chitin

Summary

Summary: A linear polysaccharide of beta-1->4 linked units of ACETYLGLUCOSAMINE. It is the second most abundant biopolymer on earth, found especially in INSECTS and FUNGI. When deacetylated it is called CHITOSAN.

Top Publications

  1. pmc Role of chitin and chitinase/chitinase-like proteins in inflammation, tissue remodeling, and injury
    Chun Geun Lee
    Section of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 8057, USA
    Annu Rev Physiol 73:479-501. 2011
  2. ncbi Conserved fungal LysM effector Ecp6 prevents chitin-triggered immunity in plants
    Ronnie de Jonge
    Laboratory of Phytopathology, Wageningen University, Droevendaalsesteeg 1, 6708 PB Wageningen, Netherlands
    Science 329:953-5. 2010
  3. ncbi New insights into peritrophic matrix synthesis, architecture, and function
    Dwayne Hegedus
    Agriculture and Agri Food Canada, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 0X2, Canada
    Annu Rev Entomol 54:285-302. 2009
  4. pmc CERK1, a LysM receptor kinase, is essential for chitin elicitor signaling in Arabidopsis
    Ayako Miya
    Department of Life Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Meiji University, 1 1 1 Higashi Mita, Tama ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 214 8571, Japan
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:19613-8. 2007
  5. ncbi Chitin-induced dimerization activates a plant immune receptor
    Tingting Liu
    Graduate Program in Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100730, China
    Science 336:1160-4. 2012
  6. pmc A LysM receptor-like kinase plays a critical role in chitin signaling and fungal resistance in Arabidopsis
    Jinrong Wan
    Division of Plant Sciences, National Center for Soybean Biotechnology, Christopher S Bond Life Sciences Center, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri 65211, USA
    Plant Cell 20:471-81. 2008
  7. ncbi The structure and synthesis of the fungal cell wall
    Shaun M Bowman
    Department of Biological Sciences, The University at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York 14260, USA
    Bioessays 28:799-808. 2006
  8. pmc Chitin induces accumulation in tissue of innate immune cells associated with allergy
    Tiffany A Reese
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Departments of Medicine and Microbiology Immunology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143 0795, USA
    Nature 447:92-6. 2007
  9. ncbi Biomaterials based on chitin and chitosan in wound dressing applications
    R Jayakumar
    Amrita Centre for Nanosciences and Molecular Medicine, Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Amrita Vishwa Vidhyapeetham University, Cochin 682041, India
    Biotechnol Adv 29:322-37. 2011
  10. ncbi Chitin metabolism in insects: structure, function and regulation of chitin synthases and chitinases
    Hans Merzendorfer
    Department of Biology Chemistry, University of Osnabruck, 49069 Osnabruck, Germany
    J Exp Biol 206:4393-412. 2003

Research Grants

Detail Information

Publications301 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc Role of chitin and chitinase/chitinase-like proteins in inflammation, tissue remodeling, and injury
    Chun Geun Lee
    Section of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 8057, USA
    Annu Rev Physiol 73:479-501. 2011
    ..In mammals, despite the absence of endogenous chitin, a number of chitinases and chitinase-like proteins (C/CLPs) have been identified...
  2. ncbi Conserved fungal LysM effector Ecp6 prevents chitin-triggered immunity in plants
    Ronnie de Jonge
    Laboratory of Phytopathology, Wageningen University, Droevendaalsesteeg 1, 6708 PB Wageningen, Netherlands
    Science 329:953-5. 2010
    Multicellular organisms activate immunity upon recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Chitin is the major component of fungal cell walls, and chitin oligosaccharides act as PAMPs in plant and mammalian cells...
  3. ncbi New insights into peritrophic matrix synthesis, architecture, and function
    Dwayne Hegedus
    Agriculture and Agri Food Canada, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 0X2, Canada
    Annu Rev Entomol 54:285-302. 2009
    The peritrophic matrix (PM) is a chitin and glycoprotein layer that lines the invertebrate midgut. Although structurally different, it is functionally similar to the mucous secretions of the vertebrate digestive tract...
  4. pmc CERK1, a LysM receptor kinase, is essential for chitin elicitor signaling in Arabidopsis
    Ayako Miya
    Department of Life Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Meiji University, 1 1 1 Higashi Mita, Tama ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 214 8571, Japan
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:19613-8. 2007
    b>Chitin is a major component of fungal cell walls and serves as a microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP) for the detection of various potential pathogens in innate immune systems of both plants and animals...
  5. ncbi Chitin-induced dimerization activates a plant immune receptor
    Tingting Liu
    Graduate Program in Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100730, China
    Science 336:1160-4. 2012
    ..The cell surface receptor chitin elicitor receptor kinase 1 of Arabidopsis (AtCERK1) directly binds chitin through its lysine motif (LysM)-..
  6. pmc A LysM receptor-like kinase plays a critical role in chitin signaling and fungal resistance in Arabidopsis
    Jinrong Wan
    Division of Plant Sciences, National Center for Soybean Biotechnology, Christopher S Bond Life Sciences Center, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri 65211, USA
    Plant Cell 20:471-81. 2008
    b>Chitin, a polymer of N-acetyl-d-glucosamine, is found in fungal cell walls but not in plants. Plant cells can perceive chitin fragments (chitooligosaccharides) leading to gene induction and defense responses...
  7. ncbi The structure and synthesis of the fungal cell wall
    Shaun M Bowman
    Department of Biological Sciences, The University at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York 14260, USA
    Bioessays 28:799-808. 2006
    ..Based on studies in a number of fungi, the cell wall has been shown to be primarily composed of chitin, glucans, mannans and glycoproteins...
  8. pmc Chitin induces accumulation in tissue of innate immune cells associated with allergy
    Tiffany A Reese
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Departments of Medicine and Microbiology Immunology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143 0795, USA
    Nature 447:92-6. 2007
    ..Relatively little is known about the factors that trigger these host responses. Chitin, a widespread environmental biopolymer of N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamine, provides structural rigidity to fungi, ..
  9. ncbi Biomaterials based on chitin and chitosan in wound dressing applications
    R Jayakumar
    Amrita Centre for Nanosciences and Molecular Medicine, Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Amrita Vishwa Vidhyapeetham University, Cochin 682041, India
    Biotechnol Adv 29:322-37. 2011
    Wound dressing is one of the most promising medical applications for chitin and chitosan...
  10. ncbi Chitin metabolism in insects: structure, function and regulation of chitin synthases and chitinases
    Hans Merzendorfer
    Department of Biology Chemistry, University of Osnabruck, 49069 Osnabruck, Germany
    J Exp Biol 206:4393-412. 2003
    b>Chitin is one of the most important biopolymers in nature. It is mainly produced by fungi, arthropods and nematodes...
  11. pmc LYK4, a lysin motif receptor-like kinase, is important for chitin signaling and plant innate immunity in Arabidopsis
    Jinrong Wan
    Division of Plant Sciences, National Center for Soybean Biotechnology, Christopher S Bond Life Sciences Center, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri 65211, USA
    Plant Physiol 160:396-406. 2012
    b>Chitin is commonly found in fungal cell walls and is one of the well-studied microbe/pathogen-associated molecular patterns...
  12. ncbi The cell wall: a carbohydrate armour for the fungal cell
    Jean Paul Latge
    Unite des Aspergillus, Institut Pasteur, 25, rue du Dr Roux, 75015 Paris, France
    Mol Microbiol 66:279-90. 2007
    ..genes and mechanisms involved in the construction of the common central core composed of branched beta1,3 glucan-chitin. Because of its essential biological role, unique biochemistry and structural organization and the absence in ..
  13. ncbi Chitin induces natural competence in Vibrio cholerae
    Karin L Meibom
    Division of Infectious Diseases and Geographic Medicine, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, and Stanford Institute for the Environment, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Science 310:1824-7. 2005
    ..We showed that V. cholerae can acquire new genetic material by natural transformation during growth on chitin, a biopolymer that is abundant in aquatic habitats (e.g...
  14. pmc Plant cells recognize chitin fragments for defense signaling through a plasma membrane receptor
    Hanae Kaku
    Department of Biochemistry, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, 2 1 2 Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305 8602, Japan
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:11086-91. 2006
    b>Chitin is a major component of fungal cell walls and serves as a molecular pattern for the recognition of potential pathogens in the innate immune systems of both plants and animals...
  15. ncbi Tasting the fungal cell wall
    Jean Paul Latge
    Institut Pasteur, Unite des Aspergillus, 25 rue du Docteur Roux, 75724 Paris Cedex 15, France
    Cell Microbiol 12:863-72. 2010
    ..In addition, receptors recognizing other cell wall major components such as chitin, alpha-1,3-glucan or galactose polymers remain to be identified...
  16. pmc Recognition and blocking of innate immunity cells by Candida albicans chitin
    Hector M Mora-Montes
    School of Medical Sciences, Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB25 2ZD, United Kingdom
    Infect Immun 79:1961-70. 2011
    b>Chitin is a skeletal cell wall polysaccharide of the inner cell wall of fungal pathogens. As yet, little about its role during fungus-host immune cell interactions is known...
  17. ncbi Collagen-based implants reinforced by chitin fibres in a goat shank bone defect model
    Xiaoming Li
    Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
    Biomaterials 27:1917-23. 2006
    ..the bone-regenerating efficacy of a novel nano-hydroxyapatite/collagen/PLLA (nHACP) composite reinforced by chitin fibres. Forty adult male goats with 40 mm defects in shank at the same anatomic site were divided into four groups...
  18. ncbi Functional characterization of CEBiP and CERK1 homologs in arabidopsis and rice reveals the presence of different chitin receptor systems in plants
    Tomonori Shinya
    Department of Life Sciences, School of Agriculture, Meiji University, Kawasaki, Kanagawa, 214 8571 Japan
    Plant Cell Physiol 53:1696-706. 2012
    b>Chitin is a representative microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP) molecule for various fungi and induces immune responses in many plant species...
  19. pmc Mitotic exit kinase Dbf2 directly phosphorylates chitin synthase Chs2 to regulate cytokinesis in budding yeast
    Younghoon Oh
    Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Mol Biol Cell 23:2445-56. 2012
    ..the primary septum (PS), a functional equivalent of animal ECM, is synthesized during cytokinesis by the chitin synthase Chs2...
  20. pmc Population bulk segregant mapping uncovers resistance mutations and the mode of action of a chitin synthesis inhibitor in arthropods
    Thomas Van Leeuwen
    Department of Crop Protection, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, B 9000 Ghent, Belgium
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:4407-12. 2012
    Because of its importance to the arthropod exoskeleton, chitin biogenesis is an attractive target for pest control...
  21. ncbi Genetic manipulation of Vibrio cholerae by combining natural transformation with FLP recombination
    Olga De Souza Silva
    Global Health Institute, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland
    Plasmid 64:186-95. 2010
    ..Within this environment it often forms biofilms on the chitin-containing exoskeleton of crustaceans and their molts...
  22. pmc Effector-mediated suppression of chitin-triggered immunity by magnaporthe oryzae is necessary for rice blast disease
    Thomas A Mentlak
    School of Biosciences, University of Exeter, Geoffrey Pope Building, Exeter EX4 4QD, United Kingdom
    Plant Cell 24:322-35. 2012
    ..In rice (Oryza sativa), the chitin elicitor binding protein (CEBiP) recognizes chitin oligosaccharides released from the cell walls of fungal ..
  23. ncbi A novel alternative splicing site of class A chitin synthase from the insect Ostrinia furnacalis - gene organization, expression pattern and physiological significance
    Mingbo Qu
    Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, China
    Insect Biochem Mol Biol 41:923-31. 2011
    Insect chitin synthase A (CHSA) catalyzes chitin biosynthesis in tissues that develop from ectoderm...
  24. pmc Downregulation of a chitin deacetylase-like protein in response to baculovirus infection and its application for improving baculovirus infectivity
    Agata K Jakubowska
    Department of Genetics, University of Valencia, Dr Moliner 50, Burjassot, Spain
    J Virol 84:2547-55. 2010
    Several expressed sequence tags (ESTs) with homology to chitin deacetylase-like protein (CDA) were selected from a group of Helicoverpa armigera genes whose expression changed after infection with H...
  25. ncbi Three-dimensional chitin-based scaffolds from Verongida sponges (Demospongiae: Porifera). Part I. Isolation and identification of chitin
    H Ehrlich
    Institute of Bioanalytical Chemistry, Dresden University of Technology, 01069 Dresden, Germany
    Int J Biol Macromol 47:132-40. 2010
    ..fulva (Verongida: Demospongiae). We show that these fibrous scaffolds have a multilayered design and are made of chitin. (13)C solid-state NMR spectroscopy, NEXAFS, and IR spectroscopy as well as chitinase digestion and test were ..
  26. ncbi Bacterial chitinases and chitin-binding proteins as virulence factors
    Rikki F Frederiksen
    Department of Veterinary Disease Biology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg C, Denmark
    Microbiology 159:833-47. 2013
    Bacterial chitinases (EC 3.2.1.14) and chitin-binding proteins (CBPs) play a fundamental role in the degradation of the ubiquitous biopolymer chitin, and the degradation products serve as an important nutrient source for marine- and soil-..
  27. ncbi Candidacy of a chitin-inducible gibberellin-responsive gene for a major locus affecting plant height in rice that is closely linked to Green Revolution gene sd1
    Mallikarjuna Rao Kovi
    National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement and National Center of Plant Gene Research Wuhan, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, China
    Theor Appl Genet 123:705-14. 2011
    ..ph1 was then fine mapped to BAC AP003227. Gene annotation indicated that LOC_OS01g65990 encoding a chitin-inducible gibberellin-responsive protein (CIGR), which belongs to the GRAS family, might be the right candidate ..
  28. pmc Lysin motif-containing proteins LYP4 and LYP6 play dual roles in peptidoglycan and chitin perception in rice innate immunity
    Bing Liu
    State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, Key Laboratory of Gene Engineering of the Ministry of Education and Guangdong Key Laboratory of Plant Resources, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat Sen University, 510275 Guangzhou, People s Republic of China
    Plant Cell 24:3406-19. 2012
    ..motif-containing proteins, LYP4 and LYP6, as dual functional PRRs sensing bacterial peptidoglycan (PGN) and fungal chitin. Live cell imaging and microsomal fractionation consistently revealed the plasma membrane localization of these ..
  29. pmc Two LysM receptor molecules, CEBiP and OsCERK1, cooperatively regulate chitin elicitor signaling in rice
    Takeo Shimizu
    Department of Life Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Meiji University, Kawasaki, Kanagawa, Japan
    Plant J 64:204-14. 2010
    b>Chitin is a major molecular pattern for various fungi, and its fragments, chitin oligosaccharides, are known to induce various defense responses in plant cells...
  30. ncbi Both UDP N-acetylglucosamine pyrophosphorylases of Tribolium castaneum are critical for molting, survival and fecundity
    Yasuyuki Arakane
    Division of Plant Biotechnology, College of Agriculture and Life Science, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500 757, Korea
    Insect Biochem Mol Biol 41:42-50. 2011
    ..pyrophosphorylases (UAPs), which provide the activated precursor, UDP-N-acetylglucosamine, for the synthesis of chitin, glycoproteins and glycosylphosphoinositide (GPI) anchors of some membrane proteins as well as for the ..
  31. ncbi Ethylene-responsive element-binding factor 5, ERF5, is involved in chitin-induced innate immunity response
    Geon Hui Son
    University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, USA
    Mol Plant Microbe Interact 25:48-60. 2012
    Our recent work demonstrated that chitin treatment modulated the expression of 118 transcription factor (TF) genes in Arabidopsis...
  32. ncbi Implantable applications of chitin and chitosan
    Eugene Khor
    Department of Chemistry, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 3, Kent Ridge, Singapore 117543, Singapore
    Biomaterials 24:2339-49. 2003
    b>Chitin, extracted primarily from shellfish sources, is a unique biopolymer based on the N-acetyl-glucosamine monomer...
  33. ncbi Crystal structure and binding properties of the Serratia marcescens chitin-binding protein CBP21
    Gustav Vaaje-Kolstad
    Department of Chemistry, Biotechnology, and Food Science, Postbox 5003, Agricultural University of Norway, N 1432 As, Norway
    J Biol Chem 280:11313-9. 2005
    b>Chitin proteins are commonly found in bacteria that utilize chitin as a source of energy. CBP21 is a chitin-binding protein from Serratia marcescens, a Gram-negative soil bacterium capable of efficient chitin degradation...
  34. ncbi Peritrophic matrix proteins
    R L Tellam
    CSIRO Tropical Agriculture, Queensland, Australia
    Insect Biochem Mol Biol 29:87-101. 1999
    ..The review concludes with speculation about the biological functions of the proteins in this matrix...
  35. pmc Elevated cell wall chitin in Candida albicans confers echinocandin resistance in vivo
    Keunsook K Lee
    School of Medical Sciences, Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, United Kingdom
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 56:208-17. 2012
    Candida albicans cells with increased cell wall chitin have reduced echinocandin susceptibility in vitro. The aim of this study was to investigate whether C...
  36. ncbi The Tribolium chitin synthase genes TcCHS1 and TcCHS2 are specialized for synthesis of epidermal cuticle and midgut peritrophic matrix
    Y Arakane
    USDA ARS Grain Marketing and Production Research Center, Manhattan, KS 66502, USA
    Insect Mol Biol 14:453-63. 2005
    Functional analysis of the two chitin synthase genes, TcCHS1 and TcCHS2, in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, revealed unique and complementary roles for each gene...
  37. pmc Functional analysis of Candida albicans GPI-anchored proteins: roles in cell wall integrity and caspofungin sensitivity
    Armêl Plaine
    Laboratoire de Microbiologie et Genetique Moleculaire, AgroParisTech, UMR INRA 1238, UMR CNRS 2585, 78850 Thiverval Grignon, France
    Fungal Genet Biol 45:1404-14. 2008
    ..sensitivity was modified, in more than half of the cases the susceptibility can be correlated to the level of chitin and cell wall thickness: sensitive strains have low level of chitin and a thin cell wall...
  38. ncbi Chitin colonization, chitin degradation and chitin-induced natural competence of Vibrio cholerae are subject to catabolite repression
    Melanie Blokesch
    Global Health Institute, School of Life Sciences, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland
    Environ Microbiol 14:1898-912. 2012
    ..b>Chitin also induces the developmental programme of natural competence in several species of the genus Vibrio...
  39. pmc Knickkopf protein protects and organizes chitin in the newly synthesized insect exoskeleton
    Sujata S Chaudhari
    Department of Biochemistry, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:17028-33. 2011
    ..The molting fluid enzyme chitinase, which degrades the matrix polysaccharide chitin, is not excluded from the newly synthesized cuticle as previously assumed...
  40. ncbi Identification of the Aedes aegypti peritrophic matrix protein AeIMUCI as a heme-binding protein
    Martin Devenport
    Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology and Malaria Research Institute, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    Biochemistry 45:9540-9. 2006
    ..The AeIMUC1 protein has a predicted secretory signal peptide and three putative chitin-binding domains (CBDs) with an intervening mucin-like domain...
  41. ncbi Dietary modulation of clostridial cluster XIVa gut bacteria (Roseburia spp.) by chitin-glucan fiber improves host metabolic alterations induced by high-fat diet in mice
    Audrey M Neyrinck
    Metabolism and Nutrition Research Group, Louvain Drug Research Institute, Universite Catholique de Louvain, B 1200 Brussels, Belgium
    J Nutr Biochem 23:51-9. 2012
    ..The aim of the present study was to investigate the ability of chitin-glucan (CG) from a fungal source to modulate both the gut microbiota and glucose and lipid metabolism in high-fat (..
  42. pmc Chitin particles are multifaceted immune adjuvants
    Carla A Da Silva
    Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06519 1612, USA
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 182:1482-91. 2010
    b>Chitin is a ubiquitous polysaccharide in fungi, insects, allergens, and parasites that is released at sites of infection. Its role in the generation of tissue inflammation, however, is not fully understood.
  43. pmc Different functions of the insect soluble and membrane-bound trehalase genes in chitin biosynthesis revealed by RNA interference
    Jie Chen
    State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat Sen University, Guangzhou, China
    PLoS ONE 5:e10133. 2010
    ..However, no functions of the two trehalases in chitin biosynthesis in insects have yet been reported.
  44. ncbi The cellular basis of chitin synthesis in fungi and insects: common principles and differences
    Hans Merzendorfer
    University of Osnabruck, Faculty of Biology and Chemistry, Department of Animal Physiology, Barbarastrasse 11, 49076 Osnabruck, Germany
    Eur J Cell Biol 90:759-69. 2011
    b>Chitin is a polymer of N-acetylglucosamine, which assembles into microfibrils of about 20 sugar chains...
  45. pmc Different chitin synthase genes are required for various developmental and plant infection processes in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae
    Ling An Kong
    State Key Laboratory of Agrobiotechnology, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China
    PLoS Pathog 8:e1002526. 2012
    b>Chitin is a major component of fungal cell wall and is synthesized by chitin synthases (Chs). Plant pathogenic fungi normally have multiple chitin synthase genes...
  46. ncbi Chitin disaccharide (GlcNAc)2 induces natural competence in Vibrio cholerae through transcriptional and translational activation of a positive regulatory gene tfoXVC
    Shouji Yamamoto
    Department of Bacteriology I, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Toyama 1 23 1, Shinjuku ku, Tokyo 162 8640, Japan
    Gene 457:42-9. 2010
    ..A pathogenic marine bacterium Vibrio cholerae shows natural competence for genetic transformation in the presence of chitin, a polymer of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc)...
  47. pmc Genetic control of cuticle formation during embryonic development of Drosophila melanogaster
    Stephen Ostrowski
    Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Cell Biology, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208, USA
    Genetics 161:171-82. 2002
    ..We find that one of these genes, krotzkopf verkehrt (kkv), encodes the Drosophila chitin synthase enzyme and that a closely linked gene, knickkopf (knk), encodes a novel protein that shows genetic ..
  48. pmc The lysin motif receptor-like kinase (LysM-RLK) CERK1 is a major chitin-binding protein in Arabidopsis thaliana and subject to chitin-induced phosphorylation
    Elena K Petutschnig
    Department of Plant Cell Biology, Albrecht von Haller Institute of Plant Sciences, Georg August University Goettingen, Untere Karspuele 2, D 37073 Goettingen, Germany
    J Biol Chem 285:28902-11. 2010
    ..In the dicot model plant Arabidopsis, the lysin motif (LysM)-containing chitin elicitor receptor kinase 1 (CERK1) has been shown to be essential for perception of the fungal cell wall component ..
  49. ncbi Effect of the chitin synthesis inhibitor triflumuron on the development, viability and reproduction of Aedes aegypti
    Thiago Affonso Belinato
    Laboratório de Fisiologia e Controle de Artrópodes Vetores, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz FIOCRUZ, Av Brasil 4365, 21045 900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil
    Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 104:43-7. 2009
    ..We analyzed several aspects of Ae. aegypti adults surviving exposure to a partially lethal dose of triflumuron, a chitin synthesis inhibitor...
  50. ncbi Global impact of Vibrio cholerae interactions with chitin
    Carla Pruzzo
    Dipartimento di Biologia, Universita di Genova, Corso Europa 26, 16132 Genova, Italy
    Environ Microbiol 10:1400-10. 2008
    The interaction of Vibrio cholerae with chitin exemplifies for microbial ecology a successful bacteria-substrate interaction with complex and significant influence on the lifestyle of the bacterium...
  51. ncbi Effects of benzoylphenylurea on chitin synthesis and orientation in the cuticle of the Drosophila larva
    Umesh Gangishetti
    Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology, Tubingen, Germany
    Eur J Cell Biol 88:167-80. 2009
    b>Chitin is an essential constituent of the insect exoskeleton, the cuticle, which is an extracellular matrix (ECM) covering the animal...
  52. ncbi Characterization of human phagocyte-derived chitotriosidase, a component of innate immunity
    Marco van Eijk
    Department of Medical Biochemistry, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, PO Box 22700, 1100 DE, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Int Immunol 17:1505-12. 2005
    ..Studies with recombinant human chitotriosidase revealed that the enzyme targets chitin-containing fungi...
  53. ncbi The non-catalytic chitin-binding protein CBP21 from Serratia marcescens is essential for chitin degradation
    Gustav Vaaje-Kolstad
    Department of Chemistry, Biotechnology, and Food Science, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P O Box 5003, 1432 As, Norway
    J Biol Chem 280:28492-7. 2005
    The Gram-negative soil bacterium Serratia marcescens uses three different family 18 chitinases to degrade chitin, an abundant insoluble carbohydrate polymer composed of beta(1,4)-linked units of N-acetylglucosamine...
  54. ncbi Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored glucanosyltransferases play an active role in the biosynthesis of the fungal cell wall
    I Mouyna
    Institut Pasteur, Laboratoire des Aspergillus, 25 rue du Docteur Roux, 75724 Paris, Cedex 15, France
    J Biol Chem 275:14882-9. 2000
    ..Our results show that transglycosidases anchored to the plasma membrane via glycosylphosphatidylinositols can play an active role in fungal cell wall synthesis...
  55. ncbi Fungal cell wall chitinases and glucanases
    David J Adams
    School of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
    Microbiology 150:2029-35. 2004
    The fungal cell wall is a complex structure composed of chitin, glucans and other polymers, and there is evidence of extensive cross-linking between these components...
  56. pmc Chitin synthesis and fungal pathogenesis
    Megan D Lenardon
    Aberdeen Fungal Group, School of Medical Sciences, Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZD, UK
    Curr Opin Microbiol 13:416-23. 2010
    b>Chitin is an essential part of the carbohydrate skeleton of the fungal cell wall and is a molecule that is not represented in humans and other vertebrates...
  57. pmc Natural transformation of Vibrio cholerae as a tool--optimizing the procedure
    Rasmus L Marvig
    Global Health Institute, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland
    BMC Microbiol 10:155. 2010
    Vibrio cholerae gains natural competence upon growth on chitin. This allows the organism to take up free DNA from the environment and to incorporate it into its genome by homologous recombination.
  58. ncbi Identification of a biosynthetic gene cluster in rice for momilactones
    Kazuhiro Shimura
    Biotechnology Research Center, The University of Tokyo, 1 1 1 Yayoi, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo, Japan
    J Biol Chem 282:34013-8. 2007
    ..phytoalexins such as momilactones and phytocassanes are produced in suspension-cultured rice cells treated with a chitin oligosaccharide elicitor and in rice leaves irradiated with UV light...
  59. pmc Chitin deacetylases: properties and applications
    Yong Zhao
    Department of Agriculture Chemistry, Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500 757, Korea
    Mar Drugs 8:24-46. 2010
    b>Chitin deacetylases, occurring in marine bacteria, several fungi and a few insects, catalyze the deacetylation of chitin, a structural biopolymer found in countless forms of marine life, fungal cell and spore walls as well as insect ..
  60. ncbi serpentine and vermiform encode matrix proteins with chitin binding and deacetylation domains that limit tracheal tube length in Drosophila
    Stefan Luschnig
    Bayreuther Zentrum für Molekulare Biowissenschaften, Department of Genetics, University of Bayreuth, D 95440 Bayreuth, Germany
    Curr Biol 16:186-94. 2006
    ..Recent studies of tracheal (respiratory) tube morphogenesis in Drosophila show that chitin synthesis genes produce an expanding chitin cylinder in the apical (luminal) extracellular matrix (ECM) that ..
  61. pmc Growth of hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus on chitin involves two family 18 chitinases
    Jun Gao
    Department of Chemical Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 7905, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 69:3119-28. 2003
    Pyrococcus furiosus was found to grow on chitin, adding this polysacharide to the inventory of carbohydrates utilized by this hyperthermophilic archaeon...
  62. pmc Chitin regulation of immune responses: an old molecule with new roles
    Chun Geun Lee
    Section of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, 300 Cedar Street S441 TAC, P O Box 208057, New Haven, CT 06520 8057, United States
    Curr Opin Immunol 20:684-9. 2008
    b>Chitin, the second most abundant polysaccharide in nature, is commonly found in lower organisms such as fungi, crustaceans, and insects, but not in mammals...
  63. pmc Chitin, chitinases and chitinase-like proteins in allergic inflammation and tissue remodeling
    Chun Geun Lee
    Section of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, Cedar Street, New Haven, CT 06520 8057, USA
    Yonsei Med J 50:22-30. 2009
    b>Chitin, the second most abundant polysaccharide in nature after cellulose, consist exoskeleton of lower organisms such as fungi, crustaceans and insects except mammals...
  64. ncbi Novel chitin and chitosan nanofibers in biomedical applications
    R Jayakumar
    Amrita Centre for Nanosciences and Molecular Medicine, Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Amrita Vishwa Vidhyapeetham University, Cochin 682 041, India
    Biotechnol Adv 28:142-50. 2010
    b>Chitin and its deacetylated derivative, chitosan, are non-toxic, antibacterial, biodegradable and biocompatible biopolymers...
  65. ncbi Preparation and characteristics of hybrid scaffolds composed of beta-chitin and collagen
    Sang Bong Lee
    School of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, Hanyang University, Haengdang dong, Seungdong ku, Seoul 133 791, South Korea
    Biomaterials 25:2309-17. 2004
    Hybrid scaffolds composed of beta-chitin and collagen were prepared by combining salt-leaching and freeze-drying methods...
  66. ncbi Chitinase 3-Like-1 (CHI3L1): a putative disease marker at the interface of proteomics and glycomics
    Frederick D Coffman
    Department of Pathology, UMDNJ New Jersey Medical School, Newark, New Jersey 07103, USA
    Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci 45:531-62. 2008
    ..CHI3L1 is a nonhydrolytic member of the human chitinase family that binds chitin tightly and heparin at lower affinity...
  67. pmc Symbiotic bacteria direct expression of an intestinal bactericidal lectin
    Heather L Cash
    Center for Immunology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, 5323 Harry Hines Boulevard, Dallas, TX 75390, USA
    Science 313:1126-30. 2006
    ..We propose that these proteins represent an evolutionarily primitive form of lectin-mediated innate immunity, and that they reveal intestinal strategies for maintaining symbiotic host-microbial relationships...
  68. pmc Reshuffling of Aspergillus fumigatus cell wall components chitin and β-glucan under the influence of caspofungin or nikkomycin Z alone or in combination
    Patricia E B Verwer
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Erasmus MC, University Medical Centre Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 56:1595-8. 2012
    b>Chitin and β-glucan are major cell wall components of Aspergillus spp...
  69. ncbi Fusarium verticillioides chitin synthases CHS5 and CHS7 are required for normal growth and pathogenicity
    Troy M Larson
    Bacterial Foodborne Pathogens and Mycology Research Unit, Agricultural Research Service, U S Department of Agriculture, Peoria, IL 61604 3999, USA
    Curr Genet 57:177-89. 2011
    ..We identified eight putative chitin synthase (CHS) genes in F...
  70. ncbi Chitosan and its derivatives in mucosal drug and vaccine delivery
    I M van der Lubben
    Leiden/Amsterdam Center for Drug Research, Division of Pharmaceutical Technology, P.O. Box 9502, 2300 RA, Leiden, The Netherlands
    Eur J Pharm Sci 14:201-7. 2001
    ..From the studies reviewed it is concluded that chitosan and chitosan derivatives are promising polymeric excipients for mucosal drug and vaccine delivery...
  71. pmc Chitin elicits CCL2 from airway epithelial cells and induces CCR2-dependent innate allergic inflammation in the lung
    Rene M Roy
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI 53792, USA
    J Immunol 189:2545-52. 2012
    b>Chitin exposure in the lung induces eosinophilia and alternative activation of macrophages and is correlated with allergic airway disease. However, the mechanism underlying chitin-induced polarization of macrophages is poorly understood...
  72. ncbi Insect chitin synthase cDNA sequence, gene organization and expression
    R L Tellam
    Molecular Animal Genetics Centre, CSIRO Tropical Agriculture, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia
    Eur J Biochem 267:6025-43. 2000
    b>Chitin is a major component of the cuticle of arthropods. However, the synthesis of chitin is poorly understood...
  73. pmc Characterization of TPM1 disrupted yeast cells indicates an involvement of tropomyosin in directed vesicular transport
    H Liu
    Section of Biochemistry, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853
    J Cell Biol 118:285-99. 1992
    ..we show that TPM1 disrupted cells grow slowly, show heterogeneity in cell size, have delocalized deposition of chitin, and mate poorly because of defects in both shmooing and cell fusion...
  74. ncbi The Aspergillus fumigatus chsC and chsG genes encode class III chitin synthases with different functions
    E Mellado
    Department of Infectious Diseases and Bacteriology, Royal Postgraduate Medical School, Hammersmith Hospital, London, UK
    Mol Microbiol 20:667-79. 1996
    ..from the wild-type strain, but chsG- and chsC- chsG- strains have reduced colony radial growth rate and chitin synthase activity, conidiate poorly and produce highly branched hyphae...
  75. ncbi Dynamics of cell wall structure in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    Frans M Klis
    Swammerdam Institute for Life Sciences, University of Amsterdam, Nieuwe Achtergracht 166, 1018 WV Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    FEMS Microbiol Rev 26:239-56. 2002
    ..Finally, some potential targets for new antifungal compounds related to cell wall construction are discussed...
  76. ncbi Eggshell chitin and chitin-interacting proteins prevent polyspermy in C. elegans
    Wendy L Johnston
    Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, 600 University Avenue, Toronto, ON M5G 1X5, Canada
    Curr Biol 20:1932-7. 2010
    ..Eggshell chitin synthesis is initiated at fertilization, and chitin is deposited before the zygote exits the spermatheca...
  77. ncbi Spiers Memorial Lecture. Lessons from biomineralization: comparing the growth strategies of mollusc shell prismatic and nacreous layers in Atrina rigida
    Fabio Nudelman
    Department of Structural Biology, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel
    Faraday Discuss 136:9-25; discussion 107-23. 2007
    ..glycine-rich proteins, while the matrix inside each prism (intra-crystalline matrix) is composed of a network of chitin fibers. Prisms grow by deposition of mineral particles on the chitin fibers...
  78. pmc Identification of 20-hydroxyecdysone late-response genes in the chitin biosynthesis pathway
    Qiong Yao
    State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat Sen University, Guangzhou, China
    PLoS ONE 5:e14058. 2010
    ..However, ecdysone-responsive genes have not been previously characterized in the context of insect chitin biosynthesis.
  79. ncbi First evidence of chitin as a component of the skeletal fibers of marine sponges. Part I. Verongidae (demospongia: Porifera)
    Hermann Ehrlich
    Max Bergmann Center of Biomaterials, Institute of Materials Science, Dresden University of Technology, D 01069 Dresden, Germany
    J Exp Zool B Mol Dev Evol 308:347-56. 2007
    ..The absence of chitin in sponges, except for the wall of peculiar resistance bodies produced by a highly derived fresh-water group, is ..
  80. ncbi Glyco-conjugates as elicitors or suppressors of plant innate immunity
    Alba Silipo
    Dipartimento di Chimica Organica e Biochimica, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Napoli, Via Cintia, 4 I 80126, Italy
    Glycobiology 20:406-19. 2010
    ..fungal and oomycete glycoconjugates such as oligosaccharides derived from the cell wall components beta-glucan, chitin and chitosan, have been found to act as elicitors of plant innate immunity...
  81. ncbi Cyst and encystment in protozoan parasites: optimal targets for new life-cycle interrupting strategies?
    Hugo Aguilar-Díaz
    Departamento de Inmunologia, Instituto de Investigaciones Biomedicas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 70228, Mexico D F 04510, Mexico
    Trends Parasitol 27:450-8. 2011
    ....
  82. ncbi Immunolocalization of chitin synthase in the tobacco hornworm
    Lars Zimoch
    Department of Biology, Division of Animal Physiology, University of Osnabruck, 49069 Osnabruck, Germany
    Cell Tissue Res 308:287-97. 2002
    To start investigation of chitin synthesis and peritrophic membrane formation in the midgut of Manduca sexta, we have cloned a cDNA fragment encoding chitin synthase...
  83. ncbi Bridging small-gap peripheral nerve defects using biodegradable chitin conduits with cultured schwann and bone marrow stromal cells in rats
    Peixun Zhang
    Department of Orthopaedics and Trauma, Peking University People s Hospital, Beijing, China
    J Reconstr Microsurg 21:565-71. 2005
    ....
  84. pmc Obstructor-A is required for epithelial extracellular matrix dynamics, exoskeleton function, and tubulogenesis
    Georg Petkau
    Life and Medical Sciences Institute, LIMES, Laboratory for Molecular Developmental Biology, University of Bonn, Carl Troll Strasse 31, 53115 Bonn, Germany
    J Biol Chem 287:21396-405. 2012
    ..Previously, we identified the conserved obstructor multigene-family, which encodes chitin-binding proteins...
  85. ncbi Physiological significance of alternatively spliced exon combinations of the single-copy gene class A chitin synthase in the insect Ostrinia furnacalis (Lepidoptera)
    M Qu
    School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, China
    Insect Mol Biol 21:395-404. 2012
    Insect chitin synthase is an essential enzyme involved in chitin biosynthesis in insects. Chitin synthase A (CHSA) is expressed in different insect tissues during different developmental stages...
  86. ncbi Bacterial chitinases: properties and potential
    Debaditya Bhattacharya
    School of Biotechnology, Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, Delhi, India
    Crit Rev Biotechnol 27:21-8. 2007
    b>Chitin is among the most abundant biomass present on Earth. Chitinase plays an important role in the decomposition of chitin and potentially in the utilization of chitin as a renewable resource...
  87. pmc Novel β-N-acetylglucosaminidases from Vibrio harveyi 650: cloning, expression, enzymatic properties, and subsite identification
    Wipa Suginta
    Biochemistry Electrochemistry Research Unit, School of Chemistry, Institute of Science, Suranaree University of Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000, Thailand
    BMC Biochem 11:40. 2010
    Since chitin is a highly abundant natural biopolymer, many attempts have been made to convert this insoluble polysaccharide into commercially valuable products using chitinases and β-N-acetylglucosaminidases (GlcNAcases)...
  88. ncbi The effect of chitin and chitosan on the proliferation of human skin fibroblasts and keratinocytes in vitro
    G I Howling
    Leeds Skin Research Centre, School of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Leeds, UK
    Biomaterials 22:2959-66. 2001
    The effects of chitin [(1 --> 4)-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-D-glucan] and its partially deacetylated derivatives, chitosans, on the proliferation of human dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes were examined in vitro...
  89. pmc Chitin research revisited
    Feisal Khoushab
    School of Biotechnology, Suranaree University of Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima, 30000, Thailand
    Mar Drugs 8:1988-2012. 2010
    Two centuries after the discovery of chitin, it is widely accepted that this biopolymer is an important biomaterial in many aspects. Numerous studies on chitin have focused on its biomedical applications...
  90. ncbi Involvement of GFA1, which encodes glutamine-fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase, in the activation of the chitin synthesis pathway in response to cell-wall defects in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    Arnaud Lagorce
    Centre de Bioingenierie Gilbert Durand, UMR CNRS 5504, UR INRA 792, Departement de Genie Biochimique et Alimentaire, Complexe Scientifique de Rangeuil, Toulouse, France
    Eur J Biochem 269:1697-707. 2002
    ..of cell-wall-related genes triggers a compensatory mechanism which eventually results in hyperaccumulation of chitin reaching 20% of the cell-wall dry mass...
  91. ncbi The chitin-binding Cladosporium fulvum effector protein Avr4 is a virulence factor
    H Peter van Esse
    Laboratory of Phytopathology, Centre for BioSystems Genomics CBSG, Wageningen University, Binnenhaven 5, 6709 PD Wageningen, The Netherlands
    Mol Plant Microbe Interact 20:1092-101. 2007
    ..Previous studies have shown that Avr4 binds to chitin present in fungal cell walls and that, through this binding, Avr4 can protect these cell walls against hydrolysis ..
  92. ncbi Analysis of subgroup C of fungal chitinases containing chitin-binding and LysM modules in the mycoparasite Trichoderma atroviride
    Sabine Gruber
    Research Area Gene Technology and Applied Biochemistry, Institute of Chemical Engineering, Vienna University of Technology, Gumpendorferstrasse 1a, Vienna, Austria
    Glycobiology 21:122-33. 2011
    ..Interestingly, only few sgC chitinase genes were inducible by chitin, suggesting that non-chitinous cell wall components can act as inducers...
  93. pmc Chitosan modification and pharmaceutical/biomedical applications
    Jiali Zhang
    State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, 214122, Jiangsu, China
    Mar Drugs 8:1962-87. 2010
    ..chitosans/chitooligosaccharides with their hypocholesterolemic and immuno-modulating effects; (2) the effects of chitin, chitosan and their derivatives on blood hemostasis; and (3) synthesis of a non-toxic ion ligand--D-Glucosaminic ..
  94. ncbi Chitosan kills bacteria through cell membrane damage
    Hui Liu
    Department of Environmental Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China
    Int J Food Microbiol 95:147-55. 2004
    ..This damage was likely caused by the electrostatic interaction between NH(3)(+) groups of CS acetate and phosphoryl groups of phospholipid components of cell membranes...
  95. pmc Identification of a chitin-induced small RNA that regulates translation of the tfoX gene, encoding a positive regulator of natural competence in Vibrio cholerae
    Shouji Yamamoto
    Department of Bacteriology I, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Shinjuku ku, Tokyo 162 8640, Japan
    J Bacteriol 193:1953-65. 2011
    ..Our previous studies revealed that in V. cholerae, chitin disaccharide (GlcNAc)₂ is needed to activate the transcription and translation of V...
  96. pmc Metabolic engineering of the morphology of Aspergillus oryzae by altering chitin synthesis
    Christian Muller
    Center for Process Biotechnology, BioCentrum DTU, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs Lyngby
    Appl Environ Microbiol 68:1827-36. 2002
    ..submerged cultivation were examined in a wild-type strain (A1560) and in strains of Aspergillus oryzae in which chitin synthase B (chsB) and chitin synthesis myosin A (csmA) have been disrupted (ChsB/G and CM101)...
  97. ncbi Chitin scar breaks in aged Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    Chris D Powell
    School of Biological and Molecular Sciences, Oxford Brookes University, Headington, Oxford OX3 0BP, UK
    Microbiology 149:3129-37. 2003
    ..It is postulated that symmetrically arranged breaks in the bud scar allow these rigid chitinous structures to expand without compromising cellular integrity...
  98. pmc Natural transformation of Vibrio fischeri requires tfoX and tfoY
    Amber Pollack-Berti
    University of Wisconsin Madison, Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, 1550 Linden Drive, Madison, WI 53706 1521, USA
    Environ Microbiol 12:2302-11. 2010
    ..indicated that natural genetic transformation occurs in Vibrio cholerae, and that it requires both induction by chitin oligosaccharides, like chitohexaose, and expression of a putative regulatory gene designated tfoX...
  99. ncbi A phase I/IIa study on intra-articular injection of holmium-166-chitosan complex for the treatment of knee synovitis of rheumatoid arthritis
    J Song
    Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 134 Shinchon-dong, Seodaemun-ku, 120-752, Seoul, Korea
    Eur J Nucl Med 28:489-97. 2001
    ....
  100. ncbi Properties of catalytic, linker and chitin-binding domains of insect chitinase
    Yasuyuki Arakane
    Department of Biochemistry, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA
    Insect Biochem Mol Biol 33:631-48. 2003
    ..is a glycoprotein that consists of an N-terminal catalytic domain, a Ser/Thr-rich linker region, and a C-terminal chitin-binding domain...
  101. pmc Paracoccin from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis; purification through affinity with chitin and identification of N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase activity
    Fausto Bruno dos Reis Almeida
    Departamento de Biologia Celular e Molecular e Bioagentes Patogênicos, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av Bandeirantes 3900, Ribeirao Preto, SP 14049 900, Brazil
    Yeast 27:67-76. 2010
    ..brasiliensis yeast cell. In this paper we present a protocol for the chitin-affinity purification of paracoccin...

Research Grants64

  1. GLYCOSYLTRANSFERASE INHIBITORS AS ANTIFUNGAL AGENTS
    Nathaniel Finney; Fiscal Year: 2003
    DESCRIPTION: Chitin plays a crucial role in the physiology of the vast majority of infectious fungi. Chitin synthase (CS) is the enzyme responsible for chitin biosynthesis, and CS is thus a common denominator uniting these organisms...
  2. Environmental Chitin Exposure in the Pathogenesis of Asthma
    Rene M Roy; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..b>Chitin is a common thread among these irritants, since it is present in the exoskeleton of arthropods, the shells of ..
  3. Nikkomycin Z treatment of early coccidioidal pneumonia: Phase II clinical trial
    DAVID LARWOOD; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The drug's targets, chitin synthases, play important roles to support fungal growth but chitin is not found in mammals and the genes for ..
  4. Development and validation of a chitin assay for environmental samples
    CHRISTINE ANNE ROGERS; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..b>Chitin - the ligand of these functional and non-functional enzymes -is a pathogen-associated molecular pattern that ..
  5. N-acetylglucosamine signaling in fungi
    James B Konopka; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..and is a core constituent of extracellular polymers, such as keratin or hyaluronan in humans and cell wall chitin in fungi and parasites...
  6. EVOLUTIONARY ORIGINS OF IMMUNE-TYPE GENES
    GARY WILLIAM LITMAN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..as well as other immune gene families and 2) a multigene family encoding immunoglobulin variable domain-containing chitin-binding proteins (VCBPs) exhibits an extraordinary level of regionalized hypervariation...
  7. BRP-39/YKL-40 in Th2 Inflammation and Asthma
    Jack A Elias; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Chitin and chitin synthase do not exist in man. However, chitinases and chitinase-like proteins (C/CLP) have recently been appreciated...
  8. Regulation of Virulence of Cryptococcus neoformans
    Hiten D Madhani; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Intriguingly, Gat201 activates the expression of genes coding for three enzymes involved in chitin synthesis...
  9. A novel cholera subunit vaccine based on 4 colonization factors
    WILLIAM FRANKLIN WADE; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..det) Inaba LPS will be conjugated to one of three virulence factors: Toxin Co-Regulated pilus A (TcpA), TcpF or chitin-binding protein A (CBP-A)...
  10. EVOLUTIONARY ORIGINS OF IMMUNE-TYPE GENES
    GARY LITMAN; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..as well as other immune gene families and 2) a multigene family encoding immunoglobulin variable domain-containing chitin-binding proteins (VCBPs) exhibits an extraordinary level of regionalized hypervariation...
  11. Understanding the role of AMCase in asthma
    Richard A Flavell; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..As such, the asthmatic immune response is thought to be a misdirected anti-parasite response. Chitin is the second-most abundant carbohydrate of our planet...
  12. Innate immune regulation of inflammation and adaptive immunity
    Anthony L DeFranco; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Finally, in Project #4, Dr. Locksley will determine how chitin, a polysaccharide found in fungi and invertebrates, promotes type 2 immunity and how it interacts with TLR ..
  13. Cell Wall Biogenesis in Candida albicans
    Stephen J Free; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..oligosaccharides present on cell wall proteins and incorporate these oligosaccharides into the cell wall glucan/chitin matrix...
  14. Immunostimulatory properties of chitin and chitosan
    CHARLES ALLEN SPECHT; Fiscal Year: 2012
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Chitin, a homopolymer consisting of 2-1,4-linked repeating units of N-acetylglucosamine, is the second most abundant polysaccharide in nature...
  15. A NOVEL SCREEN FOR ANTIFUNGALS THAT TARGET CHITOSAN BIOSYNTHESIS
    Jennifer K Lodge; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..New agents to treat Cryptococcus are needed. We have shown that chitosan, the deacetylated form of chitin, is a critical component of the Cryptococcal cell wall and is absolutely required for virulence using a mouse ..
  16. Mechanisms of Cytokinesis in Yeast
    Erfei Bi; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..and with a putative transglutaminase/protease Cyk3 on the ECM side, which, in turn, stimulates the activity of the chitin synthase Chs2 to promote PS formation at the division site...
  17. Chitosan in Cryptococcus
    Jennifer K Lodge; Fiscal Year: 2011
    The cell wall of the fungal pathogen C. neoformans is an essential organelle that incorporates chitin as a rigid, insoluble, polysaccharide polymer. De-acetylation converts chitin to chitosan, a more flexible and soluble polymer...
  18. Cuticular proteins of Anopheles gambiae
    Judith Willis; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..toward better understanding assembly and structure will be to determine the affinity of all cuticular proteins for chitin and for each other in their natural environment by extracting pulverized whole animals first with buffer to remove ..
  19. Mechanisms of polysacchairde synthesis by S. pneumoniae
    JANET L YOTHER; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Among the related enzymes in the glycosyltransferase 2 family are the chitin, cellulose, and hyaluronan synthases...
  20. Studies on NikD, a Nikkomycin Biosynthetic Enzyme
    MARILYN S JORNS; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Nikkomycins are peptidyl nucleosides that act as antifungal agents by blocking the biosynthesis of chitin, the second most abundant polysaccharide in Nature...
  21. Role of CHI3L1 in accelerating breast cancer metastasis
    VIJAYA L IRAGAVARAPU-CHARYULU; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Thus, inhibiting CHI3L1 is expected to reduce metastasis. We have recently shown that chitin microparticles, the biological binding partner for CHI3L1 decrease pulmonary metastasis and increase survival in ..
  22. Role of Mammalian Chitinases in Inflammatory Bowel Disease
    Emiko Mizoguchi; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In Aim-II, we will test the interaction between microorganism-derived chitin-binding proteins and CEC-derived CHI3L1 in the adhesion and invasion of microorganisms to CECs...
  23. Multiple Lectin Model of the Cyst Wall of Entamoeba
    John C Samuelson; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The infectious and diagnostic form of Eh is a chitin-walled cyst, which is spread by the fecal-oral route...
  24. Structure and Function of a Phosphorylation Coupled Saccharide Transporter
    Ming Zhou; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..N'- diacetylchitobiose. This sugar is produced by the breakdown of chitin, and as an important nutrient in the life cycle of pathogens such as Vibrio cholerae...
  25. Biofilm Population Structure in the Gangetic Delta
    Gary Schoolnik; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..These observations and the importance and abundance of chitin as a nutritive surface led to the following hypothesis: the population structure of V...
  26. CHITIN BIOSYNTHESIS AND THE MOSQUITO PERITROPHIC MATRIX
    Bruce Christensen; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The PM is a proteoglycan matrix composed of chitin, proteins and glycoproteins that is produced by the midgut and serves to separate the blood bolus from the midgut ..
  27. Nikkomycin Z Treatment for Coccidioidomycosis
    John Galgiani; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Nikkomycin Z is a chitin synthase inhibitor with its greatest in vitro activity against Coccidioides...
  28. Vibrio Cholerae Colonization of Chitin Surfaces
    Gary Schoolnik; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The principal objective of this research project is to characterize the interaction of this human pathogen with a chitin surface. Chitin is an insoluble polymer of N-acetylglucosamine; through the secretion of chitinases, V...
  29. EVALUATION OF NIKKOMYCIN Z PHARMACOLOGY FOR TREATMENT OF UNCOMPLICATED COCCIDIODE
    David Nix; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Nikkomycin Z is a chitin synthase inhibitor with its greatest in vitro activity against Coccidioides...
  30. STRUCTURE AND MECHANISMS OF FAMILY 18 CHITINASES
    JEFFRY MADURA; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..We will specifically study glycosyl hydrolases that hydrolyze chitin and chitin- like polymers into smaller saccharides and ultimately to monosaccharide...
  31. NUCLEOTIDE DONORS AFFECTING GLYCOSYLATION PATHWAYS
    Ajit Varki; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..animal mutant cells with major blocs in glycan biosynthesis have altered levels of intracellular PAPS? Is fungal chitin synthase action in the intact cell affected by UDP-GlcNAc levels, and how does exogenous GlcNAc affect this level? ..
  32. CARBON-13 MAGNETIC RESONANCE - METHODS AND THEORY
    DAVID MORRIS GRANT; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..catechin, and a variety of new bioactive and potential drugs from plants, and chitisan, chitin which are derivatives of the very common natural polymer: glucosamine.
  33. CHITIN SYNTHESIS IN PNEUMOCYSTIS
    Michael Horst; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..Previous reports in the literature indicate that P. carinii may contain chitin; preliminary findings in our laboratory indicate that chitin is indeed found in the wall of P. carinii...
  34. MEMBRANE FUNCTION DURING GERMINATION OF CANDIDA ALBICANS
    RONALD CIHLAR; Fiscal Year: 1990
    The effect of perturbing membrane biogenesis on yeast cell germination and chitin biosynthesis will be studied in Candida albicans...
  35. Embryogenesis and Larval Morphogenesis in Filariae
    Juliet Fuhrman; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..b>Chitin synthesis has long been known to be required for nematode eggshell formation...
  36. CHITIN SYNTHASE GENES FROM ASPERGILLUS
    PETER BORGIA; Fiscal Year: 2000
    DESCRIPTION: Chitin synthesis is an attractive target for antifungal drugs because chitin is necessary for fungal growth and viability and because the polymer is not present in host cells...
  37. Determinants of antibody-based host resistance against Pneumocystis carinii
    REKHA RAPAKA; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..whether PC infection elicits specific antibodies against the major surface carbohydrates beta-glucan, mannose, and chitin, and whether memory antibody responses are manifested against these epitopes...
  38. Chitin catabolic cascade in Vibrio cholerae
    Saul Roseman; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..cholerae are directly relevant to human health and disease. In previous work with Vibrio furnissii, we found that chitin degradation involves a cascade, with at least three signalling systems and numerous genes and proteins, many of ..
  39. SWITCHING IN CANDIDA ALBICANS
    David Soll; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..transition which accompany switching, 3) to assess the changes in budding pattern, zones of cell wall expansion, chitin deposition, and dynamics of actin, tubulin and intermediate filament protein localization which may accompany ..
  40. Bacterial chitinases as new virulence factors
    Nicholas P Cianciotto; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..the first demonstration of a chitinase, a type of enzyme that is traditionally viewed as only being relevant in chitin-containing environmental niches, acting like a virulence factor...
  41. ANTISENSE INHIBITION OF FUNGAL GROWTH
    Carol Enderlin; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..Human pathogenic fungi contain chitin, (1-3)-beta-glucan, other glucans, peptides, and lipids as essential components of cell walls...
  42. Purchase of a Cryo-Probe to Upgrade a 500 MHz NMR System for BioNMR Applications
    Om Prakash; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..These include chitin binding domain and 2-1, 3 glucan binding domain of insect proteins, lysine-rich domain of the SARS- CoV ..
  43. TOTAL SYNTHESIS OF ANTIFUNGAL AGENTS
    ANTHONY BARRETT; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..occurring antifungal agents including (1) the nikkomycins and neopolyoxins which are nucleoside dipeptide chitin synthetase inhibitors produced by Streptomyces tendae or cacaoi var asoensis; (2) jaspamide which is a marine ..
  44. EMBRYOGENESIS AND LARVAL MORPHOGENESIS IN TWO FILARIAE
    Juliet Fuhrman; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..The metabolism of a complex polysaccharide, chitin, will be analyzed, to understand the regulation of its synthesis, modification, and degradation during ..
  45. Acidic Mammalian Chitinase in IL-13 / Th2 Inflammation
    Zhou Zhu; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..b>Chitin, the second most abundant glycopolymer in biology, is an integral component of the walls of parasites, crustaceans,..
  46. TOXOPLASMA BRADYZOITE CYST WALL STRUCTURE/BIOSYNTHESIS
    John Boothroyd; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..The second aim is to characterize and purify chitin synthase which is developmentally regulated enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of chitin...
  47. BIOCHEMISTRY OF MORPHOGENESIS IN MUCOR
    Salomon Bartnicki Garcia; Fiscal Year: 1980
    ..We are using the process of chitin biosynthesis as a model system for these studies...
  48. Wangiella: a model for dematiaceous fungal pathogens
    PAUL SZANISZLO; Fiscal Year: 2007
    Our research has shown that the polymorphic fungal pathogen of humans Wangiella dermatitidis has at least five chitin synthases (WdChsp), each of which is representative of a different class...
  49. BIOSYNTHESIS OF YEAST CELL WALL BETA 1,6 GLUCAN POLYMERS
    Claudia Abeijon; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..This polysaccharide is covalently cross-linked to other cell wall components, such as chitin, 3'-1,3 glucan and mannoproteins. These cross-links stabilize and organize the cell wall...
  50. Engineering DNA nicking endonucleases
    Shuang yong Xu; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..CviPII and Nt.CviQXI will be constructed (in fusion with intein and chitin binding domain)...
  51. PROTEIN PURIFICATION USING INTEIN C-TERMINAL CLEAVAGE
    Shaorong Chong; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..design of the system is as follows: a target protein is fused to the C-terminus of a modified intein in which the chitin-binding domain is inserted to allow affinity purification and an MBP fragment is fused to the N-terminus of the ..
  52. GENETIC ANALYSIS OF PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE 1 IN YEAST
    Kelly Tatchell; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..is tethered to the bud neck via Bni4p, a scaffold protein that also binds to septins and a regulatory subunit of chitin synthase Ill. We propose that PP1 negatively regulates the activity of chitin synthase...
  53. IN VITRO SCREEN FOR FUNGAL GLUCAN SYNTHASE INHIBITORS
    Claude Selitrennikoff; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..Cell-wall assembly results in a wall containing chitin, beta(1-3) glucan, and other beta- and alpha-linked glucans, proteins and lipids...
  54. GENETIC STUDY OF THE YEAST CELL CYCLE
    John Pringle; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..Other issues of interest concern aspects of septins in localizaing the synthesis of chitin, role of septins in synthesis of the spore wall, and identification of additonal interacting proteins...
  55. Th1-to Th2 shift of HSP65 responses and atherogenesis
    Yoshimi Shibata; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..We will determine if immunization with HSP65 and chitin, a Thl adjuvant, or alum, a Th2 adjuvant, will have an effect on atherogenic lesion development in apoE-KO mice...
  56. Genetic Factors Controlling Effector Function of TGF-beta in COPD and Fibrosis
    Chun Geun Lee; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..AIM #4. Define the genes that determine whether TGF-b1 induceds a predominantly fibrotic versus emphysematous response in C57BL/6 and Balb/c mice. ..
  57. GENETIC ANALYSIS OF PREHAIR MORPHOGENESIS
    Paul Adler; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ....
  58. How is Cryptococcus resistant ot echinocandins?
    Claude Selitrennikoff; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..At the conclusion of these preliminary studies, we anticipate that we will have determined which of the three resistance mechanisms is the most important for C. neoformans resistance to glucan synthase inhibitors. ..
  59. 2008 Biointerface Science Gordon Research Conference
    PHILLIP MESSERSMITH; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  60. Leishmania major nucleoside hydrolase inhibitors
    Claude Selitrennikoff; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..We expect that our work will lead to new compounds with a specific and known mechanism of action that will be useful for the treatment of human leishmaniasis. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  61. Molecular Pathogenesis of Vibrio vulnificus
    PAUL GULIG; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..These studies will elucidate mechanisms of fulminating, invasive disease caused by V. vulnificus as related to rapid replication, evasion of defenses, and damage to host tissues. ..
  62. Transgenic Modeling of TGF-Beta in the Lung
    Jack Elias; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..4. Characterize the relationship(s) between epithelial apoptosis and the inflammatory and remodeling features and permanence of the TGF-beta1 phenotype. ..