carbohydrates

Summary

Summary: The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Application of acetate derivatives for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry: novel approaches on carbohydrates, lipids and amino acids analysis
    Guilherme L Sassaki
    Departamento de Bioquimica e Biologia Molecular, Universidade Federal do Parana, CP 19046, Curitiba, Parana, CEP 81531 980, Brazil
    J Chromatogr A 1208:215-22. 2008
  2. pmc GlycomeDB - integration of open-access carbohydrate structure databases
    René Ranzinger
    German Cancer Research Center DKFZ, Core Facility Molecular Structural Analysis, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, Heidelberg, Germany
    BMC Bioinformatics 9:384. 2008
  3. ncbi GLYCAM06: a generalizable biomolecular force field. Carbohydrates
    Karl N Kirschner
    Complex Carbohydrate Research Center, University of Georgia, 315 Riverbend Road, Athens, Georgia 30602, USA
    J Comput Chem 29:622-55. 2008
  4. ncbi Lignin modification improves fermentable sugar yields for biofuel production
    Fang Chen
    Plant Biology Division, Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation, 2510 Sam Noble Parkway, Ardmore, Oklahoma 73401, USA
    Nat Biotechnol 25:759-61. 2007
  5. ncbi Proposal for a standard system for drawing structural diagrams of N- and O-linked carbohydrates and related compounds
    David J Harvey
    Oxford Glycobiology Institute, Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford, UK
    Proteomics 9:3796-801. 2009
  6. ncbi Including indigestible carbohydrates in the evening meal of healthy subjects improves glucose tolerance, lowers inflammatory markers, and increases satiety after a subsequent standardized breakfast
    Anne C Nilsson
    Division of Applied Nutrition and Food Chemistry, Department of Food Technology, Engineering and Nutrition, Lund University, SE 22100 Lund, Sweden
    J Nutr 138:732-9. 2008
  7. pmc Two Gr genes underlie sugar reception in Drosophila
    Anupama Dahanukar
    Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 8103, USA
    Neuron 56:503-16. 2007
  8. ncbi Frontiers in glycomics: bioinformatics and biomarkers in disease. An NIH white paper prepared from discussions by the focus groups at a workshop on the NIH campus, Bethesda MD (September 11-13, 2006)
    Nicolle H Packer
    Macquarie University, Sydney, New South Wales, NSW 2109, Australia
    Proteomics 8:8-20. 2008
  9. pmc A glycobiology review: carbohydrates, lectins and implications in cancer therapeutics
    Haike Ghazarian
    Department of Biology and Center for Cancer and Developmental Biology, California State University Northridge, 18111 Nordhoff Street, Northridge, CA 91330 8303, USA
    Acta Histochem 113:236-47. 2011
  10. ncbi Carbohydrates as future anti-adhesion drugs for infectious diseases
    Nathan Sharon
    Department of Biological Chemistry, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1760:527-37. 2006

Detail Information

Publications368 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Application of acetate derivatives for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry: novel approaches on carbohydrates, lipids and amino acids analysis
    Guilherme L Sassaki
    Departamento de Bioquimica e Biologia Molecular, Universidade Federal do Parana, CP 19046, Curitiba, Parana, CEP 81531 980, Brazil
    J Chromatogr A 1208:215-22. 2008
    ..Uronic acids gave characteristic ions at m/z 143, 156 and 173, and 19 amino acids derivatives, gave molecular ions [M]+ and daughter ions of [M-59]+ and [M-43]+ on electron impact (EI)-MS, which provide their rapid identification...
  2. pmc GlycomeDB - integration of open-access carbohydrate structure databases
    René Ranzinger
    German Cancer Research Center DKFZ, Core Facility Molecular Structural Analysis, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, Heidelberg, Germany
    BMC Bioinformatics 9:384. 2008
    Although carbohydrates are the third major class of biological macromolecules, after proteins and DNA, there is neither a comprehensive database for carbohydrate structures nor an established universal structure encoding scheme for ..
  3. ncbi GLYCAM06: a generalizable biomolecular force field. Carbohydrates
    Karl N Kirschner
    Complex Carbohydrate Research Center, University of Georgia, 315 Riverbend Road, Athens, Georgia 30602, USA
    J Comput Chem 29:622-55. 2008
    A new derivation of the GLYCAM06 force field, which removes its previous specificity for carbohydrates, and its dependency on the AMBER force field and parameters, is presented...
  4. ncbi Lignin modification improves fermentable sugar yields for biofuel production
    Fang Chen
    Plant Biology Division, Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation, 2510 Sam Noble Parkway, Ardmore, Oklahoma 73401, USA
    Nat Biotechnol 25:759-61. 2007
    ..Some transgenics yield nearly twice as much sugar from cell walls as wild-type plants. Lignin modification could bypass the need for acid pretreatment and thereby facilitate bioprocess consolidation...
  5. ncbi Proposal for a standard system for drawing structural diagrams of N- and O-linked carbohydrates and related compounds
    David J Harvey
    Oxford Glycobiology Institute, Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford, UK
    Proteomics 9:3796-801. 2009
    ..Constituent monosaccharides are depicted by shapes modified to show OAc, deoxy, etc. Linkage is indicated by the bond angle and anomericity by solid (beta) or dashed (alpha) lines...
  6. ncbi Including indigestible carbohydrates in the evening meal of healthy subjects improves glucose tolerance, lowers inflammatory markers, and increases satiety after a subsequent standardized breakfast
    Anne C Nilsson
    Division of Applied Nutrition and Food Chemistry, Department of Food Technology, Engineering and Nutrition, Lund University, SE 22100 Lund, Sweden
    J Nutr 138:732-9. 2008
    ..effect of cereal-based bread evening meals (50 g available starch), varying in GI and content of indigestible carbohydrates, on glucose tolerance and related variables after a subsequent standardized breakfast in healthy subjects (n = ..
  7. pmc Two Gr genes underlie sugar reception in Drosophila
    Anupama Dahanukar
    Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 8103, USA
    Neuron 56:503-16. 2007
    ..The simplest interpretation of our results is that Gr5a and Gr64a are each capable of functioning independently of each other within individual sugar neurons and that they are the primary receptors used in the labellum to detect sugars...
  8. ncbi Frontiers in glycomics: bioinformatics and biomarkers in disease. An NIH white paper prepared from discussions by the focus groups at a workshop on the NIH campus, Bethesda MD (September 11-13, 2006)
    Nicolle H Packer
    Macquarie University, Sydney, New South Wales, NSW 2109, Australia
    Proteomics 8:8-20. 2008
    ..Additional suggestions were solicited from workshop participants and collected using the workshop mailing list. The results are summarized in this White Paper, authored by the co-chairs of the focus groups...
  9. pmc A glycobiology review: carbohydrates, lectins and implications in cancer therapeutics
    Haike Ghazarian
    Department of Biology and Center for Cancer and Developmental Biology, California State University Northridge, 18111 Nordhoff Street, Northridge, CA 91330 8303, USA
    Acta Histochem 113:236-47. 2011
    ..These topics are among the hundreds included in the field of glycobiology and are treated here because they form the cornerstone of glycobiology or the focus of many advances in this rapidly expanding field...
  10. ncbi Carbohydrates as future anti-adhesion drugs for infectious diseases
    Nathan Sharon
    Department of Biological Chemistry, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1760:527-37. 2006
    ..it is mediated by lectins present on the surface of the infectious organism that bind to complementary carbohydrates on the surface of the host tissues. Lectin-deficient mutants often lack the ability to initiate infection...
  11. pmc Physiology of consumption of human milk oligosaccharides by infant gut-associated bifidobacteria
    Sadaki Asakuma
    National Agricultural Research Center for the Hokkaido Region, Sapporo, Hokkaido 062 8555, Japan
    J Biol Chem 286:34583-92. 2011
    ..The predominance of type 1 chains in HMOs and the preferential use of type 1 HMO by infant gut-associated bifidobacteria suggest the coevolution of the bacteria with humans...
  12. ncbi Physicochemical properties of exopolysaccharide produced by Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens ZW3 isolated from Tibet kefir
    Yanping Wang
    Tianjin Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety, Faculty of Food Engineering and Biotechnology, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, No 29, 13th street at TEAD, Tianjin 300457, PR China
    Int J Biol Macromol 43:283-8. 2008
    ..4 degrees C) and guar gum (490.11 degrees C). Compared with other commercially available hydrocolloids like xanthan gum, guar gum and locust gum ZW3 EPS showed much better emulsifying capability...
  13. pmc Chemical analysis of cellular and extracellular carbohydrates of a biofilm-forming strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14
    Charlène Coulon
    Universite Lille Nord de France, Lille, France
    PLoS ONE 5:e14220. 2010
    ..Moreover, the role of LPS in this process is unclear, and the chemical structure of the LPS O-antigen of PA14 has not yet been elucidated...
  14. ncbi Structural analysis of ConBr reveals molecular correlation between the carbohydrate recognition domain and endothelial NO synthase activation
    Eduardo Henrique Salviano Bezerra
    Departamento de Bioquimica e Biologia Molecular, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Fortaleza, CE, Brazil
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 408:566-70. 2011
    ..Our study established a correlation between the position of CRD amino acid side chains and the stimulation of NO release from endothelium...
  15. pmc Influence of carbohydrates on secondary metabolism in Fusarium avenaceum
    Jens Laurids Sørensen
    Department of Biotechnology, Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Aalborg University, Sohngaardsholmsvej 49, Aalborg DK 9000, Denmark
    Toxins (Basel) 5:1655-63. 2013
    ..Differences in the strains was observed for production of fusarin C, 2-AOD-3-ol, chlamydosporol and antibiotic Y, which suggests that carbon source plays a role in the regulation of their biosynthesis. ..
  16. ncbi Antibodies to surface epitopes of the carbohydrate larval antigen CarLA are associated with passive protection in strongylid nematode challenge infections
    G B L Harrison
    AgResearch Ltd, Hopkirk Research Institute, Grasslands Research Centre, Palmerston North, New Zealand
    Parasite Immunol 30:577-84. 2008
    ..The results provide further evidence that the larval surface carbohydrate antigen CarLA has potential as a mucosal immunogen for a strongylid nematode vaccine...
  17. ncbi Carbohydrate mediated bacterial adhesion
    Roland J Pieters
    Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Adv Exp Med Biol 715:227-40. 2011
    ..Furthermore, in some cases linking carbohydrates covalently together, to create so-called multivalent systems, can also significantly enhance the inhibitory ..
  18. ncbi Fractionation of carbohydrates in Arabidopsis root cell walls shows that three radial swelling loci are specifically involved in cellulose production
    L Peng
    Plant Cell Biology Group, Research School of Biological Sciences, Institute of Advanced Studies, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT
    Planta 211:406-14. 2000
    ..Reduced deposition of cellulose was accompanied by increased accumulation of starch...
  19. ncbi Efficacy of toxic sugar baits against adult cistern-dwelling Anopheles claviger
    Gunter C Muller
    Department of Parasitology, Kuvin Centre for the Study of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, Hebrew University, Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem, Israel
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 102:480-4. 2008
    ..Following treatment, the number of human-landing mosquitoes decreased by more than ten-fold in the experimental area, whilst in the control area there was no significant decrease...
  20. ncbi A toolbox of lectins for translating the sugar code: the galectin network in phylogenesis and tumors
    H Kaltner
    Institute of Physiological Chemistry, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ludwig Maximilians University, Munich, Germany
    Histol Histopathol 27:397-416. 2012
    ..It is under dynamic and spatially controlled regulation. Since their chemical properties allow carbohydrates to reach unsurpassed structural diversity in oligomers, they are ideal for high density information coding...
  21. ncbi Woody biomass pretreatment for cellulosic ethanol production: Technology and energy consumption evaluation
    J Y Zhu
    US Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory, Madison, WI, USA
    Bioresour Technol 101:4992-5002. 2010
    ..Other important issues, such as the effects of lignin on substrate saccharification and the effects of pretreatment on high-value lignin utilization in woody biomass pretreatment, are also discussed...
  22. pmc Neisseria meningitidis recruits factor H using protein mimicry of host carbohydrates
    Muriel C Schneider
    Centre for Molecular Microbiology and Infection, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ, UK
    Nature 458:890-3. 2009
    ..The structure also indicates the molecular basis of the host-specificity of the interaction between fH and the meningococcus, and informs attempts to develop novel therapeutics and vaccines...
  23. ncbi The silicate-mediated formose reaction: bottom-up synthesis of sugar silicates
    Joseph B Lambert
    Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208, USA
    Science 327:984-6. 2010
    ..Given the abundance of silicate minerals, these observations suggest that formose-like reactions may provide a feasible pathway for the abiotic formation of biologically important sugars, such as ribose...
  24. ncbi Cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants strongly affect the results of the basophil activation test in hymenoptera-venom allergy
    M Mertens
    Department of Dermatology, University of Munster, Von Esmarch Strasse 58, Munster, Germany
    Clin Exp Allergy 40:1333-45. 2010
    ..This phenomenon is mainly caused by specific IgE (sIgE) against cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCD). Whether or not these antibodies can induce clinical symptoms is a longstanding debate...
  25. ncbi Glycomic analysis of N-linked carbohydrate epitopes from CD24 of mouse brain
    Christina Bleckmann
    Institute of Biochemistry, University of Giessen, Friedrichstrasse 24, D 35392 Giessen, Germany
    J Proteome Res 8:567-82. 2009
    ....
  26. pmc Identification of a conserved glycan signature for microvesicles
    Bianca S Batista
    Institute for Cellular and Molecular Biology, The University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station, Austin, Texas 78712 0159, United States
    J Proteome Res 10:4624-33. 2011
    ..Although numerous proteomic studies of these particles exist, little is known about their glycosylation. Carbohydrates are involved in protein trafficking and cellular recognition...
  27. ncbi The role of carbohydrates in the induction of flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana: comparison between the wild type and a starchless mutant
    L Corbesier
    Laboratoire de Physiologie Vegetale, Universite de Liege, Belgium
    Planta 206:131-7. 1998
    In order to test whether an increased export of carbohydrates by leaves and starch mobilization are critical for floral transition in Arabidopsis thaliana, the Columbia ecotype as well as its starchless mutant pgm and starch-in-excess ..
  28. ncbi Pharmacological significance of glycosylation in therapeutic proteins
    Huijuan Li
    GlycoFi, Inc, a wholly owned subsidiary of Merck and Co, Inc 21 Lafayette St, Suite 200, Lebanon, NH 03766, United States
    Curr Opin Biotechnol 20:678-84. 2009
    ....
  29. ncbi Nectar: properties, floral aspects, and speculations on origin
    Erick De la Barrera
    Department of Organismic Biology, Ecology, and Evolution, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 1606, USA
    Trends Plant Sci 9:65-9. 2004
    ..A 'sugar excretion' hypothesis is also presented that considers the solute accumulation resulting from the relatively high transpiration rates of flowers...
  30. ncbi Immune escape through C-type lectins on dendritic cells
    Anneke Engering
    Dept of Molecular Cell Biology, VU Medical Center, Van der Boechorststraat 7, 1081 BT, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Trends Immunol 23:480-5. 2002
    ..More insight into ligand specificity, intracellular targeting and signalling will reveal the pathways by which pathogens modulate immunity through C-type lectins...
  31. pmc pdb-care (PDB carbohydrate residue check): a program to support annotation of complex carbohydrate structures in PDB files
    Thomas Lütteke
    German Cancer Research Center, Central Spectroscopic Department, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
    BMC Bioinformatics 5:69. 2004
    b>Carbohydrates are involved in a variety of fundamental biological processes and pathological situations. They therefore have a large pharmaceutical and diagnostic potential...
  32. pmc Phloem sap and leaf delta13C, carbohydrates, and amino acid concentrations in Eucalyptus globulus change systematically according to flooding and water deficit treatment
    Andrew Merchant
    School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Science University of New South Wales, Sydney NSW, Australia 2052
    J Exp Bot 61:1785-93. 2010
    ....
  33. ncbi In vitro and in vivo antiviral properties of sulfated galactomannans against yellow fever virus (BeH111 strain) and dengue 1 virus (Hawaii strain)
    Lucy Ono
    Laboratório de Biopolímeros, Departamento de Quimica, Setor de Ciências Exatas, Centro Politecnico, Universidade Federal do Parana, CxP 19081, Jardim das Americas, CEP 81531 990 Curitiba, PR, Brazil
    Antiviral Res 60:201-8. 2003
    ..For DEN-1 they were 347 and 37 mgl(-1), respectively. Sulfated galactomannans, thus demonstrate in vitro and in vivo activity against flaviviruses...
  34. pmc Bioinformatics and molecular modeling in glycobiology
    Martin Frank
    Molecular Structure Analysis Core Facility W160, Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum German Cancer Research Centre, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
    Cell Mol Life Sci 67:2749-72. 2010
    ..with the study of the structure, properties, and biological functions of the family of biomolecules called carbohydrates. Bioinformatics for glycobiology is a particularly challenging field, because carbohydrates exhibit a high ..
  35. pmc Analysis and validation of carbohydrate three-dimensional structures
    Thomas Lütteke
    Bijvoet Centre for Biomolecular Research, BOC2, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr 65:156-68. 2009
    ..of the carbohydrate molecules is indispensable for a full understanding of the molecular processes in which carbohydrates are involved, such as protein glycosylation or protein-carbohydrate interactions...
  36. ncbi Molecular recognition of saccharides by proteins. Insights on the origin of the carbohydrate-aromatic interactions
    María del Carmen Fernández-Alonso
    Centro de Investigaciones Biologicas, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Madrid, Spain
    J Am Chem Soc 127:7379-86. 2005
    ....
  37. pmc Effect of trehalose on protein structure
    Nishant Kumar Jain
    Department of Biotechnology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research NIPER, Punjab 160062, India
    Protein Sci 18:24-36. 2009
    ..These will take into account the structure of trehalose molecule and its interactions with its environment, and the explanations will focus on the role of trehalose in preventing protein denaturation...
  38. ncbi Simultaneous determination of soluble sugars and organic acids as their trimethylsilyl derivatives in apricot fruits by gas-liquid chromatography
    F Bartolozzi
    Departimento di Colture Arboree, , Italy
    J Chromatogr A 758:99-107. 1997
    ....
  39. pmc Apple sucrose transporter SUT1 and sorbitol transporter SOT6 interact with cytochrome b5 to regulate their affinity for substrate sugars
    Ren Chun Fan
    State Key Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094, China
    Plant Physiol 150:1880-901. 2009
    ..These findings suggest a novel mechanism by which the plant cells tailor sugar uptake to the surrounding sugar availability...
  40. pmc Effect of discriminative plant-sugar feeding on the survival and fecundity of Anopheles gambiae
    Hortance Manda
    International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology ICIPE, PO Box 30772, Nairobi, Kenya
    Malar J 6:113. 2007
    ..The present follow-up study determines whether there is a relationship between the mosquito's preferences and its survival and fecundity...
  41. ncbi Cell-wall carbohydrates and their modification as a resource for biofuels
    Markus Pauly
    Department of Energy Plant Research Laboratory and Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
    Plant J 54:559-68. 2008
    ..However, the diversity and abundance of wall structures present in the plant kingdom gives hope that this challenge can be met...
  42. ncbi Lectins: carbohydrate-specific reagents and biological recognition molecules
    Nathan Sharon
    Department of Biological Chemistry, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel
    J Biol Chem 282:2753-64. 2007
  43. pmc Hypoxia induces adhesion molecules on cancer cells: A missing link between Warburg effect and induction of selectin-ligand carbohydrates
    Tetsufumi Koike
    Department Molecular Pathology, Aichi Cancer Center, Nagoya 464 8681, Japan
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:8132-7. 2004
    ....
  44. pmc Mice lacking N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I activity die at mid-gestation, revealing an essential role for complex or hybrid N-linked carbohydrates
    E Ioffe
    Department of Cell Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, NY 10461
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 91:728-32. 1994
    Eukaryotic cells require N-linked carbohydrates for survival. However, the biosynthetic intermediate Man5GlcNAc2Asn, in place of mature N-linked structures, allows glycoprotein synthesis and somatic cell growth to proceed normally...
  45. pmc Carbohydrate Structure Suite (CSS): analysis of carbohydrate 3D structures derived from the PDB
    Thomas Lütteke
    Central Spectroscopic Department, German Cancer Research Centre, INF 280, D 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
    Nucleic Acids Res 33:D242-6. 2005
    ..Furthermore, tools to crosslink the PDB and carbohydrate databases and to check the integrity of carbohydrate 3D structures are included. The service is available at (www.dkfz.de/spec/css/)...
  46. ncbi Differential expression profiles of Streptococcus mutans ftf, gtf and vicR genes in the presence of dietary carbohydrates at early and late exponential growth phases
    Moshe Shemesh
    Institute of Dental Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, Hebrew University Hadassah, Jerusalem 91120, Israel
    Carbohydr Res 341:2090-7. 2006
    ..mutans in the presence of various dietary carbohydrates: sucrose, D-glucose, D-fructose, D-glucitol (D-sorbitol), D-mannitol and xylitol...
  47. ncbi Structural characterization of human erythropoietin
    P H Lai
    J Biol Chem 261:3116-21. 1986
    ..In addition, the sites of glycosylation, assignment of disulfide bonds, and the circular dichroism of the hormone analyzed for secondary structure in comparison with the prediction from the sequence are presented...
  48. pmc Carbohydrate recognition by the mannose-6-phosphate receptors
    JUNG JA P KIM
    Department of Biochemistry, Medical College of Wisconsin, 8701 Watertown Plank Road, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA
    Curr Opin Struct Biol 19:534-42. 2009
    ....
  49. ncbi An improved OPLS-AA force field for carbohydrates
    D Kony
    CABE, Department of Inorganic, Analytical and Applied Chemistry, Science II, University of Geneva, 30 quai E Ansermet, CH 1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland
    J Comput Chem 23:1416-29. 2002
    This work describes an improved version of the original OPLS-all atom (OPLS-AA) force field for carbohydrates (Damm et al., J Comp Chem 1997, 18, 1955)...
  50. ncbi Synthesis of carbohydrates in mineral-guided prebiotic cycles
    Hyo Joong Kim
    Foundation for Applied Molecular Evolution, Westheimer Institute for Science and Technology, P O Box 13174, Gainesville, Florida 32604, USA
    J Am Chem Soc 133:9457-68. 2011
    ..model for the origin of life is an inability to generate reasonable "hands off" scenarios for the formation of carbohydrates under conditions where they might have survived for reasonable times once formed...
  51. ncbi Chemiluminescent detection of carbohydrates in the tumoral breast diseases
    Vanessa Passos Brustein
    Laboratorio de Imunopatologia Keizo Asami, LIKA UFPE, Recife, Brazil
    Appl Biochem Biotechnol 166:268-75. 2012
    ..Here, a lectin chemiluminescence is proposed as new histochemistry method to identify carbohydrates in mammary tumoral tissues...
  52. ncbi Defined presentation of carbohydrates on a duplex DNA scaffold
    Mark K Schlegel
    Department of Biomolecular Systems, Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, Am Muhlenberg 1, 14476 Potsdam, Germany
    Chembiochem 12:2791-800. 2011
    A new method for the spatially defined alignment of carbohydrates on a duplex DNA scaffold is presented...
  53. ncbi The hungry caterpillar: an analysis of how carbohydrates stimulate feeding in Manduca sexta
    John I Glendinning
    Department of Biological Sciences, Barnard College, Columbia University, 3009 Broadway, New York, NY 10027, USA
    J Exp Biol 210:3054-67. 2007
    In most insects, the taste of carbohydrates stimulates an immediate appetitive response. The caterpillar of Manduca sexta is an exception to this general pattern...
  54. pmc Conjugation of 2-(1'-hexyloxyethyl)-2-devinylpyropheophorbide-a (HPPH) to carbohydrates changes its subcellular distribution and enhances photodynamic activity in vivo
    Xiang Zheng
    PDT Center, Department of Cell Stress Biology, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York 14263, USA
    J Med Chem 52:4306-18. 2009
    ..Further optimization of the carbohydrate conjugates at variable treatment parameters in vivo is currently underway...
  55. ncbi Preparation of starch and soluble sugars of plant material for the analysis of carbon isotope composition: a comparison of methods
    Andreas Richter
    Department of Chemical Ecology and Ecosystem Research, University of Vienna, Althanstrasse 14, A 1090 Wien, Austria
    Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 23:2476-88. 2009
    ..There has been recent renewed interest in the isotope composition of carbohydrates, mainly for use in CO(2) flux partitioning studies at the ecosystem level...
  56. ncbi An overview of liposome lyophilization and its future potential
    Chengjun Chen
    College of Pharmacy, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Wenhua Road, No 103, Shenyang, 110016, PR China
    J Control Release 142:299-311. 2010
    ..Finally, the major areas and future potential of research on lyophilized liposomes are highlighted...
  57. pmc Infection, inflammation and host carbohydrates: a Glyco-Evasion Hypothesis
    Lori Sc Kreisman
    Department of Pathology, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
    Glycobiology 22:1019-30. 2012
    Microbial immune evasion can be achieved through the expression, or mimicry, of host-like carbohydrates on the microbial cell surface to hide from detection...
  58. ncbi Elimination of oxidative degradation during the per-O-methylation of carbohydrates
    Ionel Ciucanu
    Mass Spectrometry Resource, School of Medicine, Boston University, 715 Albany Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02118, USA
    J Am Chem Soc 125:16213-9. 2003
    The possible oxidative degradation mechanism occurring during the per-O-methylation of carbohydrates in dimethyl sulfoxide with methyl iodide in the presence of base is described...
  59. ncbi Codex dietary fibre definition - Justification for inclusion of carbohydrates from 3 to 9 degrees of polymerisation
    Elizabete Wenzel de Menezes
    Depto Alimentos e Nutrição Experimental, Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas, Universidade de Sao Paulo, 05508 000 Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil
    Food Chem 140:581-5. 2013
    ..about the DF definition, adopted by the commission of Codex Alimentarius, refers to the inclusion of carbohydrates of 3-9 degrees of polymerisation (DP), decision which may be made individually by the authorities of each ..
  60. ncbi Carbohydrate-protein recognition probed by density functional theory and ab initio calculations including dispersive interactions
    Rajesh K Raju
    School of Chemistry, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, UKM13 9PL
    Phys Chem Chem Phys 10:6500-8. 2008
    ..We find that the interactions involving 3-methylindole are somewhat greater than those for toluene and p-hydroxytoluene...
  61. ncbi Sugars as signaling molecules
    J Sheen
    Department of Molecular Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Curr Opin Plant Biol 2:410-8. 1999
    ..The emerging scenario points to the existence of a complex signaling network that interconnects transduction pathways from sugars and other hormone and nutrient signals...
  62. ncbi Microalgal carbohydrates: an overview of the factors influencing carbohydrates production, and of main bioconversion technologies for production of biofuels
    Giorgos Markou
    Department of Natural Resources Management and Agricultural Engineering, Agricultural University of Athens, Iera Odos 75, 11855, Athens, Greece
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 96:631-45. 2012
    ..Moreover, in the majority of biomass conversion technologies, carbohydrates are the main substrate for production of biofuels...
  63. pmc Molecular simulations of carbohydrates and protein-carbohydrate interactions: motivation, issues and prospects
    Elisa Fadda
    School of Chemistry, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland
    Drug Discov Today 15:596-609. 2010
    ..Here, we summarize and analyze the issues associated with modeling carbohydrates, with a detailed discussion of four of the most recently developed carbohydrate force fields, reviewed in ..
  64. ncbi Dietary fructose, carbohydrates, glycemic indices and pancreatic cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies
    D Aune
    Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Imperial College, London, UK
    Ann Oncol 23:2536-46. 2012
    Dietary carbohydrates, glycemic load and glycemic index have been hypothesized to influence pancreatic cancer risk, but epidemiological studies have been inconsistent...
  65. ncbi Composition of N-linked carbohydrates from ovalbumin and co-purified glycoproteins
    D J Harvey
    Department of Biochemistry, Oxford Glycobiology Institute, United Kingdom
    J Am Soc Mass Spectrom 11:564-71. 2000
    ..The other glycoproteins contained mainly larger, complex glycans with up to five antennae, many of which had earlier been associated with ovalbumin...
  66. ncbi A new GROMOS force field for hexopyranose-based carbohydrates
    Roberto D Lins
    Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne EPFL, Laboratory of Computational Chemistry and Biochemistry, Institute of Chemical Sciences and Engineering, CH 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland
    J Comput Chem 26:1400-12. 2005
    ..A new parameter set (referred to as 45A4) is developed for the explicit-solvent simulation of hexopyranose-based carbohydrates. This set is compatible with the most recent version of the GROMOS force field for proteins, nucleic acids, ..
  67. ncbi Hexameric supramolecular scaffold orients carbohydrates to sense bacteria
    Dan Grünstein
    Department of Biomolecular Systems, Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, Potsdam, Germany
    J Am Chem Soc 133:13957-66. 2011
    b>Carbohydrates are integral to biological signaling networks and cell-cell interactions, yet the detection of discrete carbohydrate-lectin interactions remains difficult since binding is generally weak...
  68. ncbi Pollen carbohydrates and water content during development, presentation, and dispersal: a short review
    E Pacini
    Department of Environmental Sciences, Siena University, Siena, Italy
    Protoplasma 228:73-7. 2006
    ..Partially hydrated pollen is commonly devoid of mechanisms to conserve viability in time but has the advantage of quickly emitting pollen tubes on reaching the stigma...
  69. ncbi Versatile derivatives of carbohydrate-binding modules for imaging of complex carbohydrates approaching the molecular level of resolution
    Shi You Ding
    National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO 80401, USA
    Biotechniques 41:435-6, 438, 440 passim. 2006
    ..CBMs) offers a versatile approach for mapping the chemistry and structure of surfaces that contain complex carbohydrates. We have employed the distinct recognition properties of a double His-tagged recombinant CBM tagged with ..
  70. ncbi Enthalpic nature of the CH/pi interaction involved in the recognition of carbohydrates by aromatic compounds, confirmed by a novel interplay of NMR, calorimetry, and theoretical calculations
    Karla Ramírez-Gualito
    Instituto de Quimica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apdo Postal 70213, 04510 Coyoacan, Circuito Exterior, Mexico D F, Mexico
    J Am Chem Soc 131:18129-38. 2009
    ..In order to determine if these complexes are formed, the interaction energy between benzene and the different carbohydrates was determined, using Calvet microcalorimetry, as the enthalpy of solvation. These enthalpy values were -89...
  71. ncbi Analysis of carbohydrates by anion exchange chromatography and mass spectrometry
    Cees Bruggink
    Dionex B V, Lange Bunder 5, 4854 MB Bavel, The Netherlands
    J Chromatogr A 1085:104-9. 2005
    A versatile liquid chromatographic platform has been developed for analysing underivatized carbohydrates using high performance anion exchange chromatography (HPAEC) followed by an inert PEEK splitter that splits the effluent to the ..
  72. ncbi Ecto-phosphatase activity on the external surface of Rhodnius prolixus salivary glands: modulation by carbohydrates and Trypanosoma rangeli
    Suzete A O Gomes
    Setor de Morfologia, Ultraetrutura e Bioquímica de Artrópodes e Parasitos, Laboratório de Transmissores de Leishmaniose Instituto Oswaldo Cruz FIOCRUZ, Av Brasil 4365, Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, 22045900, Brazil
    Acta Trop 106:137-42. 2008
    ..This ecto-phosphatase activity was inhibited by carbohydrates as d-galactose and d-mannose. Living short epimastigotes of T...
  73. ncbi Effects of the pelleting conditions on chemical composition and sugar yield of corn stover, big bluestem, wheat straw, and sorghum stalk pellets
    Karnnalin Theerarattananoon
    Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA
    Bioprocess Biosyst Eng 35:615-23. 2012
    ..Wheat straw pellets had the highest sugar yield (92.5-94.1%) and big bluestem pellets had the lowest sugar yield (83.6-91.1%). Optimum pelleting condition is 6.5 mm screen size and 44.5 mm die thickness...
  74. ncbi Update on the nomenclature of carbohydrates and their dental effects
    P J Moynihan
    Dental School, Faculty of Medicine, University of Newcastle, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK
    J Dent 26:209-18. 1998
    This review aims to clarify the nomenclature of carbohydrates, including novel manufactured carbohydrates which are becoming increasingly popular within the food industry, and to summarise what is known about the effects of different ..
  75. ncbi Efficient fractionation of spruce by SO(2)-ethanol-water treatment: closed mass balances for carbohydrates and sulfur
    Mikhail Iakovlev
    Department of Forest Products Technology, Aalto University School of Chemical Technology, 00076 Aalto, Finland
    ChemSusChem 5:1625-37. 2012
    ..Hemicelluloses are hydrolysed, producing up to 50 % monomeric sugars, whereas dehydration and oxidation of carbohydrates are insignificant...
  76. pmc Hydrophilic aromatic residue and in silico structure for carbohydrate binding module
    Wei Yao Chou
    Department of Computer Science, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan, Republic of China
    PLoS ONE 6:e24814. 2011
    ..Finally, the pre-simulated CBM structures have been deposited in the Database of Simulated CBM structures (DS-CBMs). The web service is publicly available at //dscbm.life.nthu.edu.tw/ and //dscbm.cs.ntou.edu.tw/...
  77. ncbi Analysis of the steps involved in Dengue virus entry into host cells
    S L Hung
    Institute of Oral Biology, National Yang Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan
    Virology 257:156-67. 1999
    ..Moreover, studies with lectins indicated that carbohydrates, especially alpha-mannose residues, present on the virion glycoproteins may contribute to binding and ..
  78. pmc Glycan Reader: automated sugar identification and simulation preparation for carbohydrates and glycoproteins
    Sunhwan Jo
    Department of Molecular Biosciences and Center for Bioinformatics, The University of Kansas, 2030 Becker Drive, Lawrence, Kansas, USA
    J Comput Chem 32:3135-41. 2011
    ..files containing glycans through (i) detection of carbohydrate molecules, (ii) automatic annotation of carbohydrates based on their three-dimensional structures, (iii) recognition of glycosidic linkages between carbohydrates as ..
  79. pmc Novel fold and carbohydrate specificity of the potent anti-HIV cyanobacterial lectin from Oscillatoria agardhii
    Leonardus M I Koharudin
    Department of Structural Biology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260, USA
    J Biol Chem 286:1588-97. 2011
    ..Altogether, our structural results explain the antiviral activity OAA and add to the growing body of knowledge about antiviral lectins...
  80. pmc Carbohydrate antigens in nipple aspirate fluid predict the presence of atypia and cancer in women requiring diagnostic breast biopsy
    Susan L Deutscher
    University of Missouri, Department of Biochemistry, One Hospital Drive, Columbia, MO 65212, USA
    BMC Cancer 10:519. 2010
    ....
  81. ncbi Seasonal changes in starch and sugar content of poplar (Populus deltoides x nigra cv. Dorskamp) and the impact of stem girdling on carbohydrate allocation to roots
    Nicole Regier
    Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL, Zürcherstrasse 111, 8903 Birmensdorf, Switzerland
    Tree Physiol 30:979-87. 2010
    ..In many tree species, these reserve functions are mainly covered by starch, which is degraded to soluble carbohydrates during the dormant season for maintenance respiration and in spring during bud flush...
  82. ncbi Domain-swapped structure of the potent antiviral protein griffithsin and its mode of carbohydrate binding
    Natasza E Ziółkowska
    Protein Structure Section, Macromolecular Crystallography Laboratory, National Cancer Institute, NCI Frederick, Frederick, MD 21702, USA
    Structure 14:1127-35. 2006
    ..Antiviral potency of griffithsin is likely due to the presence of multiple, similar sugar binding sites that provide redundant attachment points for complex carbohydrate molecules present on viral envelopes...
  83. ncbi Glyco-biosensors: recent advances and applications for the detection of free and bound carbohydrates
    Stephen Cunningham
    Glycoscience Group, National Centre for Biomedical Engineering Science, National University of Ireland, Galway
    Analyst 135:2471-80. 2010
    ..and development of nucleic acid and protein biosensors, the development of 'glyco-biosensors' for detecting carbohydrates and conjugates of carbohydrates (glycoconjugates) is at a relatively nascent stage...
  84. ncbi Carbohydrate reserves as a competing sink: evidence from tapping rubber trees
    U Silpi
    DORAS Center, Kasetsart University, 10900 Bangkok, Thailand
    Tree Physiol 27:881-9. 2007
    ..In untapped control trees, starch and sucrose were the main carbohydrate compounds. Total nonstructural carbohydrates (TNC), particularly starch, were depleted following bud break and re-foliation, resulting in an acropetal ..
  85. pmc Portrait of an enzyme, a complete structural analysis of a multimodular {beta}-N-acetylglucosaminidase from Clostridium perfringens
    Elizabeth Ficko-Blean
    Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia V8W 3P6, Canada
    J Biol Chem 284:9876-84. 2009
    ....
  86. ncbi Carbon balance of conifer seedlings at timberline: relative changes in uptake, storage, and utilization
    S Bansal
    Department of Biology, Idaho State University, Pocatello, ID, USA
    Oecologia 158:217-27. 2008
    ..Concentrations of carbon intermediates (e.g., nonstructural carbohydrates, NSC) have been used to support the sink-limitation hypothesis, with the assumption that NSC reflects the ..
  87. ncbi Water-soluble carbohydrates and fructan structure patterns from Agave and Dasylirion species
    N Alejandra Mancilla-Margalli
    Departamento de Biotecnologia y Bioquimica, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Campus Guanajuato, Apartado Postal 629, Irapuato, Gto, 36500 Mexico
    J Agric Food Chem 54:7832-9. 2006
    Fructans, storage carbohydrates with beta-fructofuranosyl linkages, are found in approximately 15% of higher plants...
  88. ncbi Determination of subcellular concentrations of soluble carbohydrates in rose petals during opening by nonaqueous fractionation method combined with infiltration-centrifugation method
    Kunio Yamada
    National Institute of Floricultural Science, Fujimoto, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305 8519, Japan
    Planta 230:1115-27. 2009
    Petal growth associated with flower opening depends on cell expansion. To understand the role of soluble carbohydrates in petal cell expansion during flower opening, changes in soluble carbohydrate concentrations in vacuole, cytoplasm ..
  89. pmc Protein flexibility and conformational entropy in ligand design targeting the carbohydrate recognition domain of galectin-3
    Carl Diehl
    Center for Molecular Protein Science, Biophysical Chemistry, Lund University, P O Box 124, SE 22100 Lund, Sweden
    J Am Chem Soc 132:14577-89. 2010
    ....
  90. pmc Suppression of the vacuolar invertase gene prevents cold-induced sweetening in potato
    Pudota B Bhaskar
    Department of Horticulture, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA
    Plant Physiol 154:939-48. 2010
    ..Thus, both processing quality and acrylamide problems in potato can be controlled effectively by suppression of the VInv gene through biotechnology or targeted breeding...
  91. ncbi Effect of a carbohydrate mouthwash on running time-trial performance
    Martin Whitham
    Sport, Health and Exercise Sciences, University of Wales, Bangor, UK
    J Sports Sci 25:1385-92. 2007
    ..Blood lactate and glucose increased as a result of the exercise protocol, with no between-trial differences. In conclusion, there was no positive effect of a carbohydrate mouthwash on running performance of approximately 1 h duration...
  92. ncbi Facile preparation of carbohydrate microarrays by site-specific, covalent immobilization of unmodified carbohydrates on hydrazide-coated glass slides
    Myung ryul Lee
    Department of Chemistry, Yonsei University, Seoul 120 749, Korea
    Org Lett 7:4269-72. 2005
    ..Protein and cell-binding experiments show that the carbohydrate microarrays prepared by this method are applicable for the rapid analysis of protein-carbohydrate interactions and fast detection of pathogens...
  93. ncbi Differentiated response to sugars among labellar chemosensilla in Drosophila
    Makoto Hiroi
    Department of Biology, Graduate School of Sciences, Kyushu University, Ropponmatsu, Fukuoka, Japan
    Zoolog Sci 19:1009-18. 2002
    ..None of the spatial expression patterns of the six Gr genes corresponded to the sugar sensitivity differences we observed...
  94. ncbi Intervention with bacterial adhesion by multivalent carbohydrates
    Roland J Pieters
    Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Utrecht University, NL 3508 TB Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Med Res Rev 27:796-816. 2007
    ..Other new developments aimed at affecting bacterial adhesion and the use of the adhesins for bacterial detection are also discussed...
  95. ncbi Seasonal variations in sugar contents and microbial community in a ryegrass soil
    Patricia M Medeiros
    Environmental Sciences Graduate Program, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA
    Chemosphere 65:832-9. 2006
    ....
  96. ncbi Immune-modulatory effects and potential working mechanisms of orally applied nondigestible carbohydrates
    A P Vos
    Department of Biomedical Research, Numico Research, Wageningen, The Netherlands
    Crit Rev Immunol 27:97-140. 2007
    Orally applied nondigestible carbohydrates (NDC) have been associated with immune-modulating effects and other health benefits...
  97. pmc Involvement of water in carbohydrate-protein binding: concanavalin A revisited
    Renuka Kadirvelraj
    Complex Carbohydrate Research Center, University of Georgia, 315 Riverbend Road, Athens, Georgia 30602, USA
    J Am Chem Soc 130:16933-42. 2008
    ....
  98. pmc Nectar chemistry is tailored for both attraction of mutualists and protection from exploiters
    Marcia González-Teuber
    Department of General Botany Plant Ecology, University of Duisburg Essen, Essen, Germany
    Plant Signal Behav 4:809-13. 2009
    ..b>Carbohydrates and amino acids usually function in the attraction of mutualists and appear adapted to the physiological needs ..
  99. ncbi Taenia crassiceps carbohydrates stimulate IL-6 expression in naïve murine macrophages via Toll-like receptors (TLRs)
    Senarath Dissanayake
    Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, UAE University, P O Box 17666, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates
    Mol Immunol 41:391-8. 2004
    ..In S. mansoni, egg glycoprotein carbohydrates are said to be responsible for this immunomodulatory activity...
  100. pmc T cell recognition of carbohydrates on type II collagen
    E Michaelsson
    Department of Medical Inflammation Research, Lund University, Sweden
    J Exp Med 180:745-9. 1994
    ..it has not yet been shown that T cell recognition of such proteins involves recognition of the bound carbohydrates. Type II collagen (CII), the major protein constituent of joint cartilage, is posttranslationally modified by ..
  101. ncbi Identification of plant and animal glues in museum objects by GC-MS, after catalytic hydrolysis of the proteins by the use of a cation exchanger, with simultaneous separation from the carbohydrates
    U Schneider
    Institute for Analytical Chemistry, University of Vienna, Austria
    Fresenius J Anal Chem 371:81-7. 2001
    A method is described which enables the group-separation of proteinaceous binding media from vegetable glues (carbohydrates), and simultaneous hydrolysis of the proteins in mixtures of both...

Research Grants70

  1. Ang II and Overnutrition and Insulin resistance in Cardiovascular Tissue
    JAMES RUSSELL SOWERS; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Over-nutrition (especially that characterized by excess intake of fat and carbohydrates) is a major factor in the increased prevalence of hypertension and diabetes...
  2. Impact of the P479L Variant in CPT1A on Infant Mortality in Alaska
    David M Koeller; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..a critical regulatory role, responding to physiologic signals to exert control over the relative usage of carbohydrates and fats for energy production...
  3. T cell regulation by N-glycosylation
    Michael Demetriou; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..However, virtually all cell surface and secreted proteins in metazoans are modified by the addition of complex carbohydrates in the ER/Golgi secretory pathway...
  4. BIOSYNTHESIS OF TRACHEAL MUCOUS GLYCOPROTEINS
    Pi Wan Cheng; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The functions of mucins reside primarily in the carbohydrates, which constitute 70-90% of airway mucins by weight...
  5. Clinical , Mechanical and Chemical Evaluation of Amalgam and ART Restorations
    Lilliam Marie Pinzon; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Dental caries occurs when bacterial dental plaque combines with consumed, fermentable carbohydrates. This combination produces acids that penetrate and dissolves the tooth surfaces...
  6. Global regulatory interactions in bacterial pathogenesis
    BRIAN AKERLEY; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The outermost structure of LOS is composed of a variable set of carbohydrates and other modifications collectively termed the outer core. LOS structures are essential for H...
  7. Thyroid Hormone Action
    THOMAS STERLING SCANLAN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In addition, acute, high-dose T1AM induces a profound fueling shift away from carbohydrates and toward fat burning in Siberian hamsters, a hibernating rodent, as well as mice...
  8. Interactions of the RAAS and a Western Diet on Insulin Metabolic Actions
    JAMES RUSSELL SOWERS; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..A western diet (WD), especially characterized by excess intake of high fat, high sucrose and carbohydrates, is a major factor in the increased prevalence of hypertension and diabetes...
  9. MEMBRANES OF THE DENTAL PATHOGEN STREPTOCOCCUS MUTANS
    L Jeannine Brady; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..A major virulence factor is demineralization of teeth by generation of lactic acid from dietary carbohydrates and bacterial tolerance of the acid products...
  10. Chemical Biology Studies of 3-Iodothyronamine and Related Thyroid Hormone Metabol
    THOMAS STERLING SCANLAN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In addition, T1AM induces a profound fueling shift away from carbohydrates and toward fat burning in Siberian hamsters, a hibernating rodent, as well as mice...
  11. Modulation of host immune defense by Pneumocystis beta-glucans
    EVA MARIA CARMONA PORQUERA; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Beta-glucans (BG) are carbohydrates found in the cell wall of fungi (including Pneumocystis) which modulate both the innate and adaptive immune ..
  12. Structural biology of enzymes in fatty acid metabolism
    Liang Tong; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) play crucial roles in the metabolism of fatty acids and/or carbohydrates, as well as other important cellular processes...
  13. Glycosaminoglycans and Cell Traffic in the Lymphatic Microenvironment
    Mark M Fuster; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..This proposal examines the genetic importance of glycosaminoglycans, an important class of complex carbohydrates that includes heparan sulfate (HS) and chondroitin sulfate (CS), in mediating chemokine- dependent cell ..
  14. INNATE IMMUNE RESPONSE TO MICROBIAL INFECTION
    William M Nauseef; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..expert analysis of composition, posttranslational modification, or structure of microbial or host proteins, carbohydrates, or lipids...
  15. GENETIC REGULATION OF ALCOHOL METABOLISM IN YEAST
    Elton T Young; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..them to utilize a variety of secondary carbon sources, ranging from ethanol and glycerol to complex stored carbohydrates and lipids...
  16. X-ray Studies of Sugar-Modifying Enzymes
    Hazel Holden; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Carbohydrates constitute ~50% of the Earth's biomass where they major play roles in energy storage, signaling, molecular recognition, and cell structure...
  17. Synergistic Roles of Adiponectin & PPARgamma in Beta-Cell Survival/Proliferation
    William L Holland; Fiscal Year: 2010
    Pancreatic beta cells secrete insulin, a peptide hormone that promotes the uptake and storage of carbohydrates and other nutrients in skeletal muscle while simultaneously repressing glucose efflux from the liver...
  18. Carbohydrate-based Antiinfective Agents
    Chi Huey Wong; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..e. complex carbohydrates that end with a sialic acid)...
  19. Acquisition of a MALDI-TOF/TOF MS for Glycomic and Lipidomic Research
    Larry S Schlesinger; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The team of investigators in this proposal is interested in the examination of lipids, glycans, and carbohydrates related to infectious and metabolic diseases...
  20. Carbohydrate Regulation of Hepatic Gene Expression
    Kosaku Uyeda; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The efficient conversion of excess carbohydrates to fat for long-term storage, which until modern times it would appear was an evolutionary advantage in ..
  21. MECHANISM AND CONTROL OF UREA BIOSYNTHESIS
    Frank M Raushel; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..The reactions catalyzed by members of the amidotransferase superfamily are critical for the biosynthesis of carbohydrates, nucleic acids, amino acids and essential coenzymes and thus these enzymes are attractive targets for ..
  22. Galectin-3 in regulation of allergic skin inflammation
    Fu Tong Liu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Galectin-3 is a member of a family of proteins that bind carbohydrates, called lectins...
  23. Epigenomic regulation of metabolism in muscle by circadian clock and environment
    Zheng Sun; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..candidate): The current research is to study how epigenomic modifier histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) regulates carbohydrates metabolism and insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle in response to either the internal circadian clock or ..
  24. Impact of Cardiovascular and Weight Loss diets on Uric Acid and Gout Risk
    Hyon K Choi; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..gout offers limited efficacy, palatability, and sustainability, and promotes increased consumption of refined carbohydrates and saturated fat that can actually worsen gout's CV-metabolic comorbidities by leading to insulin-..
  25. Transferrin Conjugates for Oral Protein Drug Delivery
    Wei Chiang Shen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Thus, part of our 1st specific aim is to explore and identify the modifications, both on carbohydrates or peptide bonds, of Tf during transepithelial transport in the intestine in order to improve bioavailability ..
  26. Using Ketogenic Diets to Enhance Radio-Chemo-Therapy Response: A Phase I Trial
    DOUGLAS ROBERT SPITZ; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Ketogenic diets contain a high proportion of fat relative to protein and carbohydrates and result in elevated blood ketone levels and a lower glycemic index which force cells to rely more heavily ..
  27. Recombinant Antibodies from the Sea Lamprey
    ZEEV contact PANCER; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Clone VLRs that specifically bind diverse ligands representing the antigenic world, including proteins, carbohydrates and whole bacteria...
  28. Gut mucosal mast cells are activated by fat absorption: physiology and mechanism
    Patrick Tso; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This action is lipid specific and is not shared by proteins or carbohydrates. We further hypothesize that acute and chronic consumption of fat, the type of fat, influence its ability to ..
  29. Substituting Brown Rice for White Rice: Effect on Diabetes Risk Factors in India
    Mohan Viswanathan; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..These transitions are accompanied by a shift in dietary consumption towards more highly refined carbohydrates, fats, and animal products...
  30. Investigating the Mechanisms Regulating RORgamma Activity
    LAURA ANN SOLT; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Metabolic diseases, associated with abnormal processing of proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids, are the cause of significant morbidity and mortality...
  31. Novel Model Systems Link Floridean Starch Metabolism to Lafora Disease
    Matthew S Gentry; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..I propose that laforin is involved in degrading insoluble carbohydrates, either to utilize it as an energy source for invertebrates or to protect cellular integrity in mammals, and ..
  32. A novel vaccine to prevent HCV infection and hence liver cancer
    Ellen S Vitetta; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..that the peptoid platform overcomes many of the problems associated with other mimetics such as peptides, carbohydrates and anti- idiotypic antibodies, and that it holds great promise as a vaccine platform for HCV and other ..
  33. Effects of Macronutrients on Regulation of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Human
    Guenther Boden; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The specific aims of this proposal are to test the hypotheses 1) that the 3 macronutrients, carbohydrates, lipid and amino acids can produce ER stress in human sc adipose tissue, 2) that the macronutrient induced ER ..
  34. Role of the Spx Regulator in Streptococcus mutans
    JOSE A LEMOS; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..adhere and form biofilms on tooth surfaces, to produce large quantities of organic acids from a wide range of carbohydrates, and to tolerate environmental stresses, particularly low pH. Because stress tolerance is intertwined with S...
  35. INFECTIOUS DISEASE AND BASIC MICROBIOLOGICAL MECHANISMS
    Marcia B Goldberg; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..and nosocomial infections;(6) cell biology of eosinophils and basophils;(7) biochemistry of proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids;(8) molecular biology and genetics;and (9) biodefense and emerging infectious diseases...
  36. MALDI-TOF/TOF MS TO SUPPORT BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH
    Catherine E Costello; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..assist in the structural determinations of post-translationally modified proteins and structure elucidation of carbohydrates and glycolipids, and will enable imaging of 2-D samples, to support the human health-related projects ..
  37. Shifts in the Gastrointestinal Metabolome During Clostridium difficile Infection
    CASEY THERIOT; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Following antibiotic administration, we detected increases in primary bile acids, carbohydrates, and amino acids and decreased free fatty acids, secondary bile acids and dipeptides;reflecting the diminished ..
  38. Do Genotype Patterns Predict Weight Loss Success for Low Carb vs. Low Fat Diets?
    Christopher D Gardner; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Based on prior genetic studies evaluating the body's physiological responses to dietary carbohydrates or fats, we identified multi-locus genotype patterns with SNPs from three genes (FABP2, PPARG, and ADRB2): a ..
  39. Susceptibility and Protective Immunity to Noroviruses
    Ralph S Baric; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..an icosohedral shell, contains major antigenic determinants and interacts with histoblood group antigen (HBGA) carbohydrates, putative receptors for entry...
  40. Synthetic saccharides to study immunological properties of Streptococcus pneumoni
    Alexei V Demchenko; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The long-term goal of the PI's research is to make synthetic complex carbohydrates and glycoconjugates more accessible to general chemical, biochemical, and industrial audiences to keep pace ..
  41. Biomimetic scaffolds for targeted peripheral nerve regeneration
    DAVID SHREIBER; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..We have developed peptide mimics of two carbohydrates carried by neural cell adhesion molecules that are important in targeted innervation during development and ..
  42. Metabolic Engineering of Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells for Production of Heparin
    Susan T Sharfstein; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..cells for production of recombinant proteins, there are no reports of CHO cells used to produce therapeutic carbohydrates. Hence, the intellectual merit of the proposed work is to demonstrate that the biosynthetic pathway for ..
  43. A MOUSE MODEL FOR HUMAN INHERITED DISEASES
    Philip A Wood; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..4) Investigate the role of genetic background and dietary macronutrient (fat, carbohydrates) influences on development of acute disease in homozygous LCAD deficient mice...
  44. Multiplex Fluorescent Zdyes for Differential Glycomic Detection
    EDWARD DRATZ; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..arylboronic acids to form covalent boronate esters with 1,2-cis diols or 1,3-diols, which are present on all carbohydrates. The ortho hydroxymethyl substituent enhances the binding constants with glycopyranoses about one hundred fold...
  45. Mechanisms of Dietary Lipid Induced Insulin Resistance
    Peter D Reaven; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Aim 2 will determine in a cross-over study the effects of dietary composition (monounsaturated fats vs. carbohydrates) on pathways of dietary induction of insulin resistance...
  46. ENHANCING CARBOHYDRATE QUALITY IN DIABETES TYPE - 1
    Lori Laffel; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..However, a growing body of evidence indicates that carbohydrates with a lower glycemic index may reduce postprandial hyperglycemia and improve overall glycemic control...
  47. A Pilot Study of the DASH Diet in Not-Well-Controlled Adult Asthma
    Jun Ma; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..oriented" diet, have resulted in a chronic metabolic surplus and a relative reduction in the intake of complex carbohydrates and micronutrients...
  48. Making a quantum leap in plaque research with modern sciences
    Wenyuan Shi; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These methods are based on the knowledge that oral plaque bacteria ferment dietary carbohydrates to produce pH-reducing organic acids...
  49. Extracellular Sulfatases As Novel Biomarkers For Early Detection of Cancer
    Joanna Phillips; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..will promote collaborations and stimulate Trans-Alliance projects aimed at identifying how changes in cellular carbohydrates promote cancer progression and how to use this information to identify biomarkers for the early cancer ..
  50. 11th International Symposium on the Maillard Reaction
    John W Baynes; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The Maillard Reaction (MR) encompasses a broad range of chemistry that occurs by reaction of carbohydrates and lipids with proteins during the processing and cooking of foods...
  51. Human Autoimmunity and Genetic Defects in N-Glycosylation
    Michael Demetriou; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..However, virtually all cell surface and secreted proteins in metazoans are modified by the addition of complex carbohydrates in the ER/Golgi secretory pathway...
  52. Control of Mucin Glycan Branching in Membrane-bound and Secreted Mucins
    Pi Wan Cheng; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..proposed could advance our fundamental understanding of the key factors that control the synthesis of mucin carbohydrates, the main determinants of mucin functions...
  53. IMMUNOBIOLOGY OF SCHISTOSOME-MOLLUSC INTERACTIONS
    Timothy P Yoshino; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..gained over the last grant period strengthens a critical, but complex, nexus between larval- expressed carbohydrates (CHOs) and hemocyte immune function...
  54. MOLECULAR STUDIES OF RETINAL DEGENERATION IN DROSOPHILA
    Nansi J Colley; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..other constituents of phototransduction, and (2) the family of mannosidases and their key roles in trimming carbohydrates in the ER and Golgi during rhodopsin biosynthesis...
  55. Bacterial fermentation in skin microbiome as probiotics (Bfismp) against S. aureu
    Chun Ming Huang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..found in the deep-seated skin abscesses where is an anaerobic microenvironment, allowing bacteria to ferment carbohydrates to short-chain fatty acids (SCFA)...
  56. Effects of amino acids on regional lipid metabolism
    Elisabet Borsheim; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..However, it is difficult to separate the independent effects of absence of carbohydrates vs. elevated protein intake in the diet vs. changes in body weight...
  57. Effects of saliva on herpes simplex virus infection of oralcells
    CLAUDE F KRUMMENACHER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Novel preliminary data showing that jacalin depletes saliva of its activity suggest a role for carbohydrates on glycoproteins, mucins and/or IgA...
  58. Modeling Immune Desensitization in Renal Transplantation
    Martin S Zand; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..DSA are directed at MHC antigens (alloantibody), tissue antigens, or ABO blood group carbohydrates. These antibodies are thought to arise from germinal center (GC) and marginal zone (MZ) B cells, respectively...
  59. Immunotherapeutic Potential of Modified Lipooligosaccharides and Lipid A's
    Robert K Ernst; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..backgrounds with specificities for the removal or addition of fatty acid chain, phosphates moieties, and carbohydrates to the lipid A backbone, This process allow for the safe, cost effective, and efficient design of molecules ..
  60. Patient-Reported Oral Health Outcomes Measurement Information System
    Honghu Liu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..teeth or have just gotten permanent dentition, but are exposed to drinks and foods that are high in sugar and carbohydrates which are the primary causes of dental problems with long-term impacts throughout their life course...
  61. Regulation of REV-ERBalpha and REV-ERBbeta function of HEME
    Thomas P Burris; Fiscal Year: 2012
    Metabolic diseases associated with aberrant metabolism of carbohydrates and lipids are the cause of significant morbidity and mortality in older people in Western Society...
  62. Massachusetts Center for Birth Defects Research and Prevention
    Allen A Mitchell; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..patterns have changed over the past decades, with many persons replacing consumption of proteins and fats with carbohydrates;it is therefore critical to identify the possible impact of such high-glycemic diets on risks of birth defects)..
  63. BIOSYNTHESIS OF COMPLEX CARBOHYDRATES IN BRAIN
    LENNART RODEN; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..of Munster, which demonstrate that a patient with a progeria-like syndrome is deficient in galactosyltransferase I. This finding is the first demonstration of a genetic defect in proteoglycan biosynthesis in humans...
  64. GLYCOPROTEIN HORMONE OLIGOSACCHARIDES
    Jacques U Baenziger; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Using genetic strategies to alter the structure of the carbohydrates on LH, we have demonstrated that the precise structure of the carbohydrates determine the LH concentration in ..
  65. High Mannose Type Carbohydrate-based HIV/AIDS Vaccine
    Yu Geng; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Several lines of evidences show that high mannose type carbohydrates on the HIV-1 glycoprotein gp120 are a novel and promising target to develop broadly neutralizing antibodies...
  66. Apical Chloride/Bicarbonate Exchangers in Small Intestine and Kidney
    Manoocher Soleimani; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Small intestine and kidney tubules play essential roles in the absorption and homeostatic balance of salt and carbohydrates. The major apical membrane transporters that absorb sodium and chloride include the chloride/base exchangers ..
  67. EFFECT OF CHRONIC AMYLOSE FEEDING IN ADIPOSITY
    DANIEL BESSESSEN; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..Dietary carbohydrates consist of simple carbohydrates, or sugars, and complex carbohydrates, or starches...
  68. TRYPANOSOME VARIANT SURFACE GLYCOPROTEIN CARBOHYDRATES
    Herman van Halbeek; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..The proposed studies should provide the foundation necessary for further research leading to the development of new reagents for the treatment of African trypanosomiasis...
  69. COMPLEX CARBOHYDRATES OF NERVOUS TISSUE
    RICHARD MARGOLIS; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ....
  70. Nutrition Intervention: Metabolic Complications of HIV+
    Margo Woods; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..of saturated fat relative to polyunsaturated fat, increased omega 3-fatty acids intake, high fiber, and use of carbohydrates lower in glycemic index may be beneficial when they were studied individually...