peptidoglycan

Summary

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Differential roles of TLR2 and TLR4 in recognition of gram-negative and gram-positive bacterial cell wall components
    O Takeuchi
    Department of Host Defense, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Japan
    Immunity 11:443-51. 1999
  2. ncbi From the regulation of peptidoglycan synthesis to bacterial growth and morphology
    Athanasios Typas
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of California, San Francisco, USA
    Nat Rev Microbiol 10:123-36. 2012
  3. ncbi Recognition of peptidoglycan from the microbiota by Nod1 enhances systemic innate immunity
    Thomas B Clarke
    Department of Microbiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
    Nat Med 16:228-31. 2010
  4. ncbi Peptidoglycan structure and architecture
    Waldemar Vollmer
    Institute for Cell and Molecular Biosciences, Medical School, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK
    FEMS Microbiol Rev 32:149-67. 2008
  5. ncbi The penicillin-binding proteins: structure and role in peptidoglycan biosynthesis
    Eric Sauvage
    Centre d Ingénierie des Protéines, Institut de Physique B5a et Institut de Chimie B6a, University of Liege, Sart Tilman, Belgium
    FEMS Microbiol Rev 32:234-58. 2008
  6. ncbi Nod1 detects a unique muropeptide from gram-negative bacterial peptidoglycan
    Stephen E Girardin
    Unite de Pathogenie Microbienne Moleculaire, INSERM U389, Institut Pasteur, 28, rue du Dr Roux, 75724Paris Cedex 15, France
    Science 300:1584-7. 2003
  7. ncbi Bacterial peptidoglycan (murein) hydrolases
    Waldemar Vollmer
    Institute for Cell and Molecular Biosciences, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK
    FEMS Microbiol Rev 32:259-86. 2008
  8. ncbi Nod1 responds to peptidoglycan delivered by the Helicobacter pylori cag pathogenicity island
    Jérôme Viala
    Groupe d Immunité Innée et Signalisation, Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale U389, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France
    Nat Immunol 5:1166-74. 2004
  9. ncbi Specific binding of nisin to the peptidoglycan precursor lipid II combines pore formation and inhibition of cell wall biosynthesis for potent antibiotic activity
    I Wiedemann
    , D-53105 Bonn, Germany
    J Biol Chem 276:1772-9. 2001
  10. ncbi LysM, a widely distributed protein motif for binding to (peptido)glycans
    Girbe Buist
    Department of Molecular Genetics, Groningen Biomolecular Sciences and Biotechnology Institute, University of Groningen, Kerklaan 30, 9751 NN Haren, The Netherlands
    Mol Microbiol 68:838-47. 2008

Detail Information

Publications370 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Differential roles of TLR2 and TLR4 in recognition of gram-negative and gram-positive bacterial cell wall components
    O Takeuchi
    Department of Host Defense, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Japan
    Immunity 11:443-51. 1999
    ..macrophages were hyporesponsive to several Gram-positive bacterial cell walls as well as Staphylococcus aureus peptidoglycan. TLR4-deficient macrophages lacked the response to Gram-positive lipoteichoic acids...
  2. ncbi From the regulation of peptidoglycan synthesis to bacterial growth and morphology
    Athanasios Typas
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of California, San Francisco, USA
    Nat Rev Microbiol 10:123-36. 2012
    ..but technological advances are now driving a new understanding of how the shape-maintaining bacterial peptidoglycan sacculus grows...
  3. ncbi Recognition of peptidoglycan from the microbiota by Nod1 enhances systemic innate immunity
    Thomas B Clarke
    Department of Microbiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
    Nat Med 16:228-31. 2010
    ..We show that the microbiota are a source of peptidoglycan that systemically primes the innate immune system, enhancing killing by bone marrow-derived neutrophils of two ..
  4. ncbi Peptidoglycan structure and architecture
    Waldemar Vollmer
    Institute for Cell and Molecular Biosciences, Medical School, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK
    FEMS Microbiol Rev 32:149-67. 2008
    The peptidoglycan (murein) sacculus is a unique and essential structural element in the cell wall of most bacteria...
  5. ncbi The penicillin-binding proteins: structure and role in peptidoglycan biosynthesis
    Eric Sauvage
    Centre d Ingénierie des Protéines, Institut de Physique B5a et Institut de Chimie B6a, University of Liege, Sart Tilman, Belgium
    FEMS Microbiol Rev 32:234-58. 2008
    ..immunofluorescence or double-hybrid assay, have brought our understanding of the last stages of the peptidoglycan biosynthesis to an outstanding level that allows a broad outlook on the properties of these enzymes...
  6. ncbi Nod1 detects a unique muropeptide from gram-negative bacterial peptidoglycan
    Stephen E Girardin
    Unite de Pathogenie Microbienne Moleculaire, INSERM U389, Institut Pasteur, 28, rue du Dr Roux, 75724Paris Cedex 15, France
    Science 300:1584-7. 2003
    ..N-acetylglucosamine-N-acetylmuramic acid (GlcNAc-MurNAc) tripeptide motif found in Gram-negative bacterial peptidoglycan, resulting in activation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB pathway...
  7. ncbi Bacterial peptidoglycan (murein) hydrolases
    Waldemar Vollmer
    Institute for Cell and Molecular Biosciences, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK
    FEMS Microbiol Rev 32:259-86. 2008
    Most bacteria have multiple peptidoglycan hydrolases capable of cleaving covalent bonds in peptidoglycan sacculi or its fragments. An overview of the different classes of peptidoglycan hydrolases and their cleavage sites is provided...
  8. ncbi Nod1 responds to peptidoglycan delivered by the Helicobacter pylori cag pathogenicity island
    Jérôme Viala
    Groupe d Immunité Innée et Signalisation, Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale U389, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France
    Nat Immunol 5:1166-74. 2004
    ..epithelial cells via Nod1, an intracellular pathogen-recognition molecule with specificity for Gram-negative peptidoglycan. Nod1 detection of H...
  9. ncbi Specific binding of nisin to the peptidoglycan precursor lipid II combines pore formation and inhibition of cell wall biosynthesis for potent antibiotic activity
    I Wiedemann
    , D-53105 Bonn, Germany
    J Biol Chem 276:1772-9. 2001
    ..unaltered capacity of the mutated peptide to bind to lipid II and thus to inhibit its incorporation into the peptidoglycan network...
  10. ncbi LysM, a widely distributed protein motif for binding to (peptido)glycans
    Girbe Buist
    Department of Molecular Genetics, Groningen Biomolecular Sciences and Biotechnology Institute, University of Groningen, Kerklaan 30, 9751 NN Haren, The Netherlands
    Mol Microbiol 68:838-47. 2008
    Bacteria retain certain proteins at their cell envelopes by attaching them in a non-covalent manner to peptidoglycan, using specific protein domains, such as the prominent LysM (Lysin Motif) domain...
  11. pmc Arabidopsis lysin-motif proteins LYM1 LYM3 CERK1 mediate bacterial peptidoglycan sensing and immunity to bacterial infection
    Roland Willmann
    Department of Plant Biochemistry, Center for Plant Molecular Biology, University of Tubingen, 72076 Tubingen, Germany
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:19824-9. 2011
    ..immunity to fungal infection in Arabidopsis, phenocopies defects observed in lym1 and lym3 mutants, such as peptidoglycan insensitivity and enhanced susceptibility to bacterial infection...
  12. ncbi Processive movement of MreB-associated cell wall biosynthetic complexes in bacteria
    Julia Domínguez-Escobar
    Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry, Martinsried, Germany
    Science 333:225-8. 2011
    The peptidoglycan cell wall and the actin-like MreB cytoskeleton are major determinants of cell shape in rod-shaped bacteria...
  13. pmc Peptidoglycan-modifying enzyme Pgp1 is required for helical cell shape and pathogenicity traits in Campylobacter jejuni
    Emilisa Frirdich
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    PLoS Pathog 8:e1002602. 2012
    ..We identified an uncharacterized gene, designated pgp1 (peptidoglycan peptidase 1), in a calcofluor white-based screen to explore cell envelope properties important for C...
  14. pmc Regulation of peptidoglycan synthesis by outer-membrane proteins
    Athanasios Typas
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA
    Cell 143:1097-109. 2010
    Growth of the mesh-like peptidoglycan (PG) sacculus located between the bacterial inner and outer membranes (OM) is tightly regulated to ensure cellular integrity, maintain cell shape, and orchestrate division...
  15. pmc Characterization of O-acetylation of N-acetylglucosamine: a novel structural variation of bacterial peptidoglycan
    Elvis Bernard
    INRA, UMR1319 MICALIS, F 78350 Jouy en Josas, France
    J Biol Chem 286:23950-8. 2011
    b>Peptidoglycan (PG) N-acetyl muramic acid (MurNAc) O-acetylation is widely spread in gram-positive bacteria and is generally associated with resistance against lysozyme and endogenous autolysins...
  16. pmc Bacterial cell wall synthesis: new insights from localization studies
    Dirk Jan Scheffers
    Department of Molecular Microbiology, Institute of Molecular Cell Biology, Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 69:585-607. 2005
    ..pressure, most bacteria are surrounded by a cell wall that consists mainly of the cross-linked polymer peptidoglycan (PG)...
  17. pmc Coupled, circumferential motions of the cell wall synthesis machinery and MreB filaments in B. subtilis
    Ethan C Garner
    Department of Systems Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Science 333:222-5. 2011
    ..Thus, bacteria elongate by the uncoordinated, circumferential movements of synthetic complexes that insert radial hoops of new peptidoglycan during their transit, possibly driving the motion of the underlying MreB filaments.
  18. pmc Long-range activation of systemic immunity through peptidoglycan diffusion in Drosophila
    Mathilde Gendrin
    Global Health Institute, EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland
    PLoS Pathog 5:e1000694. 2009
    ..We next show that a systemic immune response can be induced by deposition of the bacterial elicitor peptidoglycan (PGN), or its terminal monomer tracheal cytotoxin (TCT), on the genital plate...
  19. ncbi Peptidoglycan architecture can specify division planes in Staphylococcus aureus
    Robert D Turner
    Krebs Institute, University of Sheffield, Firth Court, Western Bank, Sheffield S10 2TN, UK
    Nat Commun 1:26. 2010
    ..The shape of Staphylococci is principally maintained by peptidoglycan. In this study, we use Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and fluorescence microscopy with vancomycin labelling to ..
  20. ncbi Peptidoglycan sensing by the receptor PGRP-LE in the Drosophila gut induces immune responses to infectious bacteria and tolerance to microbiota
    Virginie Bosco-Drayon
    Institut de Biologie du Developpement de Marseille Luminy, CNRS UMR, Aix Marseille Universite, France
    Cell Host Microbe 12:153-65. 2012
    ..In the Drosophila intestine, peptidoglycan-recognition proteins (PGRPs), including PGRP-LE, play central roles in bacterial recognition and activation of ..
  21. pmc Peptidoglycan crosslinking relaxation promotes Helicobacter pylori's helical shape and stomach colonization
    Laura K Sycuro
    Molecular and Cellular Biology Graduate Program, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
    Cell 141:822-33. 2010
    ..We identified four genes required for helical shape: three LytM peptidoglycan endopeptidase homologs (csd1-3) and a ccmA homolog...
  22. ncbi Nod2 is a general sensor of peptidoglycan through muramyl dipeptide (MDP) detection
    Stephen E Girardin
    Unite de Pathogenie Microbienne Moleculaire, INSERM U389, Paris Cedex 15, France
    J Biol Chem 278:8869-72. 2003
    ..We show here that Nod2 is a general sensor of peptidoglycan through the recognition of muramyl dipeptide (MDP), the minimal bioactive peptidoglycan motif common to all ..
  23. pmc A new metabolic cell-wall labelling method reveals peptidoglycan in Chlamydia trachomatis
    G W Liechti
    1 Department of Microbiology and Immunology, F Edward Hebert School of Medicine, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, Maryland 20814 4799, USA 2
    Nature 506:507-10. 2014
    b>Peptidoglycan (PG), an essential structure in the cell walls of the vast majority of bacteria, is critical for division and maintaining cell shape and hydrostatic pressure...
  24. ncbi Cytoplasmic steps of peptidoglycan biosynthesis
    Hélène Barreteau
    Laboratoire des Enveloppes Bactériennes et Antibiotiques, Institut de Biochimie et Biophysique Moleculaire et Cellulaire, Univ Paris Sud, Orsay, France
    FEMS Microbiol Rev 32:168-207. 2008
    The biosynthesis of bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan is a complex process that involves enzyme reactions that take place in the cytoplasm (synthesis of the nucleotide precursors) and on the inner side (synthesis of lipid-linked ..
  25. pmc Growth of the stress-bearing and shape-maintaining murein sacculus of Escherichia coli
    J V Holtje
    Max Planck Institut fur Entwicklungsbiologie, Abteilung Biochemie, Tubingen, Germany
    Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 62:181-203. 1998
    ..pressure, the cell wall of most bacteria is stabilized by a unique cross-linked biopolymer called murein or peptidoglycan. It is made of glycan strands [poly-(GlcNAc-MurNAc)], which are linked by short peptides to form a covalently ..
  26. ncbi Architecture of peptidoglycan: more data and more models
    Waldemar Vollmer
    Centre for Bacterial Cell Biology, Institute for Cell and Molecular Biosciences, Newcastle University, Framlington Place, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE2 4HH, UK
    Trends Microbiol 18:59-66. 2010
    b>Peptidoglycan forms a net-like sacculus made of glycan strands crosslinked by peptides. The length of the glycan strands and the degree of crosslinkage vary with bacterial species, strains and growth conditions...
  27. pmc Lipoprotein cofactors located in the outer membrane activate bacterial cell wall polymerases
    Catherine Paradis-Bleau
    Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Cell 143:1110-20. 2010
    Most bacteria surround themselves with a peptidoglycan (PG) exoskeleton synthesized by polysaccharide polymerases called penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs)...
  28. ncbi Peptidoglycan recognition proteins: modulators of the microbiome and inflammation
    Julien Royet
    Institut de Biologie du Developpement de Marseille Luminy, UMR6216 CNRS et Aix Marseille Universites, Parc Scientifique de Luminy, Marseille, France
    Nat Rev Immunol 11:837-51. 2011
    ..This Review analyses how one family of antibacterial pattern recognition molecules - the peptidoglycan recognition proteins - has evolved a fascinating variety of mechanisms to control host interactions with ..
  29. pmc In Situ probing of newly synthesized peptidoglycan in live bacteria with fluorescent D-amino acids
    Erkin Kuru
    Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA
    Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 51:12519-23. 2012
    Tracking a bug's life: Peptidoglycan (PG) of diverse bacteria is labeled by exploiting the tolerance of cells for incorporating different non-natural D-amino acids...
  30. pmc Analysis of the role of Bacillus subtilis σ(M) in β-lactam resistance reveals an essential role for c-di-AMP in peptidoglycan homeostasis
    Yun Luo
    Department of Microbiology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 8101, USA
    Mol Microbiol 83:623-39. 2012
    ..Other suppressors highlight the roles of ECF σ factors in counteracting the deleterious effects of autolysins and reactive oxygen species in β-lactam-treated cells...
  31. ncbi An essential role for NOD1 in host recognition of bacterial peptidoglycan containing diaminopimelic acid
    Mathias Chamaillard
    Department of Pathology, The University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA
    Nat Immunol 4:702-7. 2003
    ..Here we report that NOD1 mediates the recognition of peptidoglycan derived primarily from Gram-negative bacteria...
  32. ncbi Genome sequence of an obligate intracellular pathogen of humans: Chlamydia trachomatis
    R S Stephens
    Program in Infectious Diseases, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    Science 282:754-9. 1998
    ..The phylogenetic mosaic of chlamydial genes, including a large number of genes with phylogenetic origins from eukaryotes, implies a complex evolution for adaptation to obligate intracellular parasitism...
  33. ncbi TLR2 - promiscuous or specific? A critical re-evaluation of a receptor expressing apparent broad specificity
    Ulrich Zahringer
    Division of Immunochemistry, Research Center Borstel, Leibniz Center for Medicine and Biosciences, Parkallee 1 40, 23845 Borstel, Germany
    Immunobiology 213:205-24. 2008
    ..lipoteichoic acids (LTA), various proteins including lipoproteins and glycoproteins, zymosan, and peptidoglycan (PG)...
  34. pmc Teichoic acids are temporal and spatial regulators of peptidoglycan cross-linking in Staphylococcus aureus
    Magda L Atilano
    Laboratory of Bacterial Cell Surfaces and Pathogenesis and Laboratory of Bacterial Cell Biology, Instituto de Tecnologia Quimica e Biologica, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2781 901 Oeiras, Portugal
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:18991-6. 2010
    The cell wall of Staphylococcus aureus is characterized by an extremely high degree of cross-linking within its peptidoglycan (PGN)...
  35. pmc A novel mechanism of programmed cell death in bacteria by toxin-antitoxin systems corrupts peptidoglycan synthesis
    Hannes Mutschler
    Department of Biomolecular Mechanisms, Max Planck Institute for Medical Research, Heidelberg, Germany
    PLoS Biol 9:e1001033. 2011
    ..Subsequently, we demonstrated in vitro that zeta toxins in general phosphorylate the ubiquitous peptidoglycan precursor uridine diphosphate-N-acetylglucosamine (UNAG) and that this activity is counteracted by binding of ..
  36. pmc Multiple peptidoglycan modification networks modulate Helicobacter pylori's cell shape, motility, and colonization potential
    Laura K Sycuro
    Molecular and Cellular Biology Graduate Program, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 8:e1002603. 2012
    ..Characterization of new rod shaped mutants identified Csd4, a DL-carboxypeptidase of peptidoglycan (PG) tripeptide monomers and Csd5, a putative scaffolding protein...
  37. pmc Identification, structure, and function of a novel type VI secretion peptidoglycan glycoside hydrolase effector-immunity pair
    John C Whitney
    From the Departments of Microbiology and
    J Biol Chem 288:26616-24. 2013
    ..Here, employing an informatics approach, we define novel families of T6S peptidoglycan glycoside hydrolase effectors...
  38. pmc Lysin motif-containing proteins LYP4 and LYP6 play dual roles in peptidoglycan and chitin perception in rice innate immunity
    Bing Liu
    State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, Key Laboratory of Gene Engineering of the Ministry of Education and Guangdong Key Laboratory of Plant Resources, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat Sen University, 510275 Guangzhou, People s Republic of China
    Plant Cell 24:3406-19. 2012
    ..rice (Oryza sativa) lysin motif-containing proteins, LYP4 and LYP6, as dual functional PRRs sensing bacterial peptidoglycan (PGN) and fungal chitin...
  39. pmc Staphylococcus aureus-derived peptidoglycan induces Cx43 expression and functional gap junction intercellular communication in microglia
    Sarita Garg
    Department of Neurobiology and Developmental Sciences, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas 72205, USA
    J Neurochem 95:475-83. 2005
    ..Microglia are capable of recognizing peptidoglycan (PGN) derived from the outer cell wall of Staphylococcus aureus, a prevalent CNS pathogen, and respond with ..
  40. pmc Structure of a peptidoglycan amidase effector targeted to Gram-negative bacteria by the type VI secretion system
    Seemay Chou
    Department of Microbiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
    Cell Rep 1:656-64. 2012
    ..The activity of Tse1 against isolated peptidoglycan shows its capacity to act broadly against Gram-negative bacteria and even certain Gram-positive species...
  41. ncbi Requirement for a peptidoglycan recognition protein (PGRP) in Relish activation and antibacterial immune responses in Drosophila
    Kwang Min Choe
    Molecular Biology Program, Sloan Kettering Institute, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Science 296:359-62. 2002
    ..Other components of microbial surfaces, such as peptidoglycan, are also potent activators of innate immune responses, but less is known about how those components activate ..
  42. ncbi Muralytic activity and modular structure of the endolysins of Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteriophages phiKZ and EL
    Yves Briers
    Division of Gene Technology, Department of Biosystems, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 21, B 3001 Leuven, Belgium
    Mol Microbiol 65:1334-44. 2007
    Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteriophage endolysins KZ144 (phage phiKZ) and EL188 (phage EL) are highly lytic peptidoglycan hydrolases (210 000 and 390 000 units mg(-1)), active on a broad range of outer membrane-permeabilized Gram-negative ..
  43. ncbi Bacterial membrane vesicles deliver peptidoglycan to NOD1 in epithelial cells
    Maria Kaparakis
    Department of Microbiology, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800, Australia
    Cell Microbiol 12:372-85. 2010
    Gram-negative bacterial peptidoglycan is specifically recognized by the host intracellular sensor NOD1, resulting in the generation of innate immune responses...
  44. ncbi Structural variation in the glycan strands of bacterial peptidoglycan
    Waldemar Vollmer
    Institute for Cell and Molecular Biosciences, Medical School, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK
    FEMS Microbiol Rev 32:287-306. 2008
    The normal, unmodified glycan strands of bacterial peptidoglycan consist of alternating residues of beta-1,4-linked N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetylglucosamine...
  45. pmc Peptidoglycan structure analysis of Lactococcus lactis reveals the presence of an L,D-carboxypeptidase involved in peptidoglycan maturation
    Pascal Courtin
    INRA, Unité de Biochimie Bactérienne, Domaine de Vilvert, 78352 Jouy en Josas Cedex, France
    J Bacteriol 188:5293-8. 2006
    Detailed structural analysis of Lactococcus lactis peptidoglycan was achieved by identification of its constituent muropeptides separated by reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography...
  46. ncbi Peptidoglycan detection by mammals and flies
    Catherine Chaput
    Department of Cellular Microbiology, Max Planck Institute, Chariteplatz 1, D 10117 Berlin, Germany
    Microbes Infect 9:637-47. 2007
    b>Peptidoglycan is an essential component of bacteria. The host exploits the peptidoglycan particular composition and uniqueness to bacteria for specific bacterial recognition...
  47. pmc Simultaneous blocking of human Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 suppresses myeloid dendritic cell activation induced by Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin peptidoglycan
    Junji Uehori
    Department of Immunology, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases, Higashinari ku, Osaka 537 8511, Japan
    Infect Immun 71:4238-49. 2003
    ..bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) cell wall skeleton (CWS) consists of mycolic acids, arabinogalactan, and peptidoglycan (PGN) and activates Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and TLR4...
  48. ncbi Building the invisible wall: updating the chlamydial peptidoglycan anomaly
    Andrea J McCoy
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, F Edward Hebert School of Medicine, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814 4799, USA
    Trends Microbiol 14:70-7. 2006
    The existence of peptidoglycan (PG) in chlamydiae has long been debated. Genome sequencing of members of the Chlamydiaceae family and Protochlamydia amoebophila has uncovered a nearly complete pathway for PG synthesis in these organisms...
  49. ncbi Wag31, a homologue of the cell division protein DivIVA, regulates growth, morphology and polar cell wall synthesis in mycobacteria
    Choong Min Kang
    Department of Biological Science, Wayne State University, 5047 Gullen Mall, Detroit, MI 48202, USA
    Microbiology 154:725-35. 2008
    ..This abnormal morphology appears to be caused by a defect in polar peptidoglycan synthesis. Finally, expression of M...
  50. pmc Helical insertion of peptidoglycan produces chiral ordering of the bacterial cell wall
    Siyuan Wang
    Lewis Sigler Institute for Integrative Genomics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:E595-604. 2012
    ..In nearly all bacteria, cell shape is determined by the architecture of the peptidoglycan cell wall, a macromolecule consisting of glycan strands crosslinked by peptides...
  51. ncbi An alternative bactericidal mechanism of action for lantibiotic peptides that target lipid II
    Hester E Hasper
    Department of Biochemistry of Membranes, Bijvoet Center for Biomolecular Research, Institute of Biomembranes, Utrecht University, Padualaan 8, 3584 CH, Utrecht, Netherlands
    Science 313:1636-7. 2006
    ..We describe an alternative mechanism by which members of the lantibiotic family kill Gram-positive bacteria by removing lipid II from the cell division site (or septum) and thus block cell wall synthesis...
  52. pmc A eukaryotic-like Ser/Thr kinase signals bacteria to exit dormancy in response to peptidoglycan fragments
    Ishita M Shah
    Department of Microbiology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Cell 135:486-96. 2008
    ..well-conserved, eukaryotic-like Ser/Thr membrane kinase containing an extracellular domain capable of binding peptidoglycan is necessary for this response, and a small molecule that stimulates related eukaryotic kinases is sufficient ..
  53. pmc Molecular organization of Gram-negative peptidoglycan
    Lu Gan
    Division of Biology and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:18953-7. 2008
    ..of the bacterial cell wall--a multi-gigadalton bag-like molecule called the sacculus--is synthesized from peptidoglycan. Whereas the chemical composition and the 3-dimensional structure of the peptidoglycan subunit (in at least ..
  54. ncbi Peptidoglycan molecular requirements allowing detection by Nod1 and Nod2
    Stephen E Girardin
    Unite de Pathogenie Microbienne Moleculaire, INSERM U389, Institut Pasteur, 28 rue du Dr Roux, 75724 Paris Cedex 15, France
    J Biol Chem 278:41702-8. 2003
    ..Recently, naturally occurring peptidoglycan (PG) fragments were identified as the microbial motifs sensed by Nod1 and Nod2...
  55. ncbi Murein (peptidoglycan) structure, architecture and biosynthesis in Escherichia coli
    Waldemar Vollmer
    Institute for Cell and Molecular Biosciences, Medical School, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Catherine Cookson Building, Framlington Place, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE2 4HH, UK
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1778:1714-34. 2008
    The periplasmic murein (peptidoglycan) sacculus is a giant macromolecule made of glycan strands cross-linked by short peptides completely surrounding the cytoplasmic membrane to protect the cell from lysis due to its internal osmotic ..
  56. pmc D-amino acids govern stationary phase cell wall remodeling in bacteria
    Hubert Lam
    Channing Laboratory, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Science 325:1552-5. 2009
    ..These unusual D-amino acids appear to modulate synthesis of peptidoglycan, a strong and elastic polymer that serves as the stress-bearing component of the bacterial cell wall...
  57. ncbi Why are pathogenic staphylococci so lysozyme resistant? The peptidoglycan O-acetyltransferase OatA is the major determinant for lysozyme resistance of Staphylococcus aureus
    Agnieszka Bera
    Microbial Genetics, University of Tubingen, D 72076 Tubingen, Auf der Morgenstelle, Germany
    Mol Microbiol 55:778-87. 2005
    ..electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry analyses of the cell wall revealed that the muramic acid of peptidoglycan of the wild-type strain was O-acetylated at C6-OH, whereas the muramic acid of the oatA mutant lacked this ..
  58. ncbi Peptidoglycan recognition proteins: a novel family of four human innate immunity pattern recognition molecules
    C Liu
    Northwest Center for Medical Education, Indiana University School of Medicine, Gary, Indiana 46408, USA
    J Biol Chem 276:34686-94. 2001
    ..Insects have a family of 12 peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) that recognize peptidoglycan, a ubiquitous component of bacterial cell walls...
  59. pmc The architecture of the murein (peptidoglycan) in gram-negative bacteria: vertical scaffold or horizontal layer(s)?
    Waldemar Vollmer
    Universitat Tubingen, Fakultat fur Biologie, Lehrbereich Mikrobielle Genetik, Auf der Morgenstelle 28, 72076 Tubingen, Germany
    J Bacteriol 186:5978-87. 2004
  60. pmc Peptidoglycan remodeling and conversion of an inner membrane into an outer membrane during sporulation
    Elitza I Tocheva
    Division of Biology, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA
    Cell 146:799-812. 2011
    ..b>Peptidoglycan persists throughout, leading to a revised, "continuous" model of its role in the process...
  61. pmc Three-dimensional structure of the bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan
    Samy O Meroueh
    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 5670, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:4404-9. 2006
    The 3D structure of the bacterial peptidoglycan, the major constituent of the cell wall, is one of the most important, yet still unsolved, structural problems in biochemistry...
  62. ncbi Super-resolution microscopy reveals cell wall dynamics and peptidoglycan architecture in ovococcal bacteria
    Richard Wheeler
    Krebs Institute, University of Sheffield, Firth Court, Western Bank, Sheffield S10 2TN, UK
    Mol Microbiol 82:1096-109. 2011
    Cell morphology and viability in Eubacteria is dictated by the architecture of peptidoglycan, the major and essential structural component of the cell wall...
  63. pmc Regulation of polar peptidoglycan biosynthesis by Wag31 phosphorylation in mycobacteria
    Charul Jani
    Department of Biological Science, Wayne State University, 5047 Gullen Mall, Detroit, MI 48202, USA
    BMC Microbiol 10:327. 2010
    ..In the present study, we further characterized the role of the Wag31 phosphorylation in polar peptidoglycan biosynthesis.
  64. pmc In vitro and in vivo functional activity of Chlamydia MurA, a UDP-N-acetylglucosamine enolpyruvyl transferase involved in peptidoglycan synthesis and fosfomycin resistance
    Andrea J McCoy
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, F Edward Hebert School of Medicine, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland 20814 4799, USA
    J Bacteriol 185:1218-28. 2003
    ..The chlamydial anomaly refers to the fact that cell wall-active antibiotics inhibit Chlamydia growth and peptidoglycan (PG) synthesis genes are present in the genome, yet there is no biochemical evidence for synthesis of PG...
  65. ncbi Structural perspective of peptidoglycan biosynthesis and assembly
    Andrew L Lovering
    School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, United Kingdom
    Annu Rev Biochem 81:451-78. 2012
    The peptidoglycan biosynthetic pathway is a critical process in the bacterial cell and is exploited as a target for the design of antibiotics...
  66. ncbi Bacteria-derived peptidoglycans constitute pathogen-associated molecular patterns triggering innate immunity in Arabidopsis
    Andrea A Gust
    Center for Plant Molecular Biology, Plant Biochemistry, and Microbial Genetics, University of Tubingen, 72076 Tubingen, Germany
    J Biol Chem 282:32338-48. 2007
    ..Here we show that Gram-positive bacteria-derived peptidoglycan (PGN) constitutes a novel PAMP of immune responses in Arabidopsis thaliana...
  67. pmc TraG encoded by the pIP501 type IV secretion system is a two-domain peptidoglycan-degrading enzyme essential for conjugative transfer
    Karsten Arends
    Department of Environmental Microbiology Genetics, University of Technology Berlin, Berlin, Germany
    J Bacteriol 195:4436-44. 2013
    ..pIP501, was expressed and purified without its N-terminal transmembrane helix (TraGΔTMH) and shown to possess peptidoglycan-degrading activity...
  68. ncbi Biochemical characterisation of the chlamydial MurF ligase, and possible sequence of the chlamydial peptidoglycan pentapeptide stem
    Delphine Patin
    Laboratoire des Enveloppes Bactériennes et Antibiotiques, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Institut de Biochimie et Biophysique Moleculaire et Cellulaire, UMR 8619, Batiment 430, Universite Paris Sud, 91405 Orsay Cedex, France
    Arch Microbiol 194:505-12. 2012
    Chlamydiaceae are obligate intracellular bacteria that do not synthesise detectable peptidoglycan although they possess an almost complete arsenal of genes encoding peptidoglycan biosynthetic activities...
  69. pmc Nutrient-dependent structural changes in S. aureus peptidoglycan revealed by solid-state NMR spectroscopy
    Xiaoxue Zhou
    Department of Chemistry, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Biochemistry 51:8143-53. 2012
    ..The main component of the bacterial cell wall is peptidoglycan, a cage-like macromolecule that preserves cellular integrity and maintains cell shape...
  70. pmc Influence of wall teichoic acid on lysozyme resistance in Staphylococcus aureus
    Agnieszka Bera
    Microbial Genetics, University of Tubingen, 72076 Tubingen, Germany
    J Bacteriol 189:280-3. 2007
    Staphylococcus aureus peptidoglycan (PG) is completely resistant to the hydrolytic activity of lysozyme...
  71. ncbi Peptidoglycan: a critical activator of the mammalian immune system during infection and homeostasis
    Matthew T Sorbara
    Department of Immunology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Immunol Rev 243:40-60. 2011
    b>Peptidoglycan is a conserved structural component of the bacterial cell wall with molecular motifs unique to bacteria...
  72. ncbi Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and TLR4 differentially activate human mast cells
    Sonia Varadaradjalou
    CNRS FRE 2444, Faculty of Pharmacy, Paris V University, Paris, France
    Eur J Immunol 33:899-906. 2003
    ..CBMC) could interact with bacterial products, especially lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Escherichia coli and peptidoglycan (PGN) from Staphylococcus aureus, known as Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 and TLR2 agonists, respectively...
  73. ncbi Anti-inflammatory capacity of selected lactobacilli in experimental colitis is driven by NOD2-mediated recognition of a specific peptidoglycan-derived muropeptide
    Elise Macho Fernandez
    Bactéries Lactiques et Immunité des Muqueuses, Centre d Infection et d Immunité de Lille, Institut Pasteur de Lille, 1 rue du Pr Calmette, 59019 Lille Cedex, France
    Gut 60:1050-9. 2011
    ..The role of NOD2 signalling and the protective effect of Lactobacillus peptidoglycan (PGN) and derived muropeptides in experimental colitis were evaluated.
  74. ncbi Staphylococcus aureus sortase, an enzyme that anchors surface proteins to the cell wall
    S K Mazmanian
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, UCLA School of Medicine, University of California, 10833 Le Conte Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
    Science 285:760-3. 1999
    ..that involves cleavage of a conserved Leu-Pro-X-Thr-Gly (LPXTG) motif and that occurs during assembly of the peptidoglycan cell wall...
  75. ncbi Normally functioning murF is essential for the optimal expression of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus
    R G Sobral
    Molecular Genetics Laboratory, Instituto de Tecnologia Química e Biológica da Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2780 Oeiras, Portugal
    Microb Drug Resist 9:231-41. 2003
    ..Analysis of the mutant peptidoglycan showed decrease in the percentage of oligomeric components in rough proportion to the accumulation of several ..
  76. ncbi Identification and characterization of the metal ion-dependent L-alanoyl-D-glutamate peptidase encoded by bacteriophage T5
    Galina V Mikoulinskaia
    Branch of Shemyakin and Ovchinnikov s Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry RAS, Pushchino, Moscow, Russia
    FEBS J 276:7329-42. 2009
    ..It was found that, along with E. coli peptidoglycan, peptidase of bacteriophage T5 can lyse peptidoglycans of other Gram-negative microorganisms (Pectobacterium ..
  77. pmc Staphylococcal peptidoglycan co-localizes with Nod2 and TLR2 and activates innate immune response via both receptors in primary murine keratinocytes
    Maria Anna Müller-Anstett
    Microbial Genetics, University of Tubingen, Tubingen, Germany
    PLoS ONE 5:e13153. 2010
    In mammalian host cells staphylococcal peptidoglycan (PGN) is recognized by Nod2. Whether PGN is also recognized by TLR2 is disputed...
  78. ncbi Role of lipid-bound peptidoglycan precursors in the formation of pores by nisin, epidermin and other lantibiotics
    H Brötz
    Institut für Medizinische Mikrobiologie und Immunologie der Universität Bonn, D 53105 Bonn, Germany
    Mol Microbiol 30:317-27. 1998
    ..As previous studies had demonstrated that nisin interacts with the membrane-bound peptidoglycan precursors lipid I and lipid II, we presumed that this interaction could play a role in the pore formation ..
  79. ncbi The bifunctional peptidoglycan lysin of Streptococcus agalactiae bacteriophage B30
    David G Pritchard
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, MCLM 552, 1530 3rd Ave S, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 0005, USA
    Microbiology 150:2079-87. 2004
    ..Site-directed mutagenesis of conserved cysteine and histidine residues in the CHAP domain and conserved aspartate and glutamate residues in the Acm domain confirmed their importance for lysozyme and endopeptidase activity respectively...
  80. pmc Molecular basis for peptidoglycan recognition by a bactericidal lectin
    Rebecca E Lehotzky
    Departments of Immunology, The Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:7722-7. 2010
    ..RegIII proteins bind their bacterial targets via interactions with cell wall peptidoglycan but lack the canonical sequences that support calcium-dependent carbohydrate binding in other C-type lectins...
  81. ncbi Anchoring the type VI secretion system to the peptidoglycan: TssL, TagL, TagP... what else?
    Marie Stéphanie Aschtgen
    Laboratoire d Ingenierie des Systemes Macromoleculaires, Institut de Microbiologie de la Mediterranee, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique CNRS, Aix Marseille Universite, Marseille, France
    Virulence 1:535-40. 2010
    ..demonstrated that the TagL subunit carries a specific domain allowing anchorage of the secretion system to the peptidoglycan (PG) layer...
  82. ncbi Anchoring of surface proteins to the cell wall of Staphylococcus aureus. III. Lipid II is an in vivo peptidoglycan substrate for sortase-catalyzed surface protein anchoring
    Adrienne M Perry
    Committee on Microbiology, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA
    J Biol Chem 277:16241-8. 2002
    Surface proteins of Staphylococcus aureus are anchored to the cell wall peptidoglycan by a mechanism requiring a C-terminal sorting signal with an LPXTG motif...
  83. ncbi The CHAP domain: a large family of amidases including GSP amidase and peptidoglycan hydrolases
    Alex Bateman
    The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge, UK CB10 1SA
    Trends Biochem Sci 28:234-7. 2003
    Cleavage of peptidoglycan plays an important role in bacterial cell division, cell growth and cell lysis...
  84. pmc Peptidoglycan recognition proteins kill bacteria by activating protein-sensing two-component systems
    Des Raj Kashyap
    Indiana University School of Medicine Northwest, Gary, Indiana, USA
    Nat Med 17:676-83. 2011
    Mammalian peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs), similar to antimicrobial lectins, bind the bacterial cell wall and kill bacteria through an unknown mechanism...
  85. ncbi Role of staphylococcal wall teichoic acid in targeting the major autolysin Atl
    Martin Schlag
    Microbial Genetics, University of Tubingen, 72076 Tubingen, Germany
    Mol Microbiol 75:864-73. 2010
    ..are targeted via repeat domains (R) to the septal region of the cell surface, thereby allowing localized peptidoglycan hydrolysis and separation of the dividing cells...
  86. pmc Imaging peptidoglycan biosynthesis in Bacillus subtilis with fluorescent antibiotics
    Kittichoat Tiyanont
    Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:11033-8. 2006
    The peptidoglycan (PG) layers surrounding bacterial cells play an important role in determining cell shape...
  87. ncbi Host recognition of bacterial muramyl dipeptide mediated through NOD2. Implications for Crohn's disease
    Naohiro Inohara
    Department of Pathology and Comprehensive Cancer Center, The University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA
    J Biol Chem 278:5509-12. 2003
    ..susceptibility to Crohn's disease, confers responsiveness to bacterial preparations of lipopolysaccharide and peptidoglycan, but the precise moiety recognized remains elusive...
  88. pmc Murein segregation in Escherichia coli
    M A de Pedro
    Centro de Biología Molecular Severo Ochoa Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Facultad de Ciencias, Spain
    J Bacteriol 179:2823-34. 1997
    b>Peptidoglycan (murein) segregation has been studied by means of a new labeling method. The method relies on the ability of Escherichia coli cells to incorporate D-Cys into macromolecular murein...
  89. pmc A peptidoglycan recognition protein in innate immunity conserved from insects to humans
    D Kang
    Department of Microbiology, Stockholm University, S 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95:10078-82. 1998
    ..bacteria-induced gene encodes a protein that, after expression in the baculovirus system, was shown to be a peptidoglycan recognition protein (PGRP). It binds strongly to Gram-positive bacteria...
  90. ncbi Crohn's disease-associated NOD2 variants share a signaling defect in response to lipopolysaccharide and peptidoglycan
    Denise K Bonen
    Martin Boyer Laboratories, Gastroenterology Section, Department of Medicine, University of Chicago Hospitals, Chicago, Illinois, USA
    Gastroenterology 124:140-6. 2003
    ..Except for the L1007fsinsC mutation, which produces a truncated NOD2 protein, the functional activity of the major CD-associated variants G908R and R702W is unknown...
  91. pmc Peptidoglycan crosslinking relaxation plays an important role in Staphylococcus aureus WalKR-dependent cell viability
    Aurelia Delaune
    Institut Pasteur, Biology of Gram Positive Pathogens, Department of Microbiology, Paris, France
    PLoS ONE 6:e17054. 2011
    ..We have shown that WalKR acts as the master controller of peptidoglycan metabolism, yet none of the identified regulon genes explain its requirement for cell viability...
  92. pmc Synthetic lethal compound combinations reveal a fundamental connection between wall teichoic acid and peptidoglycan biosyntheses in Staphylococcus aureus
    Jennifer Campbell
    Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, United States
    ACS Chem Biol 6:106-16. 2011
    ..aureus depends on the production of mecA, which encodes penicillin-binding protein 2A (PBP2A), an acquired peptidoglycan transpeptidase (TP) with reduced susceptibility to β-lactam antibiotics...
  93. pmc Cell wall monoglycine cross-bridges and methicillin hypersusceptibility in a femAB null mutant of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
    A M Stranden
    Institute of Medical Microbiology, University of Zurich, Switzerland
    J Bacteriol 179:9-16. 1997
    ..femAB operon is involved in the formation of the characteristic pentaglycine side chain of the staphylococcal peptidoglycan. Allele replacement of the femAB operon with the tetracycline resistance determinant tetK in a methicillin-..
  94. pmc Staphylococcus aureus evades lysozyme-based peptidoglycan digestion that links phagocytosis, inflammasome activation, and IL-1beta secretion
    Takahiro Shimada
    Immunobiology Research Institute, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA 90048, USA
    Cell Host Microbe 7:38-49. 2010
    ..We observed that the bacterial cell wall component peptidoglycan (PGN) must be particulate and internalized via phagocytosis to activate NLRP3 inflammasomes and IL-1beta ..
  95. pmc How bacteria consume their own exoskeletons (turnover and recycling of cell wall peptidoglycan)
    James T Park
    Department of Molecular Biology and Microbiology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02111, USA
    Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 72:211-27, table of contents. 2008
    The phenomenon of peptidoglycan recycling is reviewed. Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli break down and reuse over 60% of the peptidoglycan of their side wall each generation...
  96. pmc Alterations of cell wall structure and metabolism accompany reduced susceptibility to vancomycin in an isogenic series of clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus
    K Sieradzki
    The Rockefeller University, New York, New York 10021, USA
    J Bacteriol 185:7103-10. 2003
    ..Chemical analysis of the resistant isolates showed decreased cross-linkage of the peptidoglycan and drastically reduced levels of PBP4 as determined by the fluorographic assay...
  97. ncbi Cell wall-targeting domain of glycylglycine endopeptidase distinguishes among peptidoglycan cross-bridges
    Jeff Zhiqiang Lu
    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas 72701, USA
    J Biol Chem 281:549-58. 2006
    ALE-1, a homologue of lysostaphin, is a peptidoglycan hydrolase that specifically lyses Staphylococcus aureus cell walls by cleaving the pentaglycine linkage between the peptidoglycan chains. Binding of ALE-1 to S...
  98. ncbi Bacteriophage and peptidoglycan degrading enzymes with antimicrobial applications
    David M Donovan
    Biotechnology and Germplasm Laboratory, ANRI, ARS, USDA, Bldg 230, Room 104, BARC East, 10300 Baltimore Ave, Beltsville, MD 20705 2350, USA
    Recent Pat Biotechnol 1:113-22. 2007
    b>Peptidoglycan is the major structural component of bacterial cell walls...
  99. pmc Identification of the glmU gene encoding N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphate uridyltransferase in Escherichia coli
    D Mengin-Lecreulx
    Laboratoire des Enveloppes Bactériennes et des Peptides, Universite Paris Sud, Orsay, France
    J Bacteriol 175:6150-7. 1993
    ..The inactivation of the gene in exponentially growing cells rapidly inhibited peptidoglycan synthesis...
  100. pmc Peptidoglycan from lactobacilli inhibits interleukin-12 production by macrophages induced by Lactobacillus casei through Toll-like receptor 2-dependent and independent mechanisms
    Kan Shida
    Yakult Central Institute for Microbiological Research, Tokyo, Japan
    Immunology 128:e858-69. 2009
    ..casei-induced IL-12 production, its polysaccharide-depleted ICW, i.e. intact peptidoglycan, was sensitive to intracellular digestion and inhibited L. casei-induced IL-12 production...
  101. pmc Role of murE in the Expression of beta-lactam antibiotic resistance in Staphylococcus aureus
    S Gardete
    Molecular Genetics Laboratory, Instituto de Tecnologia Química e Biológica da Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2780 Oeiras, Portugal Laboratory of Microbiology, The Rockefeller University, New York, New York 10021
    J Bacteriol 186:1705-13. 2004
    ..UDP-MurNAc dipeptide in the cell wall precursor pool and incorporation of these abnormal muropeptides into the peptidoglycan of the mutant. Methicillin resistance was recovered in a suppressor mutant...

Research Grants76

  1. Characterization of new toxins (YmgD and YdfD) from E.coli, targeting cell wall
    Hisako Masuda; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..In this application, I will attempt to decipher the exact molecular reactions in peptidoglycan (PG) biogenesis, which these toxins target...
  2. Carbohydrate-based Antiinfective Agents
    Chi Huey Wong; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..to evolving antibiotic resistance due to its recognition of the invariant oligosaccharide backbone of the peptidoglycan. Our efforts have primed TGase for long-awaited antibiotic development against dangerous gram-positive strains ..
  3. THE ROLE OF CELL SHAPE AND CELL WALL IN HELICOBACTER PYLORI PATHOGENESIS
    NINA REDA SALAMA; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Biochemical analyses indicate that some of these proteins modify the cell wall peptidoglycan (PG) structure...
  4. Counter-Regulation of TLR-Driven Mucosal Inflammation
    Erik P Lillehoj; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..For example, TLRs with specificity for bacterial peptidoglycan (TLR2), LPS (TLR4), and flagellin (TLR5) activate signaling pathways leading to the production of ..
  5. GENETICS AND VIRULENCE OF PNEUMOCOCCAL CAPSULAR TYPES
    JANET L YOTHER; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..In S. pneumoniae, the polymer remains largely cell-associated via linkages to the membrane and peptidoglycan. Modulation of capsule chain length and amount occurs, at least in part, through the action of a ..
  6. A. L. lactis-based vaccine for children with broad spectrum for enteric pathogens
    Wendy L Picking; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..have an outstanding safety profile, can be administered mucosally, have strong adjuvant properties (the peptidoglycan envelope stimulates innate immunity), are highly stable (eliminating the need for cold chain), easy to ..
  7. Cell wall synthesis enzymes and beta-lactam resistance in Enterococcus faecium
    Louis B Rice; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..activity, Pbp5 must coordinate its activities with that of glycosyltransferases to synthesize mature peptidoglycan. Class B Pbps most commonly coordinate with bifunctional (possessing both glycosyltransferase and ..
  8. Role of NOD2 in Inflammatory Arthritis and Innate Immunity
    MICHAEL PATRICK DAVEY; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Using normal and NOD2 knockout mice, analyze inflammatory arthritis triggered by intra-articular injection of peptidoglycan from cell walls of Gram positive bacteria, b) zymosan and c) double stranded viral RNA and d) by systemic ..
  9. Effect of Helicobacter pylori cell shape on pathogenesis
    LAURA ELIZABETH MARTINEZ; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of these genes individually or in tandem affect the bacteria's curvature and twist through alterations in peptidoglycan (PG) cross-linking17, resulting in distinc non-helical rod shapes (i.e. curved, "c"-shaped, and straight rods)...
  10. MECHANISM OF PATHOGENIC ACTIVITY OF PEPTIDOGLYCAN
    Roman Dziarski; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..This project will investigate a novel family of four pattern recognition molecules, peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGLYRPs), that were discovered by this laboratory and recently identified as either ..
  11. MOLECULAR GENETIC ANALYSIS OF CHLAMYDIA PATHOGENICITY
    Anthony T Maurelli; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..1 - Development of tools for the genetic analysis of Chlamydia 2 - Biochemical and genetic characterization of peptidoglycan synthesis in Chlamydia 3 - Identification of transport systems for uptake of essential constituents for ..
  12. Mechanisms of H. pylori-Induced Hypochlorhydria
    Adam J Smolka; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..pump (H,K-ATPase) 1 subunit (HK1) gene expression by interactions of cag PAI virulence factors CagL, CagA and peptidoglycan with parietal cells via the TFSS, perturbing signaling pathways essential to acid secretion...
  13. Novel gene-silencing therapeutics for multidrug-resistant gram-negative pathogens
    DAVID ELIHU GREENBERG; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..to be essential for the growth of the organism, including genes for biosynthesis of lipopolysaccharide, peptidoglycan, and fatty acids...
  14. Synergy between TLR2 and IL-22R in airway epithelial cells during MRSA challenge
    Jeremy P McAleer; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) recognizes peptidoglycan and initiates natural immunity to S. aureus...
  15. Functional Amyloid Formation in Streptococcus mutans
    L Jeannine Brady; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..lacking sortase, the transpeptidase enzyme that mediates covalent linkage of it substrates to the cell wall peptidoglycan, including P1 and five other proteins, is not birefringent when stained with Congo red and does not form ..
  16. Age-associated Toll-like receptor dysfunction in the lungs
    Carlos J Orihuela; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..IRAK-1, NFkB activation, cytokine production, and expression of leukocyte adhesion molecules in response to peptidoglycan and pneumolysin, TLR-2 and TLR-4 ligands, respectively...
  17. Control of bacterial morphology and differentiation
    Yves V Brun; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..StpX to the stalk by protein-protein interaction or through its enzymatic activity and modification of stalk peptidoglycan. A novel high throughput microscopy screen will be used to identify genes involved in protein targeting to the ..
  18. THE STRESS-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE PATHWAY
    John M Kyriakis; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..produced by microbial pathogens, which trigger innate immune responses): bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), peptidoglycan (PGN) and flagellin (FliC)...
  19. Pneumococcal capsule and host innate immunity
    Moon H Nahm; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..3) whether WcjE enhances lysozyme resistance by helping Adr (attenuator of drug resistance) modify peptidoglycan. Our work is broadly relevant because wcjE is found in many different pneumococcal serotypes and because very ..
  20. MOLECULAR GENETIC ANALYSIS OF CHLAMYDIA PATHOGENICITY
    Anthony T Maurelli; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..2 - Biochemical and genetic characterization of peptidoglycan synthesis in Chlamydia...
  21. Role of pattern recognition receptors in organic dust-induced airway inflammation
    Jill A Poole; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..bacteria and chemical analysis demonstrated a high concentration of muramic acid, a component of peptidoglycan (PGN) from the bacterial cell wall, in large animal farming environments...
  22. Chronic alcohol abuse disrupts CD8+T cell function
    Annette J Schlueter; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of certain TLR agonists, and the chronic ethanol mice have demonstrable increases in circulating peptidoglycan. In this component we will examine CDS functional responses to CDS immunodominant epitopes and other stimuli...
  23. Peptidoglycan Biogenesis in Escherichia Coli
    Thomas G Bernhardt; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..provided by applicant): Most bacteria surround themselves with a crosslinked polysaccharide polymer called peptidoglycan (PG) that is critical for the maintenance of cell shape and integrity...
  24. Assembly of the mycobacterial cell wall
    Martin S Pavelka; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..In this regard, one essential biosynthetic pathway that has been overlooked in this field is peptidoglycan (PGN) assembly...
  25. Peptidoglycan synthesis during sporulation
    Jonathan Dworkin; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..by applicant): Bacterial shape is determined and maintained by an extracellular, rigid structure composed of peptidoglycan, a polymer of repeated units of a disaccharide peptide monomer...
  26. Glycopeptide Complexes with Bacterial Cell Walls by REDOR NMR
    Jacob Schaefer; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In the next grant period, we plan to characterize the full 3D architecture of the peptidoglycan lattice of S. aureus and E...
  27. Activation of Insect Immunity by Gram-negative Bacteria
    Neal Silverman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In particular, the IMD pathway is triggered by DAP-type peptidoglycan from the cell wall of certain bacteria...
  28. Molecular Engineering of Humanized Anti-Staphlococcal Lytic Enzymes
    Karl E Griswold; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..is the human enzyme lysozyme (hLYS), which kills Gram-positive pathogens in part by hydrolysis of cell wall peptidoglycan and subsequent bacterial lysis...
  29. Novel Mechanisms of Beta-lactam Resistance in Staph Aureus
    Henry F Chambers; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..PBP binding assays and analyses of peptidoglycan structure will be performed to determine the effect of mutations on PBP binding and to test for functional ..
  30. Improved Therapeutics for Drug Eluting Stents
    Alyssa Panitch; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We will couple release of this drug from a DES with a temporary monolayer coating of blood vessel with peptidoglycan (dermatan sulfate (DS)) conjugated with collagen-binding eicosapeptide, RRANAALKAGELYKSILYGC (abbreviated SILY)..
  31. Supramolecular Complexes That Mediate Pneumococcal PG Biosynthesis and Virulence
    Malcolm E Winkler; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Many clinically relevant antibiotics, including [unreadable]-lactams and vancomycin, target peptidoglycan (PG) biosynthesis...
  32. Membrane Remodeling and Protein Trafficking in Bacteria
    David Z Rudner; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..During the morphological process of engulfment, the mother cell membranes must be moved through the peptidoglycan (PG) layer around the forespore;the mechanism for this remains unknown. The third question is biophysical...
  33. The Epidemiology of Home Allergens and Asthma
    Diane R Gold; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..g. endotoxin and peptidoglycan), increased body-mass index (BMI), along with correlated behaviors and coexposures (pets, home dampness for ..
  34. Molecular Targets in Peptidoglycan Synthesis
    Christopher Davies; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This renewal application will address this need by investigating two enzymes of N. gonorrhoeae involved in peptidoglycan synthesis...
  35. Gene silencing therapeutics for chronic infections in cystic fibrosis
    DAVID ELIHU GREENBERG; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..include genes important in the development of the cell wall and associated structures (lipopolysaccharide and peptidoglycan biosynthesis) as well as fatty acid biosynthesis (i.e. acyl carrier protein)...
  36. Genetic Requirements for the survival of Tubercle Bacilli in Nonhuman Primates
    Deepak Kaushal; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..in primates were involved in the transport of lipid virulence factors;biosynthesis of cell-wall arabinan and peptidoglycan, fatty-acids and polyketides;DNA repair;sterol metabolism and mammalian cell-entry (mce)...
  37. Innate Immune Sensing of Bacterial Sugars
    David M Underhill; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..For example, bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan may be cleaved to release muramyl dipeptide, a ligand for the cytosolic pattern recognition receptor Nod2...
  38. SQ641, new drug candidate to treat NTM infections
    Venkata M Reddy; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..new class of nucleoside antibiotics that inhibit bacterial cell wall construction by blocking biosynthesis of peptidoglycan (PG)...
  39. Functions of mammalian PGLYRPs in the cornea
    Shukti Chakravarti; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Our proposal focuses on the mammalian peptidoglycan recognition protein (PGLYRP) family of four antimicrobial proteins, which exist in various mucosal barriers, ..
  40. Structure and Cell-Wall Targeting of the Staphylolytic Enzyme Lysostaphin
    KEITH GRISCOM INMAN; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..aureus (MRSA). Lysostaphin acts by binding to and cleaving interpeptide bridges in cell wall peptidoglycan, leaving bacteria vulnerable to osmotic lysis...
  41. Systematic Phenotypic Analysis of the Gram-positive Envelope
    Jason M Peters; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Using this dataset, we were able to make significant advances in our understanding of peptidoglycan (PG) synthesis, a key component of the bacterial cell wall...
  42. Intracellular Bacterial Recognition in the Drosophila Innate Immune Response
    Neal Silverman; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Small fragments of bacterial peptidoglycan as well as bacterial flagellin are known to stimulate the NOD-like Receptors in mammals...
  43. Activation of Insect Immunity by Gram-negative Bacteria
    Neal Silverman; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..In particular, the IMD pathway is triggered by DAP-type peptidoglycan from the cell wall of certain bacteria...
  44. Mechanisms of Chronic Nod2-mediated Effects in Human Macrophages
    Clara Abraham; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..which include nucleotide oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2), an intracellular bacterial recognition receptor for peptidoglycan (PGN), a component of both gram positive and gram negative cell walls...
  45. Metal Binding to the Bacterial Cell Wall
    Charles V Rice; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Binding of metals to the bacterial cell wall is essential for peptidoglycan integrity and metal ion homeostasis...
  46. Selective Delivery of a novel bacterial adjuvant for multipurpose vaccination
    GREGOIRE STEPHANE LAUVAU; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..on one bacterial protein, the p60 autolysin, a virulence factor of the bacteria, which functions to digest peptidoglycan (PGN) cell walls...
  47. Directed evolution of fosfomycin resistance enzymes from a promiscuous progenitor
    Paul D Cook; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..cell wall biogenesis by covalently inactivating MurA, the enzyme that catalyzes the first committed step in peptidoglycan biosynthesis...
  48. Chemical Mycobacteriology
    Carolyn R Bertozzi; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Finally, in Aim 4 we will investigate pathways that modulate cell wall structure in response to osmotic stress. A chemical approach to imaging peptidoglycan in vivo will be developed to facilitate these studies.
  49. Single Molecule Studies of Class II Lantibiotic Synthetases
    CHRISTOPHER JAMES THIBODEAUX; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Lantibiotics typically function by inhibiting several highly conserved steps in bacterial peptidoglycan biosynthesis and/or by disrupting cell wall and plasma membrane integrity...
  50. Fcgamma mediated regulation of dendritic cell function
    Kavita Dhodapkar; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..cells induced by Fc?R activated DCs with those generated by DCs matured with inflammatory cytokines zymosan or peptidoglycan. 2) To evaluate the role of activating Fc?Rs and downstream molecules in DC mediated activation of Th17-1 ..
  51. Elucidation of a bacterial cell shape generating program and pathogenic functions
    NINA REDA SALAMA; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..genes (csd1, csd2, csd3, ccmA) that promote helical cell curvature and twist through changes in cell wall peptidoglycan (PG) crosslinking and are required for efficient stomach colonization...
  52. FORESPORE ENGULFMENT DURING B SUBTILIS SPORULATION
    KIT J POGLIANO; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..machineries, the SpoIIQ-SpoIIIAH complex that provides a zipper-like adhesion between the developing cells and peptidoglycan biosynthesis which is essential for membrane migration when SpoIIQ is absent...
  53. Bacterial cell wall synthesis, shape and septation
    Kevin D Young; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..What we do know is that most bacteria are protected by a peptidoglycan cell wall and that the way this wall is synthesized determines cell shape...
  54. Structural Components of the Campylobacter jejuni Polar Flagellar Motor
    David R Hendrixson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..that associate with rotor and switch components at the base of the flagellum and a rod that penetrates the peptidoglycan and the outer membrane...
  55. Inflammation and Infection in Atherosclerosis
    Salomon Amar; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Recently peptidoglycan (PGN;a TLR2 ligand) was shown to be recognized independently of its muramyl dipeptide (MDP) components (NOD2 ..
  56. Identification small molecule inhibitors of the bacterial morphogenetic complex
    JAMES GOBER; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..This complex is required for the spatial and temporal synthesis of the peptidoglycan cell wall and functions to position and coordinate cell wall biosynthetic activities on both sides of the ..
  57. Mechanism and Inhibition of Bacterial Transglycosylases and Transpeptidases.
    Suzanne Walker; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Many clinically used antibiotics target the final steps of peptidoglycan (PG) biosynthesis, which involve the polymerization of disaccharide-peptide subunits by peptidoglycan ..
  58. Surface Proteins of Bacillus anthracis
    Olaf Schneewind; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..with pyruvylated / acetylated secondary cell wall polysaccharide (SCWP), a carbohydrate that is linked to peptidoglycan. S-layer proteins likely contribute to capsule assembly. In B...
  59. CONTROL OF VIRUS INDUCED LYSIS
    RYLAND F YOUNG; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The Gram-negative bacterial cell has three layers: the cytoplasmic or inner membrane (IM), the cell wall or peptidoglycan (PG), and the outer membrane (OM)...
  60. Biogenesis of Peptidoglycan in Escherichia coli
    Natividad Ruiz; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Most bacteria polymerize peptidoglycan (PG) into a mesh-like sacculus that surrounds the cytoplasmic membrane and protects it against osmotic lysis...
  61. Regulation of stalk protein localization in Caulbacter crescentus
    Eric A Klein; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Additional experiments will examine whether peptidoglycan or phospholipid binding is required for localization...
  62. TLR Ligand and Pesticide Exposure in Farms: Role in Atopic Immune Responses
    Atin Adhikari; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..In the first specific aim we will characterize exposures of environmental TLR ligands (endotoxin, peptidoglycan, and bacterial DNA) and two conventional pesticides relevant to atopic asthma in 10 farms of Ohio before and ..
  63. Therapeutic intervention for Brucella
    AMY RAMBOW LARSEN; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..targets the bacterial membrane, then bacterial micelles will be produced to examine TFX specificity for the peptidoglycan membrane...
  64. HTS assay and configuration for inhibitors of the UDP-Mur formation pathway
    Michael McNeil; Fiscal Year: 2009
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Disruption of peptidoglycan (PG) synthesis is a well established mode of action of effective antibacterial and is primarily accomplished with 2-lactams and vancomycin. However, M...
  65. FIBROSIS IN CROHNS DISEASE--ROLE OF IGF I
    ELLEN ZIMMERMANN; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..up-regulated in inflamed and strictured tissue from patients with Crohn's disease and in rats with peptidoglycan-polysaccharide (PG-PS) induced chronic enterocolitis, a model of Crohn's disease...
  66. Extracorporeal Blood Purification For Sepsis Therapy
    Susan Szathmary; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The technology relies on affinity binding of bacterial components from both Gram- and Gram+ sepsis, endotoxin, peptidoglycan and bacterial DNA present in blood or plasma flowing through a cartridge filled with agarose beads modified to ..
  67. Role of penicillin binding protein 1a in GBS virulence
    Amanda Jones; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..These bifunctional enzymes catalyze both the polymerization and cross-linking of bacterial peptidoglycan. The PBP1a gene mutant was significantly attenuated in both competitive index and 50 percent lethal dose ..
  68. Oral Biofilms and the Immune System
    Kim Janda; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..of other biologically active, bacterially-derived molecules, such as bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS), peptidoglycan fragments, and bacterial DNA, into the local environment...
  69. Bacillus anthracis cell surface carbohydrates
    Russell Carlson; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..anthracis. The vegetative cell wall contains a polysaccharide that is linked to peptidoglycan and serves to anchor the crystalline surface (S-layer) protein to the cell wall by binding with the SLH domain ..
  70. GLYCOPEPTIDE ANTIBOTIC MECHANISM AND RESISTANCE
    TAD KOCH; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..inhibit bacterial cell wall biosynthesis through interference of transglycosidation and transpeptidation of a peptidoglycan. One form of resistance results from a substitution of a D-alanine for a D-lactate in the peptidoglycan...
  71. MICROBES, DENDRITIC CELL SUBSETS AND T-CELL IMMUNITY
    Bali Pulendran; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..For example, LPS from E.coli signals through the Toll-4 receptor (TLR4), while peptidoglycan from Staphylococcus aureus, and zymosan, signal through TLR2...
  72. Pilus Assembly in Gram-Positive Bacteria
    Hung Ton That; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This hypothesis is based on the following observations: i) Gram-positive microbes employ the cell wall peptidoglycan as a surface organelle for the covalent attachment of proteins, a mechanism that requires sorting signals of ..
  73. Triple action chimera: eradication of nasal S. aureus by cell wall hydrolases
    DAVID MATTHEW DONOVAN; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..b>Peptidoglycan hydrolases degrade the major structural component of bacterial cell walls...
  74. Defining PcsB: Essential Murein Biosynthesis Protein in Pathogenic Pneumococci
    SKYE BARENDT; Fiscal Year: 2009
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Project Summary: The peptidoglycan cell wall of gram-positive bacteria remains an active element of the bacterial cell, utilizing a conserved and defined set of late cell wall biosynthesis proteins ..
  75. GORDON CONFERENCE ON MICROBIAL ADHESION MECHANISMS
    Roy Curtiss; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..These included consideration of lipoteichoic acid, teichoic acids, peptidoglycan, capsular molecules, lipopolysaccharides, pili or fimbriae, flagella and an array of surface proteins...
  76. Cell Wall Biogenesis-Target for new Anti-TB drugs
    Michael McNeil; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..approach it is hypothesized that compounds that activate or deregulate the cell wall degrading arabinases and peptidoglycan hydrolyases can act more quickly than inhibition based drugs and thereby shorten tuberculosis therapy...