- Homeostasis model assessment: insulin resistance and beta-cell function from fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in man
D R Matthews
Diabetologia 28:412-9. 1985
- Reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes with lifestyle intervention or metformin
William C Knowler
Diabetes Prevention Program Coordinating Center, Biostatistics Center, George Washington University, 6110 Executive Blvd, Suite 750, Rockville, MD 20852, USA
N Engl J Med 346:393-403. 2002
..We hypothesized that modifying these factors with a lifestyle-intervention program or the administration of metformin would prevent or delay the development of diabetes...
- Twelve type 2 diabetes susceptibility loci identified through large-scale association analysis
Benjamin F Voight
Broad Institute of Harvard and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA
Nat Genet 42:579-89. 2010
..We also show that a high proportion of T2D susceptibility loci harbor independent association signals influencing apparently unrelated complex traits...
- New genetic loci implicated in fasting glucose homeostasis and their impact on type 2 diabetes risk
Department of Biostatistics, Boston University School of Public Health, Massachusetts, USA
Nat Genet 42:105-16. 2010
- Hyperglycemia and adverse pregnancy outcomes
Boyd E Metzger
Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
N Engl J Med 358:1991-2002. 2008
..It is controversial whether maternal hyperglycemia less severe than that in diabetes mellitus is associated with increased risks of adverse pregnancy outcomes...
- Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality associated with the metabolic syndrome
Department of Internal Medicine, Jakobstad Hospital, Finland
Diabetes Care 24:683-9. 2001
..To estimate the prevalence of and the cardiovascular risk associated with the metabolic syndrome using the new definition proposed by the World Health Organization..
- Diabetes mellitus, fasting blood glucose concentration, and risk of vascular disease: a collaborative meta-analysis of 102 prospective studies
Department of Public Health and Primary Care, University of Cambridge, Strangeways Research Laboratory, Cambridge CB1 8RN, UK
Lancet 375:2215-22. 2010
..We aimed to quantify these associations for a wide range of circumstances...
- Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a feature of the metabolic syndrome
Unit of Metabolic Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine and Gastroenterology, University of Bologna, Italy
Diabetes 50:1844-50. 2001
..NAFLD may be considered an additional feature of the metabolic syndrome, with specific hepatic insulin resistance...
- Islet transplantation in seven patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus using a glucocorticoid-free immunosuppressive regimen
A M Shapiro
Surgical Medical Research Institute and the Department of Surgery, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada
N Engl J Med 343:230-8. 2000
..Registry data on patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus who undergo pancreatic islet transplantation indicate that only 8 percent are free of the need for insulin therapy at one year...
- Effects of intensive glucose lowering in type 2 diabetes
Hertzel C Gerstein
N Engl J Med 358:2545-59. 2008
- Long-term effects of a lifestyle intervention on weight and cardiovascular risk factors in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus: four-year results of the Look AHEAD trial
Rena R Wing
Department of Psychiatry, The Miriam Hospital Brown Medical School, Providence, RI 02860, USA
Arch Intern Med 170:1566-75. 2010
..We examined the effects of lifestyle intervention on changes in weight, fitness, and CVD risk factors during a 4-year study...
- Plasma concentrations of a novel, adipose-specific protein, adiponectin, in type 2 diabetic patients
Department of Internal Medicine and Molecular Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 20:1595-9. 2000
..These results suggest that the decreased plasma adiponectin concentrations in diabetes may be an indicator of macroangiopathy...
- Surviving Sepsis Campaign: international guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock: 2008
R Phillip Dellinger
Cooper University Hospital, Camden, NJ, USA
Crit Care Med 36:296-327. 2008
..To provide an update to the original Surviving Sepsis Campaign clinical management guidelines, "Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines for Management of Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock," published in 2004...
- Intensive blood glucose control and vascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes
N Engl J Med 358:2560-72. 2008
..In patients with type 2 diabetes, the effects of intensive glucose control on vascular outcomes remain uncertain...
- The obese without cardiometabolic risk factor clustering and the normal weight with cardiometabolic risk factor clustering: prevalence and correlates of 2 phenotypes among the US population (NHANES 1999-2004)
Rachel P Wildman
Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Ave, Belfer Building, Room 1309, Bronx, NY 10461, USA
Arch Intern Med 168:1617-24. 2008
- FGF-21 as a novel metabolic regulator
Lilly Research Laboratories, Division of Eli Lilly and Co, Indianapolis, Indiana 46285, USA
J Clin Invest 115:1627-35. 2005
..Thus, we conclude that FGF-21, which we have identified as a novel metabolic factor, exhibits the therapeutic characteristics necessary for an effective treatment of diabetes...
- Medical management of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes: a consensus algorithm for the initiation and adjustment of therapy: a consensus statement of the American Diabetes Association and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes
David M Nathan
Diabetes Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
Diabetes Care 32:193-203. 2009
..In this revision, we focus on the new classes of medications that now have more clinical data and experience...
- 10-year follow-up of intensive glucose control in type 2 diabetes
Rury R Holman
Diabetes Trials Unit, Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology, and Metabolism, Churchill Hospital, Headington, Oxford OX3 7LJ, United Kingdom
N Engl J Med 359:1577-89. 2008
..We conducted post-trial monitoring to determine whether this improved glucose control persisted and whether such therapy had a long-term effect on macrovascular outcomes...
- Follow-up report on the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus
Diabetes Care 26:3160-7. 2003
- Dose-ranging effects of canagliflozin, a sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor, as add-on to metformin in subjects with type 2 diabetes
Dallas Diabetes and Endocrine Center at Medical City, Dallas, Texas, USA
Diabetes Care 35:1232-8. 2012
..To evaluate the effects of canagliflozin, a sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor, in type 2 diabetes mellitus inadequately controlled with metformin monotherapy...
- Glycated hemoglobin, diabetes, and cardiovascular risk in nondiabetic adults
Department of Epidemiology and the Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology, and Clinical Research, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA
N Engl J Med 362:800-11. 2010
..Fasting glucose is the standard measure used to diagnose diabetes in the United States. Recently, glycated hemoglobin was also recommended for this purpose...
- Prediabetes: a high-risk state for diabetes development
Adam G TabÃ¡k
Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, UK
Lancet 379:2279-90. 2012
..For prediabetic individuals, lifestyle modification is the cornerstone of diabetes prevention, with evidence of a 40-70% relative-risk reduction. Accumulating data also show potential benefits from pharmacotherapy...
- Hypovitaminosis D is associated with insulin resistance and beta cell dysfunction
Ken C Chiu
Division of Clinical Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles School of Medicine, 924 Westwood Boulevard, Los Angeles, CA 90024, USA
Am J Clin Nutr 79:820-5. 2004
..Although the role of vitamin D in type 2 diabetes is well recognized, its relation to glucose metabolism is not well studied...
- Glycemic control with diet, sulfonylurea, metformin, or insulin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: progressive requirement for multiple therapies (UKPDS 49). UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) Group
R C Turner
Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford, England
JAMA 281:2005-12. 1999
..8 mmol/L (140 mg/dL) or glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) below 7% is unknown...
- Activation of oxidative stress by acute glucose fluctuations compared with sustained chronic hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes
Department of Metabolic Diseases, Lapeyronie Hospital, University of Montpellier, Montpellier, France
JAMA 295:1681-7. 2006
..Glycemic disorders, one of the main risk factors for cardiovascular disease, are associated with activation of oxidative stress...
- Weight-reducing effects of the plasma protein encoded by the obese gene
J L Halaas
Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Rockfeller University, New York, NY 10021, USA
Science 269:543-6. 1995
..2 to 0.7 percent. These data suggest that the OB protein serves an endocrine function to regulate body fat stores...
- Clinical risk factors, DNA variants, and the development of type 2 diabetes
Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmo, Sweden
N Engl J Med 359:2220-32. 2008
..Type 2 diabetes mellitus is thought to develop from an interaction between environmental and genetic factors. We examined whether clinical or genetic factors or both could predict progression to diabetes in two prospective cohorts...
- Homeostasis model assessment closely mirrors the glucose clamp technique in the assessment of insulin sensitivity: studies in subjects with various degrees of glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity
Division of Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases, University of Verona Medical School, Italy
Diabetes Care 23:57-63. 2000
..To evaluate whether the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) is a reliable surrogate measure of in vivo insulin sensitivity in humans...
- Physical activity advice only or structured exercise training and association with HbA1c levels in type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Exercise Pathophysiology Research Laboratory, Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, Brazil
JAMA 305:1790-9. 2011
..Regular exercise improves glucose control in diabetes, but the association of different exercise training interventions on glucose control is unclear...
- Current approaches for assessing insulin sensitivity and resistance in vivo: advantages, limitations, and appropriate usage
Diabetes Unit, National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, National Institutes of Health, 9 Memorial Drive, Bldg 9, Rm 1N 105 MSC 0920, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 294:E15-26. 2008
..In this Frontiers article, we highlight merits, limitations, and appropriate use of current in vivo measures of insulin sensitivity/resistance...
- Large-scale association analyses identify new loci influencing glycemic traits and provide insight into the underlying biological pathways
Robert A Scott
Medical Research Council Epidemiology Unit, Institute of Metabolic Science, Addenbrooke s Hospital, Cambridge, UK
Nat Genet 44:991-1005. 2012
..Functional analysis of these newly discovered loci will further improve our understanding of glycemic control...
- Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide: a bifunctional glucose-dependent regulator of glucagon and insulin secretion in humans
Diabetes Research Division, Department of Internal Medicine F, Gentofte Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark
Diabetes 60:3103-9. 2011
..To evaluate the glucose dependency of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) effects on insulin and glucagon release in 10 healthy male subjects ([means ± SEM] aged 23 ± 1 years, BMI 23 ± 1 kg/m(2), and HbA(1c) 5.5 ± 0.1%)...
- Insulin adherence behaviours and barriers in the multinational Global Attitudes of Patients and Physicians in Insulin Therapy study
Department of Sociology, Loyola University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD 21210 2699, USA
Diabet Med 29:682-9. 2012
..To examine patient and physician beliefs regarding insulin therapy and the degree to which patients adhere to their insulin regimens...
- Liraglutide vs insulin glargine and placebo in combination with metformin and sulfonylurea therapy in type 2 diabetes mellitus (LEAD-5 met+SU): a randomised controlled trial
Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Royal Guildford Hospital, UK
Diabetologia 52:2046-55. 2009
..The aim of the study was to compare the efficacy and safety of liraglutide in type 2 diabetes mellitus vs placebo and insulin glargine (A21Gly,B31Arg,B32Arg human insulin), all in combination with metformin and glimepiride...
- Chemical chaperones reduce ER stress and restore glucose homeostasis in a mouse model of type 2 diabetes
Department of Genetics and Complex Diseases, Harvard School of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston, MA 02115, USA
Science 313:1137-40. 2006
..Our results demonstrate that chemical chaperones enhance the adaptive capacity of the ER and act as potent antidiabetic modalities with potential application in the treatment of type 2 diabetes...
- Loss-of-function mutation in Toll-like receptor 4 prevents diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance
Daniela M L Tsukumo
Department of Internal Medicine, State University of Campinas, Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil
Diabetes 56:1986-98. 2007
..Thus, TLR4 appears to be an important mediator of obesity and insulin resistance and a potential target for the therapy of these highly prevalent medical conditions...
- Effect of treatment of gestational diabetes mellitus on pregnancy outcomes
Caroline A Crowther
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia
N Engl J Med 352:2477-86. 2005
..We conducted a randomized clinical trial to determine whether treatment of women with gestational diabetes mellitus reduced the risk of perinatal complications...
- A central role for JNK in obesity and insulin resistance
Division of Biological Sciences and Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
Nature 420:333-6. 2002
..Thus, JNK is a crucial mediator of obesity and insulin resistance and a potential target for therapeutics...
- Inflammatory cytokine concentrations are acutely increased by hyperglycemia in humans: role of oxidative stress
Department of Geriatric and Metabolic Diseases, Second University of Naples, Italy
Circulation 106:2067-72. 2002
..We assessed the role of glucose in the regulation of circulating levels of IL-6, TNF-alpha, and interleukin-18 (IL-18) in subjects with normal or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), as well as the effect of the antioxidant glutathione...
- Efficacy and safety of canagliflozin monotherapy in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus inadequately controlled with diet and exercise
Clinical Trial Center, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden
Diabetes Obes Metab 15:372-82. 2013
..Canagliflozin is a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor in development for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The efficacy and safety of canagliflozin were evaluated in subjects with T2DM inadequately controlled with diet and exercise...
- Glucose control and vascular complications in veterans with type 2 diabetes
Phoenix Veterans Affairs Health Care Center, Phoenix, AZ 85012, USA
N Engl J Med 360:129-39. 2009
..The effects of intensive glucose control on cardiovascular events in patients with long-standing type 2 diabetes mellitus remain uncertain...
- Insulin degludec versus insulin glargine in insulin-naive patients with type 2 diabetes: a 1-year, randomized, treat-to-target trial (BEGIN Once Long)
Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Diabetes Care 35:2464-71. 2012
..To compare ultra-long-acting insulin degludec with glargine for efficacy and safety in insulin-naive patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled with oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs)...
- miR-375 maintains normal pancreatic alpha- and beta-cell mass
Matthew N Poy
Institute of Molecular Systems Biology, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, ETH Zurich, CH 8093 Zurich, Switzerland
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:5813-8. 2009
..These data provide evidence that miR-375 is essential for normal glucose homeostasis, alpha- and beta-cell turnover, and adaptive beta-cell expansion in response to increasing insulin demand in insulin resistance...
- Reversal of type 2 diabetes: normalisation of beta cell function in association with decreased pancreas and liver triacylglycerol
E L Lim
Magnetic Resonance Centre, Institute of Cellular Medicine, Campus for Ageing and Vitality, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE4 5PL, UK
Diabetologia 54:2506-14. 2011
..Type 2 diabetes is regarded as inevitably progressive, with irreversible beta cell failure. The hypothesis was tested that both beta cell failure and insulin resistance can be reversed by dietary restriction of energy intake...
- Type 2 diabetes across generations: from pathophysiology to prevention and management
Christopher J Nolan
Department of Endocrinology, Canberra Hospital and Australian National University Medical School, Canberra, ACT, Australia
Lancet 378:169-81. 2011
..Reversal of overnutrition, healing of the β cells, and lessening of adipose tissue defects should be treatment priorities...
- Effect of intensive glucose lowering treatment on all cause mortality, cardiovascular death, and microvascular events in type 2 diabetes: meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials
Department of General Medicine, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Lyon, France
BMJ 343:d4169. 2011
..To determine all cause mortality and deaths from cardiovascular events related to intensive glucose lowering treatment in people with type 2 diabetes...
- DURATION-5: exenatide once weekly resulted in greater improvements in glycemic control compared with exenatide twice daily in patients with type 2 diabetes
Texas Diabetes and Endocrinology, 6500 North Mopac Expressway, Building 3, Suite 200, Austin, Texas 78731, USA
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 96:1301-10. 2011
..We wanted to understand the effects of once-weekly vs. twice-daily glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonism for treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes...
- Severe hypoglycemia and risks of vascular events and death
George Institute for International Health, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia
N Engl J Med 363:1410-8. 2010
..We analyzed data from a large study of intensive glucose lowering to explore the relationship between severe hypoglycemia and adverse clinical outcomes...
- Insulin resistance and a diabetes mellitus-like syndrome in mice lacking the protein kinase Akt2 (PKB beta)
Department of Biology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
Science 292:1728-31. 2001
..We show that mice deficient in Akt2 are impaired in the ability of insulin to lower blood glucose because of defects in the action of the hormone on liver and skeletal muscle...
- Self-management education for adults with type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis of the effect on glycemic control
Susan L Norris
Division of Diabetes Translation, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
Diabetes Care 25:1159-71. 2002
..To evaluate the efficacy of self-management education on GHb in adults with type 2 diabetes...
- Canagliflozin improves glycaemic control over 28 days in subjects with type 2 diabetes not optimally controlled on insulin
Janssen Research and Development, LLC, Raritan, NJ 08869, USA
Diabetes Obes Metab 14:539-45. 2012
..Canagliflozin is a sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor that is being investigated for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)...
- Combination of high-fat diet-fed and low-dose streptozotocin-treated rat: a model for type 2 diabetes and pharmacological screening
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research NIPER, Sector 67, Phase X, S A S Nagar, Mohali 160 062, Punjab, India
Pharmacol Res 52:313-20. 2005
- Impaired glucose tolerance and impaired fasting glycaemia: the current status on definition and intervention
Diabetes and Metabolism, School of Clinical Medical Sciences, University of New Castle, UK
Diabet Med 19:708-23. 2002
..4. Life style interventions are highly effective in delaying or preventing the onset of diabetes in people with IGT and may reduce CVD and total mortality, but the latter requires formal testing...
- Body mass index, metabolic syndrome, and risk of type 2 diabetes or cardiovascular disease
James B Meigs
General Medicine Division, Massachusetts General Hospital, 50 Staniford Street, 9th Floor, Boston, MA 02114, USA
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 91:2906-12. 2006
..Metabolic risk conferred by adiposity may be due to associated risk factor clustering...
- Effect of a mediterranean-style diet on endothelial dysfunction and markers of vascular inflammation in the metabolic syndrome: a randomized trial
Chair and Division of Metabolic Diseases, Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy
JAMA 292:1440-6. 2004
..The metabolic syndrome has been identified as a target for dietary therapies to reduce risk of cardiovascular disease; however, the role of diet in the etiology of the metabolic syndrome is poorly understood...
- Oscillating glucose is more deleterious to endothelial function and oxidative stress than mean glucose in normal and type 2 diabetic patients
Centre of Excellence in Diabetes and Endocrinology, University Hospital of Coventry and Warwickshire, Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
Diabetes 57:1349-54. 2008
..To explore the possibility that oscillating glucose may outweigh A1C levels in determining the risk for cardiovascular diabetes complications...
- Increased insulin sensitivity and obesity resistance in mice lacking the protein tyrosine phosphatase-1B gene
Department of Biochemistry, McGill University, 3655 Drummond Street, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, H3G 1Y6
Science 283:1544-8. 1999
..Disruption of the mouse homolog of the gene encoding PTP-1B yielded healthy mice that, in the fed state, had blood glucose concentrations that were slightly lower and concentrations of circulating insulin that were one-half those of ..
- Identification and characterization of metabolically benign obesity in humans
Department of Internal Medicine IV, University of Tubingen, D 72076 Tubingen, Germany
Arch Intern Med 168:1609-16. 2008
..Conversely, even in obesity, a metabolically benign fat distribution phenotype may exist...
- Fasting serum glucose level and cancer risk in Korean men and women
Sun Ha Jee
Department of Epidemiology and Health Promotion, Graduate School of Public Health, Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea
JAMA 293:194-202. 2005
..Diabetes is a serious and costly disease that is becoming increasingly common in many countries. The role of diabetes as a cancer risk factor remains unclear...
- Survival as a function of HbA(1c) in people with type 2 diabetes: a retrospective cohort study
Craig J Currie
Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK
Lancet 375:481-9. 2010
Results of intervention studies in patients with type 2 diabetes have led to concerns about the safety of aiming for normal blood glucose concentrations. We assessed survival as a function of HbA(1c) in people with type 2 diabetes.
- Insulin degludec, an ultra-longacting basal insulin, versus insulin glargine in basal-bolus treatment with mealtime insulin aspart in type 2 diabetes (BEGIN Basal-Bolus Type 2): a phase 3, randomised, open-label, treat-to-target non-inferiority trial
Alan J Garber
Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA
Lancet 379:1498-507. 2012
..Insulin degludec is a new, ultra-longacting basal insulin. We aimed to assess efficacy and safety of insulin degludec compared with insulin glargine in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus...
- Glycemic index, glycemic load, and chronic disease risk--a meta-analysis of observational studies
Alan W Barclay
Human Nutrition Unit, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia
Am J Clin Nutr 87:627-37. 2008
..Inconsistent findings from observational studies have prolonged the controversy over the effects of dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) on the risk of certain chronic diseases...
- Effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 in patients with acute myocardial infarction and left ventricular dysfunction after successful reperfusion
Lazaros A Nikolaidis
Cardiovascular Research Institute, Allegheny General Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA 15212, USA
Circulation 109:962-5. 2004
..Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a naturally occurring incretin with both insulinotropic and insulinomimetic properties that stimulate glucose uptake without the requirements for concomitant glucose infusion...
- International trial of the Edmonton protocol for islet transplantation
A M James Shapiro
Clinical Islet Transplant Program, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada
N Engl J Med 355:1318-30. 2006
..We conducted an international, multicenter trial to explore the feasibility and reproducibility of islet transplantation with the use of a single common protocol (the Edmonton protocol)...
- Once weekly exenatide compared with insulin glargine titrated to target in patients with type 2 diabetes (DURATION-3): an open-label randomised trial
Diabetes Centre, VU University Medical Centre, Amsterdam, Netherlands
Lancet 375:2234-43. 2010
..We aimed to test the hypothesis that improvement in haemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1c)) achieved with once weekly exenatide was superior to that achieved with insulin glargine titrated to glucose targets...
- Exendin-4 stimulates both beta-cell replication and neogenesis, resulting in increased beta-cell mass and improved glucose tolerance in diabetic rats
Elliott P Joslin Research Laboratories, Joslin Diabetes Center, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
Diabetes 48:2270-6. 1999
..Thus, GLP-I and analogs thereof hold promise as a novel therapy to stimulate beta-cell growth and differentiation when administered to diabetic individuals with reduced beta-cell mass...
- Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome defined by the International Diabetes Federation among adults in the U.S
Earl S Ford
Division of Adult and Community Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
Diabetes Care 28:2745-9. 2005
..S. adults and to compare it with the prevalence estimated using the definition of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP)...
- Lipid-induced insulin resistance in human muscle is associated with changes in diacylglycerol, protein kinase C, and IkappaB-alpha
Samar I Itani
Diabetes Unit, Section of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Boston University Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA
Diabetes 51:2005-11. 2002
..Whether acute FFA-induced insulin resistance in human skeletal muscle is caused by the activation of these specific PKC isoforms and the IKK-beta/IkappaB/NFkappaB pathway remains to be established...
- Trajectories of glycaemia, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion before diagnosis of type 2 diabetes: an analysis from the Whitehall II study
Adam G TabÃ¡k
Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, UK
Lancet 373:2215-21. 2009
..We aimed to characterise trajectories of fasting and postload glucose, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion in individuals who develop type 2 diabetes...
- Effect of intensive treatment of hyperglycaemia on microvascular outcomes in type 2 diabetes: an analysis of the ACCORD randomised trial
Department of Medicine, Division of Clinical and Molecular Endocrinology, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44106 4951, USA
Lancet 376:419-30. 2010
..We investigated whether reduction of blood glucose concentration decreases the rate of microvascular complications in people with type 2 diabetes.
- Control of hepatic gluconeogenesis through the transcriptional coactivator PGC-1
J C Yoon
Dana Farber Cancer Institute and Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
Nature 413:131-8. 2001
b>Blood glucose levels are maintained by the balance between glucose uptake by peripheral tissues and glucose secretion by the liver. Gluconeogenesis is strongly stimulated during fasting and is aberrantly activated in diabetes mellitus...
- Baseline serum 25-hydroxy vitamin d is predictive of future glycemic status and insulin resistance: the Medical Research Council Ely Prospective Study 1990-2000
Nita G Forouhi
Medical Research Council Epidemiology Unit, Institute of Metabolic Science, Cambridge, UK
Diabetes 57:2619-25. 2008
..However, prospective data using the biomarker serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] are limited and therefore examined in the present study...
- Objectively measured light-intensity physical activity is independently associated with 2-h plasma glucose
Genevieve N Healy
Cancer Prevention Research Centre, School of Population Health, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia
Diabetes Care 30:1384-9. 2007
..We examined the associations of objectively measured sedentary time, light-intensity physical activity, and moderate- to vigorous-intensity activity with fasting and 2-h postchallenge plasma glucose in Australian adults...
- Effects of exercise on glycemic control and body mass in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials
N G Boulé
Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Ottawa Health Research Institute, 1053 Carling Ave, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1Y 4E9
JAMA 286:1218-27. 2001
..However, clinical trials on the effects of exercise in patients with type 2 diabetes have had small sample sizes and conflicting results...
- Low-grade systemic inflammation and the development of type 2 diabetes: the atherosclerosis risk in communities study
Bruce B Duncan
Graduate Studies Program in Epidemiology, School of Medicine, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil
Diabetes 52:1799-805. 2003
..7 (P for linear trend = 0.008). In conclusion, a low-grade inflammation predicts incident type 2 diabetes. The association is absent in smokers and African-Americans...
- Common variants at 10 genomic loci influence hemoglobin A₁(C) levels via glycemic and nonglycemic pathways
Human Genetics, Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, U K
Diabetes 59:3229-39. 2010
..We aimed to identify such genetic factors and investigate the extent to which they influence diabetes classification based on HbA₁(c) levels...
- Role of brain insulin receptor in control of body weight and reproduction
J C Bruning
Klinik II und Poliklinik für Innere Medizin and Center of Molecular Medicine ZMMK der Universität zu Köln, Joseph Stelzmann Strasse 9, 50931 Cologne, Germany
Science 289:2122-5. 2000
..Thus, IR signaling in the CNS plays an important role in regulation of energy disposal, fuel metabolism, and reproduction...
- International table of glycemic index and glycemic load values: 2002
Human Nutrition Unit, School of Molecular and Microbial Biosciences, University of Sydney, NSW, Australia
Am J Clin Nutr 76:5-56. 2002
..The revised table also lists the glycemic load associated with the consumption of specified serving sizes of different foods...
- The glycemic index: physiological mechanisms relating to obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease
David S Ludwig
Department of Medicine, Children s Hospital, 300 Longwood Ave, Boston, MA 02115, USA
JAMA 287:2414-23. 2002
..The purpose of this review is to examine the physiological effects of the glycemic index and the relevance of these effects in preventing and treating obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease...
- Tauroursodeoxycholic Acid may improve liver and muscle but not adipose tissue insulin sensitivity in obese men and women
Center for Human Nutrition and Atkins Center of Excellence in Obesity Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri, USA
Diabetes 59:1899-905. 2010
..The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of TUDCA therapy on multiorgan insulin action and metabolic factors associated with insulin resistance in obese men and women...
- Antidiabetic effects of Panax ginseng berry extract and the identification of an effective component
Anoja S Attele
Tang Center for Herbal Medicine Research, The Pritzker School of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA
Diabetes 51:1851-8. 2002
..01) compared with vehicle-treated ob/ob mice. The improvement in blood glucose levels in the extract-treated ob/ ob mice was associated with a significant reduction in serum insulin levels ..
- Exercise, glucose transport, and insulin sensitivity
L J Goodyear
Research Division, Joslin Diabetes Center, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
Annu Rev Med 49:235-61. 1998
..However, there is now extensive epidemiological evidence demonstrating that long-term regular physical exercise can significantly reduce the risk of developing non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus...
- Intensive glucose control and macrovascular outcomes in type 2 diabetes
F M Turnbull
The George Institute for International Health, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2050, Australia
Diabetologia 52:2288-98. 2009
..The aim of these analyses was to generate more precise estimates of the effects of more-intensive, compared with less-intensive, glucose control on the risk of major cardiovascular events amongst patients with type 2 diabetes...
- Chronic oxidative stress as a central mechanism for glucose toxicity in pancreatic islet beta cells in diabetes
R Paul Robertson
Pacific Northwest Research Institute, Seattle, Washington 98122, USA
J Biol Chem 279:42351-4. 2004
- Weight reduction increases plasma levels of an adipose-derived anti-inflammatory protein, adiponectin
W S Yang
Department of Internal Medicine, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei 100, Taiwan
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 86:3815-9. 2001
..In addition, the increase in plasma adiponectin despite the reduction of the only tissue of its own synthesis suggests that the expression of adiponectin is under feedback inhibition in obesity...
- Guidelines and recommendations for laboratory analysis in the diagnosis and management of diabetes mellitus
David B Sacks
Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Thorn 530, 75 Francis St, Boston, MA 02115, USA
Clin Chem 48:436-72. 2002
..Multiple laboratory tests are used in the diagnosis and management of patients with diabetes mellitus. The quality of the scientific evidence supporting the use of these assays varies substantially...
- CREB regulates hepatic gluconeogenesis through the coactivator PGC-1
Peptide Biology Laboratories, Salk Institute for Biological Studies, 10010 N Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, California 92037 1002, USA
Nature 413:179-83. 2001
..Fasting hyperglycaemia is strongly correlated with type II diabetes, so our results suggest that the activation of PGC-1 by CREB in liver contributes importantly to the pathogenesis of this disease...
- Structure-function studies of the adipocyte-secreted hormone Acrp30/adiponectin. Implications fpr metabolic regulation and bioactivity
Utpal B Pajvani
Department of Cell Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York 10461, USA
J Biol Chem 278:9073-85. 2003
..Combined, these results shed new light on the regulation of this complex protein and suggest a new model for in vivo activation of the protein, implicating a serum reductase activity...
- Ablation of insulin-producing neurons in flies: growth and diabetic phenotypes
Eric J Rulifson
Department of Developmental Biology, Beckman Center B300, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 5329, USA
Science 296:1118-20. 2002
..Interestingly, the phenotype of flies lacking IPCs includes certain features of diabetes mellitus...
- Multipotent stromal cells from human marrow home to and promote repair of pancreatic islets and renal glomeruli in diabetic NOD/scid mice
Ryang Hwa Lee
Center for Gene Therapy, Tulane University Health Sciences Center, 1430 Tulane Avenue, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:17438-43. 2006
..The hMSCs lowered blood glucose levels in the diabetic mice on day 32 relative to untreated controls (18.34 mM +/- 1.12 SE vs. 27.78 mM +/- 2...
- Loss of stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 function protects mice against adiposity
James M Ntambi
Department of Biochemistry, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:11482-6. 2002
..These observations suggest that a consequence of SCD1 deficiency is an activation of lipid oxidation in addition to reduced triglyceride synthesis and storage...
- The mechanism of diabetes control after gastrointestinal bypass surgery reveals a role of the proximal small intestine in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes
IRCAD European Institute of Telesurgery, University Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg, France
Ann Surg 244:741-9. 2006
..We sought to distinguish between these two mechanisms...
- A novel locus, Mody4, distal to D7Mit189 on chromosome 7 determines early-onset NIDDM in nonobese C57BL/6 (Akita) mutant mice
Department of Hygiene, Akita University School of Medicine, Japan
Diabetes 46:887-94. 1997
..At 7 weeks of age, the mean morning blood glucose levels (mmol/l) under ad libitum feeding conditions were significantly higher (P < 0...
- Whole-grain intake is favorably associated with metabolic risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in the Framingham Offspring Study
Nicola M McKeown
Jean Mayer US Department of Agriculture Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, Tufts University, Boston, MA 02111, USA
Am J Clin Nutr 76:390-8. 2002
The influence of whole grains on cardiovascular disease risk may be mediated through multiple pathways, eg, a reduction in blood lipids and blood pressure, an enhancement of insulin sensitivity, and an improvement in blood glucose control.
- Association of health literacy with diabetes outcomes
University of California, San Francisco, Primary Care Research Center, Department of Medicine, San Francisco General Hospital, San Francisco, CA 94110, USA
JAMA 288:475-82. 2002
..Little is known about the extent to which health literacy affects clinical health outcomes...
- Glucagon-like peptide-1 and exendin-4 stimulate beta-cell neogenesis in streptozotocin-treated newborn rats resulting in persistently improved glucose homeostasis at adult age
Laboratory of Physiopathology of Nutrition, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique ESA 7059, Université Paris7 Denis Diderot, 2 place Jussieu, 75251 Paris Cedex 05, France
Diabetes 50:1562-70. 2001
..Further studies are needed to understand the dissociation between beta-cell regeneration and the lack of improvement in beta-cell function...
- Disruption of IRS-2 causes type 2 diabetes in mice
D J Withers
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Joslin Diabetes Center, Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
Nature 391:900-4. 1998
..Our results indicate that dysfunction of IRS-2 may contribute to the pathophysiology of human type 2 diabetes...
- Glycemic control and complications in type 2 diabetes mellitus
Department of Clinical Medicine, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA
Am J Med 123:S3-11. 2010
..Ongoing research into the mechanisms responsible for diabetic complications may provide new markers to help identify patients with type 2 diabetes who can benefit from earlier antidiabetes treatments...
- A variant near MTNR1B is associated with increased fasting plasma glucose levels and type 2 diabetes risk
CNRS UMR 8090, Institute of Biology and Lille 2 University, Pasteur Institute, Lille, France
Nat Genet 41:89-94. 2009
..Our data suggest a possible link between circadian rhythm regulation and glucose homeostasis through the melatonin signaling pathway...
- Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in an urban population: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study
Endocrine Research Center, Shaheed Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, P O Box 4763, Tehran 19395, Iran
Diabetes Res Clin Pract 61:29-37. 2003
..This report on the metabolic syndrome from Iran shows a high prevalence of this disorder. Efforts on promoting healthy diets, physical activity, and blood pressure control must be undertaken...
- Hypoglycaemia: the limiting factor in the glycaemic management of Type I and Type II diabetes
P E Cryer
Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
Diabetologia 45:937-48. 2002