIEGFRIED; Fiscal Year: 2010..Aim 4: Examine specific actions of autonomic response by blocking sympathetic or parasympathetic pathways with pharmacologic agents. ..
- Tailored Interventions to Prevent Substance AbuseWayne F Velicer; Fiscal Year: 2010....
- MAINTENANCE TREATMENT FOR PREVENTION OF SMOKING RELAPSELirio Covey; Fiscal Year: 2004..abstract_text> ..
- Tobacco Industry Documents on ETS-The Next FrontRichard Hurt; Fiscal Year: 2008..unreadable] [unreadable]..
- CARCINOGENIC CYCLIC NITROSAMINE DNA ADDUCTSStephen S Hecht; Fiscal Year: 2010..The proposed research is significant because of the known human exposure to these carcinogens through the diet, tobacco products, and endogenous formation. ..
- Chemosensitivity of Tachykinin-containing Lung AfferentsLu Yuan Lee; Fiscal Year: 2008..The results obtained from this study should provide critical information for gaining new insights into the mechanisms underlying the airway hyperresponsiveness induced by cationic proteins. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- PHARMACOLOGY & NEUROSCIENCE TRAINING IN DRUG ABUSESTANLEY GLICK; Fiscal Year: 2008..All aspects of the program are administered by the director and an executive committee of administrative and training faculty. ..
- Parenting To Prevent Problem BehaviorsJohn Pierce; Fiscal Year: 2005....
- Computerized population Programs for Three Cancer RisksWayne Velicer; Fiscal Year: 2005..The 3 interventions evaluated in this project have the potential to be easily disseminated at low costs to entire populations of at-risk individuals. ..
- Psychobiological /Genetic Determinants-Smoking CessationSean David; Fiscal Year: 2006..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- PULMONARY C-NEURON HYPERSENSITIVITY:CELLULAR MECHANISMSLu Yuan Lee; Fiscal Year: 2005..This information may, therefore, help to develop new therapeutic strategies for alleviating the symptoms of bronchial hyperreactivity associated with airway mucosal inflammation. ..
- Farmwoker Environmental Health Research Comparable DataThomas Arcury; Fiscal Year: 2004..The purpose of limiting the size of the conference is to facilitate active interaction, discussion and debate among leaders in the field. ..
- High Dose Nicotine Patch Therapy for Spit Tobacco UsersJon Ebbert; Fiscal Year: 2004..Our goal is to reduce the prevalence of ST use and decrease the incidence of oropharyngeal cancer through the development of effective treatment options for ST users. ..
- Paraxanthine and Reproductive Effects of CaffeineMichael Bracken; Fiscal Year: 2004..abstract_text> ..
- METABOLISM OF CARCINOGENIC TOBACCO SPECIFIC NITROSAMINESStephen Hecht; Fiscal Year: 2003..abstract_text> ..
- RADIOTRACER R & D IN NUCLEAR MEDICINE AND NEUROSCIENCESJoanna Fowler; Fiscal Year: 2002....
- SEROTONIN/DOPAMINE MEDIATION OF EARLY CANCER ANOREXIAMichael Meguid; Fiscal Year: 2001..As external perturbations, they will use progressively increasing peripheral infusions of IL-1 and TRP, the serotonin precursor, as would result from a progressively growing tumor. ..
- Glutamatergic Mechanisms in Cigarette Craving and RewardMalcolm Reid; Fiscal Year: 2005..These investigations will be performed using a 3-armed, placebo controlled, double-blind study design. ..
- Tobacco CarcinogenesisStephen Hecht; Fiscal Year: 2005..Steven Tannenbaum (MIT), Dr. Jack Henningfield (Johns Hopkins and Pinney Associates), Drs. Jeffrey Seeman and Anthony Tricker (Philip Morris), and Dr. John Lauterbach (an independent consultant, formerly with Brown and Williamson). ..
- Nicotine Replacement Treatment for Pregnant SmokersCheryl Oncken; Fiscal Year: 2006..The odds of cigarette abstinence will be increased primarily in subjects who smoke at least 15 cigarettes per day...
- Lung Cancer Chemoprevention: Isothiocyanates, inositolStephen Hecht; Fiscal Year: 2008..abstract_text> ..
- Ethnic Variation in CAM Use and Health Self Management among Rural Older AdultsThomas Arcury; Fiscal Year: 2009....
- Fetal Smoke Exposure and Emphysema: Role of Stem CellsStephen Rennard; Fiscal Year: 2007..This will establish fetal environmental smoke exposure as a cause of adult COPD and provide a novel basis for therapy. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- A Controlled Trial of N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) in Cannabis Dependent AdolescentsKevin M Gray; Fiscal Year: 2010..Thus, the proposed study will investigate N-Acetylcysteine (NAC), combined with an evidence-based treatment (Contingency Management), to help adolescents quit using marijuana. ..
- PARTNER ASSISTED INTERVENTIONS FOR PREGNANT SMOKERSKathryn Pollak; Fiscal Year: 2001..The primary outcomes of interest will be rates of smoking cessation among pregnant women and levels of perceived partner support for cessation at all follow-ups. ..
- Stem Cells for the Prevention and Treatment of EmphysemaStephen Rennard; Fiscal Year: 2006..These studies will establish a role for stem cells in modulating lung repair and provide evidence that use of such cells could play a role in the therapy of destructive lung disorders such as emphysema. ..
- NEUROBEHAVIORAL MECHANISMS OF DRUG ADDICTIONSTANLEY GLICK; Fiscal Year: 2001..This research may result in novel treatments for addictive disorders in humans. ..
- Prenatal ethanol, social behavior, and prefrontal cortexDerek Hamilton; Fiscal Year: 2007..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- Enrichment Effects & Brain Injury in Male & Female RatsBRENDA ELLIOTT; Fiscal Year: 2004..The long-term goal of this project is to improve treatment programs for rehabilitation and recovery from head injuries. ..
- Hair Nicotine Feedback to Reduce Children's ETS ExposureSusan Woodruff; Fiscal Year: 2004..Assessments conducted by a bicultural measurement technician will collect usability measures, parent-reports of children's ETS exposure, and children's hair nicotine to assess feedback format preference and intervention impact. ..
- CYTOKINE MODULATION OF MATRIX REMODELINGStephen Rennard; Fiscal Year: 2002..The proposed studies should, therefore, help to define the mechanisms by which inflammatory mediators can regulate remodeling processes in the airway in asthma. ..
- Evaluating Nicotine Lozenges for Treatment of Smokeless Tobacco AddictionJon Ebbert; Fiscal Year: 2009..No drug therapies have been shown to be effective for helping smokeless tobacco users quit for good. The purpose of this study is to test drugs that can be used to help smokeless tobacco users quit for good. ..
- Addiction and the Brain: Are We Hard Wired to Abuse DrugsJoanna Fowler; Fiscal Year: 2007..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- Effects of Nicotine on Emotional ReactivityBrian Carter; Fiscal Year: 2006..In addition, a similar research design will employ cigarette-related stimuli which will offer a more comprehensive examination of the relationships among genetics, mood, and craving for cigarettes. ..
- Disentangling Pharmacological and Expectancy EffectsLAURA JULIANO; Fiscal Year: 2004....
- Natural History of Attempts to Stop SmokingJohn R Hughes; Fiscal Year: 2010....