local anesthetics


Summary: Drugs that block nerve conduction when applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentrations. They act on any part of the nervous system and on every type of nerve fiber. In contact with a nerve trunk, these anesthetics can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. Their action is completely reversible. (From Gilman AG, et. al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed) Nearly all local anesthetics act by reducing the tendency of voltage-dependent sodium channels to activate.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Tetrodotoxin-resistant action potentials in dorsal root ganglion neurons are blocked by local anesthetics
    A Scholz
    Physiologisches Institut, Justus Liebig Universitat Giessen, Aulweg 129, D 35392, Giessen, Germany
    Pain 89:47-52. 2000
  2. ncbi Multimodal analgesia with gabapentin and local anesthetics prevents acute and chronic pain after breast surgery for cancer
    Argyro Fassoulaki
    Department of Anesthesiology, Aretaieion Hospital, Medical School, University of Athens, Athens, Greece
    Anesth Analg 101:1427-32. 2005
  3. ncbi Inhibition of nociceptors by TRPV1-mediated entry of impermeant sodium channel blockers
    Alexander M Binshtok
    Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, Massachusetts 02129, USA
    Nature 449:607-10. 2007
  4. pmc The vanilloid receptor TRPV1 is activated and sensitized by local anesthetics in rodent sensory neurons
    Andreas Leffler
    Department of Anesthesiology, Friedrich Alexander University Erlangen Nuremberg, Erlangen, Germany
    J Clin Invest 118:763-76. 2008
  5. pmc Capsaicin combined with local anesthetics preferentially prolongs sensory/nociceptive block in rat sciatic nerve
    Peter Gerner
    Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative, and Pain Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Anesthesiology 109:872-8. 2008
  6. ncbi Cytotoxicity of local anesthetics in human neuronal cells
    Rosalia Perez-Castro
    Department of Anesthesiology, NYU School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA
    Anesth Analg 108:997-1007. 2009
  7. ncbi Molecular determinants of state-dependent block of Na+ channels by local anesthetics
    D S Ragsdale
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Washington, Seattle 98195
    Science 265:1724-8. 1994
  8. ncbi An update on local anesthetics in dentistry
    Daniel A Haas
    Faculty of Dentistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    J Can Dent Assoc 68:546-51. 2002
  9. ncbi Local infiltration analgesia: a technique for the control of acute postoperative pain following knee and hip surgery: a case study of 325 patients
    Dennis R Kerr
    Joint Orthopaedic Centre, New South Wales, Australia
    Acta Orthop 79:174-83. 2008
  10. pmc Serious complications of local anaesthesia for cataract surgery: a 1 year national survey in the United Kingdom
    Tom Eke
    Norfolk and Norwich University Hospitals NHS Trust, Colney Lane, Norwich NR4 7UY, UK
    Br J Ophthalmol 91:470-5. 2007

Detail Information

Publications253 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Tetrodotoxin-resistant action potentials in dorsal root ganglion neurons are blocked by local anesthetics
    A Scholz
    Physiologisches Institut, Justus Liebig Universitat Giessen, Aulweg 129, D 35392, Giessen, Germany
    Pain 89:47-52. 2000
    ..suggest that TTX-resistant Na(+) channels in the peripheral nervous system are less sensitive to local anesthetics than TTX-sensitive Na(+) channels...
  2. ncbi Multimodal analgesia with gabapentin and local anesthetics prevents acute and chronic pain after breast surgery for cancer
    Argyro Fassoulaki
    Department of Anesthesiology, Aretaieion Hospital, Medical School, University of Athens, Athens, Greece
    Anesth Analg 101:1427-32. 2005
    ..scheduled for breast cancer surgery were blindly randomized to receive gabapentin, eutectic mixture of local anesthetics cream, and ropivacaine in the wound or three placebos...
  3. ncbi Inhibition of nociceptors by TRPV1-mediated entry of impermeant sodium channel blockers
    Alexander M Binshtok
    Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, Massachusetts 02129, USA
    Nature 449:607-10. 2007
  4. pmc The vanilloid receptor TRPV1 is activated and sensitized by local anesthetics in rodent sensory neurons
    Andreas Leffler
    Department of Anesthesiology, Friedrich Alexander University Erlangen Nuremberg, Erlangen, Germany
    J Clin Invest 118:763-76. 2008
    b>Local anesthetics (LAs) block the generation and propagation of action potentials by interacting with specific sites of voltage-gated Na(+) channels...
  5. pmc Capsaicin combined with local anesthetics preferentially prolongs sensory/nociceptive block in rat sciatic nerve
    Peter Gerner
    Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative, and Pain Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Anesthesiology 109:872-8. 2008
    ..05% capsaicin, in a rat sciatic nerve block model...
  6. ncbi Cytotoxicity of local anesthetics in human neuronal cells
    Rosalia Perez-Castro
    Department of Anesthesiology, NYU School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA
    Anesth Analg 108:997-1007. 2009
    In addition to inhibiting the excitation conduction process in peripheral nerves, local anesthetics (LAs) cause toxic effects on the central nervous system, cardiovascular system, neuromuscular junction, and cell metabolism...
  7. ncbi Molecular determinants of state-dependent block of Na+ channels by local anesthetics
    D S Ragsdale
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Washington, Seattle 98195
    Science 265:1724-8. 1994
    ..The results define the location of the local anesthetic receptor site in the pore of the Na+ channel and identify molecular determinants of the state-dependent binding of local anesthetics.
  8. ncbi An update on local anesthetics in dentistry
    Daniel A Haas
    Faculty of Dentistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    J Can Dent Assoc 68:546-51. 2002
    b>Local anesthetics are the most commonly used drugs in dentistry. This article provides a brief update on the pharmacology, adverse effects and clinical applications of these drugs, as well as the role of vasoconstrictors.
  9. ncbi Local infiltration analgesia: a technique for the control of acute postoperative pain following knee and hip surgery: a case study of 325 patients
    Dennis R Kerr
    Joint Orthopaedic Centre, New South Wales, Australia
    Acta Orthop 79:174-83. 2008
    ..The technique allows virtually immediate mobilization and earlier discharge from hospital...
  10. pmc Serious complications of local anaesthesia for cataract surgery: a 1 year national survey in the United Kingdom
    Tom Eke
    Norfolk and Norwich University Hospitals NHS Trust, Colney Lane, Norwich NR4 7UY, UK
    Br J Ophthalmol 91:470-5. 2007
    ..The techniques of sub-Tenon's, topical and topical-intracameral local anaesthesia (LA) have become common in routine practice...
  11. ncbi Factors affecting the distribution of neural blockade by local anesthetics in epidural anesthesia and a comparison of lumbar versus thoracic epidural anesthesia
    W Anton Visser
    Department of Anesthesiology, Intensive Care and Pain Management, Amphia Hospital, PO Box 90157, 4800 RL Breda, The Netherlands
    Anesth Analg 107:708-21. 2008
    ..Based on these results, we have also formulated suggested epidural insertion sites that may optimize both analgesia and sympathicolysis for various surgical indications...
  12. ncbi Pharmacology, toxicology, and clinical use of new long acting local anesthetics, ropivacaine and levobupivacaine
    Stefania Leone
    Department of Anesthesia and Pain Therapy, University Hospital of Parma, Parma, Italy
    Acta Biomed 79:92-105. 2008
    Levobupivacaine and ropivacaine, two new long-acting local anesthetics, have been developed as an alternative to bupivacaine, after the evidence of its severe toxicity...
  13. ncbi Systemic administration of local anesthetics to relieve neuropathic pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    Ivo W Tremont-Lukats
    Department of Neurology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA
    Anesth Analg 101:1738-49. 2005
    We reviewed randomized controlled trials to determine the efficacy and safety of systemically administered local anesthetics compared with placebo or active drugs...
  14. ncbi Clonidine as an adjuvant to local anesthetics for peripheral nerve and plexus blocks: a meta-analysis of randomized trials
    Daniel M Pöpping
    Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, University Hospital Munster, Munster, Germany
    Anesthesiology 111:406-15. 2009
    The effect of adding clonidine to local anesthetics for nerve or plexus blocks remains unclear...
  15. ncbi High-dose local infiltration analgesia after hip and knee replacement--what is it, why does it work, and what are the future challenges?
    Tord Röstlund
    Acta Orthop 78:159-61. 2007
  16. ncbi In vitro, inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways protects against bupivacaine- and ropivacaine-induced neurotoxicity
    Philipp Lirk
    Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Innsbruck Medical University, Anichstr 35, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria
    Anesth Analg 106:1456-64, table of contents. 2008
    ..step in lidocaine neurotoxicity, but this has not been investigated in the case of two very widely used local anesthetics, bupivacaine and ropivacaine...
  17. ncbi Electrostatic contributions of aromatic residues in the local anesthetic receptor of voltage-gated sodium channels
    Christopher A Ahern
    Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Institute of Hyperexcitability, Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, PA, USA
    Circ Res 102:86-94. 2008
    Antiarrhythmics, anticonvulsants, and local anesthetics target voltage-gated sodium channels, decreasing excitability of nerve and muscle cells...
  18. ncbi Efficacy of continuous wound catheters delivering local anesthetic for postoperative analgesia: a quantitative and qualitative systematic review of randomized controlled trials
    Spencer S Liu
    Department of Anesthesiology, Hospital for Special Surgery and the Weill College of Medicine of Cornell University, New York, NY 10021, USA
    J Am Coll Surg 203:914-32. 2006
  19. ncbi A multimodal analgesia protocol for total knee arthroplasty. A randomized, controlled study
    Pascal André Vendittoli
    Orthopaedic Surgery Unit, Department of Surgery, Maisonneuve Rosemont Hospital, 5345 Boul L Assomption, Suite 55, Montreal, Quebec H1T 4B3, Canada
    J Bone Joint Surg Am 88:282-9. 2006
    ..b>Local anesthetics have the advantage of blocking pain conduction at its origin and minimizing the systemic side effects ..
  20. ncbi Selective nerve root blocks for the treatment of sciatica: evaluation of injection site and effectiveness--a study with patients and cadavers
    C W Pfirrmann
    Department of Radiology, University Hospital Balgrist, Forchstrasse 340, Ch 8008 Zurich, Switzerland
    Radiology 221:704-11. 2001
    ..To relate different types of radiographic contrast material distributions to anatomic compartments by using cadaveric specimens and to relate the injection site to treatment-induced discomfort and therapeutic effect...
  21. ncbi Postoperative analgesia in total hip arthroplasty: a randomized double-blinded, placebo-controlled study on peroperative and postoperative ropivacaine, ketorolac, and adrenaline wound infiltration
    Lasse Juel Andersen
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Odense University Hospital, Middelfart, Denmark
    Acta Orthop 78:187-92. 2007
    ..Comfort and lack of pain are important for optimal mobilization after hip replacement. We investigated the efficacy of double wound infiltration...
  22. ncbi Pharmacokinetics and efficacy of ropivacaine continuous wound instillation after joint replacement surgery
    M Bianconi
    Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, St Anna Hospital Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy
    Br J Anaesth 91:830-5. 2003
  23. ncbi Bupivacaine induces apoptosis via ROS in the Schwann cell line
    C J Park
    Department of Dental Anesthesiology and Dental Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Dentistry, 28 Yongon dong Chongno gu, Seoul 110 744, Korea
    J Dent Res 84:852-7. 2005
    b>Local anesthetics have been generally accepted as being safe. However, recent clinical trials and basic studies have provided strong evidence for the neurotoxicity of local anesthetics, especially through apoptosis...
  24. ncbi The effect of local anesthetics on the inhibition of adult muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by nondepolarizing muscle relaxants
    Hong Wang
    Department of Anesthesiology, First People s Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China
    Eur J Pharmacol 630:29-33. 2010
    The primary action of local anesthetics is to inhibit voltage-gated Na(+) channels. However, local anesthetics also have an inhibitory effect on muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptors...
  25. ncbi Local anesthetics
    James E Heavner
    Department of Anesthesiology and Physiology, Texas Technology University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, TX 79430, USA
    Curr Opin Anaesthesiol 20:336-42. 2007
    b>Local anesthetics are used in a wide range of clinical situations to prevent acute pain and to stop or ameliorate pain produced by cancer or pain associated with chronic painful conditions...
  26. ncbi Local anesthetics: dentistry's most important drugs, clinical update 2006
    Stanley F Malamed
    University of Southern California School of Dentistry, Los Angeles, CA 90089, USA
    J Calif Dent Assoc 34:971-6. 2006
    b>Local anesthetics are the safest most effective drugs in medicine for the control and management of pain. They also represent the most important drugs in dentistry...
  27. ncbi Update on local anesthetics
    Alain Borgeat
    Department of Anesthesiology, Balgrist University Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland
    Curr Opin Anaesthesiol 23:466-71. 2010
    b>Local anesthetics are not only used as drugs to block the sodium channel to provide analgesia and antiarrhythmic action. The purpose of this review is to highlight the new indications and limitations of this class of drugs.
  28. pmc Reduced hospital stay, morphine consumption, and pain intensity with local infiltration analgesia after unicompartmental knee arthroplasty
    Per Essving
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Linkoping, Sweden
    Acta Orthop 80:213-9. 2009
    ..The degree of postoperative pain is usually moderate to severe following knee arthroplasty. We investigated the efficacy of local administration of analgesics into the operating area, both intraoperatively and postoperatively...
  29. ncbi Amide local anesthetics potently inhibit the human tandem pore domain background K+ channel TASK-2 (KCNK5)
    Christoph H Kindler
    Attending Physician, Department of Anesthesia, University Clinics, Kantonsspital, CH 4031 Basel, Switzerland
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 306:84-92. 2003
    Blockade of voltage-gated sodium (Na+) channels by local anesthetics represents the main mechanism for inhibition of impulse propagation...
  30. ncbi Anti-inflammatory properties of local anesthetics and their present and potential clinical implications
    J Cassuto
    Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care and Institution of Surgical Specialties, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Molndal, Sweden
    Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 50:265-82. 2006
    ..It is well established and well documented that the nerve blocking effects of local anesthetics are secondary to their interaction with the Na+ channels thereby blocking nerve membrane excitability and ..
  31. ncbi A new method of preemptive analgesia in laparoscopic cholecystectomy
    U Maestroni
    Department of Surgery, Anaesthsiology, and Radiology, University of Ferrara, C so Giovecca 203, Ferrara, Italy
    Surg Endosc 16:1336-40. 2002
    ..Although laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) results in less pain then open cholecystectomy, it is not a pain-free procedure. The aim of this study was to test a new method of preemptive analgesia...
  32. ncbi Acute toxicity of local anesthetics: underlying pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic concepts
    Laurence E Mather
    Department of Anaesthesia and Pain Management, University of Sydney at Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, NSW 2065, Australia
    Reg Anesth Pain Med 30:553-66. 2005
    ..This essay presents some pharmacokinetic aspects relevant to acute toxicity of local anesthetics, mainly using data from the authors' studies in a sheep model of simulated accidental intravenous ..
  33. ncbi Local anesthetics noncompetitively inhibit function of four distinct nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes
    C L Gentry
    Division of Neurobiology, Barrow Neurological Institute, Phoenix, Arizona 85013, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 299:1038-48. 2001
    b>Local anesthetics (LAs) are considered to act primarily by inhibiting voltage-gated Na(+) channels. However, LAs also are pharmacologically active at other ion channels including nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR)...
  34. ncbi Local anesthetics in dentistry
    Adolfo Pipa-Vallejo
    Facultad de Odontologia, Universidad de Oviedo, Spain
    Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal 9:440-3; 438-40. 2004
    The purpose of the present paper is to carry out a review of the literature on local anesthetics (LAs), which are the most commonly used drugs in dentistry...
  35. ncbi Molecular modeling of local anesthetic drug binding by voltage-gated sodium channels
    Gregory M Lipkind
    Department of Biochemitsry and Molecular Biology, The University of Chicago, Illinois, USA
    Mol Pharmacol 68:1611-22. 2005
    ..The open, activated channel creates the high-affinity binding site for these sodium channel blocker drugs, and block may be mainly electrostatic...
  36. pmc Long-acting local anesthetics in dentistry
    A L Sisk
    Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Medical College of Georgia School of Dentistry, Augusta 30912
    Anesth Prog 39:53-60. 1992
    Long-acting local anesthetics have proved to be effective for the suppression of both intraoperative and postoperative pain...
  37. ncbi Point mutations at N434 in D1-S6 of mu1 Na(+) channels modulate binding affinity and stereoselectivity of local anesthetic enantiomers
    C Nau
    Department of Anesthesia Research Laboratories, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Mol Pharmacol 56:404-13. 1999
    Voltage-gated Na(+) channels are the primary targets of local anesthetics (LAs). Amino acid residues in domain 4, transmembrane segment 6 (D4-S6) form part of the LA binding site. LAs inhibit binding of the neurotoxin batrachotoxin (BTX)...
  38. ncbi Optimizing local anesthesia during 10-core biopsy of the prostate
    M Schostak
    Department of Urology, University Hospital Benjamin Franklin, Freie Universitat, Berlin, Germany
    Urology 60:253-7. 2002
    ..Reports thus far have shown a high variability in assessing the pain intensity of prostate biopsies and the effectiveness of anesthesia...
  39. ncbi Comparison of peri- and intraarticular analgesia with femoral nerve block after total knee arthroplasty: a randomized clinical trial
    Karen Toftdahl
    Department of Anesthesiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark
    Acta Orthop 78:172-9. 2007
    Postoperative pain after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) can be difficult to manage and may delay recovery. Recent studies have suggested that periarticular infiltration with local anesthetics may improve outcome.
  40. ncbi Enhancement of hyperthermia-induced apoptosis by local anesthetics on human histiocytic lymphoma U937 cells
    Yoko Arai
    Department of Public Health and Radiological Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama 930 0194, Japan
    J Biol Chem 277:18986-93. 2002
    The combined effects of hyperthermia at 44 degrees C and local anesthetics on apoptosis in human histiocytic lymphoma U937 cells were investigated...
  41. ncbi Bupivacaine myotoxicity is mediated by mitochondria
    William Irwin
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Padova and the Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche Units for the Study of Muscle Pathophysiology and Biomembranes, Viale Giuseppe Colombo 3, I 35121 Padova, Italy
    J Biol Chem 277:12221-7. 2002
  42. ncbi Preliminary results of a randomized, equivalence trial of fluoroscopic caudal epidural injections in managing chronic low back pain: Part 3--Post surgery syndrome
    Laxmaiah Manchikanti
    Pain Management Center of Paducah, Paducah, KY 42003, USA
    Pain Physician 11:817-31. 2008
    ..There is lack of evidence for the effectiveness of epidural injections in managing chronic low back pain with or without lower extremity pain secondary to post surgery syndrome...
  43. ncbi Drug delivery systems for local anesthetics
    Eneida de Paula
    Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Biology, State University of Campinas, Campinas, SP, Brazil
    Recent Pat Drug Deliv Formul 4:23-34. 2010
    ..Drug delivery systems for local anesthetics (LA) have attracted researchers due to many biomedical advantages associated to their application...
  44. ncbi Preliminary results of a randomized, equivalence trial of fluoroscopic caudal epidural injections in managing chronic low back pain: Part 4--Spinal stenosis
    Laxmaiah Manchikanti
    Pain Management Center of Paducah, Paducah, KY 42003, USA
    Pain Physician 11:833-48. 2008
  45. ncbi Transient neurologic symptoms after spinal anesthesia with lidocaine versus other local anesthetics: a systematic review of randomized, controlled trials
    Dusanka Zaric
    Department of Anesthesiology, Frederiksberg Hospital, Ndr Fasanvej 57, 2000 Frederiksberg, Denmark
    Anesth Analg 100:1811-6. 2005
    ..of 1) TNS and 2) neurologic complications after spinal anesthesia with lidocaine with that after other local anesthetics. Published trials were identified by computerized searches of The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, LILAC, and ..
  46. pmc Contralateral paw sensitization following injection of endothelin-1: effects of local anesthetics differentiate peripheral and central processes
    A Khodorova
    Department of Anesthesiology, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 6110, USA
    Neuroscience 165:553-60. 2010
    ..These findings suggest that peripheral ET-1 actions lead to central sensitization that alters responses to selected stimuli...
  47. ncbi Interactions of local anesthetics with voltage-gated Na+ channels
    C Nau
    Department of Anesthesiology, Friedrich Alexander University Erlangen Nuremberg, 91054 Erlangen, Germany
    J Membr Biol 201:1-8. 2004
    ..b>Local anesthetics (LAs) and structurally related antiarrhythmic and anticonvulsant compounds target specific sites in voltage-..
  48. ncbi The poor man's epidural: systemic local anesthetics for improving postoperative outcomes
    Markus W Hollmann
    Department of Anesthesiology, University Hospital Heidelberg, INF 110, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
    Med Hypotheses 63:386-9. 2004
    ..Epidurally administered local anesthetics prevent or modulate many of these processes...
  49. ncbi Diagnostic lumbosacral segmental nerve blocks with local anesthetics: a prospective double-blind study on the variability and interpretation of segmental effects
    A P Wolff
    Pain Centre, Department of Anaesthesiology, Bernhoven Hospital, Oss, The Netherlands
    Reg Anesth Pain Med 26:147-55. 2001
    ..exist between areas of hypesthesia, spontaneous pain reported by the patient, pain reduction by local anesthetics, and paresthesias elicited by sensory electrostimulation...
  50. ncbi Mechanisms underlying combined action of clonidine and local anesthetics
    V P Ponomarev
    Krasnodar Research Center, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Krasnodar Krai Administration, Moscow
    Bull Exp Biol Med 136:53-5. 2003
    We studied the mechanisms of combined action of clonidine and local anesthetics amethocaine and imidazo-benzimidazole derivative RU-1117...
  51. ncbi Long-acting local anesthetics and perioperative pain management
    Sharon M Gordon
    Department of Oral Maxillofacial Surgery, Baltimore College of Dental Surgery, Dental School, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD 21231, USA
    Dent Clin North Am 54:611-20. 2010
    Although the use of long-acting local anesthetics has become a useful therapeutic approach for managing peri- and postoperative pain, recent evidence reveals unexpected outcomes...
  52. ncbi Dental local anesthetics: alternative delivery methods
    Patricia L Blanton
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, Baylor College of Dentistry, The Texas A and M University System Health Science Center, Dallas, USA
    J Am Dent Assoc 134:228-34. 2003
    ..The objective of this review is to examine the basis for each method's application in dentistry, including scientific studies where available...
  53. ncbi Molecular and physicochemical aspects of local anesthetics acting on nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-containing membranes
    Hugo R Arias
    Departments of Pharmacology and Anesthesiology, School of Medicine, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock 79430, USA
    Mini Rev Med Chem 2:385-410. 2002
    b>Local anesthetics inhibit the ion channel activity of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in a noncompetitive fashion...
  54. ncbi Thermal effect of sonophoresis for accelerating the analgesic effect of local anesthetics on rat tail nerve
    Yi Hui Wu
    Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University
    Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2008:2504-7. 2008
    Sonophoresis is an ultrasound transdermal drugs delivery system. The eutectic mixture of local anesthetics (EMLA) has been used clinically for anesthesia but requires at least one hour to take effect and lacks of analgesia's objective ..
  55. ncbi Local anesthetics after total knee arthroplasty: intraarticular or extraarticular administration? A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study
    Lasse Ø Andersen
    Departments of Anesthesiology, Hvidovre University Hospital, Denmark
    Acta Orthop 79:800-5. 2008
    ..e. intraarticular or extraarticular) has not been evaluated...
  56. pmc Effects of local anesthetics on opioid inhibition of calcium current in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons
    Hirochika Komai
    Department of Anesthesiology, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin Madison, WI 53762 3272, United States
    Neurosci Lett 418:298-303. 2007
    Neuraxial analgesia is often provided using a mixture of local anesthetics and opioids. This combination of agents provides better pain relief and is generally associated with fewer side effects than when either drug is given alone...
  57. ncbi Ventricular arrhythmias with or without programmed electrical stimulation after incremental overdosage with lidocaine, bupivacaine, levobupivacaine, and ropivacaine
    L Groban
    Department of Anesthesiology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, North Carolina 27157 1009, USA
    Anesth Analg 91:1103-11. 2000
    ..Open-chest dogs were randomized to receive escalating incremental infusions of the four local anesthetics until cardiovascular collapse. We assumed a concentration relationship of 4:1 for LIDO/BUP, LBUP, and ROP...
  58. ncbi To compare the efficacy of two doses of intraperitoneal bupivacaine for pain relief after operative laparoscopy in gynecology
    Neena Malhotra
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India
    Arch Gynecol Obstet 276:323-6. 2007
    ..To evaluate the effect of two doses of intraperitoneal bupivacaine administration for pain relief after operative gynecological laparoscopy...
  59. ncbi Local anesthetics and medically complex patients
    A W Budenz
    Department of Diagnosis and Management, University of the Pacific School of Dentistry, 2155 Webster St, San Francisco, CA 94115, USA
    J Calif Dent Assoc 28:611-9. 2000
    ..This paper will review a variety of disease entities as well as potential drug interactions pertinent to the use of local anesthetic agents in medically complex patients...
  60. ncbi Inhibition of the Na,K-ATPase of canine renal medulla by several local anesthetics
    H Kutchai
    Department of Molecular Physiology and Biological Physics, School of Medicine, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA
    Pharmacol Res 43:399-403. 2001
    ..4 mM). This study supports the interpretation that the uncharged forms of local anesthetics are much more potent inhibitors of Na,K-ATPase activity than the cationic forms.
  61. ncbi A clinical study to evaluate the efficacy of ELA-Max (4% liposomal lidocaine) as compared with eutectic mixture of local anesthetics cream for pain reduction of venipuncture in children
    Lawrence F Eichenfield
    Division of Pediatric and Adolescent Dermatology, Children s Hospital, San Diego, California, USA
    Pediatrics 109:1093-9. 2002
    ..performed to assess the efficacy of ELA-Max (4% liposomal lidocaine) as compared with eutectic mixture of local anesthetics (EMLA) for pain relief during pediatric venipuncture procedures...
  62. ncbi Airway anesthesia alone does not explain attenuation of histamine-induced bronchospasm by local anesthetics: a comparison of lidocaine, ropivacaine, and dyclonine
    H Groeben
    Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Universitat Essen, Germany
    Anesthesiology 94:423-8; discussion 5A-6A. 2001
    ..Therefore, the authors tested the effect of dyclonine, lidocaine, and ropivacaine inhalation on histamine-induced bronchospasm in 15 volunteers with bronchial hyperreactivity...
  63. ncbi The neurotoxicity of local anesthetics on growing neurons: a comparative study of lidocaine, bupivacaine, mepivacaine, and ropivacaine
    Inas A M Radwan
    Department of Anesthesiology and Reanimatology, Gunma University School of Medicine, Maebashi, Gunma, Japan
    Anesth Analg 94:319-24, table of contents. 2002
    b>Local anesthetics can be neurotoxic...
  64. ncbi Structural and electrophysiological effects of local anesthetics and of low temperature on myelinated nerves: implication of the lipid chains in nerve excitability
    V Luzzati
    Centre de Genetique Moleculaire, Laboratoire propre du CNRS, associé à l Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Gif sur Yvette, 91198, France
    J Mol Biol 286:1389-402. 1999
    ..Also, since local anesthetics act by inhibiting the Na+ channels, these observations suggest that the acyl chain conformation modulates ..
  65. ncbi Modifying the baricity of local anesthetics for spinal anesthesia by temperature adjustment: model calculations
    Axel R Heller
    Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden, Germany
    Anesthesiology 105:346-53. 2006
    Although local anesthetics (LAs) are hyperbaric at room temperature, density drops within minutes after administration into the subarachnoid space...
  66. pmc Magnesium sulfate diminishes the effects of amide local anesthetics in rat sciatic-nerve block
    Yu Chun Hung
    Department of Anesthesiology, Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan
    Reg Anesth Pain Med 32:288-95. 2007
    ..However, the effects of MgSO(4) combined with local anesthetics (LAs) on peripheral nerves are unclear...
  67. ncbi Long-term pain control in trigeminal neuralgia with local anesthetics using an indwelling catheter in the mandibular nerve
    Masahiro Umino
    Section of Anesthesiology and Clinical Physiology, Department of Oral Restitution, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan
    Clin J Pain 18:196-9. 2002
    The authors sought to determine the usefulness of long-term continuous trigeminal nerve block with local anesthetics using an indwelling catheter in a patient with trigeminal neuralgia.
  68. ncbi Down-regulation of norepinephrine transporter expression on membrane surface induced by chronic administration of desipramine and the antagonism by co-administration of local anesthetics in mice
    L Song
    Department of Dental Pharmacology, Division of Integrated Medical Science, Hiroshima University Graduate School of Biomedical Science, Kasumi 1 2 3, Mimami ku, Hiroshima 734 8553, Japan
    Neurochem Int 52:826-33. 2008
    ..desipramine, a norepinephrine transporter (NET) inhibitor to mice markedly enhanced convulsions induced by local anesthetics and that behavioral sensitization may be relevant to decreased [(3)H]norepinephrine uptake by the isolated ..
  69. ncbi Do local anesthetics have antibacterial effect on Staphylococcus aureus under in vivo conditions? An experimental study
    A Aydan Kose
    Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Eskisehir Osmangazi University Medical School, Eskisehir, Turkey
    Dermatol Surg 36:848-52. 2010
    ..The antimicrobial properties against Staphylococcus aureus of some common local anesthetic preparations such as prilocaine, bupivacaine, articaine, and combinations were evaluated in a live rat surgical wound model...
  70. ncbi Local anesthetics in lipid-depot formulations--neurotoxicity in relation to duration of effect in a rat model
    Henrik Dyhre
    Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Lund University, Malmo University Hospital, Malmo, Sweden
    Reg Anesth Pain Med 31:401-8. 2006
    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible local neurotoxicity of a number of lipid-depot formulations of local anesthetics in relation to their duration of action in sciatic-nerve block.
  71. ncbi Is chemical incompatibility responsible for chondrocyte death induced by local anesthetics?
    Michael T Bogatch
    Tulane Institute of Sports Medicine, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA
    Am J Sports Med 38:520-6. 2010
    Chondrolysis associated with intra-articular administration of local anesthetics has been attributed to chondrocyte death induced by the local anesthetics. The mechanism of how the local anesthetics cause chondrocyte death is not clear.
  72. ncbi Cross-reactivity among amide-type local anesthetics in a case of allergy to mepivacaine
    P Gonzalez-Delgado
    Sección Alergia, Hospital General de Alicante, Aliccante, Spain
    J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 16:311-3. 2006
    Among the various adverse reactions to local anesthetics, IgE-mediated reactions, particularly to the more commonly used amide group, are extremely rare...
  73. ncbi Role of local anesthetics on both cholinergic and serotonergic ionotropic receptors
    H R Arias
    Instituto de Investigaciones Bioquimicas de Bahia Blanca, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Universidad Nacional del Sur, Argentina
    Neurosci Biobehav Rev 23:817-43. 1999
    A great body of experimental evidence indicates that the main target for the pharmacological action of local anesthetics (LAs) is the voltage-gated Na+ channel...
  74. ncbi The effects of local anesthetics on perioperative coagulation, inflammation, and microcirculation
    Klaus Hahnenkamp
    Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital Muenster, Albert Schweitzer Strasse 33, 48129 Muenster, Germany
    Anesth Analg 94:1441-7. 2002
  75. ncbi Anaphylactic reactions to local anesthetics
    Johannes Ring
    Department of Dermatology and Allergy Biederstein, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universitat Munchen, Munich, Germany
    Chem Immunol Allergy 95:190-200. 2010
    b>Local anesthetics (LA) are common elicitors of adverse reactions and the clinical symptoms often correspond to anaphylaxis with tachycardia, hypotension and subjective feelings of weakness, heat or vertigo...
  76. ncbi Transdermal delivery of hydrophobic and hydrophilic local anesthetics from o/w and w/o Brij 97-based microemulsions
    Varaporn Buraphacheep Junyaprasert
    Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400, Thailand
    J Pharm Pharm Sci 10:288-98. 2007
  77. ncbi [Local anesthetics. Differences and similarities in the "-cains"]
    A Dullenkopf
    Abteilung Anästhesie, Orthopädische Universitätsklinik Balgrist, Zurich, Switzerland
    Anaesthesist 52:329-40. 2003
    b>Local anesthetics provoke reversible blockade of nerves by interaction with sodium channels in membranes of nerves...
  78. pmc Direct inhibition of microtubule-based kinesin motility by local anesthetics
    Y Miyamoto
    Department of Anesthesiology, Osaka University Medical School, Osaka 565 0871, USA
    Biophys J 78:940-9. 2000
    b>Local anesthetics are known to inhibit neuronal fast anterograde axoplasmic transport (FAAT) in a reversible and dose-dependent manner, but the precise mechanism has not been determined...
  79. ncbi Interaction of local anesthetics with a peptide encompassing the IV/S4-S5 linker of the Na+ channel
    Leonardo F Fraceto
    Center of Molecular and Structural Biology, LNLS, Campinas, Brazil Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Biology, State University of Campinas, Campinas, Brazil
    Biophys Chem 123:29-39. 2006
    ..The interaction of two local anesthetics (LA), lidocaine and benzocaine, with pIV/S4-S5 has been studied by DOSY, heteronuclear NMR 1H-15N-HSQC ..
  80. ncbi [Cervical epidural anesthesia for upper extremity surgery using three different formulations of local anesthetics]
    Uriah Guevara-López
    Division de Investigacion, UMAE Magdalena de las Salinas, IMSS, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran
    Cir Cir 73:273-81. 2005
    ..To evaluate the efficiency and safety of the cervical epidural blockade (CEB) in upper extremity surgery, using lidocaine 2%, bupivacaine 5% and a mixture of both local analgesics...
  81. pmc Local anesthetics disrupt energetic coupling between the voltage-sensing segments of a sodium channel
    Yukiko Muroi
    Department of Physiology, University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, WI 53706, USA
    J Gen Physiol 133:1-15. 2009
    b>Local anesthetics block sodium channels in a state-dependent fashion, binding with higher affinity to open and/or inactivated states...
  82. ncbi Local anesthetics induce chondrocyte death in bovine articular cartilage disks in a dose- and duration-dependent manner
    Ian K Y Lo
    Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
    Arthroscopy 25:707-15. 2009
    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of various local anesthetics on chondrocyte viability in articular cartilage by use of a bovine disk model.
  83. ncbi Relative neural toxicity of local anesthetics
    M W Kalichman
    Department of Anesthesiology, University of California, San Diego 92093 9151
    J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 52:234-40. 1993
    ..relative neural toxicity and relative motor nerve conduction blockade were assessed for two amide-linked local anesthetics (etidocaine and lidocaine) and two ester-linked local anesthetics (chloroprocaine and procaine)...
  84. ncbi Influence of local anesthetics on the neuromuscular blockade produced by rocuronium: effects of lidocaine and 50% enantiomeric excess bupivacaine on the neuromuscular junction
    Angélica de Fátima de Assunção Braga
    Departamento de Anestesiologia da FCM UNICAMP, Campinas, SP
    Rev Bras Anestesiol 59:725-34. 2009
    The effects of local anesthetics (LA) on neuromuscular transmission and their influence on the neuromuscular blockade produced by competitive neuromuscular blockers have not been fully investigated...
  85. ncbi Low-dose combined spinal-epidural anesthesia for cesarean delivery: a comparison of three plain local anesthetics
    H C Coppejans
    Dept of Anesthesia, University Hospital Antwerp, Wilrijkstraat 10, B 2650 Edegem, Belgium
    Acta Anaesthesiol Belg 57:39-43. 2006
    The new local anesthetics have been poorly studied for intrathecal use during Cesarean section surely in low doses and in combination with an opioid substance...
  86. ncbi Post-laparoscopic cholecystectomy pain: effects of intraperitoneal local anesthetics on pain control--a randomized prospective double-blinded placebo-controlled trial
    Bestoun H Ahmed
    Department of General Surgery, University of Florida, Jacksonville, Florida 32209, USA
    Am Surg 74:201-9. 2008
    ..Lignocaine was the most efficacious local anesthetic in this trial and has a high safety profile when used at recommended doses...
  87. doi Sensory and motor complications of local anesthetics
    Peter Gerner
    Muscle Nerve 37:421-5. 2008
  88. ncbi Procaine and mepivacaine have less toxicity in vitro than other clinically used local anesthetics
    Toshiharu Kasaba
    Department of Anesthesiology, Miyazaki Medical College, Kiyotake cho, Japan
    Anesth Analg 97:85-90, table of contents. 2003
    The neurotoxicity of local anesthetics can be demonstrated in vitro by the collapse of growth cones and neurites in cultured neurons...
  89. ncbi The site of action of epidural fentanyl infusions in the presence of local anesthetics: a minimum local analgesic concentration infusion study in nulliparous labor
    Yehuda Ginosar
    Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Hadassah Hebrew University School of Medicine, Jerusalem, Israel
    Anesth Analg 97:1439-45. 2003
    We have previously demonstrated that continuous epidural infusions of fentanyl without local anesthetics elicit analgesia by a systemic mechanism...
  90. ncbi Fundamental properties of local anesthetics: half-maximal blocking concentrations for tonic block of Na+ and K+ channels in peripheral nerve
    M E Bräu
    Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Justus Liebig University, Giessen, Germany
    Anesth Analg 87:885-9. 1998
    b>Local anesthetics suppress excitability by interfering with ion channel function...
  91. ncbi The effect of insulin on the resuscitation of bupivacaine-induced severe cardiovascular toxicity in dogs
    Jin Tae Kim
    Department of Anesthesiology, Seoul National University Hospital, 28 Yongon Dong, Chongno Gu, Seoul, Korea 110 744
    Anesth Analg 99:728-33, table of contents. 2004
    ..In conclusion, severe bupivacaine-induced cardiovascular collapse in dogs was effectively reversed with the insulin treatment...
  92. ncbi Epinephrine-supplemented local anesthetics for ear and nose surgery: clinical use without complications in more than 10,000 surgical procedures
    Hans Martin Häfner
    Department of Dermatology, University Hospital Tubingen, Liebermeisterstr 25, 72076 Tubingen, Germany
    J Dtsch Dermatol Ges 3:195-9. 2005
    b>Local anesthetics supplemented with epinephrine are generally regarded as contraindicated for surgical procedures involving the fingers, toes, penis, outer ear and the tip of the nose [1], but epinephrine is essential if automated ..
  93. ncbi Transdermal analgesia with local anesthetics in children: review, update and future directions
    Constance S Houck
    Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine, Children s Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Expert Rev Neurother 5:625-34. 2005
    Topical local anesthetics in one form or another have been used for the past 20 years to alleviate the skin pain associated with needle puncture and venous cannulation in children...
  94. ncbi Local anesthetics as antimicrobial agents: a review
    Svena M Johnson
    I Flow Corporation, Lake Forest, CA, USA
    Surg Infect (Larchmt) 9:205-13. 2008
    Since the introduction of cocaine in 1884, local anesthetics have been used as a mainstay of pain management...
  95. ncbi The cardiotoxicity of local anesthetics: the place of ropivacaine
    B M Graf
    Department of of Anaesthesiology, University of Heidelberg, Germany
    Curr Top Med Chem 1:207-14. 2001
    ..have a well-defined role as safe and effective methods in modern anesthesia and analgesia with long-acting local anesthetics. Recent studies have shown that the incidence of intoxication by these drugs is a rare but catastrophic ..
  96. ncbi Possible mechanism of irreversible nerve injury caused by local anesthetics: detergent properties of local anesthetics and membrane disruption
    Norihito Kitagawa
    Department of Anesthesiology, Saga Medical School, Nabeshima, Saga, Japan
    Anesthesiology 100:962-7. 2004
    Irreversible nerve injury may result from neural membrane lysis due to the detergent properties of local anesthetics. This study aimed to investigate whether local anesthetics display the same properties as detergents and whether they ..
  97. ncbi The effects of general anesthesia on whole body and regional pharmacokinetics of local anesthetics at toxic doses
    Susan E Copeland
    Department of Anaesthesia and Pain Management, University of Sydney at Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney NSW 2065, Australia
    Anesth Analg 106:1440-9, table of contents. 2008
    ..In this study, we determined the influence of general anesthesia on the pharmacokinetics of six local anesthetics administered i.v. at approximately the highest recommended doses.
  98. ncbi The effects of general anesthesia on the central nervous and cardiovascular system toxicity of local anesthetics
    Susan E Copeland
    Department of Anaesthesia and Pain Management, University of Sydney at Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney NSW 2065, Australia
    Anesth Analg 106:1429-39, table of contents. 2008
    ..We determined the influence of halothane/O(2) anesthesia on cardiovascular and central nervous system (CNS) toxic responses to six amide-type local anesthetics administered i.v..
  99. ncbi Immediate- and delayed-type allergic reactions to amide local anesthetics: clinical features and skin testing
    Regis Fuzier
    Laboratoire de Pharmacologie Medicale et Clinique, Unité de Pharmacoépidémiologie EA3696, Faculte de Medecine, Universite de Toulouse, Universite Paul Sabatier, Toulouse, France
    Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 18:595-601. 2009
    ..Among them, allergic reactions are considered rare. The aim of this study was to describe the main characteristics of ADRs induced by amide type local anesthetic drugs...
  100. ncbi Local anesthetics have a major impact on viability of preadipocytes and their differentiation into adipocytes
    Maike Keck
    Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Surgery, Medical University Vienna, Vienna, Austria
    Plast Reconstr Surg 126:1500-5. 2010
    ..The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of different local anesthetics frequently used in clinical practice on the viability of preadipocytes and their ability to differentiate ..
  101. ncbi Is there a place for local anesthetics structurally different from classical amid or ester local anesthetics?
    Vladimir Vegh
    Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Comenius University, Bratislava, Slovakia
    Curr Opin Anaesthesiol 19:509-15. 2006
    The aim of this review is to describe the pharmacology, toxicology and chemistry of the new group of local anesthetics of phenylcarbamic acid type.

Research Grants64

  1. Anesthetic Action: Molecular Substrates &Neural Mechanisms
    Douglas A Bayliss; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..underlying Specific Aim 2, which derives from new preliminary data, is that inhibition of TASK channels by local anesthetics contributes to their deleterious effects...
  2. Local anesthetic receptor in peripheral Na+ channels
    GING K WANG; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Local anesthetics (LAs) block voltage-gated Na+ channels and impede both motor and sensory functions reversibly during local anesthesia...
  3. Central mechanisms of maintenance of orofacial pain after injury
    Asaf Keller; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..months, and the inflammation due to the surgical procedure can be separated with the use of long-duration local anesthetics. Our major hypothesis is that tissue and nerve injury in the orofacial region can lead to the maintenance of ..
  4. Selective targeting of sodium channel blockers to pain-sensing neurons
    Bruce P Bean; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The most effective form of pain relief without loss of consciousness is provided by administration of local anesthetics, which act by inhibiting voltage-dependent sodium channels and thereby depressing electrical excitability...
    Daniel S Kohane; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The purpose of this research is to develop particulate prolonged duration local anesthetics (PDLA) employing site 1 sodium channel blockers such as saxitoxin (STX)...
  6. Insecticide Action at the Local Anesthetic Receptor
    David M Soderlund; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..g., local anesthetics, antiarrhythmics, anticonvulsants, neuroprotectants and analgesics) that bind to the "local anesthetic ..
  7. Back pain Outcomes using Longitudinal Data (BOLD)
    Jeffrey G Jarvik; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..spinal stenosis to evaluate the effectiveness, cost and safety of combined epidural steroid injections and local anesthetics compared with local anesthetic injections alone, and 2) a prospective observational cohort study of early ..
  8. Development and Evaluation of an Online Dental Student Alcohol Curriculum
    Peter M Miller; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..structure, periodontal disease, salivary gland disease, caries (cavities), and adverse drug reactions to local anesthetics and analgesics. Oral and pharyngeal cancer kills ~8,000 Americans each year...
  9. Actions of Local Anesthetics on NMDA Receptors
    Meaghan Paganelli; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Recent evidence supports an inhibitory effect of local anesthetics on NMDA receptors, however, little is known as to the mechanism by which this inhibition occurs...
  10. Sodium channels and electrogenesis in sensory neurons
    Theodore R Cummins; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..3) Determine if resurgent currents are sensitive to modulation by local anesthetics, anti-convulsants and other agents that target voltage-gated sodium channels...
  11. University of Utah Pediatric Pharmacology Research Unit
    Robert Ward; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..A third study will determine the systemic exposure to local anesthetics contained in the S-Caine topical local anesthetic patch.
  12. Finding effective treatments for inhaled chlorine-induced injury related pain
    Timothy J Ness; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Our recent data show that there may be benefit to treating subjects exposed to Cl2 with inhaled local anesthetics. The present studies will examine the effects of this treatment as monotherapy or in combination with a beta ..
  13. Noninvasive Methemoglobin Monitoring Technology
    LEONARD WINCHESTER; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..commonly caused by environmental or work-related chemical exposures, and from pharmaceutical agents such as local anesthetics, acetaminophen, and drugs containing nitrites and/or nitrates...
    ALFRED CIARLONE; Fiscal Year: 1980
    ..The over-all objective is to characterize the mechanism of induction of local seizures at the level of a brain pathway in a particular region of rat brain. ..
  15. Peripheral Nerve Blocks with Multimodal Analgesics
    Brian Williams; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..However, single injection nerve blocks with local anesthetics provide only 12 hours of analgesia, leading to little opioid sparing...
    Leonard Firestone; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..been used to elucidate the membrane actions of other drugs essential to modern anesthetic practice, the local anesthetics, barbiturates, and relaxants...
    Issaku Ueda; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..The fact that part of the aromatic amine local anesthetics exists as a positively charged form is consistent with receptor binding because biological membranes usually ..
    Fuad Baroody; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..We will also attempt to block the eosinophilic response by local anesthetics and specific receptor antagonists for leukotrienes and histamine...
  19. Local Anesthetic Interactions with Membranes
    Gary Strichartz; Fiscal Year: 2005
    b>Local anesthetics (LAs) interact intimately with membranes in order to reach their pharmacological targets...
    Michael Johnson; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Other local anesthetics have a risk of persistent lumbosacral neurotoxicity of approximately 1 in 10,000...
    George Kramer; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..of the bronical circulation; 5) to evaluate the effectiveness of various anti-inflammatory agents and local anesthetics on the hyperemia and permeability alterations of inflammation...
    Thomas Klein; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..Molecular studies will examine the influence of cocaine and other local anesthetics on cytosolic calcium mobilization, and enzyme and Western blotting studies will examine the activity of ..
    Joel Katz; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..most effective ways to prevent noxious input during surgery from reaching the spinal cord is to administer local anesthetics and opioids via the epidural route before surgery...
    Edward Moczydlowski; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..NaV channels lies in the fact that they are the target of several classes of drugs and neurotoxins such as local anesthetics, antiarrhythmics, tetrodotoxin and saxitoxin...
    DANIEL KOHANE; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..proposal develops the principles and methods of controlled release technology to produce prolonged duration local anesthetics. This mentored research in chemical engineering, molecular biology and neurobiology, in conjunction with ..
    Mauricio Montal; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..for the inhibition of ionic conduction through voltage-dependent and neurotransmitter regulated channels by local anesthetics (LA)...
  27. Na Channels in Afferents after Bladder Obstruction
    William Steers; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..These symptoms may include urgency, frequency, nocturia and urge incontinence. Symptoms can be relieved by local anesthetics and minimally invasive procedures that blunt sensory input from the bladder and urethra yet fail to un-..
    VINCENT CIOFALO; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..After preliminary studies, we have determined that ester-type local anesthetics (ex...
    Alexander Leaf; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..that the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in fish oils, which prevent sudden cardiac death, like local anesthetics, inhibit the fast, voltage dependent Na+ currents (i.e...
    ROLAND KENNEDY; Fiscal Year: 1980
    ..cannot be estimated by blood concentrations alone, we are evaluating the uptake and distribution of amide local anesthetics in chronically instrumented fetal lambs...
    George Breese; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..and electrically elicited seizures from the inferior colliculus will be mapped using site injection of local anesthetics. ln addition, pharmacological interventions are planned to determine if the seizure process induced by these ..
  32. Molecular Physiology of Voltage-gated Ion Channels
    Richard Horn; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..blockers will include extracellular toxins (tetrodotoxin, saxitoxin, and mu-conotoxin) and intracellular local anesthetics. We will test for a role of the pi electrons of critical aromatic residues in selectivity, conductance, ..
    RONALD COSS; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..The effects on modifying survival on the morphological endpoints will be assessed using heat sensitizers (local anesthetics, caffeine, low pH) and thermally sensitive CHO mutants with altered morphology will be used in the proposed ..
    SAMUEL DUDLEY; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Drugs that act upon Na+ channels including anticonvulsants, local anesthetics, and antiarrhythmic agents...
    Dirk Snyders; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..will study molecular determinants of voltage-gated K+ channel block by antiarrhythmic drugs and local anesthetics. Voltage-gated K+ channels play a crucial role in controlling cardiac excitability and repolarization and ..
  36. Regions of Na channel involved in permeation and gating
    Nipavan Chiamvimonvat; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..They are the primary targets for local anesthetics as well as related antiarrhythmic drugs...
    Michael Kalichman; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..experimental studies have failed to discriminate if nerve injury should be attributed to some or all local anesthetics, the NESACAINE antioxidant, or the inadvertent administration of large epidural doses into the spinal cord ..
    Ronald Li; Fiscal Year: 2003
    The pore of the sodium channel binds a variety of clinically-important drugs (local anesthetics, antileptics and antiarrhythmics)...
    Jerry Collins; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..additive or synergistic peripheral interactions between those systems and between them and low doses of local anesthetics? Studies will be carried out in a behavioral model developed by the investigator which permits testing in ..
  40. Local Anesthetic Cardiotoxicity: Nanotechnology Therapy
    Donn Dennis; Fiscal Year: 2006
    b>Local anesthetics (LAs) reversibly prevent impulse transmission in nerves by voltage-, time- and frequency-dependent blockade of sodium channel conductance (I-Na)...
  41. Peptide-mediated Attachment of Drug-loaded Microparticles to Medical Devices
    JONATHAN HODGES; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..loaded with a wide variety of therapeutic molecules from antibiotics to prevent post-operative infection to local anesthetics to treat post- operative pain...
    Bakul Bhatt; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..To date, the most widely used method of topical anesthesia is EMLA (eutectic mixture of local anesthetics) cream...
  43. Structure and Function of Ca2+ Channel Splice Variants
    Scott Mittman; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..modulation of voltage- gated Na+ channel function would represent a dramatic improvement over current use of local anesthetics in the treatment of perioperative, obstetric and chronic pain...
    Edward Moczydlowski; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..block of tetrodotoxin-insensitive Na-channels by Zn2+ and on the possibility of multiple sites of action of local anesthetics. Specific binding of (3H) saxitoxin will be used as an assay in the purification of a novel toxin receptor ..
    Peter Ruben; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..beta-1 subunit; (2) test the hypothesis that SI is modulated by CaM kinase II; (3) test the hypothesis that local anesthetics and anticonvulsants affect or mimic SI, and that this varies as a function of beta-1 subunit co-expression; ..
    JAY YEH; Fiscal Year: 1990
    The long-term objective of my research is to understand how do local anesthetics block the nerve conduction...
    JAMES LEPOCK; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..The molecular mechanisms of sensitization by local anesthetics and low pH will be determined, specifically whether the conformational stability of thermolabile proteins or ..
    CEDRIC WILLIAMS; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..by blocking noradrenergic receptors in this nucleus or interrupting neural transmission with the use of local anesthetics. The second set of experiments will test the hypothesis by examining whether stimulation of NTS ..
    Kevin Gingrich; Fiscal Year: 2000
    Voltage-gated Naplus channels mediate the spread of electrical excitation in cardiac and neuronal tissues. Local anesthetics (LAs) primarily target Naplus channels, inhibit Naplus current, and thereby provide important clinical utility ..
  50. Conopeptides as Topical Local Anesthetics for Burn Pain
    Grzegorz Bulaj; Fiscal Year: 2001
    The goal of this proposal is to develop conotoxins as topical local anesthetics for treatment of burn pain. Severe burn injuries often result in intense pain which is currently treated with opiates...
    ALAN GOLDIN; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Third, we will determine if local anesthetics bind to the same region of the channel that serves as the docking site for the inactivating particle...
    Stephen Korn; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..the presence of intracellular channel blockers, which include clinically used class III antiarrhythmics and local anesthetics. Preliminary data suggest that this same conformational change also underlies both K+- and pH-dependent ..
    THOMAS DECOURSEY; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..One aim of this project is to characterize the inhibition of H+ channels by organic drugs, such as local anesthetics. The mechanism of interaction between organic compounds (e.g...
  54. CGX-1160, a non-opioid, broad-spectrum analgesic
    John Wagstaff; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..variety of analgesic and adjuvant drugs including: opioids, tricyclic antidepressants, anticonvulsants, and local anesthetics. A significant number of patients, particularly those suffering from neuropathic pain, are refractory to all ..
  55. Spatial and Temporal Characteristics of Central Pain Se
    ANDRE MAUDERLI; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The effect of silencing clinical pain foci with transdermally delivered local anesthetics on thermallyinduced sensitization will be studied...
    FRANK DINENNO; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..specific alpha- receptor subtypes before and after abolishing basal sympathetic outflow to the forearm with local anesthetics given at the stellate ganglion...
  57. Cocaine/nicotine action on acetylcholine receptors
    Robert Oswald; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Reports in the literature have suggested that cocaine and other local anesthetics, when administered intraventricularly, are antagonistic to the behavioral and pharmacological effects of ..
    Claude Ghez; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..performance of a tracking task after reversible inactivation of several candidate pathways by injection of local anesthetics and other agents which block conduction or transmission of neural impulses...
    Kwan Hon Cheng; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..and IP3) as well as exogenous hyperthermic sensitizing and protective chemicals (sugars, polyols, local anesthetics, alcohols, and antibiotics)...
  60. Structure and Activation of Protein Kinase C Enzymes
    JULIANNE SANDO; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..g. alcohols) or lipid binding (e.g. local anesthetics) molecules...
  61. Microbiology/Immunology of Periodontal Disease in T1DM
    Paul Moore; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..An integrated multidisciplinary effort provides significant data collection capabilities essential for understanding the complex multifactorial etiology of periodontal disease in Type 1 diabetes. ..
    GING WANG; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Upon binding, local anesthetics (LAs) block this permeation pathway whereas batrachotoxin (BTX) alters ion selectivity and causes persistent ..
    GING WANG; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Traditional local anesthetics (LAs) are often inept for chronic or intractable cancer pain due to their insufficient duration of nerve ..