combined anesthetics

Summary

Summary: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially to induce anesthesia. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Propofol/remifentanil vs sevoflurane/remifentanil for long lasting surgical procedures: a randomised controlled trial
    J Hocker
    Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital Schleswig Holstein, Campus Kiel, Schwanenweg 21, D 24105, Kiel, Germany
    Anaesthesia 61:752-7. 2006
  2. ncbi Use of Entonox in the community for control of procedural pain
    Andrea Evans
    Carmarthenshire NHS Trust, Carmarthen, UK
    Br J Community Nurs 8:488-94. 2003
  3. ncbi Recovery and neurological examination after remifentanil-desflurane or fentanyl-desflurane anaesthesia for carotid artery surgery
    W Wilhelm
    Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, University of Saarland, Homburg/Saar, Germany
    Br J Anaesth 86:44-9. 2001
  4. ncbi Hemodynamic stability, myocardial ischemia, and perioperative outcome after carotid surgery with remifentanil/propofol or isoflurane/fentanyl anesthesia
    W Scott Jellish
    Department of Anesthesiology, Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, Illinois 60153, USA
    J Neurosurg Anesthesiol 15:176-84. 2003
  5. ncbi Randomized controlled trial of the haemodynamic and recovery effects of xenon or propofol anaesthesia
    M Coburn
    Department of Anaesthesiology, University Hospital of the RWTH Aachen, Pauwelsstrasse 30, D 52074 Aachen, Germany
    Br J Anaesth 94:198-202. 2005
  6. ncbi Comparison of Propofol-Lipuro with propofol mixed with lidocaine 10 mg on propofol injection pain
    E Kam
    Department of Anaesthesia, Stepping Hill Hospital, Stockport, SK2 7JE, UK
    Anaesthesia 59:1167-9. 2004
  7. ncbi Leptin and perioperative neuroendocrine stress response with two different anaesthetic techniques
    E Marana
    Department of Anesthesiology, Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine, Rome, Italy
    Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 52:541-6. 2008
  8. ncbi Induced hypotension for tympanoplasty: a comparison of desflurane, isoflurane and sevoflurane
    D Dal
    Department of Anesthesiology and Reanimation, Faculty of Medicine, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey
    Eur J Anaesthesiol 21:902-6. 2004
  9. ncbi Comparison of propofol/remifentanil and sevoflurane/remifentanil for maintenance of anaesthesia for elective intracranial surgery
    J R Sneyd
    Peninsula Medical School, C310 Portland Square, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA, UK
    Br J Anaesth 94:778-83. 2005
  10. ncbi Pharmacodynamic modelling of the bispectral index response to propofol-based anaesthesia during general surgery in children
    C Jeleazcov
    Department of Anaesthesiology, Universitatsklinikum Erlangen, Friedrich Alexander Universitat Erlangen Nurnberg, Krankenhausstr 12, 91054 Erlangen, Germany
    Br J Anaesth 100:509-16. 2008

Research Grants

Detail Information

Publications224 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Propofol/remifentanil vs sevoflurane/remifentanil for long lasting surgical procedures: a randomised controlled trial
    J Hocker
    Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital Schleswig Holstein, Campus Kiel, Schwanenweg 21, D 24105, Kiel, Germany
    Anaesthesia 61:752-7. 2006
    ..The shorter time to extubation in the propofol group does not offer a relevant clinical advantage...
  2. ncbi Use of Entonox in the community for control of procedural pain
    Andrea Evans
    Carmarthenshire NHS Trust, Carmarthen, UK
    Br J Community Nurs 8:488-94. 2003
    ..The author describes how, following a review of the literature pertaining to its use in other clinical areas, she has successfully introduced nitrous oxide/oxygen into her trust, with positive results...
  3. ncbi Recovery and neurological examination after remifentanil-desflurane or fentanyl-desflurane anaesthesia for carotid artery surgery
    W Wilhelm
    Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, University of Saarland, Homburg/Saar, Germany
    Br J Anaesth 86:44-9. 2001
    ..More rapid awakening and an earlier opportunity for neurological examination suggest that remifentanil-desflurane is a suitable alternative to a standard fentanyl-based general anaesthetic technique in patients undergoing CEA...
  4. ncbi Hemodynamic stability, myocardial ischemia, and perioperative outcome after carotid surgery with remifentanil/propofol or isoflurane/fentanyl anesthesia
    W Scott Jellish
    Department of Anesthesiology, Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, Illinois 60153, USA
    J Neurosurg Anesthesiol 15:176-84. 2003
    ..At 9 times the cost of an iso/fen anesthesia technique, remi/prop offers little advantage over inhalational anesthesia for carotid endarterectomy...
  5. ncbi Randomized controlled trial of the haemodynamic and recovery effects of xenon or propofol anaesthesia
    M Coburn
    Department of Anaesthesiology, University Hospital of the RWTH Aachen, Pauwelsstrasse 30, D 52074 Aachen, Germany
    Br J Anaesth 94:198-202. 2005
    ..There is limited clinical experience with xenon in a large number of patients. We present intra- and postoperative haemodynamic and recovery data comparing xenon and total intravenous anaesthesia with propofol...
  6. ncbi Comparison of Propofol-Lipuro with propofol mixed with lidocaine 10 mg on propofol injection pain
    E Kam
    Department of Anaesthesia, Stepping Hill Hospital, Stockport, SK2 7JE, UK
    Anaesthesia 59:1167-9. 2004
    ..88). We observed no significant difference in pain scores between the groups (p = 0.67). Moderate or severe injection pain was experienced by 12/98 (12%) patients given Propofol-Lipuro compared with 8/98 (8%) given Diprivan (p = 0.48)...
  7. ncbi Leptin and perioperative neuroendocrine stress response with two different anaesthetic techniques
    E Marana
    Department of Anesthesiology, Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine, Rome, Italy
    Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 52:541-6. 2008
    ..Our purpose was to compare intra- and post-operative hormonal changes during total intravenous anaesthesia (TIVA) using propofol and remifentanil vs. sevoflurane anaesthesia in a low stress level surgical model (laparoscopy)...
  8. ncbi Induced hypotension for tympanoplasty: a comparison of desflurane, isoflurane and sevoflurane
    D Dal
    Department of Anesthesiology and Reanimation, Faculty of Medicine, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey
    Eur J Anaesthesiol 21:902-6. 2004
    ....
  9. ncbi Comparison of propofol/remifentanil and sevoflurane/remifentanil for maintenance of anaesthesia for elective intracranial surgery
    J R Sneyd
    Peninsula Medical School, C310 Portland Square, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA, UK
    Br J Anaesth 94:778-83. 2005
    ..Propofol and sevoflurane are suitable agents for maintenance of anaesthesia during neurosurgical procedures. We have prospectively compared these agents in combination with the short-acting opioid, remifentanil...
  10. ncbi Pharmacodynamic modelling of the bispectral index response to propofol-based anaesthesia during general surgery in children
    C Jeleazcov
    Department of Anaesthesiology, Universitatsklinikum Erlangen, Friedrich Alexander Universitat Erlangen Nurnberg, Krankenhausstr 12, 91054 Erlangen, Germany
    Br J Anaesth 100:509-16. 2008
    ..This study describes a pharmacodynamic model during general anaesthesia in children relating the bispectral index (BIS) response to the anaesthetic dosing of propofol, fentanyl, and remifentanil...
  11. ncbi Local versus general anesthesia for external dacryocystorhinostomy in young patients
    Ferda Ciftci
    Department of Ophthalmology, Gulhane Military Medical Academy, GATA Haydarpasa Training Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey
    Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 21:201-6. 2005
    ..To compare the effectiveness, complications, and patient acceptance of local anesthesia with general anesthesia in young patients for external dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR)...
  12. ncbi Hemodynamic differences between propofol-remifentanil and sevoflurane anesthesia for repair of cleft lip and palate in infants
    Jacob Steinmetz
    Department of Anesthesia, Centre of Head and Orthopedics, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark
    Paediatr Anaesth 17:32-7. 2007
    ..We aimed at comparing the hemodynamic effects of propofol-remifentanil vs sevoflurane-fentanyl anesthesia. In addition, we sought to investigate recovery and whether remifentanil induced acute opioid tolerance...
  13. ncbi Left ventricular mechanical performance in elderly patients after induction of anaesthesia. A comparison of inhalational induction with sevoflurane and intravenous induction with fentanyl and propofol
    K Nishikawa
    Department of Anaesthesiology, Sapporo Medical University, School of Medicine, South 1, West 16, Chuo Ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060 8543, Japan
    Anaesthesia 59:948-53. 2004
    ..Sevoflurane may therefore be preferable to fentanyl and propofol for induction of anaesthesia in elderly patients because of its lesser effect on left ventricular performance...
  14. ncbi The effect of mixing lidocaine with propofol on the dose of propofol required for induction of anesthesia
    Li Hoon Tan
    Department of Anaesthesia and Surgical Intensive Care, Changi General Hospital, and Singapore General Hospital, Singapore, Singapore
    Anesth Analg 97:461-4, table of contents. 2003
    ..0 (1.8-2.2) mg/kg for Group S versus 1.9 (1.7-2.0) mg/kg for Group M (P = 0.206). Mixing 20 mg of lidocaine with 200 mg of propofol is unlikely to affect the dose of propofol required for the induction of anesthesia...
  15. ncbi Intravenous anesthesia provides optimal surgical conditions during microscopic and endoscopic sinus surgery
    Leopold H J Eberhart
    Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine, Philipps University, Marburg, Germany
    Laryngoscope 113:1369-73. 2003
    ..Intravenous anesthesia was compared with traditional balanced anesthesia by subjective assessment of surgical conditions made by two experienced otorhinolaryngological surgeons...
  16. ncbi General anaesthesia or spinal anaesthesia for outpatient urological surgery
    E Erhan
    Ege University, Department of Anaesthesiology and Reanimation, Faculty of Medicine, Izmir, Turkey
    Eur J Anaesthesiol 20:647-52. 2003
    ..The technique as well as the drugs used may hasten or delay home discharge. We compared recovery profiles and side-effects of spinal anaesthesia and total intravenous anaesthesia...
  17. ncbi The efficacy of 5% lidocaine-prilocaine (EMLA) cream on pain during intravenous injection of propofol
    A McCluskey
    Department of Anesthesia, Stepping Hill Hospital, Stockport, United Kingdom
    Anesth Analg 97:713-4. 2003
    ..002). We conclude that topical anesthesia with EMLA cream applied for 60 min does not significantly reduce propofol injection pain...
  18. ncbi Effects of intravenous lidocaine on isoflurane concentration, physiological parameters, metabolic parameters and stress-related hormones in horses undergoing surgery
    T B Dzikiti
    Section of Veterinary Anaesthesiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, The Netherlands
    J Vet Med A Physiol Pathol Clin Med 50:190-5. 2003
    ..This study suggests that the use of lidocaine to decrease the concentration of isoflurane to obtain a sufficient surgical anaesthesia has no subsequent effects on physiological and metabolic parameters or stress-related hormones...
  19. ncbi Haemodynamic effects of thoracic epidural anaesthesia during induction of anaesthesia: an investigation into the effects of tracheal intubation during target-controlled infusion of propofol
    T Nakatani
    Department of Anaesthesiology, Shimane University School of Medicine, 89 1 Enya cho, Izumo City 693 8501, Japan
    Anaesthesia 60:530-4. 2005
    ..In conclusion, epidural anaesthesia did not produce profound hypotension following induction of anaesthesia and produced a reduction in the haemodynamic response to tracheal intubation during a target controlled infusion of propofol...
  20. ncbi The effectiveness of continuous epidural infusion of low-dose fentanyl and mepivacaine in perioperative analgesia and hemodynamic control in mastectomy patients
    Yoshifumi Kotake
    Department of Anesthesiology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan
    J Clin Anesth 16:88-91. 2004
    ..To investigate, in mastectomy patients, the effectiveness of continuous cervical epidural block using a low-dose fentanyl infusion in combination with local anesthetics...
  21. ncbi Combined general and epidural anesthesia for a child with alagille syndrome: a case report
    Kathirvel Subramaniam
    Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Paediatr Anaesth 14:787-91. 2004
    ..We describe the perioperative management of a pediatric patient with Alagille syndrome undergoing ileal exclusion and the specific issues associated with epidural anesthesia with this syndrome...
  22. ncbi [Effects of induction of anesthesia on hemodynamics in children with deformities of the spinal cord when turning to the position lying on the belly]
    G E Ul'rikh
    Vestn Khir Im I I Grek 164:69-72. 2005
    ..The minimal changes in blood circulation were found to occur when using the combination of Thiopental, Clofelin and Fentanyl...
  23. ncbi Hypotensive anesthesia and recovery of cognitive function in long-term craniofacial surgery
    Valentina Caverni
    Department of Anesthesiology and Resuscitation, Umberto I Polyclinic, La Sapienza University, Rome, Italy
    J Craniofac Surg 16:531-6. 2005
    ..Early and late recovery were faster and more complete in the D group; P < 0.05. Postoperative morbidity (nausea, vomiting, shivering, pain, and edema) was slight and did not significantly differ among the groups...
  24. ncbi Cerebral haemodynamic changes during propofol-remifentanil or sevoflurane anaesthesia: transcranial Doppler study under bispectral index monitoring
    A Conti
    Department of Neurosciences, Psychiatric and Anaesthesiological Sciences, University of Messina, School of Medicine, Policlinico Universitario G Martino, Via C Valeria 98125, Messina, Italy
    Br J Anaesth 97:333-9. 2006
    ..Nevertheless, there are potential differences related to their activity on the cerebrovascular system. The magnitude of such difference is not completely known...
  25. ncbi Sevoflurane-remifentanil versus propofol-remifentanil anesthesia at a similar bispectral level for off-pump coronary artery surgery: no evidence of reduced myocardial ischemia
    Jean Dominique Law-Koune
    Department of Anesthesiology, Foch Hospital, Suresnes, France
    J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 20:484-92. 2006
    ..This study was designed to compare postoperative troponin I (cTnI) concentrations after sevoflurane-remifentanil versus propofol-remifentanil anesthesia...
  26. ncbi A combination of fentanyl-midazolam-propofol provides better intubating conditions than fentanyl-lignocaine-propofol in the absence of neuromuscular blocking agents
    S Prakash
    Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, Vardhman Mahavir Medical College, Safdarjang Hospital, New Delhi, India
    Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 50:999-1004. 2006
    ..In this randomized, double-blind study, intubating conditions after induction of anaesthesia with propofol, midazolam and fentanyl were compared with those after propofol, lignocaine and fentanyl...
  27. ncbi Do we need inhaled anaesthetics to blunt arousal, haemodynamic responses to intubation after i.v. induction with propofol, remifentanil, rocuronium?
    M J Coppens
    Department of Anaesthesia, Ghent University Hospital De Pintelaan 185, B 9000, Ghent, Belgium
    Br J Anaesth 97:835-41. 2006
    ....
  28. ncbi Outpatient arthroscopic knee surgery under combined local and intravenous propofol anesthesia in children and adolescents
    Branka Maldini
    Department of Anesthesia, Sveti Duh General Hospital, Zagreb, Croatia
    Paediatr Anaesth 16:1125-32. 2006
    ..The aim was to examine the merits of anesthesia, to discuss the indications for the procedure and to analyze recovery/discharge times from the postanesthesia care unit (PACU)...
  29. pmc Influence of lidocaine and diazepam on peri-induction intraocular pressures in dogs anesthetized with propofol-atracurium
    Erik H Hofmeister
    Departments of Small Animal Medicine and Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602, USA
    Can J Vet Res 70:251-6. 2006
    ..Thus, propofol-atracurium anesthesia causes an increase in IOP that is blunted by diazepam. However, diazepam does not blunt the increase in IOP observed with intubation...
  30. ncbi The effect of anesthetic technique on early postoperative gastric emptying: comparison of propofol-remifentanil and opioid-free sevoflurane anesthesia
    Jakob Walldén
    Department of Anesthesia, Sundsvall Hospital, 851 86, Sundsvall, Sweden
    J Anesth 20:261-7. 2006
    ..The aim of this study was to compare the effect on early gastric emptying between two anesthetic techniques...
  31. ncbi Comparison of hemodynamic and respiratory effects of propofol and sevoflurane during carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum in a swine model
    Francesco Puglisi
    General Surgery and Liver Transplantation Unit, Department of Emergency and Organ Transplantation, University of Bari Medical School, Bari, Italy
    Chir Ital 59:105-11. 2007
    ..The base deficit was significantly greater in G1 at T60, T90, T120 and Tpost. In this study propofol assured better hemodynamic and respiratory conditions than sevoflurane during laparoscopy in a porcine model...
  32. ncbi The effects of surgical levels of sevoflurane and propofol anaesthesia on heart rate variability
    M Maenpaa
    Turku University Hospital, Department of Surgery, Turku, Finland
    Eur J Anaesthesiol 24:626-33. 2007
    ..We compared heart rate dynamics during surgical levels of propofol and sevoflurane anaesthesia in a highly standardized setting...
  33. ncbi Co-induction of anaesthesia with 0.75 mg kg propofol followed by sevoflurane: a randomized trial in the elderly with cardiovascular risk factors
    A P Moran
    Worthing Hospital, Department of Anaesthesia, West Sussex, UK
    Eur J Anaesthesiol 25:183-7. 2008
    ..75 mg kg(-1) propofol and 8% sevoflurane, when compared with 8% sevoflurane alone in patients requiring surgery for fractured neck of femur...
  34. ncbi Bispectral index monitoring does not improve early recovery of geriatric outpatients undergoing brief surgical procedures
    Edna Zohar
    Department of Anesthesiology, Meir Hospital, Kfar Saba, Israel
    Can J Anaesth 53:20-5. 2006
    ..To assess if titration of sevoflurane using the bispectral index (BIS) monitor improves the early and intermediate recovery in geriatric outpatients undergoing brief urologic procedures under general anesthesia without muscle relaxants...
  35. ncbi Spinal anesthesia for endoscopic urological surgery--low dose vs. varying doses of hyperbaric bupivacaine
    Iheb Labbene
    Military Hospital of Tunis, Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, Tunis, Tunisia
    Middle East J Anaesthesiol 19:369-84. 2007
    ..The aim of this study is to compare the efficiency of low dose vs. varying doses of hyperbaric bupivacaine in spinal anesthesia for endoscopic urological procedures...
  36. ncbi The effect of epidural bupivacaine on maintenance requirements of sevoflurane evaluated by bispectral index in children
    F Reinoso-Barbero
    Department of Surgery, Medical School, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Pamplona, Spain
    Eur J Anaesthesiol 23:460-4. 2006
    ....
  37. ncbi Quality differences in postoperative sleep between propofol-remifentanil and sevoflurane anesthesia in infants
    Jacob Steinmetz
    Department of Anesthesia, Centre of Head and Orthopedics 4231, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark
    Anesth Analg 104:779-83. 2007
    ..In the present study we focus on postoperative sleep disturbances, which we hypothesized would be more common after sevoflurane anesthesia than propofol-remifentanil anesthesia...
  38. ncbi Lidocaine is more efficient than the choice of propofol formulations to reduce incidence of pain on induction
    A Mallick
    Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Unit, Leeds General Infirmary, Leeds, UK
    Eur J Anaesthesiol 24:403-7. 2007
    ..Lipuro propofol, a propofol emulsified in medium- and long-chain triglycerides, has been shown to reduce the intensity of injection pain compared to Diprivan, although a number of studies report no reduction in overall incidence of pain...
  39. ncbi A prospective randomized comparison of spinal versus local anesthesia with propofol infusion for knee arthroscopy
    Warren R Dunn
    Vanderbilt Sports Medicine Center, Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, USA
    Arthroscopy 22:479-83. 2006
    ....
  40. ncbi Clinical comparison of remifentanil-sevoflurane vs. remifentanil-propofol for endoscopic endonasal transphenoidal surgery
    T Cafiero
    Cardarelli Hospital, Department of Anesthesiology and Postoperative Intensive Care, Naples, Italy
    Eur J Anaesthesiol 24:441-6. 2007
    ..The aim of this study was to examine recovery profile, surgical operative conditions and haemodynamic differences using remifentanil infusion with either propofol target controlled infusion system or sevoflurane...
  41. ncbi Cisatracurium or rocuronium versus rocuronium-cisatracurium combination
    Ahed Zeidan
    Department of Anaesthesiology, Sahel General Hospital, Beirut, Lebanon
    Middle East J Anaesthesiol 18:879-86. 2006
    ..However, the combination of 1ED95 cisatracurium with 1ED95 rocuronium provided similar intubating conditions to the 2ED95 rocuronium alone, associated with a significantly less pain on injection...
  42. ncbi Spinal block or total intravenous anaesthesia with propofol and remifentanil for gynaecological outpatient procedures
    G Danelli
    Vita Salute University of Milano, IRCCS H San Raffaele Department of Anaesthesiology, Milano, Italy
    Eur J Anaesthesiol 19:594-9. 2002
    ....
  43. ncbi Prolonged anesthesia with desflurane and fentanyl in dogs during conventional and laparoscopic surgery
    M F Martin
    Minimally Invasive Surgery Centre, Caceres, Spain
    J Am Vet Med Assoc 219:941-5. 2001
    ..To determine the effects of prolonged anesthesia with desflurane in dogs undergoing laparotomy or abdominal laparoscopy...
  44. ncbi Prospective, randomized cost analysis of anesthesia with remifentanil combined with propofol, desflurane or sevoflurane for otorhinolaryngeal surgery
    T Loop
    Department of Anesthesia, University Hospital, Freiburg, Germany l ukl uni freiburg de
    Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 46:1251-60. 2002
    ..In the era of cost containment, cost analysis should demonstrate the cost-effectiveness of new anesthetic drugs...
  45. ncbi The effect of nitrous oxide on jugular bulb oxygen saturation during remifentanil plus target-controlled infusion propofol or sevoflurane in patients with brain tumors
    Hernán R Muñoz
    Department of Anesthesiology, Catholic University School of Medicine, Santiago, Chile
    Anesth Analg 94:389-92, table of contents. 2002
    ..01). This indicates that N(2)O does not reduce the incidence of low SjO(2) values during propofol anesthesia...
  46. ncbi Comparative efficacy and safety of remifentanil and fentanyl in 'fast track' coronary artery bypass graft surgery: a randomized, double-blind study
    T Mollhoff
    Westfalische Wilhelms Universitat, Munster, Germany
    Br J Anaesth 87:718-26. 2001
    ..Significantly more drug-related adverse events were reported in the remifentanil group (P=0.016). There were no drug-related adverse cardiac outcomes and no deaths from cardiac causes before hospital discharge in either treatment group...
  47. ncbi Differential effects of intravenous anaesthetic agents on the response of rat mesenteric microcirculation in vivo after haemorrhage
    Z L S Brookes
    Division of Clinical Sciences, University of Sheffield, Royal Hallamshire Hospital, UK
    Br J Anaesth 88:255-63. 2002
    ..The differential effects of i.v. anaesthesia on the response of the mesenteric microcirculation after haemorrhage in vivo are previously unexplored...
  48. ncbi Effect of nitrous oxide on myogenic motor evoked potentials during hypothermia in rabbits anaesthetized with ketamine/fentanyl/propofol
    M Kakimoto
    Department of Anesthesiology, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo Cho, Kashihara, Nara 634 8522, Japan
    Br J Anaesth 88:836-40. 2002
    ..However, the influence of hypothermia on these effects is unknown. Therefore we investigated the effects of hypothermia on nitrous oxide-induced suppression of myogenic MEPs...
  49. ncbi Inhibition of bacterial growth by lignocaine in propofol emulsion
    Z Ozer
    Department of Anaesthesiology and Reanimation, Mersin University Medical Faculty, Turkey
    Anaesth Intensive Care 30:179-82. 2002
    ..05). We conclude that lignocaine in recommended clinical doses (0.05%-0.1%) did not exhibit adequate antibacterial activity to prevent infective complications...
  50. ncbi Comparison of the effects of thoracic and lumbar epidural anaesthesia on induction and maintenance doses of propofol during total i.v. anaesthesia
    M Senturk
    Department of Anaesthesiology, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey
    Br J Anaesth 101:255-60. 2008
    ..In this randomized, double-blind study, the effects of thoracic and lumbar epidural anaesthesia on the induction doses (IDs) and maintenance doses (MDs) of propofol during bispectral index (BIS) guided total i.v. anaesthesia were compared...
  51. ncbi Quantitative EEG changes associated with loss and return of consciousness in healthy adult volunteers anaesthetized with propofol or sevoflurane
    L D Gugino
    Department of Anesthesia, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
    Br J Anaesth 87:421-8. 2001
    ..With loss of consciousness, delta and theta power increased further in anterior regions and also spread to posterior regions. These changes reversed with return to consciousness...
  52. ncbi Intraocular pressure more reduced during anesthesia with propofol than with sevoflurane: both combined with remifentanil
    Ralph Schäfer
    Department of Anaesthesiology, University of Heidelberg, Germany
    Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 46:703-6. 2002
    ..Propofol and remifentanil are known to reduce intraocular pressure (IOP), but no information is available regarding the effects of sevoflurane combined with remifentanil on IOP...
  53. ncbi Conditions for insertion of the laryngeal mask airway: comparisons between sevoflurane and propofol using fentanyl as a co-induction agent. A pilot study
    S B Ganatra
    P D Hinduja National Hospital and Medical Research Centre, Mahim, Mumbai, India
    Eur J Anaesthesiol 19:371-5. 2002
    ..To compare the conditions for insertion of the laryngeal mask airway using sevoflurane or propofol plus fentanyl. We evaluated the haemodynamic changes and cost of induction of anaesthesia in both groups...
  54. ncbi Pain and distress from bone marrow aspirations and lumbar punctures
    Mark T Holdsworth
    Pharmacy and Pediatrics, College of Pharmacy, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 1066, USA
    Ann Pharmacother 37:17-22. 2003
    ..To compare the efficacy of 3 different pharmacologic regimens to relieve pain and distress in children with cancer undergoing bone marrow aspirations (BMAs) and lumbar punctures (LPs)...
  55. ncbi Total intravenous versus inhalational anaesthesia for colonoscopy: a prospective study of clinical recovery and psychomotor function
    T Theodorou
    Department of Anaesthesia, Westmead Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales
    Anaesth Intensive Care 29:124-36. 2001
    ..It is concluded that a sevoflurane/nitrous oxide anaesthetic has a suitable recovery profile for ambulatory colonoscopy and results in faster recovery of cognitive function compared with a fentanyl, midazolam and propofol combination...
  56. ncbi Abeta peptide interactions with isoflurane, propofol, thiopental and combined thiopental with halothane: a NMR study
    Pravat K Mandal
    Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh Medical School, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1778:2633-9. 2008
    ..However, studies with combined anesthetics (thiopental and halothane), showed perturbation of these residues (G29, A30 and I31) and subsequently Abeta ..
  57. ncbi Remifentanil and high thoracic epidural anaesthesia: a successful combination for patients with myasthenia gravis undergoing transsternal thymectomy
    D Mekis
    Eur J Anaesthesiol 22:397-9. 2005
  58. ncbi Comparison of sevoflurane and nitrous oxide mixture with nitrous oxide alone for inhalation conscious sedation in children having dental treatment: a randomised controlled trial
    G Y Lahoud
    Scarborough Hospital, Scarborough YO12 6QL, UK
    Anaesthesia 57:446-50. 2002
    ..1-0.3% to supplement nitrous oxide and oxygen for inhalation conscious sedation is safe, practical, and significantly more effective than nitrous oxide alone in children having dental treatment...
  59. ncbi Comparative study between target-controlled-infusion and continuous-infusion anesthesia in dogs treated with methotrimeprazine and treated with propofol and remifentanil
    Eduardo Hatschbach
    Faculty of Medicine of Botucatu, UNESP, Sao Paulo, Brazil
    Acta Cir Bras 23:65-72. 2008
    ....
  60. ncbi Effect of sufentanil on minimum local analgesic concentrations of epidural bupivacaine, ropivacaine and levobupivacaine in nullipara in early labour
    I Buyse
    Departments of Anaesthesiology, Heilig Hart Hospital, Roeselare, and University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Leuven, Belgium and South Manchester University Hospital, Wythenshawe, UK
    Int J Obstet Anesth 16:22-8. 2007
    ..The aim was to assess the effect of epidural sufentanil on relative analgesic potencies of epidural bupivacaine, ropivacaine and levobupivacaine by determining the minimum local analgesic concentrations during labour...
  61. ncbi Neuroprotective effect of ketamine/xylazine on two rat models of Parkinson's disease
    M M Ferro
    Departamento de Bioquimica e Biologia Molecular, Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, PR, Brasil
    Braz J Med Biol Res 40:89-96. 2007
    ..These results suggest that drugs with a pharmacological profile similar to that of K/X may be useful to delay the progression of Parkinson's disease...
  62. ncbi Chemical immobilization of captive aardvark (Orycteropus afer)
    Roman Vodicka
    ZOO Prague, U Trojskeho zamku 3 120, 171 00, Prague 7 Troja, Czech Republic
    J Zoo Wildl Med 35:544-5. 2004
    ..05-0.09 mg/kg). The detomidine-ketamine combination produced smooth anesthesia, excellent muscle relaxation, and was suitable for routine diagnostic and therapeutic interventions (blood collection, radiologic examinations, minor surgery)...
  63. ncbi Antibacterial activity of remifentanil and mixtures of remifentanil and propofol
    Teoman Zafer Apan
    Department of Microbiology, Kirikkale University Faculty of Medicine, Kirikkale 71100, Turkey
    J Clin Anesth 19:346-50. 2007
    ..To investigate the antibacterial activity of glycine, which is contained in remifentanil, when combined with propofol...
  64. ncbi Effect of the addition of ketamine to morphine in patient-controlled analgesia
    C J Murdoch
    Stobhill Hospital, North Glasgow University Hospitals NHS Trust, UK
    Anaesthesia 57:484-8. 2002
    ..This study concludes that the addition of ketamine to morphine, in this dosage regimen, administered via PCAS for postoperative pain control, does not confer benefit following total abdominal hysterectomy...
  65. ncbi Remifentanil-propofol versus sufentanil-propofol anaesthesia for supratentorial craniotomy: a randomized trial
    K Gerlach
    University Hospital Lubeck, Department of Anaesthesiology, Lubeck, Germany
    Eur J Anaesthesiol 20:813-20. 2003
    ..Remifentanil has unique pharmacokinetics that might allow faster recovery after neurosurgery. We investigated the effects of a propofol/sufentanil versus a remifentanil/propofol regimen on the primary end-point tracheal extubation time...
  66. ncbi Comparison of sevoflurane-nitrous oxide anaesthesia with the conventional intravenous-inhalational technique using bispectral index monitoring
    M K Shah
    Department of Anaesthesia O and G, Kandang Kerbau Hospital, 100 Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 229899
    Anaesthesia 56:302-8. 2001
    ..There was no difference in the emergence times. Thirty minutes after emergence, there was no difference in the incidence of adverse effects, with the exception of essentially mild abdominal pain which was more frequent in group A...
  67. ncbi Extension of epidural blockade in labour for emergency Caesarean section using 2% lidocaine with epinephrine and fentanyl, with or without alkalinisation
    D T Lam
    Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, Hong Kong, China
    Anaesthesia 56:790-4. 2001
    ..We conclude that pH-adjusted lidocaine 2% with epinephrine and fentanyl is effective for rapidly establishing surgical anaesthesia in patients with a functioning epidural catheter for labour who require emergency Caesarean section...
  68. ncbi [Changes in sedative level during induction of anesthesia using a single volatile anesthetic]
    M Yamakage
    Department of Anesthesiology, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, Sapporo 060-8543
    Masui 50:383-6. 2001
    ..BIS monitor is useful for monitoring the sedative level during induction of anesthesia, and induction using a single volatile anesthetic such as sevoflurane is smooth...
  69. ncbi Response entropy is more reactive than bispectral index during laparoscopic gastric banding
    James Feld
    Anesthesiology Department, University of Illinois at Chicago, 1740 W Taylor, Suite 3200, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
    J Clin Monit Comput 20:229-34. 2006
    ..We compared Response Entropy (RE) and BIS during anesthesia for laparoscopic gastric banding with RE targeted to 45...
  70. ncbi Peri-operative body temperatures in isoflurane-anaesthetized rabbits following ketamine-midazolam or ketamine-medetomidine
    Nicola J Grint
    Department of Clinical Veterinary Science, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK
    Vet Anaesth Analg 34:181-9. 2007
    ..To investigate alterations in peri-operative body temperatures and oesophageal-skin temperatures in isoflurane-anaesthetized rabbits following either ketamine-midazolam or ketamine-medetomidine induction of anaesthesia...
  71. ncbi Comparative study of different concentrations of prilocaine and ropivacaine for intraoperative axillary brachial plexus block
    M Freitag
    Department of Anaesthesiology, University Medical Centre Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany
    Eur J Anaesthesiol 23:481-6. 2006
    ..75% alone and in different combinations when used for brachial plexus anaesthesia in axillary perivascular blocks...
  72. ncbi A retrospective study of chloral hydrate, meperidine, hydroxyzine, and midazolam regimens used to sedate children for dental care
    S Wilson
    Postgraduate Pediatric Dentistry Program, Ohio State University and Columbus Children s Hospital, Columbus, USA
    Pediatr Dent 22:107-12. 2000
    ....
  73. ncbi Local anesthesia. Topical application, local infiltration, and field block
    D W Smith
    University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, USA
    Postgrad Med 106:57-60, 64-6. 1999
    ..The authors discuss the clinical uses and advantages of common local anesthetics and describe three techniques used in the primary care setting: topical application, local infiltration, and field block...
  74. ncbi Efficacy and safety of a mixture of ketamine, midazolam and atropine for procedural sedation in paediatric oncology: a randomised study of oral versus intramuscular route
    Sushma Bhatnagar
    Department of Anaesthesia, Institute Rotary Cancer Hospital, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India
    J Paediatr Child Health 44:201-4. 2008
    ..To evaluate the efficacy and safety of a mixture of ketamine, midazolam and atropine given orally by comparing the same mixture given through the intramuscular route in children with malignancy undergoing minor invasive procedures...
  75. ncbi Does abstinence from smoking or a transdermal nicotine system influence atracurium-induced neuromuscular block?
    A I Puura
    Department of Anaesthesia, Hatanpää Municipal Hospital of Tampere, Finland
    Anesth Analg 87:430-3. 1998
    ..Perioperative use of a transdermal nicotine system prevents these abstinence-induced changes in duration and maintenance-dose...
  76. ncbi Relief of pain and anxiety in pediatric patients in emergency medical systems
    William T Zempsky
    Pediatrics 114:1348-56. 2004
    ..A systematic approach to pain management and anxiolysis, including staff education and protocol development, can have a positive effect on providing comfort to children in the emergency setting...
  77. ncbi SNAP index and Bispectral index during different states of propofol/remifentanil anaesthesia
    G N Schmidt
    Department of Anaesthesiology, University Hospital Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany
    Anaesthesia 60:228-34. 2005
    ....
  78. ncbi Autonomic nervous system state: the effect of general anaesthesia and bilateral tonsillectomy after unilateral infiltration of lidocaine
    M P J Paloheimo
    Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Eye ENT Hospital, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Haartmanstreet 4, PO Box 220, FI 00029 HUS Helsinki, Finland
    Br J Anaesth 104:587-95. 2010
    ....
  79. ncbi Local anesthesia with intravenous sedation for surgical repair of selected open globe injuries
    Ingrid U Scott
    Department of Ophthalmology, Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami, School of Medicine, Miami, Florida 33101, USA
    Am J Ophthalmol 134:707-11. 2002
    ..To report factors associated with the use of local anesthesia with intravenous sedation (local anesthesia/sedation) rather than general anesthesia for surgery for open globe injuries in adult reparable eyes...
  80. ncbi Cigarette burn after tumescent anesthesia and intravenous sedation: a case report
    Douglas J Grose
    Australian Skin Clinics, Southport, Australia
    Dermatol Surg 29:433-5. 2003
    ..It is a safe technique and is easily administered in an outpatient setting. Tumescent anesthesia tends to have a prolonged duration of action, which can be a cause of patient morbidity, especially where intravenous sedation is also used...
  81. ncbi Ketamine has no effect on bispectral index during stable propofol-remifentanil anaesthesia
    D Faraoni
    CUB Erasmus Hospital, University Department of Anaesthesia Reanimation, Route de Lennik, 808, Brussels, Belgium
    Br J Anaesth 102:336-9. 2009
    ..The purpose of our investigation was to study the effect of ketamine 0.2 mg kg(-1) administered over a 5 min period on the BIS during stable target-controlled infusion (TCI) propofol-remifentanil general anaesthesia...
  82. ncbi Effectiveness of local anaesthesia for external dacryocystorhinostomy
    Alan A McNab
    Orbit, Plastic and Lacrimal Clinic, Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    Clin Experiment Ophthalmol 30:270-2. 2002
    ..To establish the effectiveness, complications and patient acceptance of local anaesthesia (LA) with intra-venous sedation, for external dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR)...
  83. ncbi Efficacy and safety of remifentanil in coronary artery bypass graft surgery: a randomized, double-blind dose comparison study
    Ferd E A Geisler
    Department of Anaesthesiology, Ignatius Ziekenhuis Breda, Breda, The Netherlands
    J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 17:60-8. 2003
    ..To compare the efficacy and safety of 3 doses of remifentanil as part of a total intravenous anesthesia technique with low-dose propofol in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery...
  84. ncbi Induction with sevoflurane-remifentanil is comparable to propofol-fentanyl-rocuronium in PONV after laparoscopic surgery
    Homer Yang
    McMaster University, Department of Anesthesia, 1200 Main Street West, Room HSC 2U1, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 3Z5, Canada
    Can J Anaesth 51:660-7. 2004
    ..To compare sevoflurane-remifentanil induction and propofol-fentanyl-rocuronium induction with regards to the frequency of moderate to severe postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in the first 24 hr after laparoscopic day surgery...
  85. ncbi External dacryocystorhinostomy and local anesthesia: technique to measure minimized blood loss
    Richard H Caesar
    Orbital, Plastic and Lacrimal Clinic, The Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital Melbourne, Australia
    Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 20:57-9. 2004
    ..To describe the techniques required to minimize blood loss in external dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) under local anesthesia and to accurately measure the intraoperative blood loss through application of these techniques...
  86. ncbi Changes in cortical electrical activity during induction of anaesthesia with thiopental/fentanyl and tracheal intubation: a quantitative electroencephalographic analysis
    I Rundshagen
    Department of Anaesthesiology, University Hospital Charite, Humboldt University of Berlin, Campus Charite Mitte, Berlin, Germany
    Br J Anaesth 92:33-8. 2004
    ..We studied the topography of the EEG during induction of anaesthesia and intubation in patients receiving thiopental and fentanyl to document regional electrical brain activity...
  87. ncbi Comparison of lignocaine 2% with adrenaline, bupivacaine 0.5% with or without hyaluronidase and a mixture of bupivacaine, lignocaine and hyaluronidase for peribulbar block analgesia
    A A van den Berg
    Department of Anesthesia, King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
    Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 45:961-6. 2001
    ..5% plain was overall the least satisfactory, and the greatest supplementation rate occurred with lido/bup/hyalase, suggesting that either lido 2% epi or bup 0.5% hyalase are the most suitable of the agents tested for this type of surgery...
  88. ncbi A comparison of the insertion characteristics of the laryngeal tube and the laryngeal mask airway: a study of the ED50 propofol requirements
    C L Burlacu
    Department of Anaesthesia, Coombe Women Hospital, Dublin, Ireland
    Anaesthesia 61:229-33. 2006
    ..40). We conclude therefore that the insertion of the two airway devices requires similar bolus doses of propofol when alfentanil is used as the co-induction drug...
  89. ncbi The endoscopic application of eutetic mixture of local anaesthetics cream
    D D Pothier
    Clin Otolaryngol 32:316-7. 2007
  90. ncbi Analgesic and cardiopulmonary effects of intrathecally administered romifidine or romifidine and ketamine in goats (Capra hircus)
    H P Aithal
    Division of Surgery, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, India
    J S Afr Vet Assoc 72:84-91. 2001
    ..The results of this study indicated a possible synergistic analgesic interaction between intrathecally administered romifidine and ketamine, without causing any marked systemic effects in goats...
  91. ncbi A randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of the EMLA patch for the reduction of pain associated with intramuscular injection in four to six-year-old children
    K L Cassidy
    Department of Medicine, Izaak Walton Killam Health Centre, and Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
    Acta Paediatr 90:1329-36. 2001
    ..Of the children in the placebo group, 43% had clinically significant pain, compared with 17% of children in the EMLA patch group. No severe adverse symptoms occurred as a result of either EMLA or placebo patch application...
  92. ncbi [Effective anesthetic volumes in sciatic nerve block: comparison between the parasacral and infragluteal-parabiceps approaches with 0.5% bupivacaine with adrenaline and 0.5% ropivacaine]
    Pablo Escovedo Helayel
    NEPAR, CET, SBA
    Rev Bras Anestesiol 59:521-30. 2009
    ..Thus, the main objective of this study was to determine the volumes of local anesthetics in parasacral and infragluteal-parabiceps sciatic nerve block (SNB)...
  93. ncbi Single-shot spinal anaesthesia, combined spinal-epidural and epidural volume extension for elective caesarean section: a randomized comparison
    A Tyagi
    Department of Anaesthesiology and Critical Care, University College of Medical Sciences and Guru Teg Bahadur Hospital, Shahadra, Delhi 110095, India
    Int J Obstet Anesth 18:231-6. 2009
    ..Single-shot spinal and combined spinal-epidural block, with or without epidural volume extension, can be used for caesarean section. There is no trial comparing their block characteristics and adverse effects under identical conditions...
  94. ncbi Systemic, but not pulmonary, hemodynamics are depressed during combined high thoraco-cervical epidural and general anesthesia in dogs
    Tadahisa Funayama
    Departments of Anesthesiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Yamanashi, Yamanashi 409 3898, Japan
    Can J Anaesth 50:454-9. 2003
    ..An epidural block is frequently combined with general anesthesia. Both systemic and pulmonary hemodynamics may be affected by high epidural anesthesia and the combined general anesthetic. These effects were investigated in a canine model...
  95. ncbi A combination of intrathecal morphine and remifentanil anesthesia for fast-track cardiac anesthesia and surgery
    Ian Bowler
    Department of Anesthesia, University Hospital of Wales, United Kingdom
    J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 16:709-14. 2002
    ..To determine if the combined remifentanil and intrathecal morphine (RITM) anesthetic technique facilitates early extubation in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery...
  96. ncbi Can the cerebral state monitor replace the bispectral index in monitoring hypnotic effect during propofol/remifentanil anaesthesia?
    S C Hoymork
    Department of Anaesthesia, Ullevaal University Hospital and University of Oslo, Faculty Division of Ullevaal University Hospital, Oslo, Norway
    Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 51:210-6. 2007
    ..We tested whether the two monitors would reflect hypnosis equally during propofol/remifentanil anaesthesia...
  97. ncbi Prospective evaluation of anesthetic technique for anorectal surgery
    Thomas E Read
    Section of Colon and Rectal Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri, USA
    Dis Colon Rectum 45:1553-8; discussion 1558-60. 2002
    ..The purpose of this study was to prospectively evaluate the safety and efficacy of this anesthetic technique for anorectal surgery...
  98. ncbi A combination of total intravenous anesthesia and thoracic epidural for thymectomy in juvenile myasthenia gravis
    Oliver Bagshaw
    Department of Anaesthesia, Birmingham Children s Hospital, Birmingham, UK
    Paediatr Anaesth 17:370-4. 2007
    ..Two cases of thymectomy are presented where anesthesia was provided using a combination of TIVA and thoracic epidural analgesia. Both patients tolerated the technique well and had an uncomplicated perioperative course...
  99. ncbi Hormonal, metabolic and physiological effects of laparoscopic surgery using a detomidine-buprenorphine combination in standing horses
    P van Dijk
    Sections of Anaesthesiology, Department of Equine Sciences, Veterinary Faculty, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Vet Anaesth Analg 30:72-80. 2003
    ..To assess the hormonal, metabolic and physiological effects of laparascopic surgery performed under a sedative analgesic combination of detomidine and buprenorphine in standing horses...
  100. pmc Frequency-current relationships of rat hindlimb alpha-motoneurones
    Duane C Button
    Spinal Cord Research Center, Department of Physiology, University of Manitoba, 730 William Avenue, 436 BMSB, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada R3E 3J7
    J Physiol 573:663-77. 2006
    ..The KX-anaesthestized preparation enables direct recording of PICs in MNs from intact animals...
  101. ncbi A comparison of epidural anaesthesia with lignocaine, bupivacaine and a lignocaine-bupivacaine mixture in cats
    F M Lawal
    Department of Veterinary Surgery and Reproduction, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
    J S Afr Vet Assoc 80:243-6. 2009
    ..Therefore, lumbosacral epidural administration of BUP appears to be the best choice for a long surgical procedure lasting more than 1 hour when compared with either LIG or LIG-BUP...

Research Grants4

  1. ETHANOL EFFECTS ON GLYCINE RECEPTOR/CHANNEL FUNCTION
    Jiang Hong Ye; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ....
  2. Neurobiol mechanism/acupuncture therapy/alcoholism
    Jiang Hong Ye; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..This new knowledge will have a major impact on our understanding of how acupuncture works. The application of this knowledge is expected to improve the effectiveness of acupuncture treatment in alcohol addiction. ..
  3. Physical Activity and Quality of Life in Multiple Sclerosis
    Robert Motl; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  4. Ethanol and mesolimbic GABAergic neurons
    Jiang Hong Ye; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Such results will provide valuable information on novel mechanisms underlying the addictive properties of alcohol and a firm scientific foundation for future neurobiological studies. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..